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Common Channel Signalling

(MTP, SCCP and TC)


DN98792452
Issue 12-0

2 DN98792452
Issue 12-0
Common Channel Signalling (MTP, SCCP and TC)
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Table of Contents
This document has 150 pages.
Summary of changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1 SS7 signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.1 SS7 signalling network concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2 SS7 signalling configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3 SS7 signalling hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2 SS7 network planning principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3 SS7 network structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.1 MTP level signalling network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.2 SCCP level signalling network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4 Creating MTP configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4.1 Activating MTP configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.2 Setting MTP level signalling traffic load sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.3 Creating large capacity signalling link (optional feature). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5 Creating SCCP configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.1 Activating SCCP configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
6 Optimising MTP configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.1 Modifying MTP level 3 signalling parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.2 Modifying SS7 signalling network parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.3 Modifying the values of signalling link parameter set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
6.4 Creating new signalling link parameter set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.5 Modifying the values of signalling route set parameter set . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6.6 Creating new signalling route set parameter set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
6.7 Setting and modifying MTP level signalling traffic restrictions . . . . . . . . . . 56
6.8 Modifying MTP level signalling traffic load sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.9 Using the signalling link set of another signalling network . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.10 Removing MTP signalling point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7 Optimising SCCP configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.1 Modifying SCCP signalling point parameter set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.2 Creating new SCCP signalling point parameter set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.3 Defining SCCP signalling point and/or subsystem to own signalling point . 64
7.4 Removing SCCP signalling point and/or subsystem from own signalling point
65
7.5 Modifying the values of SCCP subsystem parameter set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.6 Creating new SCCP subsystem parameter set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.7 Setting and modifying broadcasts of local SCCP subsystem. . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.8 Setting and modifying SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions . . . . . . . . . 69
7.8.1 Signalling point based traffic restrictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.8.2 Calling GT checking based traffic restrictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
7.8.3 GT based traffic restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.9 Creating and modifying called GT translation result and GT modification . 77
7.10 Creating global title analysis for called GT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
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7.11 Creating calling GT routing configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
8 Monitoring signalling network objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
8.1 Interrogating SS7 network configuration and signalling route set state . . . . 81
8.2 Interrogating and modifying signalling route state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
8.3 Interrogating signalling link set state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
8.4 Interrogating and modifying signalling link state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
8.5 Interrogating MTP level load sharing and MTP level STP traffic restrictions82
8.6 Interrogating and modifying SCCP signalling point state. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
8.7 Interrogating and modifying SCCP subsystem state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
8.8 Interrogating SCCP subsystem broadcast status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
9 SS7 troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
9.1 Signalling link stays in state UA-INS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
9.2 Failures in the signalling link terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
9.3 Signalling route goes to or stays in state UA-INR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
9.4 Signalling link fails occasionally or there is an unexpected reset of AS7. . . 89
9.5 Signalling link is in state UA-INS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
9.6 Signalling link activation succeeds but traffic fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
9.7 All MTP and SCCP level objects are in state available (AV) but location update
fails or mobile calls are cut frequently after 4.5 min. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
9.8 Global title translation fails although translation exists and the global transla-
tion result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
9.9 State of all subsystems in the remote network element is unavailable (UA) al-
though MTP route set is in state available-executing (AV-EX) . . . . . . . . . . 94
9.10 Some remote subsystems do not recover after route set unavailability. . . . 94
9.11 A signalling point parameter or a subsystem parameter does not take effect as
described . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
9.12 After updating DX software, the SCCP of own signalling point is in state un-
available (UA), although everything else is in state available (AV) . . . . . . . 95
9.13 SCCP screening does not come into effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
9.14 TC sends an abort message with error code 03 "Incorrect transaction portion"
to the received dialogue request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
9.15 Large capacity signalling link creation or modification fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
9.16 Allowing of link activation and initialisation of signalling terminal fail . . . . . . 97
9.17 Activation of large capacity signalling link fails. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
9.18 Bit rates of the signalling links in the same link set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
10 States of SS7 signalling network objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
10.1 States of signalling route sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
10.2 States of signalling routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
10.3 States of signalling link sets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
10.4 States of signalling links. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
10.5 States of SCCP signalling points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
10.6 States of SCCP subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
11 Error messages of MTP commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
11.1 MTP command major errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
11.2 MTP command minor errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
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12 SS7 signalling network parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
12.1 MTP level 3 parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
12.2 SS7 signalling network parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
12.3 Signalling link parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
12.4 Signalling route set parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
12.5 SCCP signalling point parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
12.6 SCCP subsystem parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
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List of Figures
Figure 1 Example of two signalling end points (SEP) which transfer the signalling
messages through two signalling transfer points (STP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Figure 2 The functional parts of the Nokia signalling system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Figure 3 Signalling between two network elements and the STP in between. . . . 11
Figure 4 Example of a signalling point which belongs to three different signalling net-
works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Figure 5 Example of TDM-based signalling links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Figure 6 The Transaction Capabilities scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Figure 7 Signalling hardware used in different network elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Figure 8 Basic mesh network structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Figure 9 Case A: Two out of four inter-STP link sets deleted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Figure 10 Case B: Link sets between STPs of the same pair deleted . . . . . . . . . . 20
Figure 11 Case C: All the four inter-STP link sets between STPs of the same pair de-
leted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Figure 12 The example network (STP = Signalling Transfer Point, SEP = Signalling
End Point) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Figure 13 Example of a message loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Figure 14 Example network of the scenario for one directional signalling . . . . . . . 23
Figure 15 Example network of the possible negative consequences of using load
sharing between routes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Figure 16 Two network elements with different SCCP subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Figure 17 Example of SS7 SCCP routing and global title analysis in the case of loca-
tion update (LOC.UPD.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Figure 18 The points where the global tile translation is made (GTT 15) . . . . . . . 32
Figure 19 The parts of the global title used in different global title translations . . . 32
Figure 20 Use Case 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Figure 21 Use Case 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Figure 22 Example network where one network element belongs to two signalling
networks (NA0 and NA1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Figure 23 Example network where the SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions is con-
figured. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
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List of Tables
Table 1 The services, their recommended names and parameter values given in
the NPC command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Table 2 States of the signalling routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Table 3 States of the signalling links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Table 4 States of SCCP signalling points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Table 5 States of SCCP subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Table 6 Parameter levels, affected parts, and the MML commands to handle them
120
Table 7 Signalling levels and their predefined parameter sets . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Table 8 Parameter files and their contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Table 9 MTP level 3 parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Table 10 CCS7 signalling network-specific parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Table 11 Signalling link parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Table 12 Signalling route set parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Table 13 SCCP signalling point parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Table 14 SCCP subsystem parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
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Summary of changes
Changes between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document
issue contains all changes made to previous issues.
Changes between issues 12-0 and 11-0
In chapter SS7 Signalling Network Parameters, explanation about parameter C7 has
been added.
Changes between issues 11-0 and 10-0
In chapter SS7 Signalling Network Parameters, table Signalling route set parameters,
the parameters D7 and D8 have been corrected, and parameter C7 has been added.
Changes between issues 10-0 and 9-1
As the STP (SRRi) signalling routing is now based on SCCP CgPA, a new Section
SCCP support for Feature 1679: Handling of forward-SMs in SRRi has been added to
Chapter SCCP level signalling network.
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SS7 signalling
1 SS7 signalling
Any transfer of data that enables speech and data connections between users is signal-
ling. SS7 signalling has become the primary mode for signalling and information transfer
in today's wireless and wireline networks. Information elements like calling party
number, routing information related to 800 numbers, and current location information for
roaming wireless subscriber are all carried over SS7 signalling networks.
In the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), signalling is needed for call estab-
lishing, call release, and call maintaining. In the wireless system, signalling can also be
independent from speech. The different functions of signalling are call control, control of
services, and charging control. Wireless networks have some special functions, such as
location update, handover, subscriber administration, and short message service.
It is also possible to use SS7 signalling for non-call related signalling. In wireless
systems, this feature is needed because the system has functions that are not con-
nected to calls (for example, location updates and short message service). Furthermore,
the operator can route signalling differently than in the case of a related call.
SS7 signalling provides also signalling error message handling. Error detection is done
by including and interpreting a checksum within the message.
1.1 SS7 signalling network concepts
Signalling point (SP), signalling transfer point (STP) and signalling end point
(SEP)
A signalling point is a network element which sends and receives signalling messages.
A network element can also operate as a Signalling Transfer Point (STP), which means
that signalling traffic goes through the signalling transfer point towards the destination
signalling point. There can be several signalling transfer points between two Signalling
End Points (SEP).
Figure 1 Example of two signalling end points (SEP) which transfer the signalling
messages through two signalling transfer points (STP)
The implementation of a signalling system in a Nokia network element consists of differ-
ent functional parts. The main idea is that all functional parts offer their services to the
other parts. In the following figure, the functional parts that are under some other part
serve the part above. For example, the Operations, Maintenance and Administration
Part (OMAP) uses the services of the Transaction Capabilities (TC), the TC uses the
services provided by the Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP), and the SCCP
uses the services of the MTP.
SEP SEP STP STP
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Figure 2 The functional parts of the Nokia signalling system
All parts do not necessarily exist in every network element. A signalling transfer point
does not need to have all the functional parts that signalling end points have. Two dif-
ferent network elements can exchange SS7 signalling even when only the minimum
configuration exists in both elements.
For example, if network element A has MAP and operates with network element B, then
both elements have to have an MAP, TC, SCCP and MTP configuration, but in the STP
between A and B there can be only an MTP, or an MTP and an SCCP configuration.
Figure 3 Signalling between two network elements and the STP in between
Signalling network and signalling point code (SPC)
A network element can operate in a maximum of 4 signalling networks. Every network
element has a signalling point code in every network it belongs to. The signalling point
code (the number given to the signalling point) itself can be the same in each network.
The following is an example where one network element belongs to three signalling net-
works. In the example, there is a different signalling point code for each network.
OMAP
BSSAP
SCCP
TUP/
ISUP/
PUP/
PUPX
INAP
MAP
TC
MTP
Network element A Signalling transfer point Network element B
RNSAP
SCCP
MTP
SCCP
MTP
RNSAP
SCCP
MTP
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SS7 signalling
Figure 4 Example of a signalling point which belongs to three different signalling
networks
Signalling link
Signalling points are connected together with PCM circuits. One PCM has 32 time slots
(TSL). Each signalling link reserves one time slot from one PCM.
Figure 5 Example of TDM-based signalling links
1.2 SS7 signalling configurations
Message transfer part (MTP)
The Message Transfer Part can be divided into three levels:
Signalling Data Link level (level 1) defines the physical, electrical, and functional
characteristics and the physical interface towards the transmission media.
Signalling Link level (level 2) defines the functions considering message transfer
between two adjacent network elements through a signalling link. It defines the
message structure, framing, error detection and correction, alignment procedures,
and so on.
Signalling Network level (level 3) can be divided into two parts: message handling,
which includes message routing and distribution to the respective user part, and
network management, which provides all the necessary procedures for using the
signalling network in an optimal way.
NA1
IN0
NA0
IN0:
SP=
80122
NA1:
SP=80001
IN0:
SP=80125
NA0:
SP=80101
NA1:
SP=
80005
NA0:
SP=
80105
PCM=75, TSL=1
PCM=77, TSL=1
NA1:
SP=
80115
NA1:
SP=
80125
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When configuring and using MTP in a Nokia network element, you do not need to rec-
ognise the levels at all.
Signalling connection controlling part (SCCP)
The Signalling Connection Control Part provides two different services, the connection-
oriented and the connectionless services for other applications. The SCCP itself uses
the MTP as a service.
The connection-oriented network service is used for virtual connections between
network elements and it provides the procedures for the establishment and release of
those virtual connections.
The connectionless network service enables non-call related communication
between network elements which have to exchange information only for short periods.
Furthermore, the connectionless service provides a global title translation function,
which enables communication with network elements in other signalling networks.
For example, in the MSC/HLR the Mobile Application Part (MAP) uses the connection-
less service of the SCCP and Base Station Application Part (BSSAP) uses the connec-
tion-oriented service of the SCCP.
Transaction capabilities (TC)
The purpose of Transaction Capabilities (TC) is to offer logical connections, that is,
transactions, to TC users. These transactions are used to transfer the components by
which the TC conveys a request to perform an operation, or a reply, between two TC
users situated in different network elements. A TC user uses the network services of the
signalling system through the TC. From the point of view of network services, the TC is
a direct tube between a TC user and the SCCP.
The TC protocol is implemented in the Nokia network element through two different pro-
cesses: one which complies with the ITU-T Q.771 - Q.775 recommendations and
another one which complies with the ANSI T1.114 recommendations. The programs can
operate in a network element simultaneously or individually.
The TC realises the services by using the network services provided by the SCCP in the
common channel signalling system. Only the transfer mode using connectionless
network services is specified for the TC. Both the segmenting and the non-segmenting
SCCPs can be used.
The TC is part of the protocol but you do not have to configure it separately since the TC
is used automatically when needed.
Note that the use of the TC does not need any configuration or other actions by the oper-
ator.
Figure 6 The Transaction Capabilities scheme
SCCP
MAP INAP OMAP
ITU-T TC ANSI TC
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Operations, Maintenance and Administration Part (OMAP)
The Operations, Maintenance and Administration Part (OMAP) is defined in the ITU-T
recommendation Q.795, Q.750-Q755 and in the ANSI Recommendation T1.116. The
OMAP makes it possible to set regular signalling network tests between specified sig-
nalling points.
The MTP Routing Verification Test (MRVT) procedure has been implemented in the
Nokia network element. This makes it possible to check if message routing functions
properly in the signalling points. In the MRVT procedure, the system sends test
messages to a destination signalling point by using different signalling routes. The test
messages can pass through signalling transfer points (STPs). A test is conducted suc-
cessfully if replies to the sent messages are received within the specified time. If the test
fails, the system produces a report that explains the reason for the failure.
1.3 SS7 signalling hardware
The hardware used by signalling consists of signalling units, signalling link terminals,
and Common Channel Signalling Management Units. Signalling units take care of the
actual signalling, which is then transmitted to the trunk circuits by the signalling link ter-
minals.
Signalling unit
A signalling unit is dependent on the type of the network element. On a fixed network
element (PSTN), the Common Channel Signalling Unit (CCSU) is used as the signalling
unit. The signalling unit of a Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) is a CCSU unit in the fixed
network direction and a Base Station Signalling Unit (BSU) in the direction of the Base
Station Controller (BSC). The signalling unit used by the Base Station Controller (BSC)
is a Base Station Controller Signalling Unit (BCSU).
Figure 7 Signalling hardware used in different network elements
Signalling link terminal
A signalling link terminal is an entity composed of hardware and software, and it imple-
ments MTP level 2 functions. There are several types of signalling link terminals avail-
able: they are the different variants of AS7 plug-in units. There are different types of AS7
PSTN
CCSU
CCMU
HLR
CCSU
CCMU
BSC
BCSU
MCMU
MSC
CCSU
CCMU
BSU
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variants of DMC-bus and PCI-bus based network elements. AS7 types with large
capacity (for example, AS7V, AS7A, and AS7C) support also large capacity links
(optional feature), that is, speed up to 1984 kbit/s. Signalling link terminals are linked to
the signalling unit, and there can be several terminals per unit.
Common channel signalling management unit
There are two different common channel signalling management units used in different
Nokia network elements. The Common Channel Signalling Management Unit (CCMU)
is used in fixed switching (PSTN) and mobile switching (MSC/HLR) network elements
and the Marker and Cellular Management Unit (MCMU) is used in the Base Station Con-
troller (BSC).
Small network elements do not necessarily need a separate CCMU, but the tasks can
be divided between the central memory (CM) and the statistical unit (STU). In small
network elements, the management data on the common channel signalling can be
stored in the central memory.
Common Channel Signalling Unit (CCSU)
There are two different common channel signalling management units used in different
Nokia network elements. The Common Channel Signalling Unit (CCSU) is used in fixed
switching (PSTN) and mobile switching (MSC/HLR) network elements and the Marker
and Cellular Management Unit (MCMU) is used in the Base Station Controller (BSC).
Small network elements do not necessarily need a separate CCMU, but the tasks can
be divided between the Central Memory (CM) and the Statistical Unit (STU). In small
network elements, the management data on common channel signalling can be stored
in the central memory.
Base Station Signalling Unit (BSU)
The BSU controls mobile and base station signalling (Base Station System Applcation
Part, BSSAP), takes care of the decentralised functions of the Message Transfer Part
(MTP) and the Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) of the signalling system, and
is responsible for handling the signalling messages and functions related to the signal-
ling channels connected to it.
The BSU is backed up using the N+1 method, which means that several BSUs can be
linked to the same back-up unit. In fault situations, the spare unit takes over the tasks of
the failing unit.
Common Channel Signalling Management Unit (CCMU)
The CCMU implements the functions of the Message Transfer Part (MTP) and the Sig-
nalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) in the CCS signalling network of the Nokia
system built in accordance with the ITU-T specifications concerning signalling system
number 7.
The CCMU is backed up with a spare unit that is in hot stand-by mode, so that the
changeover to the spare unit does not disturb the functions of the other parts in the sig-
nalling network.
Base Station Controller Signalling Unit (BCSU)
The BCSU implements the functions of the Message Transfer Part (MTP) and the Sig-
nalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) in the CCS signalling network of the Nokia
system built in accordance with the ITU-T specifications concerning signalling system
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number 7. It also implements the needed signalling functions towards the base station
(BTS).
Central memory (CM)
The main memory is a unit in the control part of the Nokia network element. The main
memory (of the microcomputer) stores the subscriber data, charging and billing data,
signalling data, and configuration data of the network element as semi-permanent files.
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2 SS7 network planning principles
Required information for planning SS7 signalling network
To plan a whole signalling network you have to have experience in telecommunications
and professional knowledge about signalling systems.
Before the SS7 configuration is created, the whole signalling network has to be planned
carefully. The following issues have to be defined before the SS7 signalling configura-
tion can be created:
signalling point code allocation scheme from telecommunications administration,
that is, the signalling point codes to be used in the own signalling network
format of signalling point code (SPC): length 14, 16, or 24 bits, and if the signalling
point code should be allocated into subfields, for example, 3-8-3 bit or 8-8-8 bit
format (see ITU-T Q.708)
physical transmission paths between different network elements
Signalling Link Code (SLC) and time slot (TSL) mapping to identify the signalling
links within a link set
type and amount of signalling traffic in order to define the link set size between two
network elements
if there are any restrictions concerning other vendors' interconnecting network
elements (if they are compatible with, for example, the ITU-T, ANSI, or JAPAN spec-
ifications.)
connection management and circuit supervision messages (CCM)
network structure concerning Signalling End Points (SEP) and Signalling Transfer
Points (STP)
if there is a need for policing (screening)
if there is an SCCP network configured in the MTP network, and the requirements
set by it
which are the network elements in the signalling network where the SCCP exists
what applications (SCCP subsystems) exist in different network elements and what
kind of addressing (GT or SPC and SSN) is used to send messages to them
what kind of global titles are used (for example, if roaming agreements and used IN
services affect global titles)
if there are any restrictions concerning timer values, address field of messages or
management procedures for interconnected network elements made by other
vendors
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3 SS7 network structures
The signalling system can be used with different types of signalling network structures.
The choice between the different types of signalling network structures can be influ-
enced by factors, such as administrative aspects and the structure of the telecommuni-
cation network to be served by the signalling system.
If the provision of the signalling system is planned on a per signalling relation basis, the
result is a signalling network largely based on associated signalling, typically supple-
mented by a limited degree of quasi-associated signalling for low volume signalling rela-
tions. The structure of such a signalling network is mainly determined by the patterns of
the signalling relations.
Another approach is to consider the signalling network as a common resource that has
to be planned according to the total needs of common channel signalling. The high
capacity of digital signalling links in combination with the needs of redundancy for reli-
ability typically leads to a signalling network based on a high degree of quasi-associated
signalling with some provision for associated signalling for high volume signalling rela-
tions. The latter approach to signalling network planning is more likely to allow exploita-
tion of the potential of common channel signalling to support network features that
require communication for purposes other than switching of connections.
The signalling network structures presented in this section is based on ITUT Recom-
mendations Q.705Q.706, Blue Book.
Availability of the network
The signalling network structure must be selected to meet the most stringent availability
requirements of any user part served by a specific network. The availability of the indi-
vidual components of the network (signalling links, signalling points, and signalling
transfer points) must be considered in determining the network structure (for more infor-
mation, see ITUT Recommendation Q.709).
Pay attention to the STP routing tables to ensure that circular routing does not occur.
Message transfer delay
When structuring a particular signalling network, the overall number of signalling links
(where there are a number of signalling relations in tandem) related to a particular user
transaction (for example, to a specific call in the telephone application) has to be con-
sidered (for more information, see ITUT Recommendation Q.706).
There must be as few signalling transfer points as possible in the signalling network.
Signalling link load
When estimating the need for signalling links, it is recommended that one signalling link
load does not overrun 0,2 Erl (Erlang is the unit of measure of the carried traffic inten-
sity). In satellite links, the signalling link load has to be under 0,06 Erl. For an example,
on calculating the signalling link load, see Section Measuring signalling link load in NSS
Statistics.
Message sequence control
For all messages for the same transaction (for example, a telephone call), the MTP
maintains the same routing if the connection remains functional, provided that the same
signalling link selection code is used. However, a transaction does not necessarily have
to use the same signalling route for both forward and backward messages.
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Number of signalling links used in load sharing
The number of signalling links used to share the load of a given flow of signalling traffic
typically depends on the following:
the total traffic load
the availability of links
the required availability of the path between the two signalling points concerned
the bit rate of the signalling links
Load sharing requires at least two signalling links for all bit rates, but more links are nec-
essary at lower bit rates.
When two links are used, each of them has to be able to carry all the signalling traffic in
case the other link fails.
Basic network structures
This is an example of the basic mesh network structure and three simplified versions
derived from it. More complex signalling networks can be built by using these models as
building components.

Figure 8 Basic mesh network structure
In this example network, each signalling point with level 4 functions is connected by two
link sets to two signalling transfer points. Each pair of signalling transfer points is con-
nected to every other pair by four link sets. There is a link set between the two signalling
transfer points in each pair. The simplified versions (A, B, and C cases) of the basic sig-
nalling network are obtained by deleting the following, respectively:
in the case of A, two out of the four inter-signalling transfer point link sets
in the case of B, the link sets between the signalling transfer points of the same pair
in the case of C, two out of the four inter-signalling transfer point link sets and the
link sets between signalling transfer points of the same pair
In connection with the availability of a given signalling link, it is considered that the more
signalling link sets are removed from the basic signalling network (going from the basic
mesh network to the A, B, and C cases), the lower the availability of the signalling
network is. However, an increase in the availability of the simplified signalling network
can be attained by adding one or more parallel signalling links to each of the remaining
signalling link sets.
SEP signalling end point
STP signalling transfer point
SEP
STP STP
STP STP
SEP
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Figure 9 Case A: Two out of four inter-STP link sets deleted

Figure 10 Case B: Link sets between STPs of the same pair deleted

Figure 11 Case C: All the four inter-STP link sets between STPs of the same pair
deleted
SEP signalling end point
STP signalling transfer point
SEP signalling end point
STP signalling transfer point
SEP signalling end point
STP signalling transfer point
SEP
STP STP
STP STP
SEP
SEP
STP STP
STP STP
SEP
SEP
STP STP
STP STP
SEP
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3.1 MTP level signalling network
Basic structures
The MTP gives you many possibilities to configure the network. It is possible to create
up to eight signalling routes to each destination and these routes can work in load
sharing mode or backup mode. Consider carefully whether it is necessary to use more
than three routes because, in this case, the management of the whole network becomes
very complex. The use of load sharing between signalling routes also needs careful
planning because it affects the adjacent signalling points and their opportunities to
use alternative routing. Typically, load sharing between signalling routes is used in Sig-
nalling End Points (SEP) if it is used in the Signalling Transfer Points (STP). The risk of
message loops increases especially in larger networks if the network topology has not
been planned carefully.
When signalling routes are defined, it must be understood that the whole path across
the network cannot be defined at the originating signalling point. Only the destination
point and the adjacent signalling transfer point are defined. The adjacent STP further
routes the messages according to its own routing rules. The message originator cannot
determine it. For example, in Figure The example network (STP = Signalling Transfer
Point, SEP = Signalling End Point), when the signalling routes from SP A to SP D are
defined, SP A does not know how SP B is routing the messages originated from A
further to D: either directly to D or through some STP X.
