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-The Company was incorporated and converted into public limited in 1955 at Mumbai. The
Company manufactured jeep type vehicles, petrol industrial engines, industrial control instruments
and flow meters. Trading in steel and manufacture of professional grade electronic components.
Jeeps are manufactured under a license and an agreement with Willys Motors Inc., Toledo, Ohio,
USA, for whom the company also acts as exclusive distributors for the whole of India for their
entire range of vehicles including utility vans, cargo/personnel carriers and pick-up trucks.

-The Company entered into an agreement with Birfield Ltd., to from Mahindra Sintered Products
Private Limited for the manufacture of wide range of self lubricating bearings.

-The Instrumentation and Electronics Division came into existence as a result of merger of the
wholly-owned subsidiary of Mahindra Engineering Co. Ltd., with the Company with effect from
April, 1968. The activities of merged company were being carried on in this division.
-The Company acquired the whole paid-up capital of Mahindra Electro-Chemicals Products Ltd.
-With effect from 1
April, the wholly owned subsidiary Mahindra Engineering co. Ltd., was
merged with the Company International Tractor Company of India Ltd., was merged with the
Company effective from 1
November 1977.

-The name was changed from Mahindra Van Wijk & Visser Ltd. to Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.
This was merged with the Indian Company National Diesel Engine Co. Ltd., during 1977-78,
-700-9.3% Pref. and 12,98,202 No. of Equity shares allotted without payment in cash to
shareholders of International Tractor Co. Ltd., on its merger in prop. 1:1 Pref. and 2:3 Equity.
12,500-7.8% Pref. shares redeemed on 1.2.1979.

-The Company started negotiation with Balania K. Zacharopoulos Ltd., Athens for jointly
promoting a new company in Greece for the manufacture of Jeep Vehicles and trucks. Initially, it
was proposed to assemble these vehicles mainly from CKD packs to be shipped from India.

-57,22,764 Bonus Equity shares issued in prop. 2:3 in October 1984.

-Mahindra Spicer Ltd. (MSL), was amalgamated with Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. (MML) with
effect from 3
April. Pursuant to the scheme of amalgamation of MSL with MML, the
shareholders of MSL were allotted 1,88,166 equity shares of MML in the ratio of 1 equity share of
MML for every 6 shares held in MSL.
-The Company entered into a collaboration agreement with Foramer S.A., an associate of Forasol
S.A. for purchase of lle d Amsterdam an offshore drilling rig at a price US $10.75 million. The
Company arranged for a foreign currency loan through Bank of Baroda. In view of this purchase,
the Company obtained a firm order from ONGC for drilling services for 2 years.

A letter of intent was obtained for the manufacture of 50,000 lines of EPABX/PAXs in
collaboration with OKL Electric Co. of Japan.
-The Company also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the British Telecom p.i.c. of
London under which the two companies were to jointly explore and develop opportunities in
telecommunication and technical fields in India.
-MBT was made a subsidiary of the Company with 60% holding and the remaining 40% was
subscribed by the foreign partners, the British Telecommunications p.i.c U.K. (BT) for provision
of software engineers of MBT to work on various projects of BT in the U.K. MBT also decided to
issue equity capital to the extent of Rs. 4 Crores out of which shares worth Rs. 2.40 crores were to
be offered to Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd., for subscription and the balance shares worth Rs. 1.60
crores were to be offered to BT.

-(17 months), approval from Government was received for the manufacture of Peugeot 504 pick-
up vehicles in collaboration with Automobiles Peugeot of France
-A new model M-595 tractor in the 50 H.P. range was introduced.

-The Company acquired an offshore drilling rig lle d Amsterdam from Foramer S.A., France on
March. A firm letter of intent was received for one land rig for drilling operations at
Jwalamukhi, Himachal Pradesh against a tender from ONGC. The Company already entered into
an agreement with Forasel S.A., for purchase of a land rig and related equipment.

During the year improved versions of CJ500 range of jeeps and FJ range of LCVs were introduced.
Also a sporty model of jeep was introduced which was well received by the target audience.
-During September, the Company acquired the automotive pressing unit at Kanhe from Guest
Keen Williams Ltd. for a gross consideration of Rs. 28.75 Crores. The unit has an installed
capacity of 10,000 tonnes per annum.

It was proposed to launch a new LCV with a much larger platform, imported driving comfort and
better styling.
-The Company issued 72,42,719-14.5% secured non-convertible redeemable debentures of Rs. 100
each with a detachable warrant attached to each debenture entitling the holder thereof to apply for
1 equity share of Rs. 10 each at a premium of Rs. 20 per share in the ratio 1 debenture: 5 equity
shares held, on the expiry of six months and 36 months from the date of allotment of debentures.

-The Company proposed to introduce the Armada Grand with XD3 diesel engine. 5 speed BA 10
transmission with air-conditioning and power steering as standard features. New models like, soft
top and FRP versions of CL/MM 550 models, comfortable 8 seater Arnada with disc brakes and an
optional factory fitted air conditioner, Commander 650 DI on a longer wheel base and MM
540/550 XDB models with the powerful 2.5 lines XD3 engines and all the-synchromesh 5 speed
BA 10 transmission were launched during the year.
-During july the company offered US $ 100,00,000-5% convertible note during july 9, 2001 came
into GDRs each representing one share at a cover sum price of US $ 11.955 per GDR. Till date
15,73,830 shares issued.

-Unleashes Maxx Pik up utility vehicle.
-Signed an agreement with Canara Bank. Where in, Canara Bank will provide loan to those
farmers who are willing to buy Mahindras tractors and other farm implements.
-Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd on December 24
showcased its new products, Bolero XL and
Bolero XLS, for prospective customers in Karnataka.

-Mahindra & Mahindra acquires renowned Italian design house, GRD Italy.

-Mahindra & Mahindra unveiled its fourth generation Scorpio at an unbeatable price.
-Mahindra & Mahindra (M&M) signed the memorandum of understanding with State Bank of
Bikaner & Jaipur (SBBJ) for vehicle finance.
-Mahindra launches luxury sedan XYLO
-M&M enters retail space with Mom & Me.
-Mahindra sold 1,788 XYLOs in two weeks.
-M&M signs pact with State Bank of Bikaner.
-Mahindra gets order for 15,000 XYLO in three months.

-Mahindra & Mahindra had acquired Ssangyong Motor Company, a south Korean SUV maker,
almost a year ago and are now planning to set up an assembly plant and invest Rs. 800 crore over
next 3-4 years.
-Mahindra and Mahindra wins arbitration award and class action suit against global vehicles.
-Mahindra & Mahindra has entered the Kenyan passenger vehicles market with the launch of their
utility vehicles, XUV500 and Scorpio. Other vehicles include pick up range, Genio and Maxximo
-Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd said that the company has signed an agreement with Telephonics
Corporation to form a joint venture, named as Mahindra-telephonics integrated systems limited.
-Mahindra Ugine linked joint venture with Sanyo special Steel & Mitsui & Co. Ltd. names new
venture as Mahindra Sanyo special Steel Pvt Ltd.

