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4.1 Equilibrium equations in polar coordinates

Equilibrium condition of the element in radial, tangential directions, and

the equilibrium of moment lead to

'

+ +

0

2 1

0

1

K

r r r

K

r r r

r r

r

r r r

and r r

, K

r

and K

body force.

ho! to remember and to deri"e the abo"e equilibrium equations

# $1

%

y

d

r

A

C

P

B

d

r

r

+

dr

r

r

r

dr

r

r

r

dr

K

r

K

&

MECH 303 Chapter4

4.2 Geometrical and Physical equations in polar coordinates

'efinition of strains(

r

r

, displacements

r

u

u

!r ".

)f only radial displacement ta*es place as sho!n in +a,, then

r

u

r

r

,

r

u

r

r

r

u

r

1

if only the circumferential displacement ta*es place in +b,, then !e

ha"e

0

r

u

r

1

,

r

u

r

u

r

r

u

r

r

+

u

r r

u

r

1

,

r

u

r

u u

r

r

r

1

( .tartin- from that u

r

and u

# $2

/

/0

u

r

d

r

&

y

%

dr

10

1

2

20

/

/3

u

d0

r

&

y

%

dr

13

1

2

23

+a,

+b,

MECH 303 Chapter4

the compatibility equations bet!een

r

,

,

r .

# $3

MECH 303 Chapter4

Physical equations( since polar coordinates r and are ortho-onal , 4ust

as the rectan-ular coordinates % and y , the physical equations bet!een

stress and strain must ha"e the same form, i.e. ,

( )

r r

E

1

( )

r

E

1

( )

r r r

E G

+

1 2 1

5or a plane strain problem, simply replace E by 2

1

E

,

by

1

# $#

MECH 303 Chapter4

4.# Stress function and compatibility equations in polar coordinates.

.tress function

+.,

( ) y x,

in rectan-ular coordinates and

( ) , r

in polar coordinates

6he relations bet!een polar and rectan-ular coordinates(

2 2 2

y x r +

,

x

y

arctan

+ % , y, +r , ,

cos r x ,

sin r y

+r , , + % , y,

'

r r y y

r

r y

r r x x

r

r x

cos

sin

sin

cos

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) y x y x r y x , , ,

7

,

......

2

2

, .....

2

2

,

......

2

y x

functions of r,

'eri"e(

( )

,

2

2

r f

y

x

, ( )

,

1

2

2

r f

x

y

,

( )

,

2

2

r f

y x

xy

1ro"e that(

'

,

_

r r

r x

r r r y

xy r

y

x r

1

, 0

, 0

1 1

, 0

0

2

2

0

2

2

0

2

2

2

0

2

2

0

# $8

MECH 303 Chapter4

( )t is easy to "erify that the abo"e stress e%pressions satisfy the

equations of equilibrium !hen $

r

% $

% &.

( &n the other hand, !e can pro"e that

2

2

2 2

2

2

2

2

2

1 1

r r r r y x

,

.o the compatibility equation in rectan-ular coordinates

0

2

2

2

2

2

,

_

y x

becomes that + in polar coordinates,

0

1 1

2

2

2

2 2

2

,

_

r r r r

( )n summary ( )n sol"in- a plane problem in polar coordinates, it is

necessary to sol"e only the abo"e compatibility equation for stress

function , then obtain the stress components !hich satisfy the boundary

condition and condition of sin-le$"alued displacements. Most of case,

the in"erse or semi$in"erse methods are employed.

(

# $9

MECH 303 Chapter4

4.4 Coordinate transformation of stress components

/y equilibrium analysis, !e ha"e follo!in- relations bet!een stress

components in t!o$coordinates systems(

(

2 sin 2 cos

2 2

xy

y x y x

r

+

+

+

2 sin 2 cos

2 2

xy

y x y x

2 sin

2

2 cos

y x

xy r

(

2 sin 2 cos

2 2

r

r r

x

+

+

2 sin 2 cos

2 2

r

r r

y

+

2 cos 2 sin

2

r

r

xy

+

or

cos sin 2 sin cos

2 2

r r x

+

cos sin 2 cos sin

2 2

r r y

+ +

( ) ( )