Figure 12 The example network (STP = Signalling Transfer Point, SEP = Signalling
End Point)
MTP load sharing
Load sharing between signalling routes is defined when the signalling route set is
created, and it can be modified afterwards with the NRB command. Route priority is
important in load sharing (priority varies from 0 to 7; 7 is the highest priority). The route
with the highest priority carries the traffic. If there are two or more routes with the same
SEP
A
STP
C
SEP
D
STP
B
STP
X
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priority, they work with load sharing if it is allowed. If load sharing is denied, each priority
must be defined only for one route, because if the same priority is defined for several
routes, it is not possible to know, which route becomes active (the route that becomes
available first enters state AV-EX and the others enter state AV-SP). Within a link set,
signalling traffic is always shared across all the available signalling links, so the priority
of the signalling link has no effect there (according to Signalling Link Selection Field
(SLS) values).
As a general rule, the highest priority is assigned to the direct route (the route using the
link set which connects the originating signalling point to the destination signalling point)
and the second highest priority is assigned to the route which is selected to be the
primary alternative if the direct route fails, and so on. If there is no direct route (only
routes through the STP), it is useful to choose the priorities so that the signalling rela-
tions in both directions use the same path (Example Scenario for message loop). Oth-
erwise, you can end up with one-direction-signalling (Example Scenario for one
directional signalling) which can cause more disturbance than no signalling at all.
Example: Scenario for message loop
Figure 13 Example of a message loop
Configuration in the example network:
Route set from A to D: direct route with priority 7 and indirect route through STP B
with priority 7.
Route set from B to D: direct route with priority 7 and indirect route through STP C
with priority 7, load sharing allowed.
Route set from C to D: direct route with priority 7 and indirect route through STP A
with priority 7, load sharing allowed.
Problem:
In a configuration, when a message comes to any of the STP points (A, B, C), the result
is a message loop C A B C .... for certain parts of the traffic (messages with certain
SLS codes).
STP
C
SEP
D
STP
B
STP
A
loop
prior.=7
prior.=7
prior.=7
prior.=7
prior.=7
prior.=7
STP
C
SEP
D
STP
B
STP
A
1) 2)
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Example: Scenario for one directional signalling
Figure 14 Example network of the scenario for one directional signalling
Configuration in the example network:
Route set from A to D: direct route with priority 7 and indirect route through STP B
with priority 6.
Route set from D to A: direct route with priority 7 and indirect route through STP C
with priority 6.
Problem:
If link set A-D fails, the SP A routes messages destined to D through B and the SP D
routes messages destined to A through C. If link set C-D fails (or alternatively, SP C
sends a transfer prohibited (TFP) message to SP D concerning SP A), link set A still
routes messages destined to D through B, but D can no longer reach A.
STP
C
SEP
D
STP
B
STP
A
STP
C
SEP
D
STP
B
STP
A
1) 2)
prior.=7
prior.=7
prior.=6
prior.=6
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Example: Possible negative consequences of using load sharing between routes
Figure 15 Example network of the possible negative consequences of using load
sharing between routes
Configuration in the example network:
Route set from A to D: direct route with priority 7 and indirect route through STP B
also with priority 7, load sharing mode allowed in the route set.
Route set from D to A: direct route with priority 7 and indirect route through STP B
with priority 7, load sharing mode allowed in the route set.
Problem:
This kind of configuration (stage 1) causes a short unnecessary break in the signalling
traffic from B to D.
If link set B-D fails, STP B sends a TFP message (concerning D, stage 2) to STP A. After
a forced rerouting (stage 3), SEP A sends a TFA message (concerning D, stage 4) to
STP B, and then STP B can access SEP D.
MTP level STP traffic restrictions
With the MTP level STP traffic restrictions, you can define how unauthorised STP
messages are identified and how they are treated. Messages are either transferred
further or destroyed. It is also possible to define if an alarm indication is set.
Administrators can make bilateral agreements on how to operate SS7 signalling
between their networks. These agreements can replace restrictions on the SS7
messages authorised for one administrator to send to the other. Restrictions can be
made, for example, because of network security or as a result of service restrictions.
Unauthorised signalling traffic can be, for example, STP traffic for calls set up through
networks other than the one containing the STP, which has not been agreed bilaterally.
An administrator making an agreement on restrictions can wish to identify and provide
special treatment to unauthorised SS7 messages.
SEP
D
STP
B
STP
A
1)
prior.=7
prior.=7
prior.=7
prior.=7
SEP
D
STP
B
STP
A
2)
SEP
D
STP
B
STP
A
3)
TFA
(conc. D)
SEP
D
STP
B
STP
A
4)
TFP
(conc. D)
FR
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Allocation of signalling point codes
Usually, the national telecommunications authorities allocate a certain range of signal-
ling point codes for each of you, and you can use those point codes within your own
networks as you wish. It is also possible to use some other network indicators apart from
the PSTN network within your own network and it enables to have more network
elements connected (for example, in the GSM network BSCs are working in the NA1
network, while the signalling point codes of the NA0 network are allocated only for MSCs
and HLRs).
You have to take the national instructions into account when allocating the signalling
point codes in your signalling network.
Signalling parameters and parameter sets
There can be some network elements in the network which work according to some
older specifications or which have some restrictions on their functions (for example, it is
forbidden to send a Traffic Restart Allowed (TRA) message to an adjacent network ele-
ment), and these cases must be examined before the network is configured. In a Nokia
network element, it is possible to define parameters which are related to signalling
network, signalling route sets, or signalling links. With proper settings, a Nokia network
element is compatible with most network elements.
With the signalling parameters, it is possible to control and modify certain functions of
the signalling network. The signalling parameters are divided into six different levels,
depending on which part of the signalling system they affect.
For some levels, it is possible to define a number of special parameter sets. The param-
eter sets can be connected so that different parts of the signalling system use different
parameter sets, that is, it is possible to use different kinds of signalling in different direc-
tions.
For example, there can be two different signalling link parameter sets defined, one con-
nected to the signalling links leading to network element X and another connected to the
signalling links leading to network element Y. In this case, signalling functions are differ-
ent towards network element X, than towards network element Y.
In the Nokia system, there are some parameter sets predefined for different SS7 signal-
ling standards (for example, ITU-T, ANSI, JAPAN). It is recommended to use these
parameter sets or at least to start with them. If there is a need to change them, it is rea-
sonable to create a new one on the basis of the predefined one.
Additional signalling point codes
Usually, the national telecommunications authorities allocate a certain range of signal-
ling point codes for each of you and you can use those point codes within your own
network. Though you have to take into account the national restrictions when allocating
the signalling point codes in your networks, it is possible to use some unused network
indicators within your own networks. But even when this is not possible, there are
usually free signalling point codes available to bring additional value to you. Nokia
Siemens Networks has implemented the Additional Own Signalling Point Codes func-
tionality designed to increase the signalling capacity between two (or more) network ele-
ments.
The Additional Own Signalling Point Codes functionality is implemented on the MTP
level. Since the functionality has not been implemented on the SCCP level, it offers only
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limited value to applications using SCCP addresses in DPC format. But since very few
applications are tied to using SCCP addresses in DPC format, the majority of SCCP
users can benefit from the feature when routing their messages based on Global Title
(as subsystem states, and so on, maintained by SCCP management have no effect).
The fact that each additional own signalling point code occupies one out of the 1000
DPCs supported is also a real limitation to very few applications (if any).
The MTP level supports four different types of additional own signalling point codes:
Reception Additional Point Code
User Part Additional Point Code
Interworking Function Additional Point Code
Private View Additional Point Code
In the receiving direction, all the additional own signalling point code definitions above
make the MTP recognise the concerned signalling point code as an address of the own
network element. In the outgoing direction, each DPC can be connected to one addi-
tional own signalling point code, other than Reception Additional Point Code. Such def-
initions guide the MTP to replace the originating point codes of User Part messages sent
towards the DPCs with the additional own signalling point codes.
There are also other types of signalling point codes which make the MTP alter the OPC
field of signalling messages and which are connected to additional own signalling point
codes:
Test Routing Signalling Point Code
Management Cluster Signalling Point Code
Inverted View Signalling Point Code
They have been designed to bring additional functionality to the operator networks, but
not necessarily to increase signalling capacity between two (or more) network elements.
Additional own signalling point code operation
The four types of additional own signalling point codes that the Nokia Siemens Networks
system supports have been designed to bring additional value as follows:
User Part Additional Point Code makes it possible to create more than 4096 speech
channels between two network elements.
Interworking Function Additional Point Code makes it possible to create two (or
more) signalling link sets between two network elements if the capacity of the 16 sig-
nalling links is not enough.
Private View Additional Point Code makes it possible to create more than 4096
speech channels and more than 16 signalling links between two network elements
even if the partner NE offers nothing special to help in these respects.
Reception Additional Point Code makes it possible to have the MTP share the load
of signalling destined to the STP pair both (or all) of whose members deliver the
messages to the appropriate User Parts for further actions (such as GT analyses).
Inverted view signalling point code operation
For example, in the SRRi the user part keeps contacting the register which processes
its database query and updates messages. If this register has an HLR as a backup NE,
both members of the mated pair HLR have this processing capability but only one of
them is active at a time. The active register which receives the User Part database
update messages keeps its database up-to-date and transfers the updates to the redun-
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dant register through the NEMU functionality. The redundant register becomes active
only when the connection between its pair and the SRRi is lost.
The mated pair HLR can recover from failure and can change the direction of register
updates automatically. In order to support this, the MTP does not need to provide only
the Reception type additional point code functionality, but also the Inverted View signal-
ling route sets. In a redundant HLR, the MTP notices from received signalling that the
connection between the active HLR and the SRRi is lost and indicates this to the signal-
ling route states in the Inverted View signalling route set. The NEMU functionality keeps
inquiring the states of objects related to the Inverted View signalling route set from the
MTP functionality, so it can make the previously redundant register active and can
change the direction of register updates soon after the failure.
Management cluster operation
The signalling management cluster is an entity which consists of Signalling Gateway
and Application Node but is visible to other network elements only with the Application
Node signalling point identity. The MTP level 2 connections and other MTP functional-
ities of a signalling management cluster are in the Signalling Gateway, while the User
Part functionality of the cluster is in the Application Node. When the MTP of the Signal-
ling Gateway receives a User Part message destined to the management cluster, it
forwards the message to the Application Node.
The signalling management cluster is recommended when a signalling point becomes
an Application Node as it is connected to a Signalling Gateway and, therefore, stripped
of its MTP level 2 connections to other network elements. Then, other network elements
need no configuration changes as they see nothing from the management cluster but
the same old signalling point code. One practical example of transition from signalling
points to signalling management clusters is the migration from Mobile Switching
Services Centres to MSC Servers and Multimedia Gateways.
Loop signalling route concept
A network element can simulate several network elements by using Test Routing sig-
nalling route sets. A Test Routing signalling route set consists of a direct route through
a link set the messages of which are looped either physically or by a software. If the loop
is physical, the route set is called L-LOOP and the signalling links in the direct route have
to be in active state, whereas loop by software (T-LOOP) does not require concerned
links to be in service. In a Test Routing route set like this, the signalling messages are
transferred from one signalling unit to another along a message bus. You can select any
free address from the signalling destination point range used by the signalling network
and define it as the loop route point address. The number of loop signalling route sets
is not restricted.
The loopback feature used by the TUP/ISUP needs two loop signalling route sets in call
setup. The initial messages of a call are sent to the first loop signalling route set and the
same message returns to the home network element with the point code of the other
loop signalling route set as its originating point code. This gives the user an impression
that the own point starts a call to the first point and the second point starts a call to the
own point.
The loopback feature is activated and the type of the loop is chosen when the signalling
route set is created with the commands of the NR Command Group.
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Signalling cluster concept and partial routing
In the ANSI signalling network, several nodes of the same signalling network can be
gathered from a cluster in MTP-level routing when the point codes of the nodes share
the same initial part. The whole cluster is referred to with a point code, in which, after
the same initial part, the rest consists only of zeros. The length of the common initial part
can be 8 or 16 bits. The length of the signalling point code is 24 bits.
The ANSI signalling network can use a destination point that belongs to a cluster, so that
the common routing regulations are determined for the members of the cluster. An STP
network element of the MTP level can route forward a signalling message even if it does
not identify the destination of the message, provided that the route to the cluster that
includes the destination point has been given to the network element.
In the Nokia system, the cluster is divided into three parts. The clusters are categorised
according to the restrictions based on their locations:
cluster E (end-point view of remote cluster) Cluster E is a collection of routes without
priorities, on the basis of which the CCDESM transforms the received
network management messages addressed to the whole cluster into
messages addressed to the individual members of this cluster. Cluster
E can only be accessed through STPs and the full point identifier of the
members of the cluster must be known. The own point handles a cluster
of type E without notifying its adjacent points of the changes in states
concerning cluster E or the availability of the cluster. The adjacent
points are notified of changes in the states and the availability of the
individual members of the cluster. Clusters of type E can be created in
the Signalling End Points (SEP) and in the Signalling Transfer Points
(STP). The signalling route set to cluster E is created by creating a route
through the actual own point of an STP pair to its alias point. Messages
cannot be sent to the members of cluster E by means of partial routing.
cluster C (cluster of another STP) When partial routing is used, a signalling route set
of cluster C must be created. In this case, there is no need to know the
full signalling point code of an individual signalling point of a cluster, and
messages can be sent to this signalling point, provided that cluster C is
available. It is not allowed to determine any full signalling point codes of
a signalling point that is a member of cluster C. Changes in states of
cluster C that are determined in an STP are notified in the TCP and TCA
messages.
cluster B (broadcast address of local cluster) Cluster B means that an own signalling
point functions as one part of an STP pair and with its pair, recognises
all the members of the cluster. A member of an STP pair notifies the
availability of the cluster with TCP and TCA messages when the last
member of the cluster becomes unavailable or when the first member
of the cluster becomes available. If either member of the STP pair
notices that it can no longer access any member of cluster B, it sends
the adjacent points a TCP message concerning the cluster. This means
that cluster B is not available for its adjacent points, even if the members
of cluster B were available through another STP pair. A TCA message
is sent when the STP pair that has sent the TCP message has accessed
the first member of the cluster. However, the TCA message is sent even
if one half of the pair has not accessed any of the members of the same
cluster.
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g The Nokia system does not support clusters of type B.
The signalling clusters are not shown to the user part, which is not notified of the
changes in the states of clusters, either.
In the ANSI signalling network, the message routing software investigates first all the 24
bits in the initial part of the point code of the destination address. If the address is
unknown, they investigate only the first 16 bits and, finally, only the first 8 bits. This kind
of routing is called partial routing. If partial routing results in an address that does not
belong to any of the signalling cluster types, the address of that message is regarded as
faulty.
Use of the link set of another network
If there is a need to use more than one network indicator (for example, NA0 and NA1),
and the signalling traffic in the other one is very low, it is possible to use the signalling
link set of another network. This means that there is physically only one link set between
two network elements but there are two route sets using that link set.
g Using the feature is possible only between two Nokia network elements.
Large capacity links (optional feature)
The large capacity SS7 link feature (optional) provides more signalling capacity than
conventional 64 kbit/s SS7 links. A large capacity link provides capacities from 64 kbit/s
up to 1984 kbit/s.
When there is a need for a large amount of signalling capacity between two network ele-
ments, it is difficult to manage it with the conventional 64 kbit/s signalling links. Only 16
signalling links can be created into a signalling link set. And only one link set per signal-
ling network is allowed between two network elements. With this feature, it is possible
to create less signalling links which have larger capacity. It provides an easier way to
handle large amounts of signalling capacity. For example, one 512 kbit/s link can
replace eight conventional 64 kbit/s links.
A large capacity SS7 link uses more than one time slot, as in the conventional 64 kbit/s
signalling link. The support for large capacity signalling links is implemented into AS7-
V, AS7-VA, AS7-A, and AS7-C types of signalling link terminals.
The functionality of the large capacity SS7 signalling link is the same as in the conven-
tional 64 kbit/s links, but the capacity is larger. A large capacity signalling link is not com-
patible with 64 kbit/s links, that is, both ends of a signalling link have to support large
capacity signalling links. Signalling links with different capacities cannot be created into
the same signalling link set or signalling route set.
g Using the feature is possible only between two Nokia network elements.
3.2 SCCP level signalling network
When you are planning the SCCP network, remember that the SCCP network is config-
ured on the MTP network, and that there must be a route set on the MTP level to all Sig-
nalling Points (SP) known by the SCCP.
The SCCP has to be configured locally in the network elements which have mobile appli-
cations, IN applications, or which perform SCCP global title translations. The SCCP has
to be configured also for those of the remote network elements to which SCCP
messages are sent. The SCCP does not need to be configured in MTP level STP
network elements if the SCCP messages are only sent through them and not to them.
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Applications that use SCCP services are defined as subsystems which are identified
by a Subsystem Number (SSN). The subsystems can be SCCP management (SCMG),
MSC MAP, VLR MAP, HLR MAP, INAP, OMAP, and possibly some network-specific
subsystems, like Base Station System Application Part (BSSAP).
The SCMG is located in all signalling points that are known by the SCCP. The MSC
MAP, VLR MAP, and BSSAP are located in MSC/VLRs and the HLR MAP can be found
in HLRs. The INAP is located in IN SSPs and SCPs, but also in MSCs.
How the subsystems are defined in the SCCP network depends on what kind of
addresses are used in signalling message transfer.
SCCP addressing (GT or SPC/SSN)
There are two different types of addresses which are used for routing in the SCCP.
Routing can be based on the Signalling Point Code (SPC) and Subsystem Number
(SSN) addresses, which means that the SCCP has to know all the signalling points and
subsystems to which it can send messages because SCCP routing checks the status of
the called SPC and SSN before sending a message to the MTP. Routing can also be
based on the Global Title (GT). In this case, the SCCP needs to know much less about
the network because it only checks the status of the signalling point to which a message
is sent for the next Global Title Translation (GTT).
All local subsystems have to be defined for the SCCP because the SCCP checks their
status before it passes incoming messages to them. The SCCP and SCMG subsystems
have to be defined in remote nodes if any SCCP messages are sent to the SCCP. The
subsystems to which the messages are sent with the SPC and SSN addresses also
have to be defined in the remote nodes. This is the case with the A interface. In the MSC,
all the BSSAPs in the BSCs have to be defined, and in the BSCs, the BSSAP of the MSC
has to be defined. Elsewhere in a GSM network, it is always possible to use the GT for
addressing. When roaming to or from another operator's network, the GT has to be
used, but inside one operator's networks it is also possible to use the SPC and SSN.
For example, in Figure Two network elements with different SCCP subsystems, in
network element A, the MAP application of B must be defined. In network element B, the
MAP application of A must be defined. The INAP application of network element A does
not necessarily need to be defined in network element B because there is no need for
changing messages.
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Figure 16 Two network elements with different SCCP subsystems
The GTs that have to be defined in a GSM network depend on the roaming agreements
you make. How and where the translations have to be defined depends on the structure
of the network.
For example, it is possible to have one or two gateway STPs that handle all the outgoing
and incoming signalling traffic. In that case, all the GTs of outgoing messages are trans-
lated so that the messages are sent to those STPs for further translation. In the STPs,
the outgoing GTs can be translated to international gateways or to other operator's
gateway STPs.
Figure 17 Example of SS7 SCCP routing and global title analysis in the case of
location update (LOC.UPD.)
This is what happens in each network element.
MSC1 Local BSC indicates a location update of a Mobile Station (MS). The
MSC/VLR sends a location update message to the HLR. This message
is sent as a UDT message and the GT of the called party address of the
message is derived from the IMSI number of the MS. The country code
MTP
SCCP
MTP
SCCP
Network element A Network element B
RANAP RNSAP RNSAP
PSTN2
IN0
SP=1102H
NA0
SP=102H
PSTN1
NA0
SP=101H
MSC1/
VLR
NA0
SP=301H
PSTNX
IN0
SP=1X
NA0
SP=X
HLRZ
NA0
SP=Z
IN0
MSCY
NA0
SP=Y
DPC=102/NA0
route=GT
DPC=1X/IN0
route=GT
DPC=Y/NA0
route=GT
DPC=Z/NA0
route=GT
DPC=301/NA0
route=GT
DPC=1102/IN0
route=GT
DPC=X/NA0
route=GT
DPC=Y/NA0
route=GT
ATM Module
IN0
NA0
NA0
RNC
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part of the GT is translated in the MSC1 to find out the MTP address of
the international gateway node and the message is sent to it.
PSTN1 PSTN1 transfers the messages through the MTP to PSTN2.
PSTN2 A UDT message is received from a national network. After a GT trans-
lation where only the header information and country code of the called
GT is translated, the message is passed to the international gateway of
the destination network.
PSTNX PSTNX receives a UDT message from an international network and
after the GT translation of the header information, country code, and
operator code, it passes the message to the gateway MSC of the des-
tination operator in the national network.
MSCY MSCY gets messages and makes a GT translation to find out the des-
tination node of the message in your network.
HLRZ HLRZ makes the last GT translation (if it has not been done in the
MSCY) to find out if the message is coming to it. The SCCP passes the
UDT message to the local subsystem.
Figure 18 The points where the global tile translation is made (GTT 15)

Figure 19 The parts of the global title used in different global title translations
With an IN application, the first message is most often received from the local subsystem
with an address including the GT. The rest of the signalling can use SPC and SSN
addressing. If SPC and SSN addressing are used, the IN SSP has to know all the SCPs
that it can use and the other way around, and the GT used by the IN subsystem is imme-
diately translated to the SPC and SSN of the SCP subsystem. If the STP is used
CC country code
NDC national destination code
MSIN mobile subscriber identification number
VLRMAP
TC
SCCP
MTP MTP
SCCP
MTP
SCCP
MTP
SCCP
MTP
HLRMAP
TC
SCCP
MTP
GTT2
GTT1
GTT3 GTT4
MSC1 PSTN1 PSTN2 PSTNX MSCY HLRZ
GTT5
GTT1 CC NDC MSIN
GTT2 CC NDC MSIN
GTT3 CC NDC MSIN
GTT4 CC NDC MSIN
GTT5 CC NDC MSIN
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between the SSP and SCP, the GTT can lead to the STP and, if GTs are used for
addressing throughout the signalling, the SSP does not need to know about the SCP
and the other way around.
SCCP routing based on Calling Party global title
This is an optional feature.
SCCP can base routing on calling global title (GT). There is an attribute in the called GT
result named ACGT (Analyse Calling GT). If the analysis of the called GT in the signal-
ling message leads to a called GT result where the attribute is on, the calling GT analysis
is made.
If the calling GT analysis leads to a calling GT result where the destination is available,
the signalling message is routed to that destination. If the destination in the calling GT
result is not available, or there is no analysis defined for the calling GT in the signalling
message, the destination in the called GT result is used.
The calling GT analyses are stored in a different table than the called GT analyses.
The following two use cases describe the feature:
Figure 20 Use Case 1
The SCCP level STP and the GW1, GW2, and GW3 are all SCCP level STP points. The
routing based on SCCP CgPA functionality is implemented in the network element
named SCCP level STP in the figure. The operator can use that network element as a
common SCCP level STP point, and can route messages with some called GTs in a dif-
ferent way based on where the message comes from. Therefore, in Figure Use Case 1,
the message arrives to an SCCP level STP with certain GT in an SCCP called party
address. With this same called GT, the message has to be routed to:
GW1 if the calling GT is the GT of Src NE1
GW2 if the calling GT is the GT of Src NE2
GW3 if the calling GT is the GT of Src NE3
SCCP CdPA = Destination NE
SCCP CgPA = Src NE3
MTP DPC = SCCP level STP
Destination
NE
SCCP level STP
GW2
GW2
GW3
Src NE3
SCCP CdPA = Destination NE
SCCP CgPA = Src NE1
MTP DPC = SCCP level STP
GW2
Src NE2
GW1
Src NE1
SCCP level STP
SCCP CdPA = Destination NE
SCCP CgPA = Src NE2
MTP DPC = SCCP level STP
Destination
NE
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Figure 21 Use Case 2
It is important for an operator to protect the network against spam SMSS. All SMSS orig-
inated from a secure source, for example, from the operator's own network have to be
routed normally (see DEST in Figure Use Case 2). Other SMSS have to be routed to a
control center. The SMS is routed in a different way based on where it comes from. The
called GT analysis result holds the SPC of the control center. The calling GT analysis is
created for the trusted originators so that they lead to the normal destination (see DEST
in Figure Use case 2). If there is no analysis for the calling GT (possible spam), the SPC
in the called GT analysis result is used.
SCCP services
The SCCP has two different message handling services. The connectionless service
is used for database inquires, for broadcast-like services, as well as for the passing of
SCCP management messages. The connection-oriented service is currently used
only between the MSC and the BSC for call signalling.
Needed SCCP subsystems
In a local node, all the subsystems that are used have to be defined in the SCCP, which
means that there always has to be an SCMG. The MSC needs the MSC MAP, VLR
MAP, and BSSAP and in some cases also the INAP. In the HLR, there has to be an HLR
MAP and possibly an Equipment Identity Register (EIR) MAP, and an AC. In the BSC,
there is a BSSAP. In the IN, the SSPs, and the SCPs, there are INAPs.