-Auto major Mahindra and Mahindra has inked partnership with online shopping portal, to sell its two-wheelers on the site.
-Mahindra launches new visual identity reflecting modernity and dynamism.
-Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd- Mahindra launches the Verito Executive edition.


Punjab, the bread basket of India, the land with 50376 sq. Km is situated in Northern part of India.
It is agriculturally Indias most advanced and most prosperous state. Punjab Tractors limited
was promoted by PSIDC as one of its projects in 1970 for the manufacturing of agricultural
tractors. Since, this gave independence to country from import of tractors, so brand name
SWARAJ, total independence was given.
SWARAJ tractors conceived in 1965 by a team of dedicated engineers and scientists working at
Central mechanical Research Institute, Durgapur with a firm belief that Indian Technology could
be brought at par with the best in the world. The first model developed was Swaraj-724 developed
over a period of 5 years. Independent commercial production started in the year 1974 and after this
company grew by leaps and bounds.
Today it is one of the leading tractor manufacturing companies.
In Hindi, the word SWARAJ means freedom from bondage. Since P.T.L. was the only first largest
tractor project in India, moreover fully based upon Indian technology. So SWARAJ was
appropriately chosen as its brand name. SWARAJ group sells its products under this same brand.
With more than 2 lacs of tractors and harvesters combines operating in Indians farms, SWARAJ
are now well-established brand name in the country. SWARAJ is now an internationally
recognised name in the developing world. The product of SWARAJ is not restricted to Indian
market but they have entered in international market. SWARAJ tractors find an important place in
developing countries like Ghana, Tanzania, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, Indonesia and Malaysia, etc.
They are also sending their combines to South Korea having first A.C. cabin in India. Long way
back, they had also transported the machined rims to Japan, a project millions of dollars.

A study of PTL history from project stage to its present position of eminence makes a very
interesting reading. It is a fascinating story of inspiration, dedication, perseverance and story will
to against all adds and prejudices.

Keeping in mind Punjab agrarian economy it was decided by Punjab government to encourage the
growth of industries which compliments Punjabs agricultural growth. This task was entrusted to
PSIDC that played a major role in bringing Punjab to threshold of industrial revolution. With the
dual objective of industrial and agricultural growth, PTL was established on 27 June 1974.

The factory is located at S.A.S. Nagar, the important industrial town of Punjab, 5 km from
Chandigarh. The factory was among the first to be set up in this industrial town. The company is
managed by board of directors, while the day to day operations are managed by vice-chairman and
M.D. of the company.

Having established SWARAJ in the national market, the group made a determined start in the
1980s to get a foothold in the international market. Over the years a large number of SWARAJ
tractors and other implements have been exported to many African countries such as Zambia,
Kenya, Tanzania and Nigeria and also in the Middle East and South East Asia. Recently it has
exported same engines to U.S.A.
SAWRAJ groups have entered into technical and financial collaboration with various national
and international companies.
SAWRAJ Mazda limited was set with technical and financial collaboration with Mazda Motors
Corporation of Japan. After the takeover of SAWRAJ by Mahindra and Mahindra group; Mazda
has been dissociated from SAWRAJ group.
SAWRAJ combine division was entered into with Komastu Forklift Company of Japan
for manufacturing fork lifters.
SAWRAJ engine limited was set up in technical and financial collaboration with Kirloskar Oil
Engines Limited, Pune for manufacturing diesel engines.
Research and development is an integral and sustaining department of any organisation, who wants
to sustain its place in the emphasis on research and development in the SWARAJ group is proved
by a long list of new products that have been introduced and established in the years ever since the
established of SWARAJ group
There is a separate research and development unit of the group located at phase 7 of S.A.S. Nagar
(MOHALI). Research work is carried out in this unit and designed work is accomplished.
Presently, the research and development is going on with various new products.
Various Companies of SWARAJ Group
Swaraj tractor division
Swaraj engine division
Swaraj combine division
Swaraj automotive division
Swaraj foundry division

It is located in phase-4, industrial area, S.A.S. Nagar (Mohali). The construction work of Punjab
tractors limited (PTL) started in March 1972 and the first batch rolled out on 14th November 1973.
It started with an annual capacity of 5000 tractors with a capital of Rs. 37 million. In 1974 it went
into commercial production with SWARAJ 724, 26.5 bhp as its first model. During its 38 years of
production, it has not only expanded its manufacturing capacity to more than 24000 tractors per
annum but added more products into its manufacturing range.And this progress credit goes to the
hard working and cooperative staff.
Arjun-The Arjun will take your farm from prosperity to plenty. With its high-performance
engine, technological superiority, and flashy looks, the Arjun dominates in the top-end category of
40+ HP tractors in India.

The most advanced technology in India makes the Arjun an outstanding performer. Thanks to the
Synchrotec transmission, you can change gears easily even when youre in motion. Dual acting
balanced power steering ensures easy maneuverability in any operation conditions. Hi-Tec
hydraulics ensure smooth and precise operation. And the Lubritech braking system is so powerful
it can stop the tractor even with 25T of loaded trolleys on a steep gradient.

The Arjuns four-cylinder Powerful, Long Life, and Fuel-Efficient engine (PLF) has higher engine
and backup torque so you can pull heavier loads over rougher terrain. Its re-entrant combustion
bowl improves fuel efficiency up to 20 percent. And it surpasses the BS-III emission norms.

The Arjuns superior ergonomics make your work experience comfortable no matter how long
your workday. The first tractor in India with radial tires, the Arjun brings you better grip for a
smoother ride. And even when you take the Arjun to full speed, your ride stays quiet and
smoothweve used cast iron for parts like the oil slump and valve housing cover to minimize
noise and vibrations. Side shift gears keep your workspace clutter-free.

The Arjun is a statement. It brings your farm up to the cutting edge of technologyand

Bhoomiputra- Exceptional reliability and value for money make the Bhoomiputra our best-
selling tractor, accounting for almost 60 percent of all tractor sales. It brings you robust style,
strength, better pick-up, and high fuel efficiencyand its easy to operate. Highly dependable and
low maintenance, the Bhoomiputra will transform your farms productivity for years to come.

The Bhoomiputra comes in five models ranging from 25 HP to 45 HP so you can choose exactly
the tractor you need. Our engine technology monitors load and rpm to determine the optimal
amount of fuel for each task, bringing you savings on fuel costs and gains in performance. And
with a low rpm of 1900, your engine suffers less wear and tear so it can keep working for you

The Bhoomiputra offers a forward speed of up to 30 kmph to make tilling and transporting more
time efficient. You can trust our self-energizing double disc brakes to perform in any conditions,
even when youre loaded to the max. Install multi-disc oil immersed brakes and power steering for
truly exceptional performance.

