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CRD

Computational Aeroelasticity

The Cultural and Convention Center

METU

Inonu bulvari

Ankara, Turkey

Sponsored by:

RTA-NATO

The Applied Vehicle Technology Panel

presented by

R.M. Kolonay Ph.D.

General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center

Ankara, Turkey Oct.. 1-5, 2001

Kolonay 2

CRD

Introduction

- Fluid-Structure Interactions

Aeroelasticity

- Aeroelastic analysis/design in an MDA/MDO Environment

Static Aeroelasticity

Dynamic Aeroelasticity

Commercial Programs with Aeroelastic Analysis/Design

Capabilities

Presentation Outline

Kolonay 3

CRD

Dynamic Aeroelastic Phenomena

Dynamic Response

Limit Cycle Oscillations (LCO)

Buffet

Flutter

Dynamic Aeroelasticity

Solutions found in time, frequency, and Laplace domain usually

with generalized coordinates

Kolonay 4

CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity

Dynamic Response

Transient response due to a rapidly applied load.

Atmospheric Turbulence

- Continuous random

- Discrete random (gust)

Landing loads

Snap maneuvers

Store Separation

Kolonay 5

CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity

Limit Cycle Oscillations

Typically caused by shock induced oscillations on a surface or ow/

shocks attaching/detaching from a surface trailing edge.

Panel Flutter

Control Surface Buzz

Store/Wing congurations

Reduces structural life

Usually requires nonlinear ow conditions and possibly nonlinear

structures (cs hinge stiffness)

Kolonay 6

CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity

Buffet

Response due to time-dependent separated ows (usually vortical)

impinging on structural surfaces.

Bluffed bodies on horizontal and vertical surfaces

Wings, strakes etc.. on vertical tails (often a twin tail prob-

lem)

Reduces structural life

Requires nonlinear aerodynamics to capture phenomena

Kolonay 7

CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity

Flutter

Dynamic instability where-by the system extracts energy from the

free stream ow producing a divergent response.

Usually resultant of coupling of 2 or more structural modes

- Wing bending and torsion

- Wing bending control surface hinge torsion

- Wing torsion fuselage bending

- Horizontal or vertical tail and fuselage

Divergent behavior can occur within a few cycles and be cata-

strophic

Theodore Von Karman is said to have remarked that

some men fear utter because they do not understand it, while

others fear it because they do[8]

Kolonay 8

CRD

M

o

t

i

o

n

M

o

t

i

o

n

M

o

t

i

o

n

Stable (A)

Neutral (B)

Unstable (C)

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

A

B

C

Torsion Mode

Bending Mode

Dynamic Aeroelasticity

Flutter

Time Histories

Modal Coupling

Dynamic Pressure

Kolonay 9

CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity

Flutter

From the aeroelastic EOM

(20)

let

(21)

Where represents motion independent external forces

Eq. (20) can be written as

(22)

For stability solve the homogenous equation from some initial state.

(23)

Mu Ku + F u u u t , , , ( ) =

F u u u t , , , ( ) F u u u , , ( ) F t ( ) + =

F t ( )

Mu Bu Ku + + Q

1

[ ]u Q

2

[ ]u Q

3

[ ]u F t ( ) + + + =

Mu Bu Ku + + Q

1

[ ]u Q

2

[ ]u Q

3

[ ]u + + =

(23) can be solved by time integration or as an eigenvalue problem

Kolonay 10

CRD

Eigenvalue Solutions

Transform (23) to modal coordinates and assume that the

unsteady aerodynamics depend only on displacements

(24)

Assume that the structural response is separable and synchronous

(25)

With independent of time and .Substituting into

(24) gives

(26)

u

h

{ }

M

hh

u

h

Bu

h

K

hh

u

h

1

2

---V

2

Q

hh

[ ]u

h

+ + 0 =

u

h

{ } q

h

{ }e

st

=

q

h

{ } s i + =

M

hh

s

2

B

hh

s K

hh

1

2

---V

2

Q

hh

+ + q

h

{ } 0 =

Dynamic Aeroelasticity

Kolonay 11

CRD

Eq. (26) is the basic utter eigenvalue equation

All matrices can be expressed as real but the aeroelastic stiff-

ness matrix is unsymmetric causing roots

to be complex conjugate pairs.