In remote nodes, there always have to be an SCMG and those subsystems to which
messages are sent with SPC and SSN addressing. In the MSC, all the BSSAPs in the
BSCs have to be defined, and in all the BSCs, the BSSAP of the MSC has to be defined.
Otherwise, the definition depends on how addressing is used.
Global titles of SCCP
In the GSM network, the GTs used for roaming are derived from the IMSI numbers of
mobile subscribers by replacing the E.212 number Mobile Country Code (MCC) and
Mobile Network Code (MNC) with the E.164 number country code and network code, so
that the result is an E.214 number.
The depth of translation must not be more than what is needed to distinguish the SP to
which the message is sent.
Distribution of status data (broadcast)
There are two types of broadcast: 'to network' and 'local' broadcast.
To network:
Control
center
NE1
DEST NE2
STP
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There is no absolute need for the definition of a broadcast to network because the
response method is always active and all the necessary status data are delivered to the
network. Normally, this only takes a little time. The broadcast can be set, for example,
to inform some SCCP-level STPs about the status of the subsystems to which the STP
sends messages with the SPC and SSN address.
Local:
Currently, the only subsystem that needs local broadcast is the BSSAP. In the MSC, the
local BSSAP has to know the status data of the BSSAPs located in the BSCs, and in the
BSC, the local BSSAP has to know the BSSAP in the MSC.
SCCP level STP traffic restrictions
With the SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions feature, it is possible to set restrictions
concerning SCCP level STP signalling traffic.
The system supports the following types of SCCP level STP traffic restrictions, that is,
SCCP screening:
SCCP signalling point-based screening
GT screening
calling GT checking and screening
These types restrict the traffic of all subsystems. You cannot use them to restrict the
traffic of a given subsystem. The signalling point screening and the GT screening can
be switched off separately from each other. Both can be off or on, either one can be off
while the other is on.
The calling GT checks are always done independently from the signalling point and GT
screening status.
In the case of SCCP signalling point-based screening, there are two methods to define
SCCP level screening:
OPC/DPC method, where the screening method is set for messages coming from a
certain signalling network and Originating Point Code (OPC) addressed to a certain
signalling network and Destination Point Code (DPC).
Linkset/DPC method, where the screening method is set for messages coming from
a certain signalling link set and addressed to a certain signalling network and DPC.
In the case of SCCP signalling point-based screening, it is also possible to copy the
existing MTP policing (STP access) to correspond to the SCCP level. However, it is not
possible to copy an unauthorised type of MTP policing to correspond to the SCCP level.
In the case of GT screening, the calling GT is analysed and the screening method can
be defined between the calling GT result and the called GT result. If some GT modifica-
tion is defined in the GTT result, for example, adding or deleting digits of called or calling
GT, the modification is done after the GT screening.
For SCCP signalling point-specific screening and GT screening, the screening method
can be set so that the message is simply deleted. In addition, an alarm can be set for
the deleted message or the alarm can be set without deleting the message. An alarm is
set only once, even if the alarm can be set more than once for the message. The priority
order for setting the alarm is the following:
1. Linkset/DPC
2. OPC/DPC
3. GT screening
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The order is then decided by the traceability, the incoming link set is the strictest way to
trace the message.
The available alarms are alarm 1029 SCCP STP MESSAGE PREVENTION for signal-
ling point screening and alarm 1293 SCCP GT SCREENING APPLIED for GT.
The message is deleted if any of the three screening methods indicate it. For example,
if the Linkset/DPC screening method indicates that only the alarm should be set and the
GT screening method indicates that the message must be deleted, the alarm is gener-
ated according to the Linkset/DPC method and later on deleted according to the GT
screening method.
In the case of Calling GT checking, there are two methods to define SCCP level screen-
ing:
Restrictions according to the calling Global Title Indicator (GTI): it is possible to
define a set of allowed GTI values which are transmitted.
Restrictions according to the calling GT translator selector values (calling GT root).
It is possible to set the screening so that messages with known GT translator
selector values are transmitted. This analysis is based on the existing called GT
analysis.
If any of the above two Calling GT checking methods show that the message must be
deleted, alarm 1029 SCCP STP MESSAGE PREVENTION is set for the message.
The SCCP level STP messages that are screened cause the registration of statistical
information in the network element. There are no screening-specific statistical counters,
so all the information is seen as 'unqualified' counters. You can see these routing failure
events with the OTR command. This concerns SCCP signalling point based screening
and calling GT checking, but not GT screening.
For more information, see Section Setting and modifying SCCP level signalling traffic
restrictions.
SCCP support for Feature 1679: Handling of forward-SMs in SRRi
This is an optional feature.
The feature includes short message rerouting and rejection, that means, screening func-
tionalities for SMs. The main functionality is at the application level. SCCP and TC layers
provide support so that certain messages can be delivered to an application that makes
decision whether:
the messages is sent as such
or
the message is sent to a new destination
or
the message is rejected
The trigger for inspecting the message at the application layer can be both in the called
GT analysis result and in the calling GT analysis result. Both the called GT analysis
result and the calling GT analysis result hold an attribute TCC (TC Checking) for that
purpose.
SCCP backups
On the SCCP level, backups (replicas) can be those of either signalling points or sub-
systems. Signalling point backups are, in practice, GTT backups. This means that
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messages are normally sent to one primary STP for GTT, but in the case of a failure,
another STP capable of the same GTT can be used.
Currently, the only relevant backups for subsystems can be databases (that is, IN
SCPs). Backups can be defined for SPs, subsystems, and also for GTT results.
Only one backup is active, so when a GTT result has a backup, other possible backups
are not used.
SCCP load sharing
On the SCCP level, it is possible to define load sharing for up to 16 destinations. Each
load sharing destination has destination priority. Priority value 1 presents the highest pri-
ority, priority value 2 presents the lower priority. By priority value, the primary-backup
concept can be incorporated into the GT load sharing. It means that the traffic is shared
between the primary destinations, that is, priority value 1 destinations, as long as there
is at least one primary destination available. If there is no primary destination available,
the traffic is shared between the backup destinations, that is, destinations with priority
value 2. Fallback to the primary destinations is done when at least one primary destina-
tion becomes available.
SCCP routing selects the destination based on different methods for protocol class 0
messages and protocol class 1 messages. The selection is made among the available
destinations with the highest priority; if there is not a highest priority destination avail-
able, the selection is done among the lower priority destinations that are available.
For protocol class 0 messages, SCCP routing selects the destinations according to the
order in the result. SCCP routing keeps track of which the next destination to be selected
is. If there are, for example, four available priority value 1 destinations (that is, highest
priority destination) in the result, they are selected in 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, order and so on.
For protocol class 1 messages, SCCP routing selects the destination according to the
SLS value in the incoming message. The incoming SLS is not used directly, but an
internal SLS value is calculated based on the incoming SLS and the OPC. The selection
of the destination index is done by mapping the internal SLS value to a destination index.
Mapping is based on the SLS value range division into as many parts as many destina-
tions are in a result. The destination count is the amount of available highest priority des-
tinations in the result; if none, the available lower priority destinations are used in load
sharing.
If there are two destinations in the GT result, and load sharing is not used, the secondary
result is used as a normal backup destination of the primary result.
Load sharing is taken into use when creating or modifying GTT results with the NAC or
NAM command.
In addition, on the SCCP level, MTP load sharing can be used when messages are sent
to the STPs for GTT. This can be done so that in the STP nodes a common MTP alias
point code is defined for them, and in the sending node, a route set using the two STPs
with load sharing, is defined for the alias point. SCCP is also defined for that alias point
in the sending node and GTT is defined so that it leads to the alias point. In this case,
messages are sent to these two STPs through load sharing.
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Creating MTP configuration
4 Creating MTP configuration
In most cases, the MTP needs to be configured in the network element. Before config-
uring the MTP, the signalling network has to be planned with great care.
Before you start
Check if the network element has all the necessary equipment and software.
If you are sure that all equipment and software needed for signalling already exists on
the network element, you can continue with Create SS7 services.
Steps
1 Check if a signalling unit has been created in the network element (WTI)
Depending on the type of your network element, the CCSU, BSU or BCSU can act as
the signalling unit. Notice that the network element can have several signalling units
created for different purposes. For example, the mobile switching centre (usually) has
both a CCSU and a BSU.
Use the following command to display all the existing CCSUs of the network element:
ZWTI:U:CCSU;
2 Check if the signalling unit has signalling link terminals (AS7) and if there are free
signalling links (WTI, NCI)
Since a signalling link terminal can hold sixty-four (AS7C), sixteen (AS7V and AS7
A), four (AS7-U), or one (AS7-S) signalling links, you have to check the existing signal-
ling link terminals and the existing signalling links to find out if there is a need to add any
signalling link terminals.
Use the following command to display the CCSUs and their signalling link terminals.
ZWTI:P:CCSU;
Use the following command to display the existing signalling links.
ZNCI;
If the network element does not have enough free signalling link terminals, you have to
create some.
3 Add signalling link terminals if needed
A signalling link terminal needs to be added when you want to increase the signalling
capacity but the existing signalling link terminals cannot hold any more signalling links.
g When adding signalling link terminals to a signalling unit, remember to check if the
back-up units have an equally large link capacity, so that the signalling capacity of
the network element will not decrease when the unit is changed. The link capacities
of the different types of signalling units (CCSU, BSU) do not need to be equal, since
they cannot back up each other.
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Steps
a Check the strappings on the signalling link terminal, and place the plug-in unit
in its slot
More information on strappings can be found in the instructions for strappings.
Notice that slot number 6 is the first one in which the AS7 unit can be installed. You
can check if the strappings have been set successfully by giving the WTI command.
b Create the plug-in unit of the signalling link terminal in the signalling unit
(WTP)
Example:
Use the following command example to create a 4-channel signalling link terminal
in CCSU 0, whose internal PCM is 30 and its time slots are 0-3. (You can check the
number of the PCM from the corresponding Site documents.)
ZWTP:CCSU,0:AS7_U,1,6::CCS7,4,30,TSL,0&&3:;
c Connect the signalling link terminal to the signalling unit (WUC)
Example:
Use the following command to connect plug-in unit AS7-U (number 1) to signalling
unit CCSU-0:
ZWUC:CCSU,0:AS7_U,1:;
After all terminals have been equipped, you can create signalling channels for them.
4 Create SS7 services
The signalling messages coming into the network element can be transmitted to the
network element's own user parts, or they can be switched forwards, or both. Depending
on the services configured in the network element, some of the signalling messages are
unnecessary. Data on service information determines how the signalling messages
coming into the network element are received and switched.
Steps
a Check if all necessary services exist (NPI)
Check if all needed services exist in the network element by using the NPI
command. The services SNM and SNT usually exist automatically in the network
element.
!
When you handle the plug-in units, remember to protect them from static electricity and
wear a resistive wrist wrap or a similar purpose grounding device. The components of
the plug-in units or other units may be damaged by electrostatic discharge. Avoid
touching the contacts and connector surfaces.
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Further information
If all necessary services exist, you can continue with Create own MTP signalling
point.
b Create the necessary services (NPC)
Use the parameters <service existing for STP messages> and <service existing for
user part of own signalling point> to choose whether the service is active for the STP
messages and/or for the user parts of the own signalling point.
Check the process family identifiers from the Site Specific Documents as there can
be some exceptions to the values given in the following example commands.
ZNPC:<signalling network>,00,SNM:Y:Y,07F,06D;
ZNPC:<signalling network>,01,SNT:Y:Y,07F,;
ZNPC:<signalling network>,03,SCCP:Y:Y,208,10F;
5 Create own MTP signalling point (NRP)
The own signalling point has to be defined before we can create the other objects of the
signalling network. Use the NRP command to create the own MTP signalling point. A
network element can be connected to several signalling networks. The NRI command
displays all the existing signalling points.
There are special network-specific parameters related to the signalling networks, and
you can output them using the NMO command. These parameters define, for example,
the congestion method used in the signalling network. For more information about the
network-specific parameters, refer to SS7 signalling network parameters.
g The same NRP command is used to create a new signalling network.
Name of the
service (recom-
mendation)
Service Value for
parameter
<service indica-
tor index>
SNM SIGNALLING NETWORK MANAGEMENT MESSAGES 00H
SNT SIGNALLING NETWORK TESTING AND MAINTE-
NANCE MESSAGES
01H
SNTA ANSI - SIGNALLING NETWORK TESTING AND MAIN-
TENANCE MESSAGES
02H
SCCP SIGNALLING CONNECTION CONTROL PART 03H
TUP TELEPHONE USER PART 04H
ISUP ISDN USER PART 05H
DUP0 DATA USER PART (CALL AND CIRCUIT RELATED
MESSAGES)
06H
DUP1 DATA USER PART (FACILITY REGISTRATION AND
CANCELLATION MSGS)
07H
BICC BEARER INDEPENDENT CALL CONTROL 0DH
Table 1 The services, their recommended names and parameter values given in the NPC command
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ZNRP:<signalling network>,<signalling point code>,<signalling
point name>,STP:<ss7 standard>:<number of spc subfields>:<spc
subfield lengths>;
6 Create TDM signalling links and link set
The parameter set related to the signalling link can be used to handle several of the sig-
nalling link timers and functions. If the ready-made parameter packages do not cover all
the occurring situations, you can create more parameter sets, modify the relevant
parameters, and then attach the new parameter set to the signalling link. Check if there
are such special situations before you start configuring the MTP. For more information,
see Signalling link parameters. Here are two examples of special situations that require
modifications in the parameter set:
One of the signalling links works through satellite, and the level 2 error correction
method has to be preventive_cyclic_retransmission instead of the usual
basic_method.
National SS7 specification defines some of the timer values, so they are different
from the ones set by the general recommendations.
Steps
a Create signalling links (NCC)
Create the needed signalling links.
ZNCC:<signalling link number>:<external PCM-TSL>,<link bit
rate>:<unit type>,<unit number>:<parameter set number>;
Remember to check by using the WTI command if the network element is ade-
quately equipped before you start creating signalling links.
It is advisable to create the signalling links belonging to the same signalling link set
in different signalling units if it is possible. Thus a changeover of the signalling unit
does not cause the whole signalling link set to become unreachable.
g The signalling link code (SLC) and the time slot (TSL) have to be defined in such
a way that they are the same at both ends of the signalling link.
You can number the signalling links within the network element as you wish. The
default value for the number is always the next free number.
To interrogate existing signalling links, use the NCI or NEL command.
b Create SS7 signalling link set (NSC)
Create a signalling link set for each destination.
A signalling link set consists of one or several links. The signalling links belonging to
the signalling link set cannot be activated until the signalling link set is connected to
a signalling route set.
You can reserve several links for a link set with the NSC command. You can later
add links to a signalling link set with the NSA command.
ZNSC:<signalling network>,<signalling point code>,<signalling
link set name>:<signalling link number>,<signalling link
code>;
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The parameters signalling network and signalling point code define
the network element where the signalling link set leads to.
To interrogate the existing signalling link sets, use the NSI or NES command.
OR
7 Create IP signalling configuration
For more information, see Section Creating IP signalling configuration.
8 Create signalling route set (NRC)
When a signalling route set is created, a parameter set is attached to it. The parameter
set can be used to handle several MTP3 level functions and related matters such as the
A interface used between the , MSC, and the BSC. If the predefined parameter sets do
not cover all the occurring situations, you can create more parameter sets, modify the
relevant parameters, and then attach the new parameter set to the signalling route set.
See Section Signalling route set parameters.
Create a signalling route set for each destination.
You can create all signalling routes that belong to the same route set at the same time
with the same command. Later you can add some more signalling routes to a route set
with the NRA command.
ZNRC:<signalling network>,<signalling point code>,<signalling
point name>,<parameter set number>,<load sharing
status>,<restriction status>:<signalling transfer point
code>,<signalling transfer point name>,<signalling route
priority>;
The parameters signalling transfer point code and signalling transfer
point name are used when the created signalling route is indirect, that is, the route
goes through a signalling transfer point (STP).
g Notice that a signalling point cannot be used as an STP unless it is first equipped
with a direct signalling route.
To add signalling routes to an existing signalling route set, use the NRA command.
4.1 Activating MTP configuration
Steps
1 Allow activation of the signalling links (NLA)
Use the following command to allow the activation of previously created signalling links:
ZNLA:<signalling link numbers>;
2 Activate the signalling links (NLC)
Use the following command to activate the previously created signalling links:
ZNLC:<signalling link numbers>,ACT;
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The signalling links assume either state AV-EX (active) or UA-INS if the activation has
not succeeded. Activation can fail because links at the remote end are inactive or the
transmission link is not working properly.
To interrogate the states of signalling links, use the NLI or NEL commands.
3 Allow activation of the signalling routes (NVA)
Use the following command to allow the activation of previously created signalling
routes:
ZNVA:<signalling network>,<signalling point code>:<signalling
transfer point network>,<signalling transfer point code>;
4 Activate signalling routes (NVC)
The following command activates the previously created signalling routes:
ZNVC:<signalling network>,<signalling point code>:<signalling
transfer point network>,<signalling transfer point code>:ACT;
To interrogate the states of signalling routes, use the NVI, NER or NRI command.
When you are dealing with a direct signalling route, the signalling route set assumes
state AV-EX if the related link set is active; otherwise it assumes state UA-INS. A sig-
nalling route going through an STP can also assume state UA-INR if the STP has sent
a Transfer Prohibited (TFP) message concerning the destination point of the route set.
For more information, see Section States of signalling routes.
Example:
In this example, you change the state of a signalling route which is leading to signalling
point 302. The route is defined in signalling point 301, which is located in the national
signalling network NA0.
First, change the signalling route state to ACTIVATION ALLOWED, and then you can
take the signalling route into service.
ZNVA:NA0,302:;
The execution printout is as follows:
ALLOWING ACTIVATION OF SIGNALLING ROUTE
DESTINATION: SP ROUTES: SP
NET SP CODE H/D NAME NET SP CODE H/D NAME
--- ------------------ ----- --- ------------------ -----
NA0 0302/00770 MSC2 NA0 0302/00770 MSC2 ACTIVATION ALLOWED
COMMAND EXECUTED
After this, use the NVC command to activate the route:
ZNVC:NA0,302::ACT;
The execution printout is as follows:
CHANGING SIGNALLING ROUTE STATE
DESTINATION: SP ROUTES: SP OLD NEW
NET SP CODE H/D NAME NET SP CODE H/D NAME STATE STATE PRIO
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--- ------------------ ----- --- ------------------ ----- ------- ------- ----
NA0 0302/00770 MSC2 NA0 0302/00770 MSC2 UA-INU AV-EX 2
SIGNALLING ROUTE ACTIVATING FAILED
COMMAND EXECUTED
4.2 Setting MTP level signalling traffic load sharing
With MTP level signalling traffic load sharing you can share the signalling traffic between
signalling routes and between signalling links belonging to the same link set.
Within a signalling link set, load sharing is implemented in such a way that it automati-
cally covers all the links that are in active state.
Load sharing between signalling routes takes effect only after you have allowed load
sharing by defining the same priority for all signalling routes and by allowing load sharing
in that route set.
Before you start
Before setting load sharing, plan carefully which kind of load sharing is suitable in the
signalling network. For more information, see Section MTP level signalling network.
Steps
1 Check signalling route priorities and load sharing status (NRI)
ZNRI:<signalling network>,<signalling point code>;
2 Check MTP load sharing data (NEO)
Check which signalling links transmit each of the Signalling Link Selection Field (SLS)
values. You can use this command to separately interrogate the load sharing data con-
cerning either the messages generated by the own signalling point or STP signalling
traffic (for example, for STP traffic according to the ANSI standards, the load sharing
system is different).
ZNEO;
3 Modify signalling route priority, if needed (NRE)
The priority can vary between 0 and 7, the primary priority being 7.
ZNRE:<signalling network>,<signalling point code>:<signalling
transfer point network>,<signalling transfer point code>,<new
signalling route priority>;
4 Allow load sharing in the signalling route set, if needed (NRB)
If you want to activate load sharing and in the signalling route set in question it is not
already allowed (output of the NRI command), you have to change the load sharing
status.
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ZNRB:<signalling network>,<signalling point codes>:LOAD=<load
sharing status>;
4.3 Creating large capacity signalling link (optional feature)
Before you start
Before you can create a large capacity link, you must consider and plan it carefully. For
more information, see Section MTP level signalling network.
The large capacity signalling link feature is supported only with the AS7-V, AS7VA,
AS7-A and AS7C signalling terminal types.
All signalling units have to have a similar signalling terminal configuration. When the
switchover of the signalling unit having large capacity signalling links is performed,
there has to be a signalling terminal supporting large capacity signalling link in the
spare unit.
Both ends of the signalling link have to support the large capacity signalling link. The
time slots of the external PCM for the large capacity signalling link have to be in a
consecutive order.
Steps
1 Check the signalling terminals (WTI)
Check by using the WTI command if there are either AS7X, AS7V or AS7VA (in DMC
bus based DX 200), or AS7A and AS7C (in PCI bus based DX 200) signalling termi-
nals in the signalling unit.
If there is no signalling link terminal configured in the network element, configure AS7
X, AS7V, AS7VA, AS7A or AS7C in all signalling units depending on the CPU type
of the unit (AS7X, AS7V or AS7VA for DMC bus based and AS7A and AS7C for
PCI bus based DX 200 network elements). If there are, for example, CCSU and BSU
types of signalling units in the same network element, only the used type of signalling
unit needs to have AS7V, AS7VA, AS7A or AS7C.
2 Check the PCM-TSL capacity
Check the status of the time slots of the external PCM which are intended to give infor-
mation to the new large capacity signalling link and if those time slots are free and in a
consecutive order.
g Both ends of the signalling link have to have the same time slots for the signalling
link.
If there are no free time slots or they are not in a consecutive order, select other time
slots or change the configuration in such a way that required time slots can be used with
the signalling link.
3 Create large capacity signalling link (NCC)
Choose the right capacity for the link with the link bit rate parameter of the NCC
command.
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Create all large capacity signalling links in the same signalling unit at the same time to
avoid unnecessary unit restarts.
4 To implement this step, choose one of the following alternatives:
a Create new signalling link set (NSC)
Use the NSC command to create a new signalling link set.
b Add the signalling link to an existing signalling link set (NSA)
Use the NSA command to add the previously created signalling link to an existing
signalling link set.
5 Initialise the signalling terminal, if needed (NCI)
Check the status of the previously created signalling link.
Check if there is the following info text in the output of the NCI command:
SIGNALLING UNIT SWITCHOVER IS REQUIRED BEFORE LINK CAN BE ACTIVATED
Steps
a Make a controlled switchover to the spare unit (USC)
If the signalling unit has a spare unit, make a controlled switchover to the unit, that
is, change the state of the current signalling unit from WO-EX to SP-EX with the USC
command.
ZUSC:CCSU,1:SP;
OR
b Restart the unit (USU)
If the signalling unit does not have a spare unit, restart the unit with the USU
command. Note that during the restart the signalling links connected to the signalling
unit are cut.
ZUSU:CCSU,1;
6 Create a new signalling route set, if needed (NRC)
If the created signalling link leads to a signalling point where a signalling route set
already exists, there is no need to create a new signalling route set. If there is no signal-
ling route set in the signalling point, create it with the NRC command.
7 Allow activation of the large capacity signalling link (NLA)
ZNLA:14;
8 Activate the large capacity signalling link (NLC)
ZNLC:14,ACT;
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5 Creating SCCP configuration
The SCCP is needed in a network element if the element:
is used for switching GSM calls,
is used for switching IN services, or
acts as SCCP-level Signalling Transfer Point (STP).
Before you start
Check if the whole network has been carefully planned, all necessary hardware has
been installed in the network element, and the Message Transfer Part (MTP) has
already been configured.
Do the following things:
Check if the signalling points have been created on the MTP (NRI command) and
the services are available for the SCCP (NPI command).
Check which parameter set is used, and whether there is a need to modify the
values of the existing parameter sets to meet the present conditions and require-
ments (OCI command).
Check which subsystems are used.
Check the data in the subsystem parameter sets (OCJ command) and the possible
modifications in them (OCN command).
Check if the SCCP service has been created on the MTP level.
Before you can create the SCCP in the network element, the SCCP service has to
be created. To check if the service has been created, use the NPI command. If there
is no SCCP service created on the MTP level, create it with the NPC command (for
more information, see Section Creating MTP configuration).
g The SCCP management subsystem (SCMG) is automatically created when you
create an SCCP for a signalling point.
g The subsystems which use the Transaction Capabilities are configured in a similar
way, and no further configuration is needed (as the TC is automatically used for
suitable subsystems).
Steps
1 Create own SCCP signalling point and subsystems (NFD).
Before you start creating the signalling point or its subsystems, check what is the Sig-
nalling Point Code (SPC) of the system's own signalling point by using the NRI
command.