Designed for your convenience, the Bhoomiputra features a unique surge tank that prevents the
engine from heating up so that you dont have to check water levels in the radiator
frequently. Stay comfortable with our adjustable seat and spacious cabin area, and stay hydrated
with our built-in water bottle holder.

Sarpanch- Ushering in a new era of turbo technology, the Sarpanch sets a new pace for

Available in 39 HP to 52 HP, the Sarpanch's three-cylinder turbo engine brings you greater power,
higher speed, and enhanced productivity. The full constant mesh transmission lets you shift gears
in motion so you never have to slow down. The Hi-Tec hydraulic system gives you smooth
operating control and the Quick Lift button lets you quickly lift and drop loads without
fatigue. And the multi-disc brakes are immersed in oil to encourage top performance and low

The Sarpanch upgrades your style with new, modern lines and a removable front grille. Take a
look at the illuminated gauges on the dashboard, bright halogen headlamps, and comfortable
seating. With turbo power and style, the Sarpanch helps you get more done every day.

Shaan- The Shaan is a modern multi-utility tractor with the ideal combination of looks and
performance that will help you with more than just agricultureits multi-utility design will help
you put your entrepreneurial ideas into practice. Weve built in a trolley with a payload of 750 kg
so you can use the Shaan for a range of activities to suit your ambitions.

With a top speed of 40 kmph and a 23.5 HP engine, the Shaan is fast enough to be not only a
farming tractor, but also a goods or people carrier. Its got versatile style too, with a conventional
tractor look coupled with chic features including a soft-top canopy and windscreen with
wipers. Its comfortable seat and car-style clutch, accelerator, and gears will have you speeding
through your work.

In 2007, the Shaan was recognized with the American Society for Agricultural & Biological
Engineers Award for being one of the 50 Outstanding Innovations of the Year. From agriculture to
transportation, the Shaan is ready to support you in every business activity.

Yuvraj- The Yuvraj 215s low cost of ownership and best-in-class fuel efficiency is bringing
mechanization opportunities to farmers with small landholdings across India and revolutionizing
earnings capabilities.

We designed the Yuvraj 215 for small farm operations. With one cylinder and 15 HP, the Yuvraj
215 is compact and easy to operate. We built it for long life and low maintenance, durability and
dependability. It offers the first water-cooled single cylinder engine in the 15 HP segment, and its
side shift gear is easy and comfortable to use.

The Yuvraj 215 achieves a top speed of 25 kmph, the highest in its class. It can haul up to 1.5
tons. Its ideal for farmers ready to upgrade from bullocks or power tillers, or for farmers who
need an additional machine for specific applications like inter-culture, power generation, or water
pumping. Farmers who cultivate vegetables, tend orchards, or raise cash crops can all benefit from
the Yuvraj 215s strong value proposition of affordability, power, and performance.

The manufacturing of tractor is performed in various steps. It is manufactured after passing
through various processes in various shops.As it is a complicated and long process so
manufacturing and assembling of every tractor is done with great care and ample amount of
responsibility.Firstly, various operations on various parts are performed in the light machine shop
and heavy machine shop.I had to study every shops process and had to see how it works.For
example;how milling is done in C.N.C,how the various parts are assembled etc.
L.M.S-In light machine shop,light parts are produced and proper machining is given to them.The
various parts include gears,shafts,cage assembly casing.
H.M.S-In heavy machine shop,generally there are four major parts that are given proper
machining operations to obtain exact dimension and good surface finish. These include gear box
casing, brake hodge, differential housing, trumpet housing and rear cover.
In heat treatment shop, the light parts which are made in light machine shop such as gears, shafts
are given the heat treatment to ensure their strength. Firstly the parts after passing through various
operations in L.M.S. are taken to the heat treatment shop. Here the part is kept in the furnace for
suitable time period up to certain high temperature. Then it is taken to the quenching tank where
the hot parts are dipped in the oil. After that the parts are taken to washing tank for washing the
parts so that the dirt and oil removed from the parts. Then the treated parts are taken to assembly
ASSEMBLY SHOP-In assembly line various parts are being assembled into a single unit termed
as tractor. During assembly the various parts are being fitted according to the stage. This would
include the assembly of important parts such as rear cover, cover, gear box, differential housing
and trumpet housing.
PAINT SHOP- Paint shop is the place where the different sheet metal components are painted.
They are made to pass through various chemicals before they are actually painted. The painting
method opted is that of spray painting.
Firstly the various sub-parts of the rear cover are being fitted into the gear box. After that both the
rear cover and the gear box are taken to the line where the various things such as brakes, P.T.O.
shaft, cage assembly, trumpet housing etc. are fitted to the differential housing. Then this whole
assembly is fitted with the engine against the gear box.
After whole assembly is fitted with the engine, this assembly is taken to the Chassis paint area,
where it is washed and dry followed by paint on the chassis.
Then the tractor reaches to the final stage where certain electrical and other accessories such as
battery cover, steering wheel, radiator etc are fitted. Proper level of engine oil is also filled into the
differential and gear box. Greasing of various parts is also performed with grease gun. After that
the tractor is taken out of the line after taken it out from the hooks. This stage is termed as
dismounting stage. Then the testing of the tractor is performed which include the
checking for vibrations, noise, brakes, oil level and other factors that effects the performance of

Light machine shop is the largest section of the factory. All transmission components like shafts
and gears used in tractor are manufactured here. Light machine shop comprises of 117 machines,
out of which 40 are C.N.C. (Computer Numerical Control) machines. Except the bevel gear
generator and gear shaver, which have been imported from W.M.W. and Churchill (Germany)
respectively and all other machines is from H.M.T. Ltd. 160 highly experienced operators and
inspectors are working in this shop.

Description of the job-
Bull Gear Line:-
1. ECO-5 C- bull gear is used in various turning operations.
2. Broaching-bull gear is used in cutting of internal splines.
3. Gear hobbing-bull gear is used in cutting of outer splines.
4. Deburring- bull gear is used to remove rough edges.
5. Shavin- bull gear is used to provide shavinor finishing o various parts.
Now comes the bull pinion shaft line.In this centre facing of the shaft is done.Centring process is
also carried on.Other process like shaft spline cutting,shaft gear cutting,shaft shaving cage
assembly are also performed.tapping process is carried out on various parts.In this process light
knocking or hitting on the various parts of the tractor is done.Facing of the shaft is done.In facing
the shaft is rotated at high speed and a cutting tool is placed near it which faces its surface.Boring
is also carried out in which the part to be bored is rotated at high speed and the cutting tool is kept
stationary.HMT ltd supplies a machine which is used for radial drilling.CNC named GCI 300 is
used for bevel gear grinding.VMC 500 is used for vertical milling.
All heavy castings of tractor are machined in this shop with the help of variety of Special Purpose
Machines (SPM). These machines are tailors made by IIMT to suit component requirements. In
addition, facilities of this shop include general purpose turning, drilling and milling machines.
About 20 special purpose machines and 30 general purpose machines are installed.

