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Kolonay 1

CRD
Computational Aeroelasticity
The Cultural and Convention Center
METU
Inonu bulvari
Ankara, Turkey
Sponsored by:
RTA-NATO
The Applied Vehicle Technology Panel
presented by
R.M. Kolonay Ph.D.
General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center
Ankara, Turkey Oct.. 1-5, 2001
Kolonay 2
CRD
Introduction
- Fluid-Structure Interactions
Aeroelasticity
- Aeroelastic analysis/design in an MDA/MDO Environment
Static Aeroelasticity
Dynamic Aeroelasticity
Commercial Programs with Aeroelastic Analysis/Design
Capabilities
Presentation Outline
Kolonay 3
CRD
Dynamic Aeroelastic Phenomena
Dynamic Response
Limit Cycle Oscillations (LCO)
Buffet
Flutter
Dynamic Aeroelasticity
Solutions found in time, frequency, and Laplace domain usually
with generalized coordinates
Kolonay 4
CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity
Dynamic Response
Transient response due to a rapidly applied load.
Atmospheric Turbulence
- Continuous random
- Discrete random (gust)
Landing loads
Snap maneuvers
Store Separation
Kolonay 5
CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity
Limit Cycle Oscillations
Typically caused by shock induced oscillations on a surface or ow/
shocks attaching/detaching from a surface trailing edge.
Panel Flutter
Control Surface Buzz
Store/Wing congurations
Reduces structural life
Usually requires nonlinear ow conditions and possibly nonlinear
structures (cs hinge stiffness)
Kolonay 6
CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity
Buffet
Response due to time-dependent separated ows (usually vortical)
impinging on structural surfaces.
Bluffed bodies on horizontal and vertical surfaces
Wings, strakes etc.. on vertical tails (often a twin tail prob-
lem)
Reduces structural life
Requires nonlinear aerodynamics to capture phenomena
Kolonay 7
CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity
Flutter
Dynamic instability where-by the system extracts energy from the
free stream ow producing a divergent response.
Usually resultant of coupling of 2 or more structural modes
- Wing bending and torsion
- Wing bending control surface hinge torsion
- Wing torsion fuselage bending
- Horizontal or vertical tail and fuselage
Divergent behavior can occur within a few cycles and be cata-
strophic
Theodore Von Karman is said to have remarked that
some men fear utter because they do not understand it, while
others fear it because they do[8]
Kolonay 8
CRD
M
o
t
i
o
n
M
o
t
i
o
n
M
o
t
i
o
n
Stable (A)
Neutral (B)
Unstable (C)
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
A
B
C
Torsion Mode
Bending Mode
Dynamic Aeroelasticity
Flutter
Time Histories
Modal Coupling
Dynamic Pressure
Kolonay 9
CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity
Flutter
From the aeroelastic EOM
(20)
let
(21)
Where represents motion independent external forces
Eq. (20) can be written as
(22)
For stability solve the homogenous equation from some initial state.
(23)
Mu Ku + F u u u t , , , ( ) =
F u u u t , , , ( ) F u u u , , ( ) F t ( ) + =
F t ( )
Mu Bu Ku + + Q
1
[ ]u Q
2
[ ]u Q
3
[ ]u F t ( ) + + + =
Mu Bu Ku + + Q
1
[ ]u Q
2
[ ]u Q
3
[ ]u + + =
(23) can be solved by time integration or as an eigenvalue problem
Kolonay 10
CRD
Eigenvalue Solutions
Transform (23) to modal coordinates and assume that the
unsteady aerodynamics depend only on displacements
(24)
Assume that the structural response is separable and synchronous
(25)
With independent of time and .Substituting into
(24) gives
(26)
u
h
{ }
M
hh
u
h

Bu
h

K
hh
u
h
1
2
---V
2
Q
hh
[ ]u
h
+ + 0 =
u
h
{ } q
h
{ }e
st
=
q
h
{ } s i + =
M
hh
s
2
B
hh
s K
hh
1
2
---V
2
Q
hh
+ + q
h
{ } 0 =
Dynamic Aeroelasticity
Kolonay 11
CRD
Eq. (26) is the basic utter eigenvalue equation
All matrices can be expressed as real but the aeroelastic stiff-
ness matrix is unsymmetric causing roots
to be complex conjugate pairs.
- Generalized unsteady aerodynamic forces
- Often assumed harmonic cast in frequency domain with amplitude and
phase
- Doublet Lattice, CPM, Mach Box, Strip Theory
Several solutions exist for solving (26)
- Method
- Method
- Method
- Method
- State space
K
hh
1
2
---V
2
Q
hh