NFD:<signalling network>,<signalling point code>,<signalling
point parameter set>:<subsystem number>,<subsystem
name>,<subsystem parameter set number>,<subsystem status test>;
g The value YES for the <subsystem status test> parameter is valid only when the
parameter WHITE_BOOK_MGMT_USED (12) of the used SCCP signalling point
parameter set has the value YES (check this with the OCI command).
When an SCCP signalling point and SCCP subsystems are created, a parameter set is
attached to them. In most cases predefined parameter sets are the most suitable, but if
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the predefined parameter sets do not cover all the occurring situations, you can create
more parameter sets, modify the relevant parameters, and then attach the new param-
eter set to the SCCP signalling point and SCCP subsystem. For more information, see
Sections SCCP signalling point parameters and SCCP subsystem parameters.
2 Create remote SCCP signalling points and subsystems (NFD).
In addition to creating the own SCCP signalling point and its subsystems, you also need
to define the other SCCP signalling points and the subsystems of the other SCCP sig-
nalling points of the network, which are involved in SCCP level traffic.
ZNFD:<signalling network>, <signalling point code>, <signalling
point parameter set>: <subsystem number>, <subsystem name>,
<subsystem parameter set number>,Y;
You can later add more subsystems to a signalling point by using the NFB command.
The system may need new subsystems, for example, when new services are installed,
software is upgraded, or the network expanded.
When you are adding subsystems, you need to know which parameter set you want the
subsystems to use or which one has to be used.
You can display the existing parameter sets by using the OCJ command. When you want
to modify the parameters, use the OCN command, and to create a new parameter set,
use the OCA command.
3 Create translation results (NAC).
The translation result refers to those routes where messages can be transmitted. All the
signalling points that are meant to handle SCCP level traffic must be defined at a signal-
ling point.
At this stage you have to decide whether the routing is based on the global title (GT) or
on the subsystem number.
ZNAC:NET=<primary network>,DPC=<primary destination point
code>,RI=<primary routing indicator>;
If you want to have a back-up system for routes or the network, you can create alterna-
tive routes that can be taken into service if the primary route fails. Also it is possible to
use load sharing for up to 16 destinations by giving the value YES for the parameter
<load sharing>.
4 Create global title analysis if necessary (NBC).
Before creating the global title analysis, check the number of the translation result so
that you can attach the analysis to a certain result. Use the NAI command.
ZNBC:ITU=<itu-t global title indicator>,LAST=<last global title
to be analysed>:TT=<translation type>,NP=<numbering
plan>,NAI=<nature of address indicator>:<digits>:<result record
index>;
5 Set broadcast status if needed (OBC, OBM)
There are two different kind of broadcasts you can set:
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The local broadcast status (OBC command) is used to inform the subsystems of the
own signalling point about changes in the subsystems of the remote signalling
points.
The broadcast status (OBM command) is used to inform other signalling points about
changes in the subsystems of the own signalling point or the subsystems of the sig-
nalling points connected to the own signalling point.
When you set local broadcasts, remember that also the remote network elements have
to be configured in such a way that they send the status data to your network element.
g When setting the broadcasts, consider carefully what broadcasts are needed. Incor-
rect or unneccessary broadcasts can cause problems and/or unnecessary traffic in
the signalling network.
Local broadcasts:
ZOBC:<network of affected subsystem>,<signalling point code of
affected subsystem>,<affected subsystem number>:<network of local
subsystem>,<local subsystem number>:<status>;
Remote broadcasts:
ZOBM:<network of affected subsystem>,<signalling point code of
affected subsystem>,<affected subsystem number>:<network of
concerned signalling point>,<concerned signalling point
code>:<status>;
5.1 Activating SCCP configuration
Steps
1 Activate remote SCCP signalling points (NGC).
ZNGC:<signalling network>, <signalling point codes>:ACT;
You do not have to activate the own SCCP signalling point; only remote SCCP signalling
points have to be activated.
To check if the signalling point is really active, use the NFI command. In the command
printout, the state of signalling point has to be AV-EX. If the signalling point assumes
state UA-INS, there is a fault on the MTP level. You can display the states of SCCP sig-
nalling points also by using the NGI command. Note that if you use the default values in
the command, only the signalling points of network NA0 are shown. For more informa-
tion, see Section States of SCCP signalling points.
Example:
When you examine an example system using the NFI or NGI command, all signalling
points have to be in normal AV-EX state. Note that signalling point 101H cannot be seen
because the SCCP is not defined in it.
For the
ZNGI:NA0,:N;
command, the execution printout can be as follows:
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DX 200 DX200-LAB 1999-10-02 14:37:27
SCCP STATES
DESTINATION: SP ROUTING: SP
NET SP CODE H/D NAME STATE RM NET SP CODE H/D NAME STATE
--- ------------------ ----- ----- -- --- ------------------ ----- -------
NA0 0102/00258 PSTN2 AV - NA0 0102/00258 PSTN2 AV-EX
NA0 0300/00768 HLR AV - NA0 0300/00768 HLR AV-EX
NA0 0301/00769 MSC1 OWN SP
NA0 0302/00770 MSC2 AV - NA0 0302/00770 MSC2 AV-EX
NA0 0311/00785 BSC1 AV - NA0 0311/00785 BSC1 AV-EX
NA0 0312/00786 BSC2 AV - NA0 0312/00786 BSC2 AV-EX
COMMAND EXECUTED
2 Activate local and remote SCCP subsystems (NHC).
ZNHC:<signalling network>, <signalling point codes>:
<subsystem>:ACT;
To display the subsystem states, use the NHI or NFJ command.
When remote subsystems are being activated, their status is not checked from the
remote node. The remote subsystem status becomes AV-EX if the remote node is avail-
able, although the actual subsystem can be unavailable or even missing. The status of
the unavailable subsystem is corrected with the response method as soon as a
message is sent to it.
Use the NHI command to check if the subsystems have assumed state AV-EX. If not,
the reason can be faulty or missing distribution data. Correct the distribution data and
check the state again. Another reason for the subsystems not to be operating is that the
subsystem at the remote end is out of service.
3 Set the SS7 network statistics if needed.
By setting SS7 network statistics you can monitor the performance of the SS7 network.
You do not have to do it in the integration phase: you can do it later.
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6 Optimising MTP configuration
The following sections describe the usage of the parameters of MTP configuration.
6.1 Modifying MTP level 3 signalling parameters
MTP level 3 signalling parameters define the functions of the whole MTP of the network
element. Some of the parameter values are related to monitoring the functions, while
others define various limits and timers.
Modify the values of these parameters when you think that some of the MTP level 3
timers have unsuitable values.
Before you start
As MTP level 3 parameters affect the whole network element's SS7 signalling, make
sure that the change does not cause any malfunctions to the signalling system.
In most cases, the predefined parameters are the most suitable ones.
Steps
1 Check MTP level 3 parameters (NMI)
You can display the used parameter values grouped by parameter sets with the NMI
command.
2 Modify MTP level 3 parameter (NMM)
ZNMM:<parameter group>:<parameter name>=<parameter value>;
6.2 Modifying SS7 signalling network parameters
SS7 signalling network parameters apply to the whole signalling network. This means
that SS7 signalling network parameters can be separately defined for each signalling
network (NA0, NA1, IN0, and IN1).
Before you start
As SS7 signalling network parameters affect the whole signalling network, make sure
that the change does not cause any malfunctions to the signalling system.
In most cases predefined parameters are the most suitable ones.
Steps
1 Check parameter values (NMO)
You can display the used parameters in each signalling network with the NMO command.
2 Modify SS7 signalling network parameters (NMC)
ZNMC:<signalling network>:<parameter group>:<parameter
name>=<parameter value>;
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6.3 Modifying the values of signalling link parameter set
The parameters in the signalling link parameter set define the function of the signalling
link. You can create several signalling link parameter sets for different types of signalling
links. Each signalling link uses the signalling link parameter set attached to it.
Before you start
As the signalling link parameters affect all the signalling links which use that certain sig-
nalling link parameter set, make sure that the change does not cause any malfunctions
to the signalling system.
In most cases predefined parameters are the most suitable ones.
g If you change the values of an existing signalling link parameter set, you have to
deactivate all the signalling links using that particular parameter set. This means that
all signalling traffic in these signalling links stops and all calls using these signalling
links will be cut.
The best way to modify signalling link parameters is to create a new parameter set
and attach it, one by one, to each signalling link. This procedure is useful when a
new network element is taken into use but is not used for actuall call transmission.
Steps
1 Check signalling links and the parameter sets they use (NCI)
As modifying the values of an existing parameter set affects all signalling links using that
signalling link parameter set, check whether this can be done. If you want only a certain
group of signalling links to have different signalling link parameter values, create a new
signalling link parameter set and attach it to those signalling links.
You can output all signalling links and the signalling link parameter sets they are using
with the NCI command.
2 Deactivate signalling links using the parameter set you want to modify (NLC)
The new values of the parameter set become active after the signalling links that use
the parameter set are first deactivated and activated again.
ZNLC:<signalling link numbers>,INA;
3 Modify values of signalling link parameter set (NOM)
ZNOM:<signalling link parameter set number>, <signalling link
parameter set name>, <parameter group>: <parameter number>,
<parameter value>;
4 Activate signalling links using the modified parameter set (NLC)
ZNLC:<signalling link numbers>,ACT;
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6.4 Creating new signalling link parameter set
The parameters in the signalling link parameter set define the function of the signalling
link. You can create several signalling link parameter sets for different types of signalling
links. Each signalling link uses a signalling link parameter set attached to it.
Before you start
As the signalling link parameters affect all signalling links which use that certain signal-
ling link parameter set, make sure that the change does not cause any malfunctions to
the signalling system.
In most cases, predefined parameters are the most suitable ones.
g If you change the values of an existing signalling link parameter set, you have to
deactivate all signalling links using the parameter set. This means that all signalling
traffic in these signalling links stops and all calls using these signalling links will be
cut.
The best way to modify signalling link parameters is to create a new parameter set
and attach it, one by one, to each signalling link. This procedure is useful when a
new network element is taken into use but is not used for actuall call transmission.
Steps
1 Check signalling links and the parameter sets they use (NCI)
You can output all signalling links and the signalling link parameter sets they are using
with the following command.
ZNCI;
2 Copy existing signalling link parameter set with a new name (NOE)
The best way to create a new signalling link parameter set is to copy an old parameter
set with a new name. Choose the best suitable parameter set to be the source param-
eter set.
ZNOE:<source signalling link parameter set number>, <source
signalling link parameter set name>: <signalling link parameter
set number>, <signalling link parameter set name>;
3 Modify values of the new signalling link parameter set (NOM)
ZNOM:<signalling link parameter set number>,<signalling link
parameter set name>,<parameter group>:<parameter
number>,<parameter value>;
4 Deactivate the signalling links that you want to use with the new parameter set
(NLC)
It is reasonable to deactivate only a few of the signalling links at a time if you want sig-
nalling traffic to be transmitted normally during the modification.
ZNLC:<signalling link numbers>,INA;
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5 Change parameter set of signalling link (NCL)
Replace the existing parameter set of the signalling link with the new signalling link
parameter set.
ZNCL:<signalling link number>:<parameter set number>;
6 Activate signalling links using the new parameter set (NLC)
ZNLC:<signalling link numbers>,ACT;
6.5 Modifying the values of signalling route set parameter set
The parameters in the signalling route set parameter set define the signalling route set
signalling functions. You can create several signalling route set parameter sets for dif-
ferent types of signalling route sets. Each signalling route set uses a signalling route set
parameter set attached to it.
Before you start
As the signalling route set parameters affect all signalling route sets which use the same
signalling route set parameter set, make sure that the change does not cause any mal-
functions to the signalling system.
In most cases, the predefined parameters are the most suitable ones.
Steps
1 Check signalling route sets and the parameter sets they use (NRI)
As modifying the values of an existing parameter set affects all the signalling route sets
using that signalling route set parameter set, consider if this can be done. If you want
only certain signalling route sets to have different values in the signalling route set
parameters, create a new signalling route set parameter set and attach it to those sig-
nalling route sets.
You can output all signalling route sets and the signalling route set parameter sets they
are using with the following command.
ZNRI;
If you only want to modify the values of a certain signalling route set parameter set,
continue to the next step, but if you want to create a new signalling route set parameter
set, continue with Step Creating new signalling route set parameter set.
2 Modify values of signalling route set parameter set (NNM)
ZNNM:<signalling route set parameter set number>,<signalling
route set parameter set name>,<parameter group>:<parameter
number>=<parameter value>;
3 Deactivate signalling route sets using the modified parameter set (NVC)
The new values of the parameter set do not become active until the signalling route set
that uses the parameter set is first deactivated and activated again.
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ZNVC:<signalling network>,<signalling point code>:<signalling
transfer point network>,<signalling transfer point code>:INA;
4 Activate signalling route sets using the modified parameter set (NVC)
ZNVC:<signalling network>,<signalling point code>:<signalling
transfer point network>,<signalling transfer point code>:ACT;
6.6 Creating new signalling route set parameter set
The parameters in the signalling route set parameter set define the signalling route set
signalling functions. You can create several signalling route set parameter sets for dif-
ferent types of signalling route sets. Each signalling route set uses a signalling route set
parameter set attached to it.
Before you start
As the signalling route set parameters affect all the signalling route sets which use the
same signalling route set parameter set, make sure that the change does not cause any
malfunctions to the signalling system.
In most cases, the predefined parameters are the most suitable ones.
Steps
1 Check signalling route sets and the parameter sets they use (NRI)
As modifying the values of an existing parameter set affects all the signalling route sets
using that signalling route set parameter set, consider if this can be done. If you want
only certain signalling route sets to have different values in the signalling route set
parameters, create a new signalling route set parameter set and attach it to those sig-
nalling route sets.
You can output all the signalling route sets and the signalling route set parameter sets
they are using with the following command:
ZNRI;
If you just want to modify the values of a certain signalling route set parameter set,
continue with Step Modifying the values of signalling route set parameter set, but if you
want to create a new signalling route set parameter set, continue with the next step.
2 Copy existing signalling route set parameter set with a new name (NNE)
The best way to create a new signalling route set parameter set is to copy an old param-
eter set with a new name. Choose the best suitable parameter set to be the source
parameter set.
ZNNE:<source signalling route set parameter set number>,<source
signalling route set parameter set name>:<signalling route set
parameter set number>,<signalling route set parameter set name>;
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3 Modify values of the new signalling route set parameter set (NNM)
ZNNM:<signalling route set parameter set number>,<signalling
route set parameter set name>,<parameter group>:<parameter
number>=<parameter value>;
4 Change the parameter set of signalling route set (NRB)
Replace the existing parameter set of the signalling route set with the new signalling
route set parameter set.
ZNRB:<signalling network>,<signalling point
codes>:PARA=<parameter set number>;
Further information
Example: Creating new signalling route set parameter set
With the following example, you can create a new signalling route set parameter set with
the name MIKA (number 7) by copying the existing parameter set number 0 (ITU-T). We
change the value of the parameter D2 (TFC_DENIED) to YES. Then we change the sig-
nalling route sets in signalling network NA0 leading to signalling point 300 to use this
parameter set.
1. Check the signalling route sets and the parameter sets they use.
ZNRI;
2. Copy one of the existing signalling route set parameter sets with a new name.
ZNNE:0,:7,MIKA;
3. Modify the values of the new signalling route set parameter set.
ZNNM:7,D:D2=YES;
4. Change the parameter set of the signalling route set.
ZNRB:NA0,300:PARA=7;
6.7 Setting and modifying MTP level signalling traffic restric-
tions
You do not have to define the policing at the same time when configuring the signalling
network. You can do it later when you see how the network is working.
Plan the needed traffic restrictions carefully. For more information, see Section MTP
level signalling network.
Before setting any traffic restrictions, it is necessary to plan carefully what kind of signal-
ling traffic you want to allow and deny. Remember the following issues:
When signalling traffic is denied on the MTP level, the SCCP level signalling is also
denied.
If STP messages coming from a certain node are denied (not transferred), it is
possible that the node in question is not able to send any messages to any direction
(for example, when links to some other direction are down).
It is also possible to set the reports from STP traffic to check if traffic restrictions are
necessary.
You cannot remove a signalling route set which is included in the traffic restrictions.
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To a direction where the Abis interface is used (that is, between BSC and BTS
network elements), there is no need to define any traffic restrictions (you can check
this with the NRI command).
When you want to change the existing traffic restrictions, it might be necessary to
remove some traffic restrictions. Before you can remove an MTP signalling point, you
have to clear all the traffic restrictions that are set to the MTP signalling point.
Steps
1 Check existing signalling traffic restriction data (NRT)
When you are going to modify signalling traffic restrictions, it is reasonable to first check
the existing restrictions, just to ensure that you are removing the appropriate restrictions,
and consider what effects the removing of those restrictions has on your network.
ZNRT:<signalling network>;
2 Modify signalling traffic restriction data (NRS)
ZNRS:<policing method>:<signalling
network>,<originating/adjacent point codes>,<destination point
codes>:<STP message treatment>;
3 Check signalling traffic restriction data (NRT)
ZNRT;
6.8 Modifying MTP level signalling traffic load sharing
With MTP level signalling traffic load sharing, you can share the signalling traffic
between signalling routes and between signalling links belonging to the same link set.
Within a signalling link set, load sharing is implemented in such a way that it automati-
cally covers all the links that are in active state. The priority of a signalling link does not
affect the load sharing system.
Load sharing between signalling routes takes effect only after you have allowed load
sharing by defining the same priority for all signalling routes and by allowing load sharing
in that route set.
Steps
1 Check signalling route priorities and load sharing status (NRI)
ZNRI:<signalling network>, <signalling point code>;
2 Check MTP load sharing data (NEO)
Check which signalling links transmit each of the Signalling Link Selection Field (SLS)
values. You can use this command to separately interrogate the load sharing data con-
cerning either the messages generated by the own signalling point or STP signalling
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traffic (for example, for STP traffic according to the ANSI standards, the load sharing
system is different).
ZNEO:[<signalling network>|<NAO>def], [<destination
codes>|<ALL>], [<originator point code>|<originator is own
point>def]: [(LINK=[<SLS range>|<S>def])|(SLS=[SLS
output>|<ALL>def])def];
3 Modify signalling route priority if needed (NRE)
The priority can vary between 0 and 7, the primary priority being 7.
ZNRE:<signalling network>, <signalling point code>: <signalling
transfer point network>, <signalling transfer point code>, <new
signalling route priority>;
4 Allow load sharing in the signalling route set if needed (NRB)
If you want to activate the load sharing and in the signalling route set in question it is not
already allowed (output of the NRI command), you have to change the load sharing
status.
ZNRB:<signalling network>, <signalling point codes>: LOAD=<load
sharing status>;
6.9 Using the signalling link set of another signalling network
If there is a need to use more than one network indicator (for example, NA0, NA1, and
IN0), it is possible to use the signalling link set of any other network.
This means that any signalling network can use the signalling link sets of any other sig-
nalling network. In other words, there is a link set between two network elements but
there are two or more route sets using the same link set (see the following example).
g This feature is possible only between two DX 200 network elements.
This kind of arrangement is reasonable to use, for example, for backup connections or
when traffic between two network elements in a certain signalling network is low.
Steps
1 Create own signalling point to the signalling network which is using the signalling
link set of another signalling network (NRP)
ZNRP:<signalling network>, <signalling point code>, <signalling
point name>, <own signalling point handling>: <ss7 standard>:
<number of spc subfields>: <spc subfield lengths>;
2 Create signalling route set to the signalling network which is using the signalling
link set defined to the another signalling network (NRC)
ZNRC:<signalling network>, <signalling point code>, <signalling
point name>, <parameter set number>, <load sharing status>,
<restriction status>: <signalling transfer point network>,
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<signalling transfer point code>, <signalling transfer point
name>, <signalling route priority>;
3 Create route set to the destination point like normal STP route (NRC)
ZNRC:<signalling network>, <signalling point code>, <signalling
point name>, <parameter set number>, <load sharing status>,
<restriction status>: <signalling transfer point network>,
<signalling transfer point code>, <signalling transfer point
name>, <signalling route priority>;
Further information
Example: Using link set of another signalling network
This simple example presents how and when it is useful to use a link set of another
network.

Figure 22 Example network where one network element belongs to two signalling
networks (NA0 and NA1)
The example network consists of the following network elements:
signalling point A, the SPC of which in NA0 is 123 and in NA1 is 1123
signalling point B, the SPC of which in NA0 is 234 and in NA1 is 1234
signalling point C, the SPC of which in NA1 is 1456.
In the example, network element C operates only in network NA1. Network elements A
and B are mainly working in network NA0, though they have some traffic in network NA1.
Signalling traffic from A to C is so low that it is not economical to configure a link and link
set also to network NA1 between A and B. In this case, it is possible to use the link set
defined for NA0 between A and B for NA1 network traffic as follows:
Create an own point to the NA1 signalling network in SP A:
ZNRP:NA1,1123,S1123,STP:ITU-T:1:;
Create a route set in the NA1 network to SP B. This uses the link set defined for NA0:
ZNRC:NA1,1234,S1234,0,D,N:NA0,234,SP234,7;
Create a route set to SP C as a normal STP route:
ZNRC:NA1,1456,S1456,0,D,N:NA1,1234,S1234,7;
SP signalling point
NA0:
SP=234
NA1:
SP=1234
NA0:
SP=123
SP A
NA1:
SP=1456
SP B SP C
NA1:
SP=1123
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6.10 Removing MTP signalling point
This procedure describes how to remove an MTP signalling point.You can follow these
steps also when you only want to remove certain signalling links, signalling routes, or
signalling route sets.
Steps
1 Deactivate the signalling route (NVC)
ZNVC:NA0,312::INA;
2 Deny the activation of the signalling route (NVD)
ZNVD:NA0,312;
3 Deactivate the signalling links (NLC)
ZNLC:12&13,INA;
4 Deny the activation of signalling links (NLD)
ZNLD:12&13;
5 Make sure that there is no policing (NRT)
Make sure with the NRT command that there is no policing defined to the signalling point
which you are removing.
6 Remove the policing if needed (NRS)
You can remove the policing with the NRS command.
ZNRS:A:312,:A;
ZNRS:O:312,:A;
7 Delete signalling route set (NRD)
ZNRD:NA0,312,BSC2;
8 Delete TDM signalling links
Steps
a Delete signalling links from the link set (NSR)
Delete the signalling links from the link set with the NSR command. The last link
cannot be deleted this way.
b Delete the last link by deleting the link set (NSD)
Delete the last link from the link set by deleting the link set with the NSD command.
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c Delete signalling links (NCD)
ZNCD:12;
OR
9 Delete IP signalling links (optional feature)
Steps
a Delete the signalling link set (NSD)
Delete the signalling link set with the NSD command.
b Remove the unused association set (OYD)
OYD:<association set name>;
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7 Optimising SCCP configuration
The following sections describe the usage of the parameters of SCCP configuration.
7.1 Modifying SCCP signalling point parameter set
This procedure describes how to create a new SCCP signalling point parameter set or
how to modify the SCCP signalling point parameters in an existing SCCP signalling point
parameter set.
The parameters in the SCCP signalling point parameter set define the SCCP signalling
functions of the own SCCP signalling point and the SCCP signalling functions towards
remote SCCP signalling points. You can create several SCCP signalling point parame-
ter sets for different types of signalling needs.
Before you start
Before changing the values of an existing SCCP signalling point parameter set, make
sure that the change does not cause any malfunctions to the signalling system.
In most cases, predefined parameters are the most suitable ones.
Steps
1 Check SCCP signalling points and the parameter sets they use (NFI)
As modifying the values of an existing SCCP signalling point parameter set affects all
the SCCP signalling points using that parameter set, consider whether this can be done.
If you want only a certain group of SCCP signalling points to have different values for
the SCCP signalling point parameters, create a new SCCP signalling point parameter
set and attach it to those SCCP signalling points.
You can output all known SCCP signalling points and the SCCP signalling point param-
eter sets they are using with the following command.
ZNFI:;
If you want to create a new SCCP signalling point parameter set, see Section Creating
new SCCP signalling point parameter set.
2 Modify values of SCCP signalling point parameter set (OCM)
ZOCM:<signalling point parameter set number>,<signalling point
parameter set name>:<parameter number>,<parameter value>;
7.2 Creating new SCCP signalling point parameter set
This procedure describes how to create a new SCCP signalling point parameter set or
how to modify the SCCP signalling point parameters in an existing SCCP signalling point
parameter set.
The parameters in the SCCP signalling point parameter set define the SCCP signalling
functions of the own SCCP signalling point and the SCCP signalling functions towards
remote SCCP signalling points. You can create several SCCP signalling point parame-
ter sets for different types of signalling needs.
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Before you start
Before changing the values of an existing SCCP signalling point parameter set, make
sure that the change does not cause any malfunctions to the signalling system.
In most cases, predefined parameters are the most suitable ones.