2 2

sin cos cos sin +

r r xy

# $:

B

A

&

%

y

a

b

c

%y

y%

r

+a,

&

%

y

a

b

c

%y

y%

y%

y

%y

A

+b,

MECH 303 Chapter4

4.' A(isymmetrical stress and correspondin) displacements

;o! !e apply in"erse method to assume that < +r,, then !e ha"e(

,

1

dr

d

r

r

,

2

2

dr

d

0

r r

6he compatibility Equation reduces to

0

1

2

2

2

,

_

+

dr

d

r dr

d

6he -eneral solution of this ordinary differential equation is

< 2 ln r = / r

2

ln r = C r

2

= ',

!here 2, /,C, ' are arbitrary constants, the stress then becomes

0

2 , ln 2 3 +

2 , ln 2 1 +

2

2

+ + +

+ + +

r r

r

C r B

r

A

C r B

r

A

plane passin- throu-h the > a%is, and this is said to be symmetrical about

the a%is.

/y usin- physical equations, !e obtain strain of a%isymmetrical

problems(

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

0

1

1 2 ln 1 2 3 1

1 1

1 2 ln 1 2 3 1 1

1

2

2

1

]

1

+ + + +

+

1

]

1

+ + + +

r

r

r

r

r

u u u

C r B B

r

A

E

u

r r

u

C r B B

r

A

E r

u

/y inte-ration, !e obtain displacements( +usin- abo"e 3 equations,

# $?

MECH 303 Chapter4

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

+

+

1

]

1

+ + + +

r f d f

E

Br

u

f Cr Br r Br

r

A

E

u

r

1

#

, 1 2 3 1 1 ln 1 2 1

1

( )

( ) ( )

( )

d f

d

df

dr

r df

r r f

r

1

1

0

!here f() and f

1

(r) are respecti"ely arbitrary functions of and r

( )

( )

( )

( )

'

F d f

d

df

F

dr

r df

r r f

1

1

5 is a constant

from !hich !e obtain(

f

1

+r, < Hr=5, H is an arbitrary constant.

f+, < ) cos = K sin, ),K are arbitrary constants.

5inally, !e ha"e the displacement solutions for the a%isymmetric

problems

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

sin sin

#

sin cos 1 2 3 1 1 ln 1 2 1

1

K I Hr

E

Br

u

K I Cr Br r Br

r

A

E

u

r

+ +

+ +

1

]

1

+ + + +

6he arbitrary constants 2, /, C, H, ), K can be determined by *no!n

+boundary, conditions. )t is noted that the displacements are usually not

symmetrical about the > a%is.

5or plane strain problem, the solution is obtained by simply replace

# $@

MECH 303 Chapter4

E

( )

,

1

2

E

( )

1

.

4.' 4.* +ollo, cylinder sub-ected to uniform pressures

E"idently the stress distribution must be a%isymmetrical, then the

stress components can be e%pressed by

( )

( ) , 2 ln 2 3

, 2 ln 2 1

2

2

C r B

r

A

C r B

r

A

r

+ + +

+ + +

. 0

r r

6he abo"e arbitrary constants 2, /, C are determined by

+1, boundary conditions(

( ) ( ) A 0 A 0

satisfied already

r r a r r

r

r a

a r

r

! !

,

+2, sin-le$"alued displacement condition

sin sin

#

0 , sin

K I Hr

E

Br

u

B ta"e #ust $e s% &alued gle n%t

+ +

,

# $10

q

a

r

+b,

q

b

r

+c,

q

a

q

b

+a,

a

b

MECH 303 Chapter4

.o finally, !e ha"e the stress components(

. , , 0

1

1

1

1

,

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

stress prin'ipal are

!

a

r

a

!

a

a

r

a

!

a

r r r

a a r

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

)f q

b

<0, only internal pressure q

a

acts,

7 -i"e the stress e%pressions

7 -i"e the stress e%pressions if (a +lar-e body !ith a circular hole

of radius a,

)f q

a

<0, only e%ternal pressure q

b

acts,

7 -i"e the stress e%pressions

7 -i"e the stress e%pressions !hen a( 0.

# $11

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