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# MECH 303 Chapter4

## Chapter 4 Solution of Plane Problems in Polar Coordinates

4.1 Equilibrium equations in polar coordinates
Equilibrium condition of the element in radial, tangential directions, and
the equilibrium of moment lead to

'

+ +

0
2 1
0
1

K
r r r
K
r r r
r r
r
r r r

and r r

, K
r
and K

## are the radial and circumferential components of

body force.
ho! to remember and to deri"e the abo"e equilibrium equations
# \$1
%
y

d
r
A
C
P
B

d
r
r

+
dr
r
r
r

dr
r
r
r

dr
K
r
K

&
MECH 303 Chapter4
4.2 Geometrical and Physical equations in polar coordinates
'efinition of strains(
r

r
, displacements
r
u

u
!r ".
)f only radial displacement ta*es place as sho!n in +a,, then

r
u
r
r

,
r
u
r

r
r
u
r
1
if only the circumferential displacement ta*es place in +b,, then !e
ha"e

0
r

u
r
1
,
r
u
r
u
r

## )n the -eneral case , !e obtain the -eometric equations(

r
u
r
r

+
u
r r
u
r
1
,
r
u
r
u u
r
r
r

1
( .tartin- from that u
r
and u

## are continuous functions of r and , deri"e

# \$2
/
/0
u
r

d
r
&
y
%
dr
10
1
2
20
/
/3
u

d0
r
&
y
%
dr
13
1
2
23
+a,
+b,
MECH 303 Chapter4
the compatibility equations bet!een
r
,

,
r .
# \$3
MECH 303 Chapter4
Physical equations( since polar coordinates r and are ortho-onal , 4ust
as the rectan-ular coordinates % and y , the physical equations bet!een
stress and strain must ha"e the same form, i.e. ,

( )

r r
E
1

( )
r
E

1

( )

r r r
E G
+

1 2 1
5or a plane strain problem, simply replace E by 2
1
E
,

by

1
# \$#
MECH 303 Chapter4
4.# Stress function and compatibility equations in polar coordinates.
.tress function
+.,

( ) y x,
in rectan-ular coordinates and
( ) , r
in polar coordinates
6he relations bet!een polar and rectan-ular coordinates(

2 2 2
y x r +
,
x
y
arctan
+ % , y, +r , ,
cos r x ,
sin r y
+r , , + % , y,

'

r r y y
r
r y
r r x x
r
r x
cos
sin
sin
cos
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) y x y x r y x , , ,
7
,

......
2
2

, .....
2
2

,
......
2

y x

functions of r,

'eri"e(
( )

,
2
2
r f
y
x

, ( )

,
1
2
2
r f
x
y

,
( )

,
2
2
r f
y x
xy

1ro"e that(

'

,
_

r r
r x
r r r y
xy r
y
x r
1
, 0
, 0
1 1
, 0
0
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
2
0
2
2
0
# \$8
MECH 303 Chapter4
( )t is easy to "erify that the abo"e stress e%pressions satisfy the
equations of equilibrium !hen \$
r
% \$

% &.
( &n the other hand, !e can pro"e that
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1

r r r r y x
,

.o the compatibility equation in rectan-ular coordinates

0
2
2
2
2
2

,
_

y x
becomes that + in polar coordinates,

0
1 1
2
2
2
2 2
2

,
_

r r r r
( )n summary ( )n sol"in- a plane problem in polar coordinates, it is
necessary to sol"e only the abo"e compatibility equation for stress
function , then obtain the stress components !hich satisfy the boundary
condition and condition of sin-le\$"alued displacements. Most of case,
the in"erse or semi\$in"erse methods are employed.
(
# \$9
MECH 303 Chapter4
4.4 Coordinate transformation of stress components
/y equilibrium analysis, !e ha"e follo!in- relations bet!een stress
components in t!o\$coordinates systems(
(

2 sin 2 cos
2 2
xy
y x y x
r
+

+
+

2 sin 2 cos
2 2
xy
y x y x

2 sin
2
2 cos
y x
xy r

(

2 sin 2 cos
2 2
r
r r
x

+
+

2 sin 2 cos
2 2
r
r r
y
+

2 cos 2 sin
2
r
r
xy
+

or

cos sin 2 sin cos
2 2
r r x
+

cos sin 2 cos sin
2 2
r r y
+ +

( ) ( )