Steps
1 Check SCCP signalling points and the parameter sets they use (NFI)
As the modifying the values of an existing SCCP signalling point parameter set affects
all the SCCP signalling points using that parameter set, consider whether this can be
done. If you want only a certain group of SCCP signalling points to have different values
for the SCCP signalling point parameters, create a new SCCP signalling point parame-
ter set and attach it to those SCCP signalling points.
You can output all known SCCP signalling points and the SCCP signalling point param-
eter sets they are using with the following command.
ZNFI;
If you only want to modify the values of a certain SCCP signalling point parameter set,
see Section Modifying SCCP signalling point parameter set.
2 Copy existing SCCP signalling point parameter set with a new name (OCE)
The best way to create a new SCCP signalling point parameter set is to copy an old
parameter set with a new name. Choose the best suitable parameter set to be the
source parameter set.
ZOCE:<source signalling point parameter set number>,<source
signalling point parameter set name>:<signalling point parameter
set number>,<signalling point parameter set name>;
3 Modify values of the new SCCP signalling point parameter set (OCM)
ZOCM:<signalling point parameter set number>,<signalling point
parameter set name>:<parameter number>,<parameter value>;
4 Inactivate the SCCP signalling point you want to use the new parameter set (NGC)
ZNGC:<signalling network>,<signalling point codes>:INA;
5 Change parameter set of SCCP signalling point (NFL)
Replace the existing parameter set of the SCCP signalling point link with the new SCCP
signalling point parameter set.
ZNFL:<signalling network>,<signalling point codes>:<signalling
point parameter set number>;
6 Activate the SCCP signalling point you want to use the new parameter set in
(NGC)
ZNGC:<signalling network>,<signalling point codes>:ACT;
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Further information
Example: Creating new SCCP signalling point parameter set
With the following example, you can create a new SCCP signalling point parameter set
with the name MIKA (number 4) by copying the existing parameter set number 2
(WHITE). First, change the value of parameter 3 (timer Q714_T_IAR) to 300 s. Then,
change the own SCCP signalling point to use this parameter set towards signalling point
300 in signalling network NA0.
Creating new SCCP signalling point parameter set
1. Check SCCP signalling points and the parameter sets they use.
ZNFI;
2. Copy an existing SCCP signalling point parameter set with a new name.
ZOCE:2,:4,MIKA;
3. Modify the values of the new SCCP signalling point parameter set.
ZOCM:4,:3,300;
4. Inactivate the SCCP signalling point you want to use the new parameter set in.
ZNGC:NA0,300:INA;
5. Change the parameter set of the SCCP signalling point.
ZNFL:NA0,300:4;
6. Activate the SCCP signalling point you want to use the new parameter set in.
ZNGC:NA0,300:ACT;
7.3 Defining SCCP signalling point and/or subsystem to own
signalling point
This procedure describes how to add a local or remote SCCP signalling point and/or
local or remote SCCP subsystems to the own signalling point.
Before you start
Before you can carry out this procedure, you have to know the signalling point code of
the local or remote signalling point and the name of the local or remote subsystem to be
added.
Note that the signalling point has to be defined on the MTP level, before it can be added
to the SCCP configuration.
Steps
1 Check existing SCCP signalling points and subsystems (NFI and NFJ)
To output the defined SCCP signalling point, use the following command:
ZNFI:;
To output the defined SCCP subsystems, use the following command:
ZNFJ:;
2 Define SCCP signalling point and needed subsystems if needed (NFD)
If the SCCP signalling point is already defined in the own signalling point and you only
want to add new subsystems, continue with the next step.
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With the following command, you can define the new SCCP signalling point and up to 5
subsystems in it.
ZNFD:<signalling network>,<signalling point code>,<signalling
point parameter set number>:<subsystem number>,<subsystem
name>,<subsystem parameter set number>,Y;
3 Add local or remote subsystems to own signalling point (NFB)
ZNFB:<signalling network>,<signalling point codes>:<subsystem
number>,<subsystem name>,<subsystem parameter set number>,Y;
4 Activate defined SCCP signalling point if needed (NGC)
When you have defined a new SCCP signalling point you have to activate it before you
can activate the new SCCP subsystems.
ZNGC:<signalling network>,<signalling point codes>:ACT;
5 Activate defined SCCP subsystems (NHC)
ZNHC:<signalling network>,<signalling point codes>:<subsystem>:
ACT;
7.4 Removing SCCP signalling point and/or subsystem from
own signalling point
Before you start
Before you can carry out this procedure, you have to know the signalling point code of
the local or remote signalling point and the name of the local or remote subsystem to be
removed.
Steps
1 Check existing SCCP signalling points and subsystems (NFI and NFJ)
To output the defined SCCP signalling point, use the following command:
ZNFI:;
To output the defined SCCP subsystems, use the following command:
ZNFJ:;
2 Deactivate the SCCP subsystems that you want to remove (NHC)
ZNHC:<signalling network>,<signalling point codes>:<subsystem>:
INA;
3 Remove local or remote subsystems from the own signalling point (NFT)
ZNFT:<signalling network>,<signalling point codes>:<subsystem
number>;
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4 Deactivate the SCCP signalling point that you want to remove if needed (NGC)
You have to deactivate all subsystems before you can deactivate the SCCP signalling
point.
ZNGC:<signalling network>, <signalling point codes>: INA;
5 Remove the local or remote SCCP signalling point from the own signalling point
if needed (NFR)
ZNFR:<signalling network>,<signalling point codes>;
7.5 Modifying the values of SCCP subsystem parameter set
This procedure describes how to create a new SCCP subsystem parameter set or how
to modify the SCCP subsystem parameters in an existing SCCP subsystem parameter
set.
The parameters in an SCCP subsystem parameter set define the SCCP subsystem sig-
nalling functions of the own SCCP subsystems and/or the SCCP subsystem signalling
functions towards remote SCCP subsystems. You can create several SCCP subsystem
parameter sets for different types of signalling needs.
Before you start
Before changing the values of an existing SCCP subsystem parameter set, make sure
that the change does not cause any malfunctions to the signalling system.
In most cases, predefined parameters are the most suitable ones.
Steps
1 Check SCCP subsystems and the parameter sets they use (NFJ)
As modifying the values of an existing SCCP subsystem parameter set affects all the
SCCP subsystems using that parameter set, consider if this can be done. If you want
only a certain group of SCCP subsystems to have different values in the SCCP subsys-
tem parameters, create a new SCCP subsystem parameter set and attach it to those
SCCP subsystems.
You can output all known SCCP subsystems and the SCCP subsystem parameter sets
they are using with the following command.
ZNFJ;
If you want to create a new SCCP subsystem parameter set, see Section Creating new
SCCP subsystem parameter set.
2 Modify values of SCCP subsystem parameter set (OCN)
ZOCN:<subsystem parameter set number>,<subsystem parameter set
name>:<parameter number>,<parameter value>;
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7.6 Creating new SCCP subsystem parameter set
This procedure describes how to create a new SCCP subsystem parameter set or how
to modify the SCCP subsystem parameters in an existing SCCP subsystem parameter
set.
The parameters in an SCCP subsystem parameter set define the SCCP subsystem sig-
nalling functions of the own SCCP subsystems and/or the SCCP subsystem signalling
functions towards remote SCCP subsystems. You can create several SCCP subsystem
parameter sets for different types of signalling needs.
Before you start
Before changing the values of an existing SCCP subsystem parameter set, make sure
that the change does not cause any malfunctions to the signalling system.
In most cases, predefined parameters are the most suitable ones.
Steps
1 Check SCCP subsystems and the parameter sets they use (NFJ)
As modifying the values of an existing SCCP subsystem parameter set affects all the
SCCP subsystems using that parameter set, consider if this can be done. If you want
only a certain group of SCCP subsystems to have different values in the SCCP subsys-
tem parameters, create a new SCCP subsystem parameter set and attach it to those
SCCP subsystems.
You can output all known SCCP subsystems and the SCCP subsystem parameter sets
they are using with the following command.
ZNFJ;
If you only want to modify the values of a certain SCCP subsystem parameter set, see
Section Modifying the values of SCCP subsystem parameter set.
2 Copy existing SCCP subsystem parameter set with a new name (OCF)
The best way to create a new SCCP subsystem parameter set is to copy an old param-
eter set with a new name. Choose the best suitable parameter set to be the source
parameter set.
ZOCF:<source subsystem parameter set number>,<source subsystem
parameter set name>:<subsystem parameter set number>,<subsystem
parameter set name>;
3 Modify values of the new SCCP subsystem parameter set (OCN)
ZOCN:<subsystem parameter set number>, <subsystem parameter set
name>:<parameter number>,<parameter value>;
4 Inactivate the SCCP subsystem in which you want to use the created parameter
set (NHC)
ZNHC:<signalling network>,<signalling point
codes>:<subsystem>:INA;
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5 Change the parameter set of the SCCP subsystem (NFM)
Replace the existing parameter set of the SCCP subsystems with the new SCCP sub-
system parameter set.
ZNFM:<signalling network>,<signalling point code>:<subsystem
numbers>:<subsystem parameter set number>;
6 Activate the SCCP subsystem in which you want to use the created parameter set
(NHC)
ZNHC:<signalling network>,<signalling point
codes>:<subsystem>:ACT;
Further information
Example: Creating new SCCP subsystem parameter set
With the following example you can create a new SCCP subsystem parameter set with
the name MIKA (number 4) by copying the existing parameter set number 0 (GENER).
First, change the value of parameter 2 (timer Q714_T_IGN_SST) to be 70 s. Then,
change the own SCCP signalling point to use this parameter set towards subsystem
number 06 (MAPH) located signalling point 300 in signalling network NA0.
Creating new SCCP subsystem parameter set
1. Check the SCCP subsystems and the parameter sets they use.
ZNFJ;
2. Copy an existing SCCP subsystem parameter set with a new name.
ZOCF:0,:4,MIKA;
3. Modify the values of the new SCCP subsystem parameter set.
ZOCN:4,:,70;
4. Inactivate the SCCP subsystem you want to use the created parameter set in.
ZNHC:NA0,300:06:INA;
5. Change the parameter set of the SCCP subsystem.
ZNFM:NA0,300:06:4;
6. Activate the SCCP subsystem you want to use the created parameter set in.
ZNHC:NA0,300:06:ACT;
7.7 Setting and modifying broadcasts of local SCCP subsys-
tem
This procedure describes how to set the broadcast status of SCCP subsystems.
There are two different kinds of broadcasts you can set:
The local broadcast status (OBC command) is used to inform the SCCP subsystems
of the own signalling point about changes in the SCCP subsystems of the remote
signalling points.
The broadcast status (OBM command) is used to inform other signalling points about
changes in the SCCP subsystems of the own signalling point or the SCCP subsys-
tems of the signalling points connected to the own signalling point.
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Before you start
When setting broadcasts, consider carefully what broadcasts are needed. If the broad-
casts are set wrong or there are needless broadcasts, it can set the alarm 2247 SS7
ERRONEOUS SIGNALLING MESSAGE ALARM or cause unnecessary traffic in the
signalling network.
Steps
1 Interrogate existing broadcasts (OBL, OBI)
ZOBL:;
ZOBI:;
2 Set local broadcast status (OBC)
ZOBC:<network of affected subsystem>,<signalling point code of
affected subsystem>,<affected subsystem number>:<network of local
subsystem>,<local subsystem number>:<status>;
3 Set broadcast status (OBM)
ZOBM:<network of affected subsystem>,<signalling point code of
affected subsystem>,<affected subsystem number>:<network of
concerned signalling point>,<concerned signalling point
code>:<status>;
7.8 Setting and modifying SCCP level signalling traffic restric-
tions
Before you start
Before setting any SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions, it is necessary to plan care-
fully what kind of signalling traffic you want to allow and deny. Remember that the
restrictions can affect the operation of the whole signalling network. For more informa-
tion, see Section SCCP level STP traffic restrictions.
7.8.1 Signalling point based traffic restrictions
Steps
1 Activate/inactivate SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions (ODS)
ZODS:<screening status>;
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2 Check and copy the existing MTP level signalling traffic restrictions to corre-
spond SCCP level, if suitable (NRT, ODC)
Before you set any restrictions in SCCP level, it is useful to check the restrictions defined
at MTP level. If there are consistent restrictions defined at MTP level, you can copy them
to correspond to the SCCP level.
To check the MTP level restrictions use the NRT command.
Note that if the type of the MTP level restriction is UNAUTHORIZED, it is not possible to
copy it to correspond to the SCCP level.
According to the output of the previous command, consider whether the existing restric-
tions are suitable for the SCCP level and copy them with the following command.
ZODC:<screening method>:<signalling
network>,<originating/adjacent point codes>;
3 Modify SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions, if needed (ODM)
In this step, you either define new or modify the existing SCCP level signalling traffic
restrictions. For example, if you copied in the previous step some MTP level restrictions,
you may want to change them at SCCP level.
Note that when defining SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions, it is possible to set an
alarm when an unauthorised message is received.
ZODM:<screening method>:<signalling network>,
<originating/adjacent point codes>:<signalling
network>,<destination point codes>:<STP message treatment>;
7.8.2 Calling GT checking based traffic restrictions
Steps
1 Modify SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions according to the calling GTI, if
needed (OCM)
By modifying the ALLOWED_GTI_VALUES parameter in the SCCP Signalling Point
Parameter Set of the parameter set defined for the destination point code (DPC), it is
possible to define which GTI values are allowed in the calling address.
ZOCM:<signalling point parameter set>,:<parameter
number>,<parameter value>;
2 Modify SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions according to the calling GT, if
needed (OCM)
Because the restrictions according to the GT are based on the existing global title anal-
ysis, check first the existing analysis with the NBI command.
To activate the restrictions so that only STP messages with known GT translation
selector values are transmitted, give the value 1 (YES). To inactivate, give the value 0
(NO), for the ANALYSE_ROOT_OF_CALLING_GT parameter in the SCCP Signalling
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Point Parameter Set, (analysing takes effect only for the STP messages), with the fol-
lowing command.
ZOCM:<signalling point parameter set>:22,<parameter value>:;
Further information
Example: Setting SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions
In this example, we copy the existing MTP level signalling traffic restrictions to corre-
spond to the SCCP level signalling traffic. After this, we modify the SCCP level signalling
traffic restrictions to concern more signalling points than the existing MTP restrictions.
We also set restrictions of the GTI and GT types. The example commands are given in
the NE301 network element of the example network.
Figure 23 Example network where the SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions is con-
figured.
1. Activate SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions
ZODS:Y;
2. Check and copy the existing MTP level signalling traffic restrictions to correspond
SCCP level
ZNRT:O:NA0,301;
In our example case, the output of the command could be the following:
STP ACCESS BETWEEN THE FOLLOWING OPC AND DPC COMBINATIONS
OPC (H) TREATMENT / DPC (H)
--------------------------------------------------------------
0101 DISCARDED / 0103
0103 DISCARDED / 0101
COMMAND EXECUTED
NE101
NA0
SPC=
101H
NE302
NA0
SPC=
302H
NE301
NA0
SPC=
301H
NE103
NA0
SPC=
103H
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For example, if you want to discard all SCCP level STP messages coming from sig-
nalling point NE101 (101H) and addressed to NE103 (103H), you can copy the
existing MTP restrictions with the following commands:
ZODC:O:NA0,101;
ZODC:O:NA0,103;
After copying you can check the result by giving the following command:
ZODI:O:NA0,:;
You get the following output:
INQUIRING SCCP SCREENING
ORIGINATING: DESTINATION:
NET SP CODE H/D NET SP CODE (HEX) TREATMENT
--- ------------------ --- ------------------ ----------------
NA0 0101/00257 NA0 0103 DISCARDED/ALARM
NA0 0103/00259 NA0 0101 DISCARDED/ALARM
COMMAND EXECUTED
3. Modify SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions
For example, if you want to set the SCCP screening so that messages originating
from NE302 (302H) are discarded when they are addressed to NE103 (103H), and
you do not want an alarm to be generated, use the following command:
ZODM:O:NA0,302:NA0,103:U;
You get the following output:
MODIFYING SCCP SCREENING
ORIGINATING: DESTINATION:
NET SP CODE H/D NET SP CODE (HEX) TREATMENT
--- ------------------ --- ------------------------ ------------
NA0 0302/00770 NA0 0103 DISCARDED
COMMAND EXECUTED
And for example, if you want that messages coming from the adjacent signalling
point (link set) NE103 (103H) are discarded and that an alarm is set when the des-
tination is NE302 (302H), the command would be:
ZODM:A:NA0,103:NA0,302:D;
And the output would be:
MODIFYING SCCP SCREENING
ADJACENT: DESTINATION:
NET SP CODE H/D NET SP CODE (HEX) TREATMENT
--- ------------------ --- ------------------------ ---------------
NA0 0103/00259 NA0 0302 DISCARDED/ALARM
COMMAND EXECUTED
4. Modify SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions according to the calling GTI
For example, if you want to deny the use of the GTI value 2 in the calling address of
the STP messages, use the following command:
ZOCM:0,:23,102;
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5. Modify SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions according to the calling GT
To set the screening so that only STP messages with known GT translation selector
values are transmitted, give value 1 (YES) for the
ANALYSE_ROOT_OF_CALLING_GT parameter in the SCCP Signalling Point
Parameter Set, (analysing takes effect only for the STP messages) with the follow-
ing command:
ZOCM:0:22,1:;
You get the following output:
MODIFYING SCCP SIGNALLING POINT PARAMETER SET
SET NUMBER: 00000 SET NAME: BLUE
==============================================================
NO: NAME OLD VALUE NEW VALUE
--- ---- --------- ---------
22 ANALYSE_ROOT_OF_CALLING_GT NO YES
COMMAND EXECUTED
7.8.3 GT based traffic restrictions
Steps
1 Activate/deactivate SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions
Activate/deactivate SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions based on calling and called
GT (ODG)
ZODG:<screening status>;
2 Activate GT screening for called GT translation result records
Activate GT screening for called GT translation result records which you need to use in
GT screening (ODT):
ZODT:<called GTT result>:<ACT/INA>;
3 Create SCCP calling GT translation result for screening (NIE)
NIE:<result record number>;
4 Create SCCP calling GT analysis (NIA)
Create calling GT analysis leading to the created calling GT translation result record
(NIA):
ZNIA:<ss7 standard and global title indicator>,<last global title
element to be analyzed>:<translation type>,<numbering
plan>,<nature of address indicator>:<digits>:<result record index
for screening>;
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5 Modify GT screening data (ODN)
In this step, you can either define new or modify the existing SCCP level signalling traffic
restrictions based on calling GT and called GT translation results.
Note that when defining SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions, it is possible to set an
alarm when an unauthorised message is received. ZODN:<calling GTT
result>:<called GTT result>:<STP message treatment>;
Further information
Example: Setting SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions based on calling GT
and called GT
In this example, you modify the SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions based on the
calling GT and called GT translation result combination. First, we activate SCCP level
GT screening activity and GT screening for a called GTT result. After this, we create the
calling GTT result and calling GT analysis leading to that result. Finally, we modify the
SCCP level traffic restrictions based on the calling GTT and called GTT result combina-
tion. The example commands are given in the NE101 network element of the example
network, as stated in Figure Example network, where BSC2 is moved under MSC2.
In this example, we do not want to use NE101 to deliver SCCP level signalling traffic
coming from calling GT:
TT=0
NP=1
NAI=4
digits=4641
And going to called GT:
TT=0
NP=1
NAI=4
digits=35850
The desired screening method is that the message has to be deleted and an alarm set.
1. Activate SCCP level GT screening
ZODG:ACT;
2. Activate GT screening for called GT translation result record
Check the result record for the following called GT:
TT=0
NP=1
NAI=4
digits=35850; by giving the the following command:
ZNBI;
In our example case, the output of the command could be the following:
INTERROGATE OR SEARCH GLOBAL TITLE ANALYSIS
DIGITS: * ... FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
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RESULT: 00001 ... 05119
ROOT PARAMETER VALUE DESCRIPTIONS
------------------------------------------------
SS7= ITU ... ITU-T RECOMMENDATION Q.713
GTI= 4 ... GT INCLUDES TT, ES, NP AND NAI
TT = 0 ... TRANSLATION TYPE NOT USED
NP = 1 ... ISDN/TELEPHONY (REC. E.164/E.163)
NAI= 4 ... INTERNATIONAL NUMBER
RESULT ANALYSIS
SS7 GTI TT NP NAI DIGITS RECORD TYPE
---- --- --- --- --- ------------------------ ------ --------
ITU 4 0 1 4 12345 1 BASIC
ITU 4 0 1 4 37 2 BASIC
ITU 4 0 1 4 35850 3 BASIC
The analysis leads to the GT translation result record 3. Activate GT screening for
that result record 3 by giving the ZODT command:
ZODT:3:ACT;
After activating, you can check the result by giving the following command:
ZODR;
You get the following output:
DX 220 MAGIA 2004-07-16 09:14:05
INTERROGATING GT SCREENING ACTIVATION STATUS OF CALLED GTT RESULTS
CLD RESULT STATUS
---------- --------
00003 ACTIVE
SCCP GLOBAL TITLE SCREENING IS ACTIVE
COMMAND EXECUTED
3. Create calling GT translation result record
ZNIE;
After creation, you can check the result by giving the following command:
ZNIL;
You get the following output:
INTERROGATING CALLING GLOBAL TITLE TRANSLATION RESULTS
RESULT RECORD
-------------
00001
COMMAND EXECUTED
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4. Create calling GT analysis leading to the created calling GTT result record
ZNIA:ITU=4,LAST=DIG:TT=0,NP=1,NAI=4:4641:1;
After creation, you can check the result by giving the following command:
ZNIJ;
You get the following output:
You get the following output:
INTERROGATING SCCP CALLING GT ANALYSES
DIGITS: * ... FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
SCREENING RESULT:00001 ... 00255
ROUTING RESULT:00001 ... 00255
ROOT PARAMETER VALUE DESCRIPTIONS
------------------------------------------------
SS7= ITU ... ITU-T RECOMMENDATION Q.713
GTI= 4 ... GT INCLUDES TT, ES, NP AND NAI
TT = 0 ... TRANSLATION TYPE NOT USED
NP = 1 ... ISDN/TELEPHONY (REC. E.164/E.163)
NAI= 4 ... INTERNATIONAL NUMBER
SCR RTG ANALYSIS
SS7 GTI TT NP NAI DIGITS RECORD RECORD TYPE
---- --- --- --- --- ------------------------ ------ ------ --------
ITU 4 0 1 4 4641 1 0 BASIC
NUMBER OF DISPLAYED ANALYSIS = 1
NUMBER OF DISPLAYED ROOTS = 1
COMMAND EXECUTED
5. Create GT screening between the calling GTT and called GTT results
ZODN:1:3:D;
After creation you can check the result by giving the following command.
ZODF;
You get the following output:
INTERROGATING SCCP GLOBAL TITLE SCREENING DATA
CLG RESULT CLD RESULTS
---------- -----------
00001 AUTHORIZED : 00001, 00002
DISCARD :
ALARM :
DISCARD+ALARM : 00003
DEFAULT TREATMENT IS AUTHORIZED
UNKNOWN AUTHORIZED : 00001, 00002, 00003
DISCARD :
ALARM :
DISCARD+ALARM :
DEFAULT TREATMENT IS AUTHORIZED
SCCP GLOBAL TITLE SCREENING IS ACTIVE
COMMAND EXECUTED
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Example: Removing SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions
To remove all SCCP level signalling traffic restrictions, first set the parameters in the
SCCP Signalling Point Parameter Set so that neither the GTI nor GT type of screening
is done (if there are these types of restrictions in use). Then deactivate the OPC/DPC
and linkset/DPC types of screening with the ODS command (if there are these types of
screening in use) and the GT screening with the ODG command (if that type of screening
is in use).
1. Deactivate the calling GT type SCCP restrictions.
ZOCM:0:22,0;
2. Deactivate the calling GTI type SCCP restrictions
In the following command, add GTI value 2 to the list of allowed values.
ZOCM:0:23,202;
3. Deactivate the OPC/DPC and linkset/DPC type SCCP restrictions
ZODS:INA;
4. Deactivate the SCCP restrictions based on GT
ZODG:INA;
7.9 Creating and modifying called GT translation result and
GT modification
With this procedure, you can modify an existing global title (GT) translation result or
create a new one. You can modify an existing or define a new global title modification
for a certain global title translation result. The translation result refers to those routes
where SCCP level signalling messages can be transmitted. You have to define a trans-
lation result for all signalling points where there will be SCCP level signalling traffic. The
routing of SCCP level traffic can be based on a global title (GT) or on a subsystem
number (SSN).
It is also possible to create alternative routes and use them as backup routes or use the
alternative route for load sharing.
Before you start
Before creating or modifying a global title translation result, you have to plan whether
the routing is based on a global title (GT) or on a subsystem number (SSN). Also, if you
are defining global title modification, it has to be planned carefully before configuration.
Note that all signalling points that are meant to handle SCCP level traffic must be
defined on the MTP level of the own signalling point.