Components machined in this shop are:-
Gear box housing
Differential housing
Rear cover
Trumpet housing

Heat treatment shop plays a very important role in every industry. In auto mobile industry,all the
gears and shafts need to be heat treated to impart desired strength and increase life of the
component. This shop in P.T.L. is equipped with several necessary elements. Hardening is done by
carburising furnaces, shot blasting furnaces, quenching tanks, induction hardening machines.
Heat treatment is an operation or combination of operations involving heating and cooling of
metals and alloys in the solid state to produce certain desired properties. All the heat treatment
processes may be considered to consist of three main parts:-
The heating of the metal to pre-determined temperature.
The soaking of the metal at that temperature until the structure becomes uniform throughout the
The cooling of the metal at some pre-determined rate to cause the formation of desirable structure
within the metal/alloy for the desired purpose.

Heat treatment-As the name suggest, the use of heat to modify the properties of a material.
Basically, it involves both heating & cooling at a particular rate to obtain the desired properties.
The purpose of heat treatment is to change the grain size and to relieve the stresses set up in the
material after hot and cold working.
Changes in properties result from the micro-structural changes in material produced by heat
treatment operation. However, these serve one or more of the following purpose: -
Improve machinabilitiy.
Relieve internal stresses.
Improve mechanical properties such as ductility, strength, hardness, toughness etc.
Change in grain size.
Increase resistance to heat and corrosion.

Methods of heat treatment:-
Various methods depending upon the nature of job i.e. its material, etc are employed for giving
then heat treatment. These methods used are:-
Annealing:- Process annealing, also called intermediate annealing, subcritical annealing, or in-
process annealing, is a heat treatment cycle that restores some of the ductility to a product during
the process of cold working, so it can be worked further without breaking further heat treatment
cycles.The temperature range for process annealing ranges from 260 C (500 F) to 760 C (1400
F), depending on the alloy.
The process of normalizing consist of heating the metal to a temperature of 30C to 50C above the
upper critical temperature for hypo-eutectoid steels and by the same temperature above the lower
critical temperature for hyper-eutectoid steel. It is held at this temperature for a considerable time
and then quenched in suitable cooling medium normally air. The purpose of normalizing is to
refine grain structure, to improve machinability & tensile strength, to remove strain & dislocation.

The process of hardening consist of heating the metal to a temperature of 30C-50C above the upper
critical point for hypo-eutectoid steels and by the same temperature above the lower critical
temperature for hyper-eutectoid steels. It is held at this temperature for some time and then
quenched in suitable cooling medium like water or oil. The purpose of hardening is to increase the
hardness of the metals

Water is the most common quenching medium. It is inexpensive, convenient to use, and provides
very rapid cooling. It is used primarily for low carbon steels where the heat must be extracted from
the steel rapidly in order to obtain good hardness and strength. Although water provides a sudden,
drastic quench, it can cause internal stresses, distortion, or cracking. For best results, water should
be used at room temperature.
Oil is more gentle than water and is used for more critical parts which have thin sections or sharp
edges. Since oil is more gentle it develops less internal stresses, distortions, or cracking. However,
oil does generally does not produce as hard or strong of a steel as water. Therefore, the decision
must be made by the designer of a part which is more important, hardness and strength or
minimizing cracking and distortion.

Tempering is a process of heat treating, which is used to increase the toughness of iron based
alloys. Tempering is usually performed after hardening, to reduce some of the excess hardness, and
is done by heating the metal to some temperature below the critical temperature for a certain period
of time, then allowed to cool in still air. The exact temperature determines the amount of hardness
removed, and depends on both the specific composition of the alloy and on the desired properties
in the finished product. For instance, very hard tools are often tempered at low temperatures, while
springs are tempered to much higher temperatures.

Case hardening or Surface hardening:-
In many engineering applications, it is desirable that steel or iron being used should have a
hardened surface to resist wear and tear. At this time, it should have soft and tough interior or core
so that it can absorb any shocks. Case hardening is the process of hardening the surface of metal
normally by infusing elements into the metal surface forming a hard, wear resistance skin but
preserving a tough and ductile interior. This type of treatment is applied to gears, ball bearings,
railway wheels.
Carburizing- Carburizing is a process of adding carbon to surface. This is done by exposing the
part to carbon rich atmosphere at the elevated temp (nearly melting point) and allows diffusion to
transfer the carbon atoms in the steel. This diffusion work on the principle of differential

Cyaniding- The part is heated to 1600C -1750C in a bath of sodium cyanide and then quenched
and rinsed in water and oil to remove any residual cyanide. This process produces a thin, hard shell
(between 0.010 and 0.030 inches) that is harder than the one produced by carburizing and can be
completed in 20 to 30 minutes. It is typically used for small parts such as bolts, nuts, screw and
small gears. The major disadvantage of cyaniding is that cyanide salts are poisonous.

Induction hardening- Induction hardening is a form of heat treatment in which a metal part is
heated by induction heating and is quenched simultaneously. The quenched metal undergoes a
martensitic transformation, increasing the hardness and brittleness of the part. Induction hardening
is used to selectively harden areas of a part or assembly without affecting the properties of the part
as a whole.
A widely use process for the surface hardening.The components are heated by means of an
alternating magnetic field to a temperature within or above the transformation range followed by
immediate quenching. is a heat treatment cycle that restores some of the ductility to a product
during the process of cold working, so it can be worked further without breaking further heat
treatment cycles.

Paint shop is the place where the different sheet metal components are painted. They are made to
pass through various chemicals before they are actually painted. The painting method opted is that
of spray painting.

Need for painting:
It maintains the long life of the parts.
Prevents the surfaces and other parts from rusting.
Gives better look and shine to the automobile.
The various operations performed in paint shop are: -
Surface preparations carried out in pre-treatment cell.This process is carried out for sheets and
Painting area
JOST 1-In this area dash board, rear frame, front shield, top bonnet are painted
JOST 2-In this area fenders and side panel are painted.
CHASSIS BOOTH-In this washing is done.Second process is applying of primer.In short there
are various washing zones chassis booth to remove dust particles
FINAL TOUCH UP AREA-After the above processes are carried out the final touch up is given
to impart shine.
INSPECTION-After this the inspection zone comes in which inspection of various parts is done.