Q
hh
K
K E
P K
P
Dynamic Aeroelasticity
Kolonay 12
CRD
P-K Flutter Solution
can be expressed as . (26) becomes
(27)
- selected freestream speed
- reference semi-chord
- complex response frequency and eigenvalue
, , generalized mass, damping, stiffness matrices
- generalized aerodynamic matrix
- freestream density
- reduced frequency,
- eigenvector of modal coordinates
- damping factor
s s
Vk
b
------ i + ( )
V
b
---- p = =
V
b
----
2
p
2
M
hh
V
b
---- pB
hh
K
hh
V
2
2
----------Q k ( )
hh
+ + q
h
0 =
V
b
p k i + ( )
M
hh
B
hh
K
hh
Q
hh
Q
R
iQ
I
+ [ ] =

k k
b
V
------- =
q
h

i 1
Dynamic Aeroelasticity
Kolonay 13
CRD
P-K Method Comments
Matrices are real but non-symmetric yielding complex roots.
Flutter equation only true when , an estimate elsewhere
Mode switching often occurs making results interpretation difcult
depends on Mach number and reduced frequency
Solution requires to be a continuous function of .
- Results in curve tting which can cause errors
Above formulation does not allow
User responsible for determining match point solutions
0 =
Q
hh
Q
hh
M k , ( )
Q
hh
k
Q
hh
k 0 =
Dynamic Aeroelasticity
Kolonay 14
CRD
AGARD 445.6 Flutter Calculations
X
Y
Z
31.38
27.48
23.57
19.67
15.77
11.86
7.958
4.055
.1511
-3.753
-7.656
-11.56
-15.46
-19.37
-23.27
-27.17
X
Y
Z
X
Y
Z
X
Y
Z
Dynamic Aeroelasticity
X
Y
Z
71.52
65.25
58.97
52.69
46.42
40.14
33.87
27.59
21.31
15.04
8.761
2.485
-3.791
-10.07
-16.34
-22.62
X
Y
Z
X
Y
Z
X
Y
Z
Mode 4, = 89.94 Hz.
X
Y
Z
25.09
20.38
15.68
10.97
6.269
1.565
-3.139
-7.843
-12.55
-17.25
-21.96
-26.66
-31.36
-36.07
-40.77
-45.48
X
Y
Z
X
Y
Z
X
Y
Z
Mode 2, = 37.12 Hz.
X
Y
Z
27.92
26.05
24.19
22.32
20.45
18.59
16.72
14.85
12.98
11.12
9.250
7.383
5.516
3.649
1.782
-.08551
X
Y
Z
X
Y
Z
X
Y
Z
Mode Shapes and frequencies
Mode 3, = 50.50 Hz.
Mode 1, = 9.63 Hz.
Kolonay 15
CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity
AGARD 445.6 Time Integration Response
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
-0.0015
-0.0010
-0.0005
0.0000
0.0005
0.0010
0.0015
Time (sec)
G
e
n
e
r
a
l
i
z
e
d

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

1
= 13.0682

1
= 88.352(Hz)

2
= 5.9408

2
= 52.285(Hz)

3
= 24.1002

3
= 30.268(Hz)

4
= .1687

4
= 15.574(Hz)
DATA
FIT
ERROR
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
-0.015
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
Time (sec)
G
e
n
e
r
a
l
i
z
e
d

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

1
= -.0366

1
= 15.561(Hz)

2
= 32.0916

2
= 30.286(Hz)

3
= 445.6037

3
= .612(Hz)

4
= 4.7738

4
= 52.054(Hz)
DATA
FIT
ERROR
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
-0.0020
-0.0010
0.0000
0.0010
0.0020
0.0030
Time (sec)
G
e
n
e
r
a
l
i
z
e
d

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

1
= 5.7635

1
= 52.269(Hz)

2
= 25.9159

2
= 30.188(Hz)

3
= .0396

3
= 15.564(Hz)

4
= 12.4610

4
= 88.338(Hz)
DATA
FIT
ERROR
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
-0.0040
-0.0030
-0.0020
-0.0010
0.0000
0.0010
0.0020
0.0030
0.0040
Time (sec)
G
e
n
e
r
a
l
i
z
e
d