Steps
1 Check existing GT translation results (NAI)
Before creating any new global title translation result, it is advisable to check the existing
translation results to ensure that there is no needed translation result already defined.
ZNAI;
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2 Interrogate existing global title modification records if needed (NAX)
Before creating any new global title modification, it is advisable to check the existing
modifications to ensure that there is no needed modification already defined.
ZNAX;
3 Create or modify global title modification record if needed (NAA or NAS)
To create a new global title modification record, use the NAA command.
To modify an existing global title modification record, use the NAS command.
4 Create new or modify existing translation result (NAC or NAM)
To create a new translation result, use the NAC command.
To modify an existing translation result, use the NAM command.
7.10 Creating global title analysis for called GT
This procedure describes how to modify or create a global title (GT) analysis.
Steps
1 Check existing GT translation results (NAI)
Before creating a new global title analysis, check the number of the translation result
where you want to use the global title analysis (the analysis is attached to a certain
translation result). It is advisable to check if the translation result already uses a GT
analysis and if the change has an effect on it.
ZNAI;
2 Check existing GT analyses (NBI)
Before creating a new global title analysis, it is advisable to check existing analyses, to
ensure that there is no needed analysis already defined. If you are going to modify an
existing GT analysis, ensure that the change does not have unwanted effects on the
existing translation results.
ZNBI:;
3 Create GT analysis (NBC)
ZNBC:<ss7 standard and global title indicator>,<last global title
element to be analysed>:<translation type>,<numbering
plan>,<nature of address indicator>:<digits>:<result record
index>;
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7.11 Creating calling GT routing configuration
Purpose
With this procedure, you can create configuration for the calling GT based routing. First,
you need to check the existence for the called GT analysis and the called GT result for
which you need to define the calling GT routing. Then check the Analyse Calling GT
attribute (ACGT) in the called GT result. Last define the calling GT result and calling GT
analysis needed.
For more information, see Section SCCP routing based on Calling Party global title.
Before you start
Before creating or modifying a calling GT translation result, you have to plan whether
the routing is based on a global title (GT) or on a subsystem number (SSN). Also, if you
define global title modification (shown by the NAX command), it has to be planned care-
fully before the configuration. Note that all signalling points that are meant to handle
SCCP level traffic must be defined on the MTP level of the own signalling point.
Before creating any calling GT analysis, it is important to plan carefully the needed GT
analysis.
For more information, see Section SCCP level signalling network.
The calling GT analyses are stored in a different analysis tree than the called GT anal-
yses.
Steps
1 Check the configuration for the called GT analysis and called GT analysis results
(NBI, NAI)
ZNBI;
ZNAI;
The calling GT analysis is made for specific called GTs only. With these commands, you
can check if the analysis exists for the called GT.
See Sections Creating and modifying called GT translation result and GT modification
and Creating global title analysis for called GT.
Check the ACGT (Analyse Calling GT) attribute from the called GT result (NAI com-
mand).
Note that when the calling GT routing is set on for the called GT result, the GT analysis
made for the calling GT determines where the message is sent. When a message has
different calling GT to the ones configured, the destination in the called GT result is
used. So if you need specific routing for few calling GTs only, you can minimize the
number of the calling GT analyses as follows:
by defining calling GT analyses for those few calling GTs
and
defining the mostly used destination in the called GT result
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2 Modify Analyse Calling GT attribute in the called GT result if needed (NAM)
If NAI command shows that the ACGT is off, set it on with the following command:
ZNAM:<result index>::OPTION:ACGT=Y;
3 Check existing GT translation results for calling GT (NII)
Before creating any new global title translation result, it is advisable to check the existing
translation results to ensure that there is no needed translation result already defined.
ZNII;
4 Create new or modify existing translation result (NIC or NIM)
To create a new translation result, use the NIC command.
To modify an existing translation result, use the NIM command.
5 Check existing GT analyses for calling GTs (NIJ)
Before creating a new global title (GT) analysis for calling GT, check the existing
analyses to ensure that there is no needed analysis already defined. Before creating a
new calling GT analysis, check the number of the calling GT translation results where
the calling GT analysis leads to. Check if the translation result already uses a GT
analysis and if the change has an effect on it.
ZNIJ;
6 Create GT analysis for the calling GT (NIA)
ZNIA:<ss7 standard and global title indicator><last global title
element to be analysed>:<translation type>,<numbering
plan>,<nature of address indicator>:<digits>::<result record
index for routing>;
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8 Monitoring signalling network objects
The following sections describe how to interrogate signalling network objects.
8.1 Interrogating SS7 network configuration and signalling
route set state
With this procedure, you can output the created objects of the signalling network and
check the states of the created signalling route sets. In the output you can check created
signalling route sets, signalling link sets, signalling links, and their states.
Steps
1 Interrogate SS7 network configuration (NET)
To interrogate signalling network configuration, give the following command.
ZNET:;
OR
2 Interrogate signalling route set states (NER)
To interrogate all created signalling route sets, give the following command.
ZNER:;
8.2 Interrogating and modifying signalling route state
With this procedure, you can check and modify the states of the created signalling
routes.
Steps
1 Interrogate signalling route states (NVI, NRI)
To interrogate the states of all signalling routes in a given signalling network, give the
following command.
ZNVI:<signalling network>,;
To interrogate the signalling points in a given signalling network and the signalling routes
leading to them, give the following command.
ZNRI:<signalling network>,;
2 Change the state of signalling route, if needed (NVC)
ZNVC:<signalling network>, <signalling point code>: <signalling
transfer point network>, <signalling transfer point code>: <state
change>;
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8.3 Interrogating signalling link set state
With this procedure, you can check the states of the created signalling link sets.
Steps
1 Interrogate signalling link set states (NES)
To interrogate the states of all signalling link sets, give the following command.
ZNES:;
2 Changing the state of signalling link set, if needed
You cannot directly change the state of a signalling link set by any commands. The sig-
nalling link set state depends on the state of the signalling link in that signalling link set.
8.4 Interrogating and modifying signalling link state
With this procedure, you can check and modify the states of the created signalling links.
Steps
1 Interrogate signalling link states (NEL, NLI)
To interrogate the states of all signalling links, give one of the following commands.
ZNEL:;
or
ZNLI:;
2 Change the state of signalling link if needed (NLC)
ZNLC:<signalling link numbers>, <state change>;
8.5 Interrogating MTP level load sharing and MTP level STP
traffic restrictions
With this procedure, you can check the current settings of MTP level load sharing
defined in an own network element and the current settings of MTP level STP traffic
restrictions.
Steps
1 Interrogate MTP level load sharing (NEO)
To interrogate MTP level load sharing, give the following command. You can limit the
output by giving appropriate values for the parameters of the command.
ZNEO:<signalling network>, <destination point codes>: SLS=<SLS
range>, LINK=<SLS output>: <message originator>;
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OR
2 Interrogate MTP level STP traffic restrictions (NEP)
To interrogate the MTP level STP traffic restrictions, give the following command. You
can limit the output by giving appropriate values for the parameters of the command.
ZNEP:<authorizing method>: <signalling network>, <incoming
direction signalling point code>, <destination point code>;
8.6 Interrogating and modifying SCCP signalling point state
With this procedure, you can check and change the states of the created SCCP signal-
ling points.
Steps
1 Interrogate SCCP signalling point states (NGI)
To interrogate the SCCP signalling point states, give the following command. You can
limit the output by giving appropriate values for the parameters of the command.
ZNGI:<signalling network>, <signalling point codes>: <display
mode>;
2 Change the state of SCCP signalling point if needed (NGC)
ZNGC:<signalling network>, <signalling point codes>: <state
change>;
8.7 Interrogating and modifying SCCP subsystem state
With this procedure, you can check and change the states of the created SCCP subsys-
tems.
Steps
1 Interrogate SCCP subsystem states (NHI)
To interrogate the SCCP subsystem states, give the following command. You can limit
the output by giving appropriate values for the parameters of the command.
ZNHI:<signalling network>, <signalling point codes>: <subsystem>;
2 Change the state of SCCP subsystem if needed (NHC)
ZNHI:<signalling network>, <signalling point codes>: <subsystem>:
<state change>;
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8.8 Interrogating SCCP subsystem broadcast status
With this procedure, you can check the local and remote SCCP subsystems' broadcast
status.
Steps
1 Interrogate local SCCP subsystem broadcast status (OBL)
To interrogate the local SCCP subsystem broadcast status, give the following
command. You can limit the output by giving appropriate values for the parameters of
the command.
ZOBL:<network of affected subsystem>, <signalling point code of
affected subsystem>, <affected subsystem number>: <network of
local subsystem>, <local subsystem number>: <mode>;
2 Interrogate remote SCCP subsystem broadcast status (OBI)
To interrogate the remote SCCP subsystem broadcast status, give the following
command. You can limit the output by giving appropriate values for the parameters of
the command.
ZOBI:<network of affected subsystem>, <signalling point code of
affected subsystem>, <affected subsystem number>: <network of
concerned signalling point>, <concerned signalling point code>:
<mode>;
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9 SS7 troubleshooting
This section lists the most common signalling network related problems that occur
during the use of the signalling network or when configuring the signalling network.
In general, if something goes wrong or is not working all right, first check the alarms cur-
rently on and refer to the instructions of each alarm.
9.1 Signalling link stays in state UA-INS
When a signalling link is activated after its creation, there can be some problems due to
erroneous network configuration, erroneous link parameters, faulty hardware or some
combination of these.
the external VPI and VCI
the TSL of the PCM (in ATM Module)
the external interface id values from both ends of the signalling link
If a signalling link has been created and attached to the correct signalling route set and
the state of the link continues to be UA-INS even after the activation commands, check
first the basic configuration: the time slot of the PCM, the SLC values from both ends of
the signalling link, the state of the AS7, the state of the ET.
Note that when a signalling link has been created between an MSC and a BSC, there is
a transcoder on the PCM. If there are problems on that transcoder, it can cause failures
to links connected to it. Check the condition of the transcoder, if all links connected
through it fail at the same time.
If all signalling links within the network element are in UA-INS state, the signalling point
restart procedure is performed after the first link has been aligned. During that proce-
dure, the user cannot give any state changing commands. The MML replies that the
state has not been changed. If the signalling point restart procedure takes more than two
minutes, there can be some failures in link activations by the system.
You can avoid this kind of restart loop by connecting the ET to a loop (by connecting the
ET's output to the ET's input) and then trying to activate the link connected to the ET.
When an ET is connected to a loop, the signalling link testing has to be denied. If one
link in the network element can be activated, it is much easier to find out reasons for
unavailabilities of other links.
Steps
1 Check if there is a service defined for signalling link test messages (NPI)
The service needed for the SLTM is SNT (for ITU network) or SNTA (for ANSI network).
ZNPI:<network indicator>;
To define new services, use the NPC command.
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2 Check if SLC (signalling link code) is set to the same value at both ends of the link,
and check that the signalling point codes and network indicator are correct (NSI)
Use the NES or NSI commands to check the values used in your own network element
and contact the holder of the remote network element to find out the values used in the
remote network element.
ZNSI:<network indicator>,<sp code>;
3 Check signalling link test status (NSI)
Note that the link test state always has to be LINK TEST ALLOWED. If the link test state
is LINK TEST NOT ALLOWED, the link can be activated, even if it has been configured
erroneously. Then, even if the state of the signalling link is AV-EX, it may be unable to
transmit any traffic. You can check the state with the following command.
ZNSI:<network indicator>,<sp code>;
If the state is LINK TEST NOT ALLOWED, set the testing state LINK TEST ALLOWED.
The reasons for unavailability are shown in alarms.
ZNST:<network indicator>,<sp code>,<link set name>: <link test
status>;
4 Check if the system has set the alarm 2069 (signalling link test failed) (AHO)
ZAHO::NR=2069;
If the alarm 2069 SIGNALLING LINK TEST FAILED is set, see the alarm instructions.
5 Check if the system has set the alarm 2072 (AHO)
The alarm is set if signalling link activation does not succeed in two minutes.
ZAHO::NR=2072;
If the failure code of the alarm is 3 (initial alignment not possible), see the instructions
for alarm 2072 FAILURE IN SIGNALLING LINK ACTIVATION OR RESTORATION.
6 Try to locate whether the fault is inside the switch or in the transmission
Loop the signalling link from the exchange terminal (ET) with a loop connector or, if it is
possible, loop the signalling link time slot (digital time slot based cross-connector).
Before that, deny the signalling link test by using the NST command, because the sig-
nalling link test cannot handle looped links.
7 Check if system has set alarm 2079 (AHO)
ZAHO::NR=2079;
If there is no alarm 2079 LOOP TEST FAILED IN SIGNALLING LINK TERMINAL, but
the signalling link is not aligning in the loop, the fault lies between the group switch and
the exchange terminal. Check the cabling.
If link activation succeeds in the loop, check the transmission path.
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9.2 Failures in the signalling link terminal
If the system has generated an alarm, or if you suspect a failure in a signalling link
terminal (AS7), follow these instructions.
Steps
1 Activate the back-up unit
In case a back-up unit has been configured for the failed signalling unit type (CCSU,
BSU, BCSU, and so on) on the network element, engage the spare unit by setting the
failed unit in spare state (SP-EX) - if the system has not already transferred the unit into
test state (SP-TE). This activates the spare unit into state WO-EX and it can then take
over the tasks of the failed unit.
Use this command to set signalling link terminal CCSU-1 to state SP-EX:
ZUSC:CCSU,1:SP;
If there is no back-up unit, continue from the next step. A missing back-up unit results in
a decrease in the capacity of the network element.
2 Check whether the terminal is faulty by submitting it to diagnostics
To run the diagnostics on the signalling link terminal you suspect to be faulty, set the
terminal into test state (SP-TE), if the system has not already set the test state, with this
command:
ZUSC:CCSU,1:TE;
If the diagnostics show that the terminal is not faulty, try to activate it again or leave it as
the back-up unit. If the terminal is faulty, replace it with a new one.
3 Replace the faulty signalling link terminal
Pay attention to these matters when changing a faulty signalling link terminal:
The interchangeability of a plug-in unit affects the strappings. If the interchangeabil-
ity remains the same, the strappings can be copied from the old plug-in unit. Other-
wise, always check the settings from the instrictions for strappings. The
interchangeability code is marked on a sticker on the outer edge of the plug-in unit.
When the location of the plug-in unit remains the same in a CCSU or a similar unit,
you can copy the location related strappings from the failed plug-in unit. The location
may have to be changed if the type of the signalling link terminal needs to be
changed, for example, if several 1-channel AS7-S terminals are replaced by one 4-
channel AS7-U terminal, or the other way around.
!
When you handle the plug-in units, remember to protect them from static electricity and
wear a resistive wrist wrap or a similar purpose grounding device. The components of
the plug-in units or other units may be damaged by electrostatic discharge. Avoid
touching the contacts and connector surfaces.
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You can use the WTI command to check whether the strappings have succeeded.
The command reports the slot where the plug-in unit is located, and its base
address; check that they are correct and in accordance with the settings you
defined.
A failure in the signalling link terminal can result in a need for a new signalling unit
since it is not possible to define back-ups for the signalling plug-in units in the sig-
nalling units (CCSU, BSU, BCSU, and so on). If you have to remove a plug-in unit
from a signalling unit, remember to deactivate the unit before pulling it out from the
slot. Otherwise, the system interprets the disappearance of the plug-in unit as a fault
in the active unit, and this results in a changeover, and some signalling messages
are possibly lost because the data on the sent and acknowledged messages stored
on the removed plug-in unit disappears. We strongly recommend that all changes of
plug-in units are performed using the appropriate commands, so that the signalling
management programs transfer the signalling traffic in a controlled manner to
another signalling unit.
The strappings on the plug-in unit are always independent of the CCS user part. The
same plug-in unit can serve all the CCS user parts at the same time.
g When you remove a faulty plug-in unit from service, take care to mark it clearly so
that it will not by mistake be put back in operation before it has been checked and
repaired.
After a faulty unit has been repaired, you can activate it as a back-up unit. The original
back-up unit is set as the active operating unit, and so the back-up unit in the network
element has been changed. You can resume the original situation if necessary. This is
done by setting the state of the original back-up unit as SP-EX (spare) and then the
original active unit resumes active working state (WO-EX). The state changes are
carried out using the USC command.
As the user you can always change the operating unit by changing the state of the active
unit from working to spare, which results in the back-up unit taking over the tasks.
More detailed information on fault localization, diagnostics, and change of plug-in units
is available in Instructions for Replacing Plug-in Units.
9.3 Signalling route goes to or stays in state UA-INR
Steps
1 Find out the states of adjacent and destination signalling points
State UA-INR means that the signalling route is unavailable because the adjacent sig-
nalling point has sent a Transfer Prohibited Signal (TFP) to the local signalling point con-
cerning the destination point.
Either the adjacent signalling point has no access to the destination point or the route
defined to the destination point goes through the signalling point that has sent the
message.
The routes that are in UA-INR state are periodically tested with route set test messages
(RST). If TFA (transfer allowed) message is received as a reply to the RST, the route is
considered available. The route can temporarily be in the state UA-INR even when there
is no particular fault in the configuration or hardware.
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If the route is often in this state, the reason has to be cleared with the holder of the
adjacent signalling point.
9.4 Signalling link fails occasionally or there is an unexpected
reset of AS7
Steps
1 Check if system has set alarm 1072 (AHO)
ZAHO::NR=1072;
See instructions for the alarm 1072 SIGNALLING LINK OUT OF SERVICE for more
detailed info about the reason for the failure.
2 Interrogate signalling link terminal meters (OMT)
ZOMT:LINK=<link number>:A,Z;
OR
3 Check the alarm 2075
Check the alarm 2075 COMMUNICATION FAILURE BETWEEN SIGNALLING
TERMINAL AND CCNETM for more detailed information about the reasons for the
failure and follow the instructions.
9.5 Signalling link is in state UA-INS
There are different reasons why the initial alignment or the test procedure fails. The
reasons have to be checked out.
Steps
1 Check if the signalling link has created a unique combination of unit, logical unit,
terminal, terminal function, and logical terminal (NEL)
The unit defines the actual unit where the signalling link is situated. One unit cannot
contain the same logical terminal number twice. The terminal and the terminal function
define the unique combination of hardware serving as one logical terminal and thus
serving one signalling link. There must not be two similar combinations of terminal and
terminal function in one unit. It is important to check that the external PCM-TSL and
internal PCM-TSL are correct. Check all this with the NEL command.
If the terminal and terminal function fields in the execution printout are empty, it means
that for some reason the terminals have not sent initialisation requests. In this case,
check if there is an adequate number of signalling terminals defined in the units with the
WTI command.
If the terminal sends initialisation requests but you get additional information in the
output that the signalling terminal has not been initialised, then the internal PCM-TSL is
missing from the configuration database. You can check this with the WTI command.
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2 Check if the internal PCM-TSL belongs to int_st7_route and external PCM-TSL
belongs to ext_st7_route (RCI)
To check that the internal PCM-TSL belongs to int_st7_route and external PCM-TSL
belongs to ext_st7_route, use the RCI command. Numbers of the routes can be
checked from internal routing parameters with the NMI command.
3 Check alarms (AHO)
Check if there are no alarms concerning the signalling link in question.
Especially check the following alarms:
1072 SIGNALLING LINK OUT OF SERVICE
2069 SIGNALLING LINK TEST FAILED
2079 LOOP TEST FAILED IN SIGNALLING LINK TERMINAL
If any of these alarms are set on, follow the alarm instructions.
4 Contact Nokia Siemens Networks Customer Service
9.6 Signalling link activation succeeds but traffic fails
Steps
1 Check if all network items are in state AV (available) (NVI, NSI, NLI, NLC)
Check the states of the signalling route set and signalling route by using the command:
ZNVI:<network indicator>,<sp code>;
Check the state of signalling link set by using the command:
ZNSI:<network indicator>,<sp code>;
Check the state of signalling link by using the command:
ZNLI:<link numbers>;
If the link state is not AV-EX, try to activate it with the NLC command.
ZNLC:<link number>,ACT;
2 Check traffic distribution (NEO)
ZNEO:<network indicator>,<sp code>;
The load sharing between links within the link set has to be as even as possible. If one
or more links have much more SLS codes than other links, or if there are some links in
the link set in the active state, but with no place in the load sharing table, the load sharing
has been corrupted.
One way to fix the load sharing table is to change the states of some links in the link set.
The load sharing algorithm tries to spread SLS values evenly to all links.
ZNLC:<link number>,INA;
ZNLC:<link number>,ACT;
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3 Check if there are services defined for all necessary user parts (NPI)
ZNPI:<network indicator>;
Create missing services with the NPC command.
4 Check if the system has set the alarm 2224 (AHO)
ZAHO::NR=2224;
If the alarm 2224 ERROR IN MSU HANDLING is set, follow the alarm instructions.
9.7 All MTP and SCCP level objects are in state available (AV)
but location update fails or mobile calls are cut frequently
after 4.5 min
Steps
1 Check if the SCCP service is defined on MTP level in all needed signalling
networks (NPI)
ZNPI:<signalling network>;
Create the missing service with the NPC command.
OR
2 Check the values of SCCP timer parameters Q714_T_IAR and Q714_T_IAS from
both MSC and BSC sites (OCI)
ZOCI:<signalling point parameter set numbers>;
The timers that are used for certain direction are defined in the signalling point parame-
ter set of the remote node. If the timer Q714_T_IAR of one node (typically 4.5 min) is
shorter that the Q714_T_IAS of the remote node, SCCP signalling connections are
released after Q714_T_IAR.
Change the Q714_T_IAR timer value in the own node to be higher than the
Q714_T_IAS timer value in the remote node with the OCM command.
9.8 Global title translation fails although translation exists
and the global translation result
Steps
1 Check if the header information of GT translation is the same as the one used in
the addresses (NBI)
ZNBI:;
Check if not only the digits are matching but also the following values correspond to the
needed translation:
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global title indicator (ITU-T or ANSI)
translation type
numbering plan
nature of address indicator
To modify the values, first you have to delete the existing analysis with the NBD
command, then create a new analysis with the correct values with the NBC command.
OR
2 Check if a translation result exists for each global title (NAI)
ZNAI;
Check if a translation result (GTRFIL record) exists for each global title to be translated
and that they contain the required data.
Note that one translation result can serve several global titles.
3 Confirm that the network and the destination point code (DPC) are the required
ones
Note that you cannot create a global title result where the DPC is unknown to the SCCP
and you cannot delete the DPC from the SCCP if it has been attached to the global title
result.
4 Check the RESULT STATE field
There are two possible values ACT (active) and INA (inactive). The normal state of the
global title result is active and it is in this state after creation. If the result state is inactive,
the global title result is out of service and it must not be used for routing. You can change
the state with the NAM command.
5 Check if the routing indicator (RI) setting is appropriate for the desired routing
If RI is SSN (route-on-label), there must not be any reference to global title modification
data record number (GTM). If RI is GT (route-on-gt), GTM is optional.
6 Check the subsystem number, SSN
If the subsystem number (SSN) is included in the result, all outgoing messages also
contain this new SSN. New subsystem numbers replace the original subsystem
numbers fetched from the called address and the original subsystem has no effect on
this.
7 Confirm that the subsystem translation is as required and check the validity of the
indicated SSN
8 Check the global title modification data (NAX)
If a global title modification data record number (GTM) exists in the result, check the
global title modification data using the GTM as a parameter in the NAX command.
ZNAX:DN=;
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The global title data (GTMFIL) is used to change or replace the global title that is being
translated (for example, delete/add digits or replace the header information). Check the
validity of each change, as represented in the displayed data, against the requirements
for translation. Check also that each listed global title data record is referenced by a
translation result record (GTRFIL record).
Note that when the global title number is changed, it is analysed again during the routing
procedure. This means that the global title analysis for the modified global title number
must also exist.
Further information
Example: Checking GT translation result
In this example, we have an existing digit string 123456 in a global title. The global title
translation result contains modification record number 00001. In GTMFIL, record is
ADC=2 (add digits count), ADP=5 (add digits pointer) and DIGITS=99 (digits to be
added). This adds digits 99 just in front of the fifth digit in the original digit string. The
resulting digit string is then 12349956.
Example: Checking GT translation result
In this example, we have an existing digit string 123456 in a global title. The global title
translation result contains modification record number 00002. In GTMFIL, record is
DDC=1 (delete digits count) and DDP=5 (delete digits pointer). This deletes the fifth digit
from the original digit string (number 5), and the resulting digit string is 12346.
Example: Checking GT translation result
In this example, we have an existing digit string 123456 in a global title. The global title
translation result contains modification record number 00003. In GTMFIL, record is
DDC=1 (delete digits count), DDP=5 (delete digits pointer), ADC=2 (add digits count),
ADP=5 (add digits pointer) and DIGITS=99 (digits to be added). This deletes the fifth
digit from the original digit string (number 5) and add digits 99 just in front of the fifth digit
in the ORIGINAL digit string. The resulting digit string is then 1234996.
