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Topics Covered

Basic Concepts of Set Theory

Set

A set is a well-defined collection of objects or elements. Each element in a set is unique.

Usually set is denoted by a capital letters e.g. A, B,, X, Y etc. and the elements are

enclosed in { } brackets, denoted by small letters e.g. a, b,.., x, y etc.

Example:

Empty Set/ Void Set/ Null Set

A set may contain no elements and denoted by (phi) | .

Example:

Important Points:

Let the set A whose n(A) = 0 or natural number is known as finite set, where n(A) is number

of elements in the set, else set A is infinite set.

Subset of a Set

A set A is said to be subset of set B if each element of set A is also the element of set B.

_ e e . . i e A B ( x A x B ) .

If there is at least one element in B which does not belong to set A, then A is proper

subset of B i.e. c A B .

Example:

Equality of Sets

Set A and B is said to be equal if A B and B A _ _ i.e. both sets have same elements.

Union of sets ( collecting the elements of sets )

Union of two or more sets is the set of all elements that belongs to any of these sets. The

symbol for union of sets is ' ' .

Basic concepts of Set Theory, Real valued functions, into, onto

and one to one. Sum, difference, product and quotient of two

functions, composite function, absolute value. Polynomial,

rational, trigonometric, Exponential and logarithmic functions.

Even & odd functions. Inverse of a functions.

I. A = Set of letters in TRIGONOMETRY A = { T, R, I, G, O, N, M, E, Y }

II. D = e

2

{ x : x = n n } D = {1, 4, 9, 16, 25, ..}

III. S = e { x : x and x < 3 } S = { x : - < x < 3 }

I. A = { x : x > 15 and x < 5 } A = | .

II. S =

+

e { x : x and x < -1 } S = | .

I. A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {b, c, d} then A B c i.e. A is proper subset of B.

RISING FUTURE ACADEMY

( gives you the wings of perfection )

Example:

Intersection of sets ( common elements from sets )

Intersection of two or more sets is the set of all elements that common to these sets. The

symbol for union of sets is ' ' .

Example:

I. A = { 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 } and B = { 1, 4, 9, 16 } then A B = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 16 }

I. A = { 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 } and B = { 1, 4, 9, 16 } then A B = { 1, 9 }

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