- Generalized unsteady aerodynamic forces

- Often assumed harmonic cast in frequency domain with amplitude and

phase

- Doublet Lattice, CPM, Mach Box, Strip Theory

Several solutions exist for solving (26)

- Method

- Method

- Method

- Method

- State space

K

hh

1

2

---V

2

Q

hh

Q

hh

K

K E

P K

P

Dynamic Aeroelasticity

Kolonay 12

CRD

P-K Flutter Solution

can be expressed as . (26) becomes

(27)

- selected freestream speed

- reference semi-chord

- complex response frequency and eigenvalue

, , generalized mass, damping, stiffness matrices

- generalized aerodynamic matrix

- freestream density

- reduced frequency,

- eigenvector of modal coordinates

- damping factor

s s

Vk

b

------ i + ( )

V

b

---- p = =

V

b

----

2

p

2

M

hh

V

b

---- pB

hh

K

hh

V

2

2

----------Q k ( )

hh

+ + q

h

0 =

V

b

p k i + ( )

M

hh

B

hh

K

hh

Q

hh

Q

R

iQ

I

+ [ ] =

k k

b

V

------- =

q

h

i 1

Dynamic Aeroelasticity

Kolonay 13

CRD

P-K Method Comments

Matrices are real but non-symmetric yielding complex roots.

Flutter equation only true when , an estimate elsewhere

Mode switching often occurs making results interpretation difcult

depends on Mach number and reduced frequency

Solution requires to be a continuous function of .

- Results in curve tting which can cause errors

Above formulation does not allow

User responsible for determining match point solutions

0 =

Q

hh

Q

hh

M k , ( )

Q

hh

k

Q

hh

k 0 =

Dynamic Aeroelasticity

Kolonay 14

CRD

AGARD 445.6 Flutter Calculations

X

Y

Z

31.38

27.48

23.57

19.67

15.77

11.86

7.958

4.055

.1511

-3.753

-7.656

-11.56

-15.46

-19.37

-23.27

-27.17

X

Y

Z

X

Y

Z

X

Y

Z

Dynamic Aeroelasticity

X

Y

Z

71.52

65.25

58.97

52.69

46.42

40.14

33.87

27.59

21.31

15.04

8.761

2.485

-3.791

-10.07

-16.34

-22.62

X

Y

Z

X

Y

Z

X

Y

Z

Mode 4, = 89.94 Hz.

X

Y

Z

25.09

20.38

15.68

10.97

6.269

1.565

-3.139

-7.843

-12.55

-17.25

-21.96

-26.66

-31.36

-36.07

-40.77

-45.48

X

Y

Z

X

Y

Z

X

Y

Z

Mode 2, = 37.12 Hz.

X

Y

Z

27.92

26.05

24.19

22.32

20.45

18.59

16.72

14.85

12.98

11.12

9.250

7.383

5.516

3.649

1.782

-.08551

X

Y

Z

X

Y

Z

X

Y

Z

Mode Shapes and frequencies

Mode 3, = 50.50 Hz.

Mode 1, = 9.63 Hz.

Kolonay 15

CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity

AGARD 445.6 Time Integration Response

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

-0.0015

-0.0010

-0.0005

0.0000

0.0005

0.0010

0.0015

Time (sec)

G

e

n

e

r

a

l

i

z

e

d

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

1

= 13.0682

1

= 88.352(Hz)

2

= 5.9408

2

= 52.285(Hz)

3

= 24.1002

3

= 30.268(Hz)

4

= .1687

4

= 15.574(Hz)

DATA

FIT

ERROR

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

-0.015

-0.010

-0.005

0.000

0.005

0.010

0.015

Time (sec)

G

e

n

e

r

a

l

i

z

e

d

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

1

= -.0366

1

= 15.561(Hz)

2

= 32.0916

2

= 30.286(Hz)

3

= 445.6037

3

= .612(Hz)

4

= 4.7738

4

= 52.054(Hz)

DATA

FIT

ERROR

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

-0.0020

-0.0010

0.0000

0.0010

0.0020

0.0030

Time (sec)

G

e

n

e

r

a

l

i

z

e

d

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

1

= 5.7635

1

= 52.269(Hz)

2

= 25.9159

2

= 30.188(Hz)

3

= .0396

3

= 15.564(Hz)

4

= 12.4610

4

= 88.338(Hz)

DATA

FIT

ERROR

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

-0.0040

-0.0030

-0.0020

-0.0010

0.0000

0.0010

0.0020

0.0030

0.0040

Time (sec)