Example: Checking GT translation result
In this example, we have the header information in a global title: SS7 standard = ITU,
GTI = 4, TT = 0, NP = 1 and NAI = 4. The global title translation result contains modifi-
cation record number 00004. In GTMFIL record no digit modification is made, but the
NP (numbering plan) is different from the one in the original global title. This replaces
the header information so that the NP is changed (new NP = 7). Digits remain
unchanged.
Example: Example modification records as seen in the MML execution printouts
GTMFIL DIGITS
RECORD SS7 GTI ENC TT NP NAI DDC DDP ADC ADP 123456789012345
------ ---- --- --- --- --------- -------- --- --- --- --- ---------------
00001 ITU 4 BCD 000 1 (E.164) 4 (INT.) - - 2 5 99
00002 ITU 4 BCD 000 1 (E.164) 4 (INT.) 1 5 - -
00003 ITU 4 BCD 000 1 (E.164) 4 (INT.) 1 5 2 5 99
00004 ITU 4 BCD 000 7 (E.214) 4 (INT.) - - - -
To check the references from the translation results (GTRFIL) use the NAX command,
where parameter RN means referenced global title modification data record number.
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For each global title to be translated, check that there is a number analysis, so that the
intended translation result (GTRFIL record index) can be reached. Note that not all digits
in the global title are used in the analysis, but only those needed to reach the intended
translation result. This can be done with the NBI command where you can give the
header information, digits and result record indexes.
9.9 State of all subsystems in the remote network element is
unavailable (UA) although MTP route set is in state avail-
able-executing (AV-EX)
Steps
1 Check the state of the remote SCCP (NGI)
ZNGI:;
2 Change the state to AV, if necessary (NGC)
If the SCCP of the remote node is in state UA-INU, change the state to AV with the fol-
lowing command:
ZNGC:<signalling network>,<signalling point code>:ACT;
9.10 Some remote subsystems do not recover after route set
unavailability
Steps
1 Check the defined subsystems
Check if the defined subsystems exist in the remote network element and whether they
have to exist. This means for example checking whether the remote network element
has to be used only as a signalling transfer point (STP), or whether the subsystems in
question have to exist there.
If the subsystems must exist, the reason for unavailability can be temporary, caused by
changes in configuration or a fault situation. If the subsystems are really down (unavail-
able) in the remote network element, you cannot bring them up from your local network
element.
Depending on who the remote network element belongs to, this kind of matters must be
considered in the appropriate forum, for example, in negotiations between operators.
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9.11 A signalling point parameter or a subsystem parameter
does not take effect as described
Steps
1 Check the parameter set of the SCCP signalling point (NFI)
Use the NFI command to check which parameter set the SCCP signalling point uses.
OR
2 Check the parameter set of the SCCP subsystem (NFJ)
Use the NFJ command to check which parameter set the SCCP subsystem uses.
OR
3 Check the values of the SCCP signalling point parameter sets (OCI)
Use the OCI command to interrogate the values of the SCCP signalling point parameter
sets.
OR
4 Check the values of the SCCP subsystemn parameter sets (OCJ)
Use the OCJ command to interrogate the values of the SCCP subsystem parameter
sets.
9.12 After updating DX software, the SCCP of own signalling
point is in state unavailable (UA), although everything else
is in state available (AV)
Steps
1 Check if the whole ISSTAB file is filled with FF (DFD)
ZDFD:CCSU,0:523;
If the whole file is filled with FF it means that the file ISSTAB has not been copied from
the previous software build.
2 Copy the old ISSTAB file, if necessary (DEM)
Use the DEM command to copy the old ISSTAB file.
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9.13 SCCP screening does not come into effect
Steps
1 Check if the SCCP signalling point based screening is active (ODI)
ZODI:;
2 Activate the SCCP signalling point based screening, if necessary (ODS)
If the SCCP signalling point based screening is not active, activate it with the ODS
command.
3 Check if the SCCP GT screening is active (ODF)
ZODF:;
4 Activate the SCCP GT screening, if necessary (ODG)
If the SCCP GT screening is not active, activate it with the ODG command.
9.14 TC sends an abort message with error code 03 "Incorrect
transaction portion" to the received dialogue request
Typically, the situation occurs when the originating side is trying to set up a dialogue with
application context negotiation, and the destination side TC does not support the
message structure (this means application context fields) defined in the White Book.
The originating side application has to be able to start a new dialogue without the appli-
cation context.
Steps
1 Change the originating side configuration
If the application does not adapt to the situation, try to change the originating side con-
figuration in such a way that the TC user does not use application context in the BEGIN
message (the command group RG if the application is INAP, or the command group OP
in case of MAP).
Further information
The White Book TC enables the TC users to negotiate the application context to be used
in the dialogue (see TC introduction). If the receiving TC does not support the White
Book specifications and thus the dialogue portion information element (where the appli-
cation context information is conveyed), the dialogue is aborted with the cause code
'Incorrect transaction portion'. Similarly, if the dialogue is started with the BEGIN
message including the application context and the responding message (END or CON-
TINUE) does not include a dialogue portion information element (this means application
context), the dialogue is aborted with the same cause code.
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9.15 Large capacity signalling link creation or modification
fails
Steps
1 Check the error messages
Example: No free terminal in unit
/*** NO FREE TERMINAL IN UNIT ***/
When this error message appears, check the terminal types in the signalling unit with
the WTI command. You are allowed to create/modify large capacity signalling links only
for signalling terminal types AS7V, AS7VA, AS7A, and AS7C.
Example: External PCM TSL is already used for another signalling link
/*** EXTERNAL PCM TSL ALREADY USED FOR SIGNALLING LINK ***/
When this error message appears, check with the NEL command if the time slots of the
current external PCM are connected to another signalling link. Note that for a large
capacity signalling link the reserved time slots have to be in consecutive order. Gaps
within the time slot space are not allowed.
Example: No exchange terminal is determined for the signalling data link
/*** NO EXCHANGE TERMINAL FOR SIGNALLING DATA LINK ***/
When this error message appears, check the PCM-TSL parameter of the given
command. Check the state of the ET unit with the USI command. The number of the ET
has to be the same as the number of the PCM.
Example: Signalling link activation is not denied
/*** SIGNALLING LINK ACTIVATION NOT DENIED ***/
The activation of the signalling link has to be denied before the link data can be modified.
Deny the signalling link activation with the NLD command.
9.16 Allowing of link activation and initialisation of signalling
terminal fail
Steps
1 Initialise the signalling terminal unit
The signalling link cannot be activated before the signalling unit is initialised.
SIGNALLING UNIT SWITCHOVER IS REQUIRED BEFORE LINK CAN BE ACTIVATED
Initialise the signalling terminal unit by signalling unit switchover or restart the unit.
OR
2 Check if there are free signalling terminals in the unit
NO FREE SIGNALLING TERMINALS IN UNIT
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In the case of a large capacity signalling link, this error text occurs typically after signal-
ling unit switchover, when there is not enough terminal capacity in the spare unit to
support a large capacity signalling link.
Check that both ends of the signalling link have the same link bit rate. See Section Bit
rates of the signalling links in the same link set.
Check if both ends of the signalling link use the same time slots of the external PCM,
use the NEL command. If they are different, go to Step Modify the data of the signalling
link.
Check if both ends of the signalling link use the same SLC within the signalling link set,
use the NSI command.
If the state of the signalling link is UA-INS, check the current alarms with command AHO.
If notice 1072 SIGNALLING LINK OUT OF SERVICE occurs, follow the alarm instruc-
tions.
9.17 Activation of large capacity signalling link fails
Steps
1 Check signalling terminal units
Check if there are signalling terminal units supporting large capacity signalling links
(AS7V, AS7VA, AS7A or AS7C) at both ends of the signalling link.
2 Check the external information of the signalling link (NEL)
Check the external information of the signalling link with the NEL command. Check the
output of the NEL command for error messages, see the following examples.
Example: The signalling link cannot be activated before the signalling terminal
has been initialised
The signalling link cannot be activated before the signalling terminal has been initialised.
If the signalling unit has not been initialised, the system outputs the following error
message:
SIGNALLING UNIT SWITCHOVER IS REQUIRED BEFORE LINK CAN BE ACTIVATED
Initialise the signalling terminal by signalling unit switchover or by restarting the unit.
As a default, a signalling terminal unit AS7V, AS7VA, AS7A or AS7C is initialised
so that all signalling links within the signalling terminal are set to run as 1 time slot link
56kbit/s or 64 kbit/s. If in the signalling unit there are any large capacity signalling links,
signalling link terminal is set to work with multi-time slot link by terminal initialisation. All
free resources of the signalling terminal units are initialised for 1 time slot link.
g Signalling unit restart causes disturbances for signalling traffic. The links that have
been connected to the current signalling unit will be cut during restart.
When the user inquires the data of the signalling link or creates/modifies a signalling link,
the system checks whether it is possible to activate the signalling link. If there are free
resources for the signalling link in the signalling unit, the system checks the type of those
free resources (internal time slots of internal PCM). Check with the WTI and RCI com-
mands. The recourses can be free but initialised for the wrong type (bit rate) of signalling
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link. The free resources of the wrong type can be taken into use for other types of sig-
nallink links after terminal initialisation.
Example: There are no free signalling terminals in the unit
NO FREE SIGNALLING TERMINALS IN UNIT
The error texts occurs typically after signalling unit switchover when in the spare unit,
there are not enough terminal capacity giving support for large capacity signalling link.
Check if both ends of the signalling link have the same link bit rate. See Section Bit rates
of the signalling links in the same link set.
Check if both ends of the signalling link use the same time slots of the external PCM,
use the NEL command. If they are different, go to Step Modify the data of the signalling
link.
Check if both ends of the signalling link use the same SLC within the signalling link set,
use the NSI command.
If the state of the signalling link is UA-INS, check the current alarms with AHO command.
If notice 1072 SIGNALLING LINK OUT OF SERVICE occurs, follow the alarm instruc-
tions.
9.18 Bit rates of the signalling links in the same link set
Steps
1 Check the bit rate of the signalling links of the link set (NSI, NEL)
If within the signalling link set there are signalling links which have different bit rates, this
warning text is displayed:
SIGNALLING LINKS WITHIN SIGNALLING LINK SET HAVE VARIOUS BIT RATE
WHICH IS NOT NOTICED IN LOAD SHARING
It is recommended that all signalling links within the signalling link set have the same
transmission capacity. If some of them have different capacity value, it does not cause
problems for the system. But the load sharing of the signalling traffic within the link set
does not notice it at all. The signalling load is shared between the links evenly even one
of the signalling links have bigger transmission capacity than other links.
The mixed transmission capacities within the link set have been allowed for modification
purposes of signalling links. The user can modify the transmission capacity of the sig-
nalling link of the existing signalling link set so that the signalling messages can be trans-
mitted through other signalling links during modifications. Check the bit rate of the
signalling links of the link set, use the NSI and NEL commands.
2 Modify the data of the signalling link (NLC, NLD, NCM, NLA, NLC)
Modify the data of the signalling link with these commands:
NLC:<signalling link numbers>,<state change>;
NLD:<signalling link numbers>;
NCM:<signalling link number>:<external PCM-TSL>,<link bit
rate>:<unit type>,<unit number>;
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NLA:<signalling link numbers>;
NLC:<signalling link numbers>,<state change>;
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10 States of SS7 signalling network objects
By studying the states of the signalling network, you can, for example, monitor how the
network is operating and find reasons for malfunctions. You can change the network
operations by modifying the states of the network elements. When you modify the con-
figuration of the signalling network, note that it is usually possible to change the states
in such a way that the signalling traffic is not interrupted.
10.1 States of signalling route sets
The state of a signalling route set depends on the states of the signalling routes included
in the route set. The signalling route set has four states: available (AV), unavailable
(UA), restricted (AR), and congested (CONG).
The signalling route set is available (in state AV) when one or more of its signalling
routes are available, that is, can be used by signalling traffic. The route set is unavailable
(in state UA) when all its routes are out of service. The state of the route set changes
automatically to AV when the first signalling route proves to be available.
The signalling route set is congested (in state CONG) if the signalling link on the active
route is overloaded. The signalling route set assumes the state CONG if a signalling
point on the route receives a 'transfer controlled' message (TFC) that concerns the sig-
nalling point served by the route set. Time supervision takes care of changing the state
automatically into AV when the overload situation is over.
You can use the NER command to interrogate the states of the signalling route sets.
10.2 States of signalling routes
You can define both main states and substates for a signalling route. The main state
indicates whether the route is 'available' (AV) or 'unavailable' (UA). The substates give
more information on the working state, for example, who has set the route and whether
it is in spare state. By setting different working states, you can change the signalling
traffic over to another signalling route without causing breaks in the traffic flow.
Main state -
substate
Name of the state Meaning/reason
AV-EX available-executing The signalling route is transferring signalling traffic.
AV-SP available-spare The signalling route does not transfer signalling
traffic but can be taken into use.
UA-INU unavailable-deactivated by
user
User has deactivated the route.
UA-INS unavailable-deactivated by
system
The system has deactivated the route./The signal-
ling route is transferring signalling traffic.
UA-INR unavailable-deactivated by
remote exchange
The remote end has deactivated the route./The sig-
nalling route is transferring signalling traffic.
UA-AD unavailable-activation denied Activation of the route is denied./The signalling
route is transferring signalling traffic.
Table 2 States of the signalling routes
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Available but restricted, AR This state is a parallel state for 'available' (AV): in this
state, the signalling route can transfer signalling traffic and it also has
the substates 'executing' (EX) and 'spare' (SP) in service.
The state is possible only if the signalling route set uses the procedure
'transfer restricted' (for more information, see Section SS7 signalling
network parameters). The signalling route is in this state has received a
'transfer restricted' message from the transfer point, which lowers the
priority of the route to some extent.
10.3 States of signalling link sets
The state of a signalling link set depends on the states of its links. The link set has two
states: 'available' (AV) and 'unavailable' (UA).
The signalling link set is in state AV when at least one of the links included in the link set
is available.
The link set is in state UA if all its links are in state unavailable. The state changes auto-
matically into AV when one (or more) of the signalling links (included in the link set)
assume state AV.
You can use the NES or NSI command to interrogate the states of signalling link sets.
10.4 States of signalling links
A signalling link has two main states: 'available' (AV) and 'unavailable' (UA). State AV
has one substate and state UA can have one or two substates at the same time.
AR-EX available but restricted-exe-
cuting
See below.
AR-SP available but restricted-spare See below.
Main state -
substate
Name of the state Meaning/reason
Table 2 States of the signalling routes (Cont.)
Main state -
substate 1 -
substate 2
Name of the state Meaning and the change made
AV-EX available-executing Link is working normally.
UA-AD unavailable-activation denied Operator has taken the link out of use and has
denied activation. See below.
UA-TST unavailable-testing User has started a data link test and only test
traffic can be transferred through the link, while
no signalling traffic is allowed. See below.
UA-INU unavailable-deactivated by user Operator has taken the link out of use. To
activate the link, use the NLC command.
UA-INS unavailable-deactivated by
system
System has taken the link out of use. Link has
not completed the initial alignment or the signal-
ling link test procedure successfully. See below.
Table 3 States of the signalling links
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UA-BLU unavailable-blocked by user User has blocked the signalling link.
UA-BLR unavailable-blocked by remote
exchange
Remote end exchange has blocked the signal-
ling link, or there is a processor outage condition
at the remote end.
UA-BLB unavailable-blocked by user and
remote exchange
The signalling link has been blocked at both
ends.
UA-IBL unavailable-inhibited local User has inhibited the link.
UA-IBR unavailable-inhibited remote Remote end has inhibited the link.
UA-IBB unavailable-inhibited local and
remote
The signalling link is inhibited at both ends.
UA-INU-IBL unavailable-deactivated by user-
inhibited local
User has deactivated and inhibited the signal-
ling link.
UA-INU-IBR unavailable-deactivated by user-
inhibited remote
User has deactivated and the remote end has
inhibited the signalling link.
UA-INU-IBB unavailable-deactivated by user-
inhibited local and remote
User has deactivated and inhibited and the
remote end has inhibited the signalling link.
UA-INS-IBL unavailable-deactivated by
system-inhibited local
System has deactivated and user has inhibited
the signalling link.
UA-INS-IBR unavailable-deactivated by
system-inhibited remote
System has deactivated and remote end has
inhibited the signalling link.
UA-INS-IBB unavailable-deactivated by
system-inhibited local and remote
System has deactivated and user has inhibited
the signalling link at both ends.
UA-BLU-IBL unavailable-blocked by user-
inhibited local
User has blocked and inhibited the signalling
link.
UA-BLU-IBR unavailable-blocked by user-
inhibited remote
User has blocked and remote end has inhibited
the signalling link.
UA-BLU-IBB unavailable-blocked by user-
inhibited local and remote
User has blocked the signalling link and the sig-
nalling link is inhibited at both ends.
UA-BLR-IBL unavailable-blocked by remote
exchange-inhibited local
The signalling link is blocked in remote end and
user has inhibited the signalling link.
UA-BLR-IBR unavailable-blocked by remote
exchange-inhibited remote
The signalling link is blocked and inhibited at
remote end.
UA-BLR-IBB unavailable-blocked by remote
exchange-inhibited local and
remote
The signalling link is blocked at the remote end
and inhibited by user at both ends.
UA-BLB-IBL unavailable-blocked by user and
remote exchange-inhibited local
User has blocked and inhibited the signalling
link and the remote end and has blocked the
signalling link.
UA-BLB-IBR unavailable-blocked by user and
remote exchange-inhibited
remote
User has blocked the signalling link and the sig-
nalling link is blocked and inhibited at remote
end.
Main state -
substate 1 -
substate 2
Name of the state Meaning and the change made
Table 3 States of the signalling links (Cont.)
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Inhibiting a signalling link
You can inhibit the signalling link from the local end. Then the signalling link gets into
state 'unavailable-inhibited local' (UA-IBL). If you want to take the signalling link back
into use, use the NLC command.
Signalling link inhibition means that the signalling link is inhibited from the signalling
traffic of the user part but it can transfer maintenance and test messages. The inhibition
does not cause any measures on level 2. It is taken care of by the signalling link control
function on level 3. The inhibition is accepted only if it does not make any accessible
destinations (signalling point) inaccessible at either end.
If a signalling link is in state 'unavailable-inhibited remote' (UA-IBR), the operator of the
exchange at the remote end of the signalling link has inhibited it. You cannot uninhibit
such signalling links, but they can be taken into use by applying a system in case some
signalling point otherwise becomes inaccessible.
When the signalling link is inhibited at both ends, the state of the signalling link is
'unavailable-inhibited local and remote' (UA-IBB). In this case you can change it to state
UA-IBR by using the NLC command if you want to uninhibit it locally.
Blocking a signalling link
You can block a signalling link. It means that the signalling link is set to processor outage
state at the local end and no signalling messages are transferred over the link. In this
case, the signalling link is in state 'unavailable-blocked by user' (UA-BLU).
The signalling link can also be blocked at the remote end network element or at both
ends. Then the user of the remote end network element has blocked the signalling link
which is in state 'unavailable-blocked by remote' (UA-BLR). This means that a processor
outage condition exists at the remote end. If the signalling link has been blocked at both
ends, the signalling link is in state 'unavailable blocked by user and remote' (UA-BLB).
Signalling link in state UA-AD
If a signalling link is in state 'unavailable, activation denied' (UA-AD) it means that the
operator has taken it out of service and has denied its activation. If you want to activate
it, first use the NLA command which allows activation of the link, then give the NLC
command to activate the signalling link.
If a signalling link is in state 'unavailable deactivated by user' (UA-INU) it means that the
operator has taken it out of service. If the link is in this state, activate it by using the NLC
command.
Signalling link in state UA-INS
If a signalling link is in state 'unavailable-deactivated by system' (UA-INS), it means that
the signalling link has not completed the initial alignment or the signalling link test pro-
cedure successfully.
UA-BLB-IBB unavailable-blocked by user and
remote exchange-inhibited local
and remote
The signalling link is blocked and inhibited at
both ends.
Main state -
substate 1 -
substate 2
Name of the state Meaning and the change made
Table 3 States of the signalling links (Cont.)
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Signalling data link test procedure
The signalling link can be also in state Tested (TST). This means that the user has
started a data link test and only test traffic can be transferred by the link, while no sig-
nalling traffic is allowed. Before the user can place a link in state TST, the link must first
be in state 'unavailable-activation denied' (UA-AD). You can change the state with the
NLD command. After that, you can define how to test the link by using the NLT command.
10.5 States of SCCP signalling points
Two states can be seen in the execution printouts. The first one has two possible values:
AV (available) and UA (unavailable). The normal state is always AV if a primary desti-
nation point or the replicated destination point is available. The state of SCCP signalling
point should normally follow the state of the signalling route set on the MTP level. The
second state shows the state of an individual signalling point.
SCCP signalling point in state AV-CONG
In state AV-CONG ('available-congested'), the signalling point handles the signalling
traffic while the signalling route set is in an overload condition. In an ANSI network, the
messages have priorities and it is possible that a lower priority message routing has ter-
minated due to this overload condition. In an ITU network, the AV-CONG state does not
have much effect on the SCCP level, so it is for information only. If the state of signalling
point is AV-SP ('available-spare'), the state of replicated signalling point is available, and
it is ready to handle traffic, if the primary signalling point becomes unavailable.
SCCP signalling point in state UA-INS
If the state of a signalling point is UA-INS, the system set to inactive state. This means
that the route set on the MTP level has become unavailable and it has to be verified.
SCCP signalling point in state UA-INU
If the state of a signalling point is UA-INU, it has been set to inactive state by the user
and it can be taken into use by using the NGC command.
Main state -
substate
Name of the state Meaning
AV-EX available-executing The SCCP signalling point transfers signalling
traffic.
AV-SP available-spare The state of replicated signalling point is available
and the point is ready to handle traffic if the primary
signalling point becomes unavailable.
AV-CONG available-congested The SCCP signalling point transfers signalling
traffic, while the signalling route set is in an overload
condition.
UA-INU unavailable-deactivated by
user
The user has taken the SCCP signalling point out of
service.
UA-INS unavailable-deactivated by
system
The system has taken the SCCP signalling point out
of service, because the signalling point is unavail-
able on the MTP level.
Table 4 States of SCCP signalling points
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g The state of the signalling point is UA-INU when it is first created. This means that
you have to remember to change the state and take the SP into use after creation.
Note also that the replicated signalling point is in state UA-UD ('unavailable-user
denied') when it is created. You can take the SCCP signalling point in use with the
NGD command.
10.6 States of SCCP subsystems
SCCP subsystem in state UA-INS
If the local subsystem is in state UA-INS, it has not been registered and no messages
can be delivered to it. The subsystem registration situation can be checked with the NHJ
command. You can see from the registration information if the subsystem uses a con-
nection-oriented service, connectionless service, or local broadcast service. The FE
subsystem always uses a connection-oriented service. You can also see if the subsys-
tem uses a TC. For example, the MAP, INAP, and OMAP are subsystems that use a TC.
The SCCP management subsystem (SCMG = 01) is automatically created when you
create an SCCP for a signalling point. The state of the SCMG must normally follow the
state of SCCP signalling. Nevertheless, it is possible that remote SCMG subsystems are
in state UA-INS while the signalling point is in state AV-EX. This happens when the
remote signalling point's MTP has detected that the SCCP is out of service and sends
an UPU message (User Part Unavailable) to your signalling point. Note that all actions
to clear this situation have to be done at the remote signalling point.
SCCP subsystem in state UA-UD
If the state of a subsystem is unavailable (the use of replica is denied (UA-UD)), it means
that the activation of a replicated subsystem is not permitted. When a new replicated
Main state-
substate
Name of the state Meaning
AV-EX available-executing The subsystem is transferring signalling traffic.
AV-SP available-spare The subsystem is not transferring signalling traffic,
but it can immediately be taken into use when nec-
essary. Such can be the case, for example, when
there is a failure in the executing subsystem.
UA-INU unavailable-deactivated by
user
The user has taken the subsystem out of use.
UA-INS unavailable-deactivated by
system
The signalling point where the subsystem is located
is unavailable.
UA-INR unavailable-deactivated by
remote exchange
An SSP message is received or, alternatively, when
the user is activating the signalling point, the signal-
ling point does not respond to the subsystem state
test message with an SSA message.
UA-UD unavailable-use of replica
denied
Activation of a replicated subsystem is not permit-
ted. When a new replicated subsystem is created, it
is set into this state.
UA-UR unavailable-use as replica
denied
Use as a replicated subsystem is not permitted.
Table 5 States of SCCP subsystems
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subsystem is created, it is set into this state. This state can be changed with the NHD
command.
Remote SCCP subsystem state
The states of other remote subsystems are normally available (AV-EX). State UA-INU
(set inactive by user) is set on when the subsystem is created. You can activate the sub-
system by using the NHC command. If the state of a subsystem is unavailable (deacti-
vated by the system (UA-INS)), it means that the state of the signalling point is also
unavailable (see Section States of SCCP signalling points).