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

1
= .0282

1
= 15.569(Hz)

2
= 25.8733

2
= 30.095(Hz)

3
= 5.7688

3
= 52.242(Hz)

4
= 12.0791

4
= 88.547(Hz)
DATA
FIT
ERROR
Mode 1 Mode 3
Mode 2 Mode 4
M 0.901 q , 0.66psi U , 11908 in/sec = = =
Kolonay 16
CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity
AGARD 445.6 Time Response Integration
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
-0.0020
-0.0010
0.0000
0.0010
0.0020
0.0030
Time (sec)
G
e
n
e
r
a
l
i
z
e
d

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

1
= 5.7635

1
= 52.269(Hz)

2
= 25.9159

2
= 30.188(Hz)

3
= .0396

3
= 15.564(Hz)

4
= 12.4610

4
= 88.338(Hz)
DATA
FIT
ERROR
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
-0.0015
-0.0010
-0.0005
0.0000
0.0005
0.0010
0.0015
Time (sec)
G
e
n
e
r
a
l
i
z
e
d

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

1
= 13.0682

1
= 88.352(Hz)

2
= 5.9408

2
= 52.285(Hz)

3
= 24.1002

3
= 30.268(Hz)

4
= .1687

4
= 15.574(Hz)
DATA
FIT
ERROR
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
-0.0040
-0.0030
-0.0020
-0.0010
0.0000
0.0010
0.0020
0.0030
0.0040
Time (sec)
G
e
n
e
r
a
l
i
z
e
d

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

1
= .0282

1
= 15.569(Hz)

2
= 25.8733

2
= 30.095(Hz)

3
= 5.7688

3
= 52.242(Hz)

4
= 12.0791

4
= 88.547(Hz)
DATA
FIT
ERROR
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
-0.015
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
Time (sec)
G
e
n
e
r
a
l
i
z
e
d

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

1
= -.0366

1
= 15.561(Hz)

2
= 32.0916

2
= 30.286(Hz)

3
= 445.6037

3
= .612(Hz)

4
= 4.7738

4
= 52.054(Hz)
DATA
FIT
ERROR
M 0.901 q , 0.67psi U , 11998 in/sec = = =
Mode 1
Mode 4
Mode 2
Mode 3
V
f
= 11,971 in/sec
rad
f
90 =
Kolonay 17
CRD
AGARD 445.6 P-K Flutter Solution
6000 8000 10000 12000 14000
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
MODE 1
MODE 2
MODE 3
MODE 4
Dynamic Aeroelasticity
D
a
m
p
i
n
g

r
a
t
i
o

(
g
)
Velocity (V in/sec)
Velocity vs. Damping
V
f
=1181 in/sec
Kolonay 18
CRD
AGARD 445.6 P-K Flutter Solution
-0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2
100
200
300
400
500
MODE 1
MODE 2
MODE 3
MODE 4
445.6 Wing Damping Ratio versus Frequency
(M= .901, = 0.00, = 9.307E-09 slugs/ in )
Dynamic Aeroelasticity
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

(
r
a
d
i
a
n
s
)
Damping ratio (g)
Velocity Root Locus
rad
f
96 =
Kolonay 19
CRD Dynamic Aeroelasticity
AGARD 445.6 P-K Flutter Solution
6000 8000 10000 12000 14000
100
200
300
400
500
MODE 1
MODE 2
MODE 3
MODE 4
Velocity vs. Frequency
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