Need for surface preparation:-
Removal of organic compounds like oil and grease.
Removal of inorganic compounds like oxides and peroxides.
Better paint adhesion i.e. the paint should stick to the surface of the body.
To eliminate the chance of reoccurring of dust.
Method of surface preparation:-
Physical process
Rubbing surface with sand paper
shot blasting-Shotblasting is a method used to clean, strengthen (peen) or polish metal. Shot
blasting is used in almost every industry that uses metal, including aerospace, automotive,
construction, foundry, shipbuilding, rail, and many others
buffing-process of smoothing a workpiece's surface using an abrasive and a work wheel or a
leather strop. buffing uses a loose abrasive applied to the work wheel.
Chemical process
Rinsing-avoiding transfer of caustic contents into next acidic process otherwise next acidic
process will get disturbed.
Derusting-derusting process removes only the rust from the part all other exposed metal along
with their tolerances will not be affected. Afterwards, all types of rust inhibitors are applied to the
part for rust protection. The total derusting process uses no harsh acids and leaves no powder
residues on the parts.
Rinsing-metal cleaning process using water
Surface activation-process in which surface of metal is activated using plasma so that the
adhesion property of the surface becomes excellent.
Phosphatising-done so as to form a thin layer of coating on part so that no surface remains
Passivation-done so as to avoid paint penetration through certain sections of part bodys surface.
How it is done:-
The process of sheet and rim painting includes:-
Full primer + one coat of paint-Primer and one single coat is apllied.
Flash off -this is the distance given so as to allow the paint to dry.
Baking-It is done to speed up the process of drying,to maintain the durability of product and
makes the product dust free.Usually done at a temperature of 120-130 degree centigrade.
Rubbing-The process is carried to remove external dust particles if any.
Cleaning with tag rag-A rough paper is used which is rubbed over the surface to provide good
finish and shine.
Final painting-Again the final painting is done to impart actual bright color.
Flash off- this is the distance given so as to allow the paint to dry.
Baking-Again this process is carried out. It is done to speed up the process of drying,to maintain
the durability of product and makes the product dust free.Usually done at a temperature of 120-130
degree centigrade.
Process of Chassis painting: -
Primer painting
Flash off
Final painting
Flash off
The assembly at Swaraj tractors division deals with the assembly of tractor models 722, 724, 733,
735, 744, 834 & 855. Assembly is the joining of various constituents to form a final product. The
assembly process is carried out at main line, which has various sub-assemblies along its length.

Assembly shop can be divided into two main areas: -
Before paint area
After paint area
The area before painting can be further divided into sub-assemblies:
a)Differential loop
b)Gear box loop
c)Rear cover loop
d)Engine assembly loop
Differential loop:-
Differential casting is mounted on trolley after washing.
Bull pinion shaft is fitted on left and right side.
Cage assembly is also fitted.
Other parts assembled-Assembling of the tail and pinion.Roller bearing are fitted.Bevel wheels are
installed.P.T.O. shaft fitted.Rear axle/trumpet is fitted.P.T.O. shifter assembly fitted.Gear box
assembly is fitted.Rear cover assembly is fitted.Brakes are fitted.Parking brakes.Suction
pipe.P.T.O. cover.Trailer hook is fitted.Angle bracket is fitted.Rocket link is fitted.Footboard is
fitted.Clutch pedal is fitted

Gear box loop:-
Gear box housing is mounted on trolley.
Assembling of drive shaft and input shaft.
Output shaft assembly.
Assembling of lay shaft and connecting shaft.
Shifter rod assembling.
Steering assembling.

Study Of Gear Box
The gear box used in the tractors being made by PTL is of sliding mesh type. This is the simplest
type of gear box. The power comes from the engine to the clutch shaft and hence to clutch gear
which is always in mesh with a gear on the lay shaft. All the gears on the lay shaft are fixed to it
and as such they are all the time rotating when the engine running.
When the clutch is engaged, three direct and one reverse speeds are attained on suitably moving
the gear on the main shaft by means of selector mechanism.

Rear cover loop: -
Rear cover is mounted on trolley.
Control valve and response valve is assembled accordingly.
Ram assembly (this consists of cylinder, piston and piston rod).
Testing of hydraulic lift.
Engine assembly loop.
Engine mounted on trolley.
Dynamo is fitted.
Self-motor is fitted.
Oil pump is fitted.
Front axle beam and bracket is fitted.
Clutch plate is fitted.
After that the chassis is carried to the next level by the lift where the engine and the 3-point
assembly of the tractor along with the other components are fixed.
The part fitted here is bracket.Lower link fitted at the left side.Levelling rod fitted on the right
side.Stabilizer stainer is also installed.Draw bar is fitted alongside.Battery frame is adjusted to
provide cover to battery.Front frame provides strength to tractor
Tie rod is also attached with the drop arm of the steering system.Accelerator link is also
fitted.Delivery pipe is installed.

Engine assembly loop:-
The engine is attached with chassis system in this level of assembly. The engine is also carried to
this level with the help of the lift crane, which lifts the engine assembly and delivers it to this level.
Shlug is applied at the corner or we can say at the circumference of the gearbox where engine is
attached with studs and bolts. Shlugs works as gaskets or seals and avoid the oil leakage and water
mixing in the engine. The engine, which is supplied to this level of assembly where the engine is
attached contains the following parts attached on it.
Front axle:-Extension in the front axle used for the setting of the wheels.
KPSA (King Pin Shaft Axle):-with the wheel disc and nuts fitted in there for the fitting of the
Other attachments:-
Drop arms
Tie rods
Clutch plate
Self starter
Fuel pump