G

e

n

e

r

a

l

i

z

e

d

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

1

= .0282

1

= 15.569(Hz)

2

= 25.8733

2

= 30.095(Hz)

3

= 5.7688

3

= 52.242(Hz)

4

= 12.0791

4

= 88.547(Hz)

DATA

FIT

ERROR

Mode 1 Mode 3

Mode 2 Mode 4

M 0.901 q , 0.66psi U , 11908 in/sec = = =

Kolonay 16

CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity

AGARD 445.6 Time Response Integration

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

-0.0020

-0.0010

0.0000

0.0010

0.0020

0.0030

Time (sec)

G

e

n

e

r

a

l

i

z

e

d

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

1

= 5.7635

1

= 52.269(Hz)

2

= 25.9159

2

= 30.188(Hz)

3

= .0396

3

= 15.564(Hz)

4

= 12.4610

4

= 88.338(Hz)

DATA

FIT

ERROR

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

-0.0015

-0.0010

-0.0005

0.0000

0.0005

0.0010

0.0015

Time (sec)

G

e

n

e

r

a

l

i

z

e

d

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

1

= 13.0682

1

= 88.352(Hz)

2

= 5.9408

2

= 52.285(Hz)

3

= 24.1002

3

= 30.268(Hz)

4

= .1687

4

= 15.574(Hz)

DATA

FIT

ERROR

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

-0.0040

-0.0030

-0.0020

-0.0010

0.0000

0.0010

0.0020

0.0030

0.0040

Time (sec)

G

e

n

e

r

a

l

i

z

e

d

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

1

= .0282

1

= 15.569(Hz)

2

= 25.8733

2

= 30.095(Hz)

3

= 5.7688

3

= 52.242(Hz)

4

= 12.0791

4

= 88.547(Hz)

DATA

FIT

ERROR

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

-0.015

-0.010

-0.005

0.000

0.005

0.010

0.015

Time (sec)

G

e

n

e

r

a

l

i

z

e

d

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

1

= -.0366

1

= 15.561(Hz)

2

= 32.0916

2

= 30.286(Hz)

3

= 445.6037

3

= .612(Hz)

4

= 4.7738

4

= 52.054(Hz)

DATA

FIT

ERROR

M 0.901 q , 0.67psi U , 11998 in/sec = = =

Mode 1

Mode 4

Mode 2

Mode 3

V

f

= 11,971 in/sec

rad

f

90 =

Kolonay 17

CRD

AGARD 445.6 P-K Flutter Solution

6000 8000 10000 12000 14000

-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0

0.1

0.2

MODE 1

MODE 2

MODE 3

MODE 4

Dynamic Aeroelasticity

D

a

m

p

i

n

g

r

a

t

i

o

(

g

)

Velocity (V in/sec)

Velocity vs. Damping

V

f

=1181 in/sec

Kolonay 18

CRD

AGARD 445.6 P-K Flutter Solution

-0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2

100

200

300

400

500

MODE 1

MODE 2

MODE 3

MODE 4

445.6 Wing Damping Ratio versus Frequency

(M= .901, = 0.00, = 9.307E-09 slugs/ in )

Dynamic Aeroelasticity

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

(

r

a

d

i

a

n

s

)

Damping ratio (g)

Velocity Root Locus

rad

f

96 =

Kolonay 19

CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity

AGARD 445.6 P-K Flutter Solution

6000 8000 10000 12000 14000

100

200

300

400

500

MODE 1

MODE 2

MODE 3

MODE 4

Velocity vs. Frequency

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

(

r

a

d

i

a

n

s

)

Velocity (V in/sec)

Kolonay 20

CRD Aeroelastic Software

Global Aeroelastic Software Developments

MSC/NASTRAN (U.S.)

UAI/ASTROS (recently bought by MSC) (U.S.)

UAI/NASTRAN (U.S.)