2 2
sin cos cos sin +
r r xy
# \$:
B
A

&
%
y
a
b
c

%y

y%

r
+a,

&
%
y
a
b
c

%y

y%

y%

y

%y
A
+b,
MECH 303 Chapter4
4.' A(isymmetrical stress and correspondin) displacements
;o! !e apply in"erse method to assume that < +r,, then !e ha"e(
,
1
dr
d
r
r

,
2
2
dr
d

0
r r

6he compatibility Equation reduces to
0
1
2
2
2

,
_

+
dr
d
r dr
d
6he -eneral solution of this ordinary differential equation is
< 2 ln r = / r
2
ln r = C r
2
= ',
!here 2, /,C, ' are arbitrary constants, the stress then becomes
0
2 , ln 2 3 +
2 , ln 2 1 +
2
2

+ + +
+ + +
r r
r
C r B
r
A
C r B
r
A

## )t is seen that the stress distribution is symmetrical !ith respect to any

plane passin- throu-h the > a%is, and this is said to be symmetrical about
the a%is.
/y usin- physical equations, !e obtain strain of a%isymmetrical
problems(
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
1
1 2 ln 1 2 3 1
1 1
1 2 ln 1 2 3 1 1
1
2
2

1
]
1

+ + + +

+
1
]
1

+ + + +

r
r
r
r
r
u u u
C r B B
r
A
E
u
r r
u
C r B B
r
A
E r
u
/y inte-ration, !e obtain displacements( +usin- abo"e 3 equations,
# \$?
MECH 303 Chapter4
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )

+
+
1
]
1

+ + + +
r f d f
E
Br
u
f Cr Br r Br
r
A
E
u
r
1
#
, 1 2 3 1 1 ln 1 2 1
1

( )
( ) ( )
( )

d f
d
df
dr
r df
r r f
r
1
1
0
!here f() and f
1
(r) are respecti"ely arbitrary functions of and r
( )
( )
( )
( )

'

F d f
d
df
F
dr
r df
r r f

1
1
5 is a constant
from !hich !e obtain(
f
1
+r, < Hr=5, H is an arbitrary constant.
f+, < ) cos = K sin, ),K are arbitrary constants.
5inally, !e ha"e the displacement solutions for the a%isymmetric
problems
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

sin sin
#
sin cos 1 2 3 1 1 ln 1 2 1
1
K I Hr
E
Br
u
K I Cr Br r Br
r
A
E
u
r
+ +
+ +
1
]
1

+ + + +
6he arbitrary constants 2, /, C, H, ), K can be determined by *no!n
+boundary, conditions. )t is noted that the displacements are usually not
5or plane strain problem, the solution is obtained by simply replace
# \$@
MECH 303 Chapter4
E
( )
,
1
2

E

( )

1
.
4.' 4.* +ollo, cylinder sub-ected to uniform pressures
E"idently the stress distribution must be a%isymmetrical, then the
stress components can be e%pressed by
( )
( ) , 2 ln 2 3
, 2 ln 2 1
2
2
C r B
r
A
C r B
r
A
r
+ + +
+ + +

. 0
r r

6he abo"e arbitrary constants 2, /, C are determined by
+1, boundary conditions(
( ) ( ) A 0 A 0

r r a r r

r
r a
a r
r
! !

,
+2, sin-le\$"alued displacement condition

sin sin
#
0 , sin
K I Hr
E
Br
u
B ta"e #ust \$e s% &alued gle n%t
+ +

,
# \$10
q
a

r
+b,
q
b

r
+c,
q
a
q
b
+a,
a
b
MECH 303 Chapter4
.o finally, !e ha"e the stress components(
. , , 0
1
1
1
1
,
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
stress prin'ipal are
!

a
r
a
!
a

a
r
a
!
a

r r r
a a r

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

)f q
b
<0, only internal pressure q
a
acts,
7 -i"e the stress e%pressions
7 -i"e the stress e%pressions if (a +lar-e body !ith a circular hole