These parts are already fitted with the engine when it comes to the engine and chassis assembly.
The maker of the engine is KIRLOSKAR or SWARAJ KIRLOSKAR depending upon the model
as 3-cylinder, 2-cylinder, or 1-cylinder. The engine was imported from this company from Pune.
Swaraj also has its own engine plant where the engines are assembled. After assembling the
chassis and engine arrangement, the fitments are checked by the workmen appointed there at this
level and if there is some part missing, it is attached here. Then the whole assembly is mounted
over the conveyor, which takes that piece to different chambers of washing, drying, primering,
baking, painting and again baking.
After painting the conveyor takes the assembled piece to the DISMOUNTING STAGE where the
different parts and components are fitted on the tractor and the tractor was completed. After that
the testing of the tractor is done. A tractor has to pass through different tests to claim it to be as
perfect and if there is some problem coming out in this stage, the tractor is send to the recovery
shop, where the problem of the tractor is recovered. After the recovery, the tractor is again tested.
The power, which the engine develops, is transmitted to the wheels of the tractor by certain
essential parts. The application of engine power to the driving wheels through these parts is called
POWER TRANSMISSION. These parts are clutch, gear box, differential and rear axles.
To start a tractor from rest, the inertia of its whole weight must be overcome. Diesel engine does
not develop its full power at low speed. It has to run at fairly high speed before it develops
maximum power and torque.
Since much power is needed in starting, climbing, uneven land and in pulling varying loads, a
provision must be made to permit the engine to run at high speed while the wheels run at lower
speed. This is achieved by a system called GEAR BOX.
With the help of gear box we can achieve this and pulling power of the tractor can be increased or
decreased by varying the speed tractor. For these tractors gear box used is of the type of SLIDING
Function of the gear box:-
To convert the power of the engine running at high speed in to low speed at high torque, this is
required for starting.
To exchange the forward motion into the reverse motion of the vehicle.
To disconnect the engine from the rear wheels by putting the gear box into neutral position.
Input shaft:- This shaft transfers the power from the engine to the gear box. One end of the shaft
is splined which is connected to the engine and second end is the integral constant mesh pinion
which transfers the power to the constant mesh gear splined on the lay shaft.
Lay shaft:- Gears are in the fixed position provided by spacers. Gears on the lay shaft can only
rotate but cannot move axially. It consists of one constant mesh gear and three straight teeth gears.
Constant mesh gear on lay shaft is in mesh with the constant mesh gear on the input shaft, due to
which lay shaft moves with the constant speed. Lay shaft also gives drive to the P.T.O. shaft.
Intermediate shaft:- It is the splined shaft consists of three gears which are axially movable on
the shaft. All the gears are provided with the collar, so that forks are fitted in these collars and help
the gears to move axially. These gears are meshed with the gears on the lay shaft to have the
correct gear pair with required gear ratio. Only one pair is in mesh at one time so to avoid double

The constant mesh gear is rigidly fixed to the input shaft or clutch shaft. It remains always
connected to the drive gear (also constant mesh gear) of the lay shaft. Three other gears are also
rigidly fixed to the lay shaft. They are the second speed gear, first speed gear and reverse speed
gear. Two gears are mounted on the splined main shaft or output shaft (also known as intermediate
shaft) which can be slided by the shifter fork when the shaft lever is operated. These gears are the
second speed gear and first and reverse speed gear. They can be connected to the corresponding
gears of the lay shaft and always remains connected to the reverse gear of the lay shaft.
Gear in neutral:- When the engine is running and clutch is engaged, the constant mesh gear
drives the lay shaft gears. The lay shaft rotates opposite in direction of the clutch shaft. Note that
the neutral position, only the constant mesh gear is connected to the constant mesh gear of the lay
shaft. Other gears are free, and hence the transmission intermediate shaft is not turning. The
vehicle is stationary.
First or low speed gear:- By operating the gear shift lever, the larger gear on the intermediate
shaft is moved along the shaft to mesh in the first gear of the lay shaft. The intermediate shaft turns
in the same direction as the input shaft. Since the smaller lay shaft gear is engaged with the larger
intermediate shaft gear, a gear reduction of approximately 3:1 is obtained i.e. the input shaft turns
three times for each revolution of input shaft. Further gear reduction in the differential at the rear
wheels produces a still higher gear ratio, approximately 12:1, between the engine crankshaft and
the wheels.
Second speed gear:- By operating the gear shift lever, the larger gear of the intermediate shaft is
demeshed from the first gear of the lay shaft and then smaller gear of the input shaft is meshed
with the second gear of the lay shaft. The intermediate shaft turns in the same direction as the input
shaft. A gear reduction increases this gear ratio to approximately 8:1.
Third, top or high speed gear:- By operating the gear shift lever, the second gear of the
intermediate shaft and lay shaft are demeshed and then the second and top gear of the input shaft is
forced axially against the constant mesh gear of the input shaft. External teeth of the input shaft
gear mesh with the input shaft gear mesh with the internal teeth in the second and top gear. The
intermediate shaft turns with the input shaft and the gear ratio of 1:1 is obtained. The differential
reduction reduces a gear ratio of about 4:1 between the engine crankshaft and the wheels.
Reverse gear:- By operating the gear shift lever, the larger gear of the intermediate shaft is
meshed with the lever idler gear. The reverse idler gear is always in mesh with the lay shaft reverse
gear. Interposing the idler gear between the lay shaft reverse gear and intermediate shaft bigger
gear, the intermediate shaft turns in the direction opposite to that of the input shaft. This reverses
the rotation of the wheels so that the vehicle backs.
High/Low gear:- High/low gear shifter enables to achieve either high torque-low speed or low
torque-high speed with the help of planet gear and carrier assembly.
High gear: - Low torque-high torque speed is achieved when hi-lo shifter in high position.
Low gear: - High torque-low speed is achieved when hi-lo shifter in low gear position. The
power is transmitted to output shaft from intermediate shaft, planet gear and carrier assembly and
sleeve. The planet gear and carrier assembly reduces the high speed and subsequently torque is
Lubrication of gear box:-
Proper lubrication of gear bow is extremely important. The transmission gears operate in a bath if
lubricant. The fear box should always remain filled with lubricant. It prevents metal to metal
contact which would generate so much heat that the gear teeth would be burned away. It lubricates
bearing if the fear box.
Gear box assembly: -
Use non-rusty, clean and dry gear box.
Check and ensure for no foreign material inside the gear assembly.
Check for noise and smooth gear shifting.
Check its lubrication
Input shaft assembly: -
Use clean and rust free components.
Ensure due fitment of circlips ball bearing and needle bush.
Heat the bearing to (100-110) degree Celsius.
Lay shaft assembly: -
Use clean and rust free components.
Heat the bearing to (100-110) degree Celsius.
Ensure due seating of bearing and circlips.
Ensure correct gear painting for specific models.
Torque 165 lbs/ft and lock the lock nut.
Idler cluster sub-assembly: -
Use clean and rust free components.
Ensure due gearing, fitments of needle roller, spacer and thrust washers.
Planet carrier assembly: -
Use clean and rust free components.
Ensure smooth running, due fitment of planet carrier.
Adequate grease and fit the needle rollers.
C.A. assembly: -
Use clean and rust free components.
Grease the oil seal before use.
Ensure due seating of seal and bearing.
Apply clean grease between C.A. guide and bush while assembly.
If the car travels in a straight line, the two rear wheels turn on the road exactly at the same speed.
There is in relative movement between two rear wheels. The propeller shaft may be geared rigidly,
in the case with the rear axle to rotate the rear wheel together. But when the car takes the turn, the
outer wheel travels on the longer radius than the inner wheel. The outer wheel turns faster than the
inner wheel, i.e. there is a relative movement between the two rear wheels.
If the two rear wheels are rigidly fixed to a rear axle, the inner wheel will slip which will cause: -
Rapid tyre wear-wear and tear of the tyre will take place which will reduce life of tyres.
Steering difficulties-It will become difficult to rotate steering accordingly hence crating driving
Poor road holding-Tractor will not be able to hold itself on road and can slip off the road which
will be fatal.
Therefore, there must be some devices to provide relative movement to the two rear wheels when
the car takes a turn and here comes the purpose differential.
The differential is a device that slits the engine torque in two ways, allowing each output to spin at
a different speed.
The differential is found on all modern cars and trucks and also in many four-wheel-drive vehicles.
These four-wheel-drive vehicles need a differential between each set of drive wheels, one between
front wheels and one between rear wheels. The differential has three jobs: -
To aim the engine power at the wheels.
To act as the final gear reduction in the vehicle, slowing the rotational speed of the transmission
one final time before it hits the wheels.
To transmit the power to the wheels while allowing them to rotate at different speeds.
The engine drives the crown wheel mounted on the cage assembly through tail pinion. Four bevel
pinions are mounted on the cross, which is fitted in the cage assembly. Cross moves along with the
cage assembly and bevel pinions are free to rotate on the cross. Two bevel gears are mounted on
the splined bull pinion shaft left and right, which are supported on the taper roller bearings in the
differential housing. These taper rolling bearings give rigid support to cage assembly.
CASE 1: -
On straight roads, the cage moves along with the crown wheel carrying the bevel pinions and bevel
gears without any relative motion among them. At this time bevel pinions do not revolve around
the cross but act as key between bevel gears left and right causing the bull pinion shafts to rotate at
the same speed.
CASE-2: -
Now consider that if the tractor is moving and the bull pinion shaft right is being held stationary by
applying the brake for a shorter turn in the field, due to this bevel gear right cannot rotate while
cage assembly is still rotating in the same direction. As bevel gear right is stationary, bevel pinion
will not roll over bevel gear right or we can say it will walk along bevel gear right while revolving
around its axis. On the other hand bevel gear left is rotating on its axis due to the speed of cage
assembly in the same direction an additional speed has been added due to the relative motion
between bevel pinions and bevel gear left.
CASE-3: -
As soon as any of the rear wheels of tractor come across a loose/wet soil where resistance to both
the wheels is not equal or when the tractor is on a turn (say right turn), unequal resistance will
come across both wheels, causing speed reduction of right wheel and right bull pinion shaft. But
the cage assembly will keep on rotating at the same speed and in the same direction. Now bevel
pinions will roll over bevel gear right at a slower speed. Hence bull pinion shaft left will rotate at
slightly higher speed due to the speed of cage assembly and the additional speed is given to bevel
gear left by bevel pinions. This is the working principal of the differential system. On the straight
roads the speed of both rear axles remains same and on turns, the inner wheel is subjected to more
resistance and hence it moves at a slower speed and outer wheel moves faster
Rear cover is mounted on the differential assembly & perform various other operations.