ELFINI (France, Dessault)

LAGRANGE (Germany, formerly MBB)

STARS (Great Britain, RAE)

OPTSYS (Sweden, SAAB)

COMPASS (China)

ARGON (Russia, Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute)

Kolonay 21

CRD Aeroelastic Software

MSC/NASTRAN

Steady Aerodynamics

- Subsonic

Doublet Lattice (k=0)

3-D panel Method (available in the near future)

Bypass option for any AIC

- Supersonic

ZONA51

Bypass option for any AIC

Aerodynamic database

Import/export loads data

Unsteady Aerodynamic

- Subsonic

Doublet Lattice with body interference

Strip Theory

- Supersonic

Mach Box

Kolonay 22

CRD

Piston Theory

ZONA51

Structural Modeling

- Very rich selection of FE

Static Aeroelastic Analysis

- 5 DOF trim (no drag/thrust trim)

- Flexible increment analysis

- Computes rigid, restrained and unrestrained exible stability derivatives

- Able to add experimental load correction factors to AIC

- Divergence of restrained vehicle

- Slender body models

- Multiple set selectable aerodynamic models

- Aeroelastic database

- Import/export loads data

Aeroelastic Software

Kolonay 23

CRD

Dynamic Aeroelasticity

- Frequency response analysis

- Random analysis

- Transient analysis

- Gust (random and discrete 1-d)

- Flutter P-K, K, K-E (K-E allows k=0)

- curve ts cubic through all points

F-S Interface

- Innite plate spline

- Thin plate spline

- Finite plate spline

- Beam spline

- Rigid load Transfer

Pre-Post Processing

- Extensive Flight Loads pre/post processing functionality in PATRAN envi-

ronment

Q M k , ( )

Aeroelastic Software

Kolonay 24

CRD Aeroelastic Software

UAI/ASTROS Aeroelastic Capabilities

Steady Aerodynamics

- Subsonic

USSAERO (Woodward Aerodynamics, at panel)

QUADPAN (Lockheed Martin, 3-D panel)

Bypass option for any AIC

Multiple set selectable aerodynamic models

- Supersonic

USSAERO (at panel)

QUADPAN (3-D panel)

Bypass option for any AIC

Unsteady Aerodynamic

- Subsonic

Doublet Lattice

- Supersonic

Constant Pressure Method (Apa, Northrop)

Kolonay 25

CRD

Structural Modeling

- Membrane type FEM (Rods, Beams, Shear panels, Quadrilateral Plates,

Composites)

Static Aeroelastic Analysis

- Full 6 DOF Trim

- Computes rigid and four types of exible stability derivatives

- User dened loads

- Trim Optimization

Dynamic Aeroelasticity

- Gust Response

- Flutter P-K (computes utter velocity)

- Several choices for curve ts

F-S Interface

- Innite Plate spline

Q M k , ( )

Aeroelastic Software

Kolonay 26

CRD

- 3-D surface spline

- Beam spline

- Rigid load Transfer

Very easy to add user dened functionality and tailor the sys-

tem

Aeroelastic Software

Kolonay 27

CRD

1. Bisplinghoff, Ashley and Halfman Aeroelasticity, Dover Publications, Addison-Wes-

ley Publishing Company, Inc., 1995.

2. Weisshaar, Fundamentals of Static and Dynamic Aeroelasticity, Purdue University

School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, West Lafayette, IN 1992.

3. Smilg, B. and Wasserman, L. S., Application of Three Dimensional Flutter Theory to

Aircraft Structures, USAAF TR 4798, 1942.

4. Neill, D.J., Herendeen, D.L., Venkayya, V.B., ASTROS Enhancements, Vol III-

ASTROS Theoretical Manual, WL-TR-95-3006.

5. Bendiksen, Oddvar O., Fluid-Structure Coupling Requirements for Time-Accurate

Aeroelastic Simulations, AD-Vol.53-3, Fluid-Structure Interaction, Aeroelasticity, Flow-

Induced Vibration and Noise, Volume III ASME, 1997.

6. Farhat, C., Special course on Parallel Computing in CFD, AGARD-R807, October

1995.

7. MacNeal, R. H., The NASTRAN Theoretical Manual, NASA-SP-221(01), April,

1971.

8. I.E. Garrick and W.H. Reed, III Historical Development of Aircraft Flutter, Journal of

Aircraft, Vol. 18, No. 11, November 1981.

References

Kolonay 28

CRD

9. Grumman Aerospace Corporation, An Automated Procedure for Flutter and Strength

Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles Volume I. Theory and Application,,

AFFDL-TR-75-137.

10. Hassig, H.J., An Approximate True Damping Solution of the Flutter Equation by

Determinant Iteration, Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 8, No. 11, November 1971, pp. 885-889.

11. Neill, D.J., MSC/Flight Loads and Dynamics Training,, The MacNeal-Schwendler

Corporation, 815 Colorado Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA, August 1999.

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