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HOMEWORK 2 SOLUTIONS

1.3, ex. 3: (a) The number of dierent injections from S = {1, 2} into T = {a, b, c} equals the

number of dierent ordered pairs of dierent elements of T, i.e., the number of permutations of

two elements from a set of three elements, which equals 3!/1! = 6.

(b) Suppose f : T S is a surjection. Then f(a) = 1 or f(a) = 2. If f(a) = 1, then f(b) or

f(c) has to equal 2. Therefore, there are three surjections f with f(a) = 1. Similarly, there are

three surjections g : T S such that g(a) = 2. Thus, the number of dierent surjections from

T onto S is six.

1.3, ex. 7: A set T

1

is denumerable if and only if there exists a bijection f : T

1

N. Therefore,

we can take T

2

= N.

1.3, ex. 9: Suppose that S and T are denumerable. By denition, there exists bijections : N S

and : N T. Dene a map f : N S T by

f(n) =

(k), if n = 2k 1 is odd, k 1

(k), if n = 2k is even, k 1.

We claim that f is a surjection. Let x S T be arbitrary. Then x S or x T. Assume

the former. Since is onto, there exists k N such that x = (k). Therefore, by denition of

f, we have x = f(2k 1). If x T the argument is analogous. This shows that f is onto. By

Theorem 1.3.10, it follows that S T is a countable set. However, S T is clearly innite (since

it contains S which is innite), hence it is denumerable, as claimed.

Remark: Observe that f is not an injection if S and T are not disjoint.

1.3, ex. 11: (Induction base) If |S| = 0, then P(S) = {} has exactly 2

0

= 1 element.

(Induction step) Suppose that for every set S with k elements, its power set has 2

k

ele-

ments. Assume that S has k + 1 elements. Let s

0

S be arbitrary. Then S

0

= S \ {s

0

} has

k elements so, by the induction hypothesis, |P(S

0

)| = 2

k

. Let A be an arbitrary subset of S.

There are two possibilities: s

0

A and s

0

A. In the former case, A = A

0

{s

0

}, where

A

0

= A\ {s

0

} P(S

0

). By the induction hypothesis, there are exactly 2

k

possible such sets A

0

.

In the latter case, A P(S

0

), so there are 2

k

such possible As. Overall, there are 2 2

k

= 2

k+1

possibilities for A. In other words, |P(S)| = 2

k+1

. By the PMI, the statement is true for all

n N.

1.3, ex. 12: Suppose that S F(N), i.e., S N is nite. Then there exists n N such that

S N

n

, where N

n

= {1, . . . , n}. Therefore, S P(N

n

), which shows

F(N)

n=1

P(N

n

).

1

2

The opposite inclusion is clearly true, so

F(N) =

n=1

P(N

n

).

Since for each n N, the set P(N

n

) is nite (it has 2

n

elements by the previous exercise), hence

countable, by Theorem 1.3.12 (countable union of countable sets is countable), it follows that

F(N) is countable.

2.1, ex. 7: Suppose the contrary, that is, there exists a rational number r such that r

2

= 3. Since

r Q, we can write r as p/q, for some p Z and q N such that the greatest common divisor

of p and q gcd(p, q) = 1. Since (p/q)

2

= 3, it follows that p

2

= 3q

2

. Therefore, p

2

is divisible

by 3. That can only happen if p itself is divisible by 3. (This can be seen as follows: suppose

p is not divisible by 3. Then p = 3k + s, for some k Z and s {1, 2}. It follows that

p

2

= 9k

2

+ 6ks + s

2

= 3(3k

2

+ 2ks) + s

2

which is not divisible by 3 since s

2

{1, 4}.) Thus

p = 3m, for some m Z. Since p

2

= 3q

2

, we obtain

(3m)

2

= 3q

2

, i.e., 3m

2

= q

2

.

Therefore, 3 divides q

2

, hence it divides q. This means that gcd(p, q) 3, which contradicts our

assumption that gcd(p, q) = 1. Therefore, there exists no r Q such that r

2

= 3.

2.1, ex. 8: (a) Suppose x, y Q. Then x = m/n and y = p/q, for some m, p Z and n, q N.

Therefore,

x + y =

mq + np

nq

Q.

Similarly, xy = mp/nq Q.

(b) Suppose x Q and y R \ Q. If x + y Q, then y = (x + y) + (x) Q, by part (a)

(since x Q). Contradiction! Therefore, x + y R \ Q.

Assume in addition that x = 0. If xy Q, then y = (xy)(1/x) Q, by part (a) and the fact

that 1/x Q. Contradiction! Therefore, xy Q.

2.1, ex. 9: (a) Suppose that x

i

= s

i

+ t

i

x

1

+ x

2

= (s

1

+ s

2

) + (t

1

+ t

2

)

2 Q,

since s

1

+ s

2

Q and t

1

+ t

2

Q. Furthermore,

x

1

x

2

= (s

1

s

2

+ 2t

1

t

2

) + (s

1

t

2

+ s

2

t

1

)

2 K,

since s

1

s

2

+ 2t

1

t

2

Q and s

1

t

2

+ s

2

t

1

Q.

(b) Suppose x = s + t

2 K and x = 0. Then

1

x

=

1

s + t

2

=

s t

2

s

2

2t

2

=

s

s

2

2t

2

+

t

s

2

2t

2

2 K,

since s/(s

2

2t

2

) Q and t/(s

2

2t

2

) Q (by the previous exercise). Observe that s

2

2t

2

= 0,

since there exists no r Q such that r

2

= 2.

2.1, ex. 18: Assume a b + , for every > 0. Suppose that a b is false, i.e., suppose a > b

and take

0

= (a b)/2. Then

b +

0

= b +

a b

2

=

a + b

2

<

a + a

2

= a

3

contrary to our assumption. Therefore, a b.

2.1, ex. 19: We start with the inequality (a b)

2

0 and obtain:

(a b)

2

0 a

2

2ab + b

2

0

a

2

+ b

2

2ab

2(a

2

+ b

2

) a

2

+ 2ab + b

2

2(a

2

+ b

2

) (a + b)

2

a

2

+ b

2

2

a + b

2

2

,

proving the stated inequality. Observe that the last inequality becomes an equality i the rst

one does, which is i (a b)

2

= 0, i.e., i a = b.

Remark: When a, b 0, this inequality can be written as

a + b

2

a

2

+ b

2

2

1/2

.

The left-hand side is the arithmetic mean of a and b and the right-hand side is their quadratic

mean.

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