Layout of rear cover assembly:-

The Dismounting Stage is divided into 5 stages:
Stage 1:- Alternator, horn, brake rod, brake switch connection, fan belt.
Stage 2:- Speedometer wire, rear frame, fuel tank, overflow pipe, felt pad.
Stage 3:- Fan, radiator, hose pipe, dash board & its cover, number plate.
Stage 4:- Battery, steering wheel, head light, clutch connection, knob & cover, hook & slide panel,
Stage 5:- Seat, sheet metal covers, tyre fixing, battery cover, engine oil pouring & greasing,

What is a C.N.C
CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control. A CNC is a mini-computer which is used to control
the machine tool functions and slide motion from stored information. The instructions are stored in
the memory of the mini computer. The instructions are written in the form of program. A CNC
system is the heart and brain of a CNC machine which enables the operation of the various
machine members such as slides, spindles etc. as per the sequence programmed into it, depending
on the machining operations.
The main advantage of a CNC system lies in the fact that the skills of the operator hitherto required
in the operation of conventional machine are removed and the part production is made automatic.
A CNC machine tool is different from conventional machine tools in a number of respects. The
basic design for conventional machine tool is not suitable for CNC machine. Many design changes
Rear cover
Control valve
Assembly &
Sensor tube
Testing of rear cover for any leakage
are required for CNC machines as compared to conventional machines tools due to additional
requirements of CNC machines such as automatic drive system, high rigidity feed drives, ball
screw, automatic tool changer (ATC), chip conveyor, tool magazine.
A CNC machine tool responds directly to the program that is in operation. The accuracy to be
achieved depends to a great extent on the various elements of CNC machine. Also the CNC
machines have high accuracy and productivity as the machine is operated 24 hours, so need special
design for its elements.
As we know that the CNC machines are designed to perform a number of operations in a single
setting of the job. These machines are generally equipped with ATC (Automatic Tool Changer), by
which the down time in changing the tool from one operation to another is reduced. In this the
tools are arranged as per the sequence of operation given in part programme. So at the time of
operation, tool is automatically selected and changed based on the tool sequence given in the part

Advantages of CNC machine:-
Availability: - CNC machine can be available for work continuously 24 hours a day, 365 days a
year and only need to be switched off for maintenance.
User friendly: - CNC machines are user friendly. Less skilled/trained people can operate CNCs
unlike manual lathes/milling machines etc. which need skilled engineers.
Conversion of units: - If the takes is prepared in the units of inches then the same system of units
can be converted into SI units within the computer memory.
Updated: - CNC machines can be updated by improving the software used to drive the machines.
Diagnostic: - It can diagnose program and can detect the machine malfunctioning even before the
part is produced.
Easy supervision: - One person can supervise many CNC machines as once these are
programmed they can usually be left to work by themselves.
Easy training: - Training in the use of CNCs is available through the use virtual software.
This is software that allows the operator to practise using the CNC machine on the screen of a
computer like a computer game.
Similar quality: - CNC machines are programmed with a design which can then be manufactured
hundreds or even thousands of items. Each manufactured product will be exactly the same.
Reduce inspection: - The time spent on inspection and in waiting for inspection to begin is
greatly reduced. Normally it is necessary to inspect the first component only. If there is any
difference in the dimensions of the machined component, the program is checked and corrected, if
Disadvantage of CNC machine
High initial cost: - CNC machines are more expensive than manually operated machines.
Higher maintenance cost: - Persons trained in electronics along with mechanical and electrical
are required to service and maintain these complex machines.
Skilled CNC personnel: - It is very difficult to find a programmer and operator for a CNC, hence
existing personnel must be trained in the programming and operation.