(
r
a
d
i
a
n
s
)
Velocity (V in/sec)
Kolonay 20
CRD Aeroelastic Software
Global Aeroelastic Software Developments
MSC/NASTRAN (U.S.)
UAI/ASTROS (recently bought by MSC) (U.S.)
UAI/NASTRAN (U.S.)
ELFINI (France, Dessault)
LAGRANGE (Germany, formerly MBB)
STARS (Great Britain, RAE)
OPTSYS (Sweden, SAAB)
COMPASS (China)
ARGON (Russia, Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute)
Kolonay 21
CRD Aeroelastic Software
MSC/NASTRAN
Steady Aerodynamics
- Subsonic
Doublet Lattice (k=0)
3-D panel Method (available in the near future)
Bypass option for any AIC
- Supersonic
ZONA51
Bypass option for any AIC
Aerodynamic database
Import/export loads data
Unsteady Aerodynamic
- Subsonic
Doublet Lattice with body interference
Strip Theory
- Supersonic
Mach Box
Kolonay 22
CRD
Piston Theory
ZONA51
Structural Modeling
- Very rich selection of FE
Static Aeroelastic Analysis
- 5 DOF trim (no drag/thrust trim)
- Flexible increment analysis
- Computes rigid, restrained and unrestrained exible stability derivatives
- Able to add experimental load correction factors to AIC
- Divergence of restrained vehicle
- Slender body models
- Multiple set selectable aerodynamic models
- Aeroelastic database
- Import/export loads data
Aeroelastic Software
Kolonay 23
CRD
Dynamic Aeroelasticity
- Frequency response analysis
- Random analysis
- Transient analysis
- Gust (random and discrete 1-d)
- Flutter P-K, K, K-E (K-E allows k=0)
- curve ts cubic through all points
F-S Interface
- Innite plate spline
- Thin plate spline
- Finite plate spline
- Beam spline
- Rigid load Transfer
Pre-Post Processing
- Extensive Flight Loads pre/post processing functionality in PATRAN envi-
ronment
Q M k , ( )
Aeroelastic Software
Kolonay 24
CRD Aeroelastic Software
UAI/ASTROS Aeroelastic Capabilities
Steady Aerodynamics
- Subsonic
USSAERO (Woodward Aerodynamics, at panel)
QUADPAN (Lockheed Martin, 3-D panel)
Bypass option for any AIC
Multiple set selectable aerodynamic models
- Supersonic
USSAERO (at panel)
QUADPAN (3-D panel)
Bypass option for any AIC
Unsteady Aerodynamic
- Subsonic
Doublet Lattice
- Supersonic
Constant Pressure Method (Apa, Northrop)
Kolonay 25
CRD
Structural Modeling
- Membrane type FEM (Rods, Beams, Shear panels, Quadrilateral Plates,
Composites)
Static Aeroelastic Analysis
- Full 6 DOF Trim
- Computes rigid and four types of exible stability derivatives
- User dened loads
- Trim Optimization
Dynamic Aeroelasticity
- Gust Response
- Flutter P-K (computes utter velocity)
- Several choices for curve ts
F-S Interface
- Innite Plate spline
Q M k , ( )
Aeroelastic Software
Kolonay 26
CRD
- 3-D surface spline
- Beam spline
- Rigid load Transfer
Very easy to add user dened functionality and tailor the sys-
tem
Aeroelastic Software
Kolonay 27
CRD
1. Bisplinghoff, Ashley and Halfman Aeroelasticity, Dover Publications, Addison-Wes-
ley Publishing Company, Inc., 1995.
2. Weisshaar, Fundamentals of Static and Dynamic Aeroelasticity, Purdue University
School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, West Lafayette, IN 1992.
3. Smilg, B. and Wasserman, L. S., Application of Three Dimensional Flutter Theory to
Aircraft Structures, USAAF TR 4798, 1942.
4. Neill, D.J., Herendeen, D.L., Venkayya, V.B., ASTROS Enhancements, Vol III-
ASTROS Theoretical Manual, WL-TR-95-3006.
5. Bendiksen, Oddvar O., Fluid-Structure Coupling Requirements for Time-Accurate
Aeroelastic Simulations, AD-Vol.53-3, Fluid-Structure Interaction, Aeroelasticity, Flow-
Induced Vibration and Noise, Volume III ASME, 1997.
6. Farhat, C., Special course on Parallel Computing in CFD, AGARD-R807, October
1995.
7. MacNeal, R. H., The NASTRAN Theoretical Manual, NASA-SP-221(01), April,
1971.
8. I.E. Garrick and W.H. Reed, III Historical Development of Aircraft Flutter, Journal of
Aircraft, Vol. 18, No. 11, November 1981.
References
Kolonay 28
CRD
9. Grumman Aerospace Corporation, An Automated Procedure for Flutter and Strength
Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles Volume I. Theory and Application,,
AFFDL-TR-75-137.
10. Hassig, H.J., An Approximate True Damping Solution of the Flutter Equation by
Determinant Iteration, Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 8, No. 11, November 1971, pp. 885-889.
11. Neill, D.J., MSC/Flight Loads and Dynamics Training,, The MacNeal-Schwendler
Corporation, 815 Colorado Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA, August 1999.
References