As we know that the CNC machines are designed to perform a number of operations in a single
setting of the job. These machines are generally equipped with ATC (Automatic Tool Changer), by
which the down time in changing the tool from one operation to another is reduced. In this the
tools are arranged as per the sequence of operation given in part programme. So at the time of
operation, tool is automatically selected and changed based on the tool sequence given in the part
ATC is a very important part of CNC machines. ATC plays a vital role in reducing the idle time
during tool change operation. It takes approximately 3 to 7 seconds. This requires that each tool
can be identified by some form of coding device which can be recognised by the tool transfer arm.
The general working principle of an ATC employs a tool transfer arm which is used to select the
desired tool automatically from the magazine and replace it with a new tool which already exists in
the tool machine spindle. There are different types of ATCs, which can attain different numbers of
tools in their tool magazine.
Types of ATCs:-
Turret head
180o rotation
Chain type
Rotary head
Turret head:- This type of ATC is used in turning machine operations, turning centres are
available with turret containing up to 12 tools and is one of the oldest type of automatic tool
changers. The turret movement is controlled by automatic control system. When the control system
receives a command for change of tool, then the turret moves to a fixed tool change position and
required tool comes to the cutting position. The main disadvantage of this system is the limited
number of tools spindles available. In order to use a great number of tools than available spindles,
the operator must remove tools that have already been used and insert those called for later in the
Tools are fixed in the turret.

180 rotation:- The simplest of the true tool changing mechanism is the 180o rotation tool
changer. Upon receiving a tool change command, the machine control unit sends the spindle to its
fixed tool change coordinates. At the same time, the tool magazine is indexed to the proper
position. The tool changer then rotates and engages both the tool in spindle and the tool in
magazine at the same time. The drawbar is removed from the tool in the spindle and the tool
changer removes both tools from their respective places. The tool changer then rotates 180 degree
and swaps the tool that was in the spindle with the one that was in the magazine. While the tool
changer is rotating, the magazine repositions itself to accept the old tool that was removed from
spindle. The tool changer then installs the new tool in the spindle and the old tool the magazine.
Finally, the tool changer rotates back to its parked position where it remains until needed. The tool
changer is thus complete and the program continues.
The principle advantage of this type of changer is its simplicity. The amount of motion involved is
minimal and tool changes are fast. This ATC may be used on either horizontal or vertical spindle
Chain type:- The numbers of tool stored in the tool magazine are more in chain type automatic
tool changer. The tools are stored in pockets which are attached to a chain and the chain moves on
the sprockets. The chain can follow any path depending upon the capacity of magazine. The chain
type magazines follow two types of paths such as M-type and rectangular type. The capacity of
magazine varies from 30 to 200 tools. In this type of automatic tool changer the tool search time is

Rotary head type:- This type of ATC is similar to the turret head ATC. In this the tools are not
fixed but rotate in the head. It is used in milling and drilling machines. The numbers of spindles are
linked to the same machine head. The tools are placed in the spindle prior to
running the program. When another tool is needed, the head indexes (rotates) to the desired
position. Its ain disadvantage is that the numbers of tools carried are less.

Emergency stop:- immediately stops all machine movements in emergency. Remove power from
all serves & erases all active command. The stop button locks in the depressed position. To release
it, turns the button clockwise it stops & then releases it. This will restore the machine power & ON
the control system.
While starting the machine, emergency button is kept pressed to save the machine from varying
current like a U.P.S. is used in a computer system.
Power On:- Activates the machine control system. Keep the emergency stop button in pressed
condition while switching power ON.
Mode select switch:- This switch is one of the main controls available & is used intensively for
all mode selection of the machine. Before all machining processes begin, there are certain
preparatory operations to be completed. During these preparations, the control must put in specific
modes. These modes are selected switch on the machine control panel.
Feed hold:- Controlled hold of axis movement without spindle stop.
Feed rate overrider:- Provides limited variation of programmed feed data. This selection is useful
to modify the feed rate programmed during the actual machine operation. This can be varied from
0-120 % of the programmed feed rate.
Cycle start:- Start of block or program.
Block Delete switch:- Its purpose is the optional skip of blocks programmed with oblique (/)
when it is in ON position. This is a very useful programming feature, where same program can be
used for different materials.
Edit:-Preparation, alteration or punching of a program.
Automatic: - In this mode the automatic processing of a part program takes place. This indicates
the actual position & the distance to be moved.
Machine ready: - Cabinet & machine ready after & switch power ON.
Reference point approach: - This mode is used to send the axis to the reference point. This is used
in conjunction with axis push buttons. It is advisable to move the X-axis to the reference position
before the Z-axis is moved to the reference position.
Single block switch: - This switch allows only the block-by block operation from the part
program each time cycle start is pressed. This is useful while trying out a part program for the first
Dry run switch: - This switch in the ON position places the control in the dry run mode. The
programmed feeds are suppressed by the control & the dry run feed rare is active.
Rapid traverse override switch: - This switch in the ON position activates the rapid traverse
Spindle speed override: - This is used by the operator to adjust the spindle from 50-120 % of the
programmed speed in increments of 10 %. For example: - we entered the spindle speed 1000 rpm.
At 100 %, the speed of spindle is 1000 rpm & at 90% & 120%, its speed is 900 rpm & 1200 rpm
Manual speed: - To increase or decrease the speed of spindle manually. At zero the spindle will
not rotate.
Directon push button: - The push buttons specify the direction of movement in each of the axis.
This is to be pressed for any movement of the axis in the specified direction.
Turret 1 or 2 button: - If there are two turrets in the machine, then turret 1 or 2 push buttons are
used to rotate or index the two turrets.
Conveyer CW and CCW:- These push buttons are used to rotate the conveyor in
clockwise or anti-clockwise direction. The direction of rotation depends on which side of machine
conveyor is installed. If conveyor is installed on the right side of the machine, it will rotate in
clockwise direction & when conveyor is installed on the left side of the machine, it will rotate in
anti-clockwise direction.
Chuck air blow: - Air is blown through chuck to remove the chips.
Parts catcher:- It is an addition accessories attached in the CNC lathe machine, whose purpose is
to move with the tool and to check the dimension of the job continuously.
Steady rest: - To lock/unlock the steady rest, which is used to hold the long jobs from the middle
so that the job does not vibrate during rotating at high speeds.
Door switch: - To open or close the door of the machine for changing the tools or jobs.
Dry run:- This is for the verification of the program weather the program is correct or incorrect.
But there is no movement of tool. If any error occurs an alarm will be activated.
Optional stop:- When we have to check the job after the completion of a block, we press the
optional push button. To restart the program, press cycle start push button.
Overtravel release:- Its function is to bring the chuck in the safe position by rotating it in opposite
direction. We can select in which direction the turret moves by pressing handle X or Z push button.
Spindle on/off push button:- There are three push buttons provided on the control panel to
start/stop the spindle.
a) Forward-for the clockwise rotation of spindle.
b) Stop-to stop the spindle.
c) Reverse-for the anti-clockwise rotation of the spindle.
Basically,from the whole study we have concluded that tractors are the basic farm equipments
without which the whole farming processes are not possible.Although the manufacturing of the
tractors is a complicated process but the product which is finally formed i.e. tractor is a strong and
durable one which is the lifeline of every farmer in todays world.Without it the agri department
cannot survive and hence it will affect the economy of india.