If the state of a remote subsystem is unavailable (set inactive by the remote end (UA-
INR)), it means that a subsystem prohibited message (SSP) has been received or, alter-
natively, when the user is activating the signalling point, the signalling point does not
respond to the subsystem status test message (SST) with a subsystem allowed
message (SSA). This state can not be changed to active by the user.
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11 Error messages of MTP commands
During command execution, errors preventing command execution can occur.
If the data updates included in the command's execution have been partly carried out,
a 'major error' has occurred. If there is any other kind of failure in the command's exe-
cution, a 'minor error' has occurred.
11.1 MTP command major errors
Major errors are indicated by the following text:
COMMAND EXECUTION ABORTED
In such cases, the files can contain indefinite data or the contents of the file of the active
unit and those of the spare unit can differ from each other.
In addition, one of the error messages below is output.
/*** COMMUNICATION ERROR BETWEEN CCADMI IN CM AND CCADMI IN CCMU ***/
The Common Channel Signalling Management Unit (CCMU) can be overloaded, pre-
venting the exchange of messages between the units.
Re-enter the command after the overload is over.
Use the AHO command to see if the system has set Alarm 1004 COMMUNICATION
ERROR BETWEEN PROGRAM BLOCKS. If so, follow the alarm instructions.
One way to circumvent the failure is to perform a controlled switchover for the CCMU.
This failure may also be result if the CCADMI is missing from the CCMU. Check whether
the CCADMI process exists and if not, start it by using service terminal commands.
/*** DISK UPDATING FAILED ***/
The disk updating has failed.
Use the AHO command to check if the system has set Alarm 1065 DISK UPDATE
FAILURE. If so, follow the alarm instructions.
Use the DUD command to check if the disk updating queue is empty and cancel the
change you made with the previous command (for example, remove the created signal-
ling link). After this, re-enter the command.
/*** DISTRIBUTION AND DISK UPDATING FAILED ***/
The data distribution and the disk updating have failed. The updating of a signalling file
may have failed in some units.
Use the AHO command to check the alarms of the main memory and follow the alarm
instructions.
/*** DISTRIBUTION ERROR ***/
The data distribution has failed. The updating of a signalling file may have failed in some
units.
Use the AHO command to check the alarms of the main memory and follow the alarm
instructions.
/*** INCORRECT MESSAGE ***/
An error is detected within the system's internal information flow. The contents or the
length of the message received from the MML program or the CCADMI is incorrect.
The problem may be due to a faulty software build.
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/*** L3PARA FILE ERROR ***/
There may be an error in the L3PARA file. Copy the L3PARA file from the OMU's disk
to the memory. If there is an error in the file taken from the OMU's disk as well, use the
backup copy (if there is one).
11.2 MTP command minor errors
Minor errors are indicated by the following text:
COMMAND EXECUTION FAILED
If a minor error interrupts the command's execution, the files are not modified. In other
words, the system is in the same state as it had been before the command was given.
Minor errors may be due to many different things. The most common reasons are listed
below:
the parameter value given in the command is not permitted or is already in use
the given command is not executed because it prevents or requires some other
function
the system is not able to execute the given command because the state of some
other part of the system is incorrect (for example, a signalling channel is active)
the change to be performed by the command applies to a computer unit which has
not been created or which is not in a state compatible with the execution of the
command
Check the parameters given in the command and re-enter the command.
In the case of interrogation commands, only minor errors can occur.
In addition, one of the error messages below is output.
/*** ABATE VALUE MUST BE SMALLER THAN ONSET VALUE ***/
When changing the abate value, it must be smaller than the onset value. Use the NOI
command for the limit values of congestion thresholds.
/*** ACTIVE UNIT STATE INCORRECT ***/
The active unit is in some other working state than WO-EX or the unit type is other than
the central memory (CM) or the centralised unit of common channel signalling.
/*** ADDITION OF PCM-TSL TO CCS7 CIRCUIT GROUP FAILED ***/
Changing the signalling link failed because the Routing Administration Library (RTLLIB)
failed to connect the signalling time slot to the internal circuit group. Use the RCI
command to find out if there are available time slots in the CCS channel.
/*** ALL DESTINATION POINT INDEXES ALREADY USED ***/
All destination point indexes of matrix measurement are already in use. The OID
command shows the destination point indexes of matrix measurement.
/*** ALL ORIGINATING POINT INDEXES ALREADY USED ***/
All originating point indexes of matrix measurement are already in use. The OID
command shows the originating point indexes of matrix measurement.
/*** ALL SERVICE INDICATOR INDEXES ALREADY USED ***/
All service indicator indexes are already in use. The OIP command shows the service
indicator indexes.
/*** ALL SIGNALLING ROUTES CREATED ***/
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The maximum number of signalling routes have already been created. The NRI
command shows the created signalling routes.
/*** ALREADY CONNECTED TO GIVEN UNIT ***/
The signalling link to be transferred is already connected to the unit.
/*** AS7 CIRCUIT GROUP DOES NOT EXIST ***/
There is no route for the PCMs used by the signalling link terminals. The route must be
formed when the first signalling link terminal is created. Check routing by the RCI
command.
/*** ATTEMPT TO GIVE MORE THAN ONE ASSOCIATE SIGNALLING ROUTE TO SIGNALLING POINT ***/
Only one of the signalling routes leading to the adjacent signalling point can be associ-
ated. For the other routes, the same network has to be given as the transfer point, but a
different signalling point code than that of the signalling route set.
/*** ATTEMPT TO HAVE RESTRICTED MTP (A INTERFACE) IN SIGNALLING ROUTE SET TOGETHER WITH INDIRECT ROUTES
***/
The signalling route set can be created to support a restricted MTP only if its only sig-
nalling route is associated (direct). In the case of trying to support a restricted MTP in a
routing set with indirect signalling routes, the task is interrupted and the above execution
error message is output.
/*** ATTEMPT TO USE SIGNALLING POINT AS A SIGNALLING TRANSFER POINT ALTHOUGH THIS IS DENIED BY ITS
PARAMETER SET ***/
A signalling point cannot be used as a signalling transfer point if this is denied by the
parameter set of the signalling point. An execution error message may also be output if
the signalling route set which the signalling point is part of has been created to support
a restricted MTP and the user attempts to use the signalling point as a signalling transfer
point.
/*** CCNETM NOT YET IN ACTIVE STATE ***/
The Signalling Links Management Program Block (CCNETM) could not process the
data of the signalling link in the state in question.
/*** CCSU DOES NOT EXIST ***/
The CCSU does not exist.
/*** COMMUNICATION ERROR BETWEEN CCADMI AND CCDESM ***/
Communication between the MTP Data Management Program Block and the Signalling
Network Management Program Block failed.
/*** COMMUNICATION ERROR BETWEEN CCADMI AND CCNETM ***/
Communication between the MTP Data Management Program Block and the Signalling
Links Management Program Block failed.
/*** COMMUNICATION ERROR BETWEEN CCADMI AND CM3PRO ***/
Communication between the MTP Data Management Program Block and the Routing
Working State Administration Program Block failed.
/*** COMMUNICATION ERROR BETWEEN CCADMI AND CS2PRO ***/
Communication between the MTP Data Management Program Block and the Statistical
Program Block for MTP (Centralized Part) failed.
/*** COMMUNICATION ERROR BETWEEN CCADMI AND SMNPRO ***/
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Communication between the MTP Data Management Program Block and the SCCP
Management Program Block failed.
/*** COMMUNICATION ERROR BETWEEN CCADMI AND USPMAN ***/
Communication between the MTP Data Management Program Block and the User Part
Manager failed.
/*** CONFLICT BETWEEN CDIS66 RECORD COUNT AND L3PARA MAX INDEX VALUES ***/
The maximum index values of matrix measurement are outside CDIS66 record count.
/*** CREATION OF CIRCUIT GROUP CCS7 FAILED ***/
The creation of a signalling link failed because the Routing Administration Library
(RTLLIB) failed to create internal circuit group CCS7, which the signalling route is con-
nected to.
/*** CS2PRO BUSY WHEN ASKING MAXIMUM VALUES OF STATISTICAL INDEXES ***/
The Statistical Program Block for MTP (Centralised Part) is busy and cannot respond to
the interrogation of the maximum values of statistical indexes.
/*** DELETION OF CIRCUIT GROUP CCS7 FAILED ***/
The deletion of the signalling link failed because the Routing Administration Library
(RTLLIB) failed to delete circuit group CCS7, which the signalling route is connected to.
/*** DELETION OF PCM-TSL TO CCS7 CIRCUIT GROUP FAILED ***/
The deletion of the signalling link failed because the Routing Administration Library
(RTLLIB) failed to delete the signalling time slot to the circuit group.
/*** DESTINATION POINT CODE ALREADY CONNECTED TO MATRIX MEASUREMENT ***/
The signalling destination point code is already connected to the MTP statistics matrix
measurement.
/*** DESTINATION POINT CODE DOES NOT CONNECT TO MATRIX MEASUREMENT ***/
The signalling destination point does not connect to the MTP statistics matrix measure-
ment.
/*** DIRECT ROUTE FROM ROUTE SET CANNOT BE DELETED BECAUSE THE LINK SET IS USED IN ANOTHER NETWORK ***/
The direct route cannot be deleted if its route set is used in another signalling network.
/*** DISCARDING VALUE MUST BE BIGGER THAN ONSET VALUE ***/
When changing the discarding value, it must be taken care of that it is bigger than the
onset value. Use the NOI command for the limit values of congestion thresholds.
/*** ERROR IN READING L3PARA FILE ***/
The reading of L3PARA failed.
/*** EXTERNAL CIRCUIT GROUP EXISTS TO SIGNALLING POINT ***/
The User Part Manager (USPMAN) finds an existing external circuit group in the signal-
ling point.
/*** EXTERNAL PCM NOT CONNECTED TO EXTERNAL ROUTE ***/
The Routing Administration Library (RTLLIB) failed to connect the external time slot to
the external route.
/*** EXTERNAL PCM-TSL ALREADY USED FOR SIGNALLING LINK ***/
The external time slot is already in use.
/*** EXTERNAL PCM-TSL IS CONNECTED TO OTHER ROUTE THAN CCS7 ***/
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The Routing Administration Library (RTLLIB) does not connect the external time slot to
the external route when it detects that the time slot is connected to a route other than
CCS7. Choose another external time slot or delete the time slot from the route using it,
and connect it to the CCS7 route.
/*** EXTERNAL ROUTING FAILURE ***/
The external routing by the Routing Administration Library (RTLLIB) failed.
/*** EXCHANGE TERMINAL INACTIVE ***/
The exchange terminal is in some other working state than active in the Signalling Link
Control File (SLCONT).
/*** FAILED TO CLARIFY UPPER LIMIT OF PCM NUMBER ***/
A failure in the clarification of the upper limit of the PCMs' number.
/*** FILE ACCESS ERROR ***/
The File System Library (FISLIB) has sent a file access error message to the MTP Data
Management Program Block (CCADMI). CCADMI has not been able either to read or
write the file, depending on which task the error has occurred in. For further information
on the error, see the log records saved in the central memory by CCADMI.
/*** ILLEGAL MESSAGE LENGTH BETWEEN MML AND CCADMI ***/
The length of the message between the MML and the CCADMI is illegal.
/*** ILLEGAL PARAMETER ***/
One of the parameters given by the user is illegal.
/*** ILLEGAL PCM ***/
An illegal PCM.
/*** INCORRECT LINK STATE ***/
The signalling link is in a state where the modification command is impossible.
/*** INCORRECT MESSAGE FROM CCADMI ***/
The MML received an incorrect message from the CCADMI.
/*** INCORRECT PARAMETER SET NAME ***/
The parameter set name is incorrect.
/*** INCORRECT SERVICE NAME ***/
The service name is incorrect.
/*** INCORRECT SIGNALLING LINK SET NAME ***/
The signalling link set name is incorrect.
/*** INCORRECT SIGNALLING LINK TABLE IN CCXHAN ***/
The signalling link table used by the Signalling Link Data Handling MML is incorrect. The
signalling link table contains the signalling point codes given by the user.
/*** INCORRECT SIGNALLING POINT NAME ***/
The signalling point name is incorrect.
/*** INCORRECT SIGNALLING TRANSFER POINT NAME ***/
The signalling transfer point name is incorrect.
/*** INSUFFICIENT NUMBER OF PARAMETERS ***/
The user has not given the data of the signalling link to be modified.
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/*** INTERNAL PCM NOT CONNECTED TO AS7 CIRCUIT GROUP ***/
The PCM used by the signalling link terminal has not been connected to the AS7 circuit
group. Check the routing by the RCI command. The time slots used by the signalling link
terminal have to be connected to the AS7 circuit group when creating the terminal.
Check the data of the signalling link terminal by the commands of the equipment data-
base.
/*** GIVEN PARAMETER VALUE MUST BE BIGGER THAN VALUE OF THE LOWER LEVEL ***/
When modifying the limit values of congestion thresholds, it must be taken care of that
the limit values increase as the threshold value increases. Use the NOI command for
limit values of congestion thresholds.
/*** LAST SIGNALLING LINK IN SIGNALLING LINK SET ***/
Deleting the signalling link fails if the signalling link is the last one in the signalling link
set. In this case, delete the signalling link set first with the NSD command.
/*** MEASUREMENT 6.6 NOT STOPPED ***/
MTP measurements must be stopped when modifying MTP statistics indexes. Measure-
ment 6.6 has not been stopped. The measurement accords with ITU-T recommendation
Q.752. Stop the measurements with OSD command.
/*** NEITHER SIGNALLING TERMINAL NOR SIGNALLING LINK SET INITIALIZED ***/
The signalling link terminal has not been initialised, and the signalling link has not been
connected to any signalling link set.
/*** NO ASSOCIATE SIGNALLING ROUTE IN SIGNALLING ROUTE SET TO SIGNALLING TRANSFER POINT ***/
The signalling point cannot be used as the signalling transfer point because there is no
associate signalling route to it.
/*** NO EXCHANGE TERMINAL FOR SIGNALLING DATA LINK ***/
There is no exchange terminal for the external PCM.
/*** NO FREE TERMINAL FUNCTION ***/
The user is trying to create more signalling links than allowed.
/*** NO FREE TERMINAL IN UNIT ***/
The transfer of the signalling link to another unit fails because there is no free terminal
in the unit. A new signalling link terminal must be equipped in the unit.
/*** ONLY ONE SIGNALLING ROUTE IN SIGNALLING ROUTE SET ***/
The last route in the signalling route set cannot be deleted with the NRR command, but
the whole signalling route set must be deleted with the NRD command.
/*** ORIGINATING POINT CODE ALREADY CONNECTED TO MATRIX MEASUREMENT ***/
The originating point is already connected to MTP matrix measurement Q.752 6.6.
/*** ORIGINATING POINT CODE DOES NOT CONNECT TO MATRIX MEASUREMENT ***/
The originating point is not connected to MTP matrix measurement Q.752 6.6.
/*** OTHER SIGNALLING POINTS EXIST IN SIGNALLING NETWORK ***/
The deletion of the signalling point is not allowed if there are other signalling points in
the signalling network.
/*** OWN ADDITIONAL SIGNALLING POINT EXISTS ***/
There is another signalling point code for the signalling point in the signalling network.
The data of the other signalling point code is defined in L3PARA (CCITT7 Level 3
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Parameter File). Check the data with the NMI command and delete the other signalling
point code unless it is necessary.
/*** OPC/DPC BUFFER OVERFLOW ***/
An overflow in the buffer which the MML program CCZHAN (Signalling Route Set Data
Handling) uses for transferring the originating point codes (OPC) or destination point
codes (DPC) in the CCADMI message.
/*** OWN SIGNALLING POINT ***/
The function cannot be performed for the own signalling point.
/*** OWN SIGNALLING POINT DOES NOT EXIST ***/
The function cannot be performed until an own signalling point has been created. Create
the signalling point by the NRP command.
/*** OWN SIGNALLING POINT IS END POINT ***/
The user has attempted to define functions that are impossible for the signalling point
which is the end point.
/*** PARAMETER SET ALREADY EXISTS ***/
The parameter set exists already.
/*** PARAMETER SET DOES NOT EXIST ***/
The parameter set does not exist.
/*** PARAMETER SET IN USE ***/
You are trying to delete or modify a parameter set which is in use. Check the parameter
sets used by the signalling data links with the NCI command or those used by the sig-
nalling route sets with the NRI command.
/*** PARAMETER SET NAME ALREADY RESERVED ***/
The parameter set name has already been reserved.
/*** PASSIVE UNIT STATE INCORRECT ***/
The passive unit is in SP-RE state. Wait until the passive unit is in SP-EX state.
/*** PCM CIRCUITS EXIST TO SIGNALLING POINT ***/
The deletion of the signalling route set is impossible because PCM circuits have been
connected to the signalling point.
/*** PREPARING FOR SWITCHOVER ***/
The switchover is being prepared. The MML commands are not received.
/*** REMOTE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT MISSED ***/
The remote acknowledgement has been missed.
/*** REQUESTED STATE ALREADY EXISTS ***/
The requested state already exists.
/*** RSPARA FILE ACCESSING ERROR ***/
An attempt to access files outside RSPARA (Signalling Route Set Parameter File).
/*** SEMIPERMANENT FILE UPDATING BUSY ***/
The semipermanent file updating is in progress. A new task requiring semipermanent
file updating will not be received simultaneously. Give a new command.
/*** SERVICE ALREADY EXISTS ***/
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The service which the user tried to create already exists.
/*** SERVICE NAME ALREADY EXISTS ***/
The service name is already used by another user part.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK ACTIVATION DENIED ***/
The signalling link activation is denied. Use the NLA command to enable the activation.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK ACTIVATION FAILED ***/
The signalling link activation failed. This can be caused by a fault in the data link con-
nection or the remote end. If the signalling link activation fails, alarm 2072 FAILURE IN
SIGNALLING ACTIVATION OR RESTORATION is given.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK ACTIVATION NOT DENIED ***/
The signalling link activation is not denied. Deny the activation with the NLD command.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK ALREADY EXISTS ***/
The signalling link exists already.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK BLOCKING FAILED ***/
The signalling link blocking failed. The connection to the signalling link terminal can be
faulty. Check the alarms.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK DEBLOCKING FAILED ***/
The signalling link deblocking failed. The connection to the signalling link terminal can
be faulty. Check the alarms.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK DOES NOT EXIST ***/
The signalling link does not exist.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK INACTIVATION FAILED ***/
The signalling link deactivation failed. The connection to the signalling link terminal can
be faulty. Check the alarms.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK INHIBITING FAILED ***/
The signalling link inhibiting failed.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK INHIBITING LOCALLY DENIED ***/
The signalling link inhibiting is locally denied. The inhibiting would make one of the sig-
nalling points be out of reach. Therefore, signalling link inhibiting is denied.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK INHIBITING REMOTELY DENIED ***/
The remote end denied the signalling link inhibiting. The inhibiting would make one of
the signalling points be out of reach of the remote end. Therefore, the remote end denies
signalling link inhibiting.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK IS CONNECTED TO SIGNALLING LINK SET ***/
The deletion of the signalling link is denied because the signalling link is connected to
the signalling link set.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK IS NOT CONNECTED TO SIGNALLING LINK SET ***/
The modification of the signalling link state is denied because the signalling link is not
connected to the signalling link set.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK NOT ACTIVATED ***/
The signalling link activation failed.
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/*** SIGNALLING LINK NOT INACTIVATED BY USER ***/
To deny the signalling link activation, the signalling link must be in UA-INU state. Use
the NCL command to set the UA-INU state.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK NOT IN SIGNALLING LINK SET ***/
The signalling link has not been connected to the signalling link set.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK SET ALREADY EXISTS ***/
The signalling link set exists already.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK SET DOES NOT EXIST ***/
The signalling link set does not exist.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK SET FILE FULL ***/
The signalling link set file is full. The creation of a signalling link set is denied. The
exchange needs a new file set.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK SET IS CONNECTED TO SIGNALLING ROUTE SET ***/
The deletion of the signalling link set is denied because the signalling link set is con-
nected to the signalling route set.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK SET IS NOT CONNECTED TO SIGNALLING ROUTE SET ***/
Modifying the signalling link state is denied because the signalling link set is not con-
nected to the signalling route set.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK SET NAME ALREADY RESERVED ***/
The signalling link set name is already reserved.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK STARTING FAILED ***/
The signalling link starting failed. The data link connection or the remote end may be
faulty.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK STATE CHANGE BUSY ***/
The signalling link state is being changed.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK UNINHIBITING FAILED ***/
The signalling link uninhibiting failed.
/*** SIGNALLING LINK UNINHIBITING IMPOSSIBLE ***/
The signalling link uninhibiting is impossible because there is no connection to the
remote end.
/*** SIGNALLING NETWORK DOES NOT EXIST ***/
The signalling network does not exist.
/*** SIGNALLING POINT ALREADY BELONGS TO PERIODIC MRVT ***/
The signalling point already belongs to the MTP routing verification test.
/*** SIGNALLING POINT ALREADY EXISTS ***/
The signalling point already exists.
/*** SIGNALLING POINT CODE ALREADY EXISTS ***/
The signalling point code already exists.
/*** SIGNALLING POINT DOES NOT BELONG TO PERIODIC MRVT ***/
The signalling point does not belong to the MTP routing verification test.
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/*** SIGNALLING POINT DOES NOT EXIST ***/
The signalling point does not exist.
/*** SIGNALLING POINT IS USED BY SCCP ***/
The signalling point which the user is trying to delete is used by the signalling control
connection part (SCCP).
/*** SIGNALLING POINT NAME ALREADY RESERVED ***/
The signalling point name is already reserved.
/*** SIGNALLING ROUTE ACTIVATION DENIED ***/
The signalling route activation is denied. Use the NVA command to enable the route acti-
vation.
/*** SIGNALLING ROUTE ACTIVATION FAILED ***/
The signalling route activation failed. Check with the NSI command if the signalling
route set of the route is in AV state.
/*** SIGNALLING ROUTE ACTIVATION NOT DENIED ***/
The signalling route activation is not denied. Set the route in UA-AD state with the NVD
command.
/*** SIGNALLING ROUTE ALREADY EXISTS ***/
The signalling route already exists in the signalling route set. Check with the NRI
command.
/*** SIGNALLING ROUTE DOES NOT EXIST ***/
The signalling route does not exist in the signalling route set.
/*** SIGNALLING ROUTE INACTIVATION FAILED ***/
The signalling route inactivation failed.
/*** SIGNALLING ROUTE SET ALREADY EXISTS ***/
The signalling route set already exists. Check with the NRI command.
/*** SIGNALLING ROUTE SET DOES NOT EXIST ***/
The signalling route set does not exist. Check with the NRI command.
/*** SIGNALLING ROUTE SET FILE FULL ***/
The Signalling Route Set File (ROSETF) is full, that is, the maximum number of signal-
ling route sets have been created in the exchange. The exchange needs a new file set.
/*** SIGNALLING ROUTE SET STATE NOT AVAILABLE ***/
The signalling route set state is not available. Therefore, the load sharing of the signal-
ling route links is denied. Check the signalling route set state with the NRI command.
/*** SIGNALLING ROUTE STATE CHANGE BUSY ***/
The signalling route state is being changed in the central memory.
/*** SIGNALLING ROUTE STATE IS NOT UA-INU ***/
The signalling route is not in UA-INU state. Change the state with the NVC command.
/*** SIGNALLING ROUTE TO ADJACENT SP ALREADY EXISTS ***/
There is already a direct signalling route to the adjacent signalling point. Check with the
NRI command.
/*** SIGNALLING ROUTES AND ROUTE SET STATES INQUIRY FROM CCM BUSY ***/
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The signalling routes and route set states are being inquired from the CCM.
/*** SIGNALLING TERMINAL NOT INITIALIZED ***/
The signalling terminal has not been initialised. There is a lack of terminals.
/*** SIGNALLING TERMINAL UNIT DOES NOT EXIST ***/
The signalling terminal unit (CCSU, BCSU, or an equivalent of these) does not exist.
/*** SIGNALLING TRANSFER POINT DOES NOT EXIST ***/
The signalling transfer point does not exist or no signalling link set has been created for
it. Check the signalling point and the signalling link set with the NSI command.
/*** SIGNALLING TRANSFER POINT POLICING DEFINED TO SIGNALLING POINT ***/
An STP policing has been defined for the signalling transfer point.
/*** SIGNALLING UNIT SWITCHOVER IS REQUIRED AND LINK NOT IN LINK SET ***/
Signalling unit switchover is required and the signalling link must be connected to the
signalling link set before the signalling link can be activated.
/*** SIGNALLING UNIT SWITCHOVER IS REQUIRED BEFORE LINK CAN BE ACTIVATED ***/
Initialise the signalling terminal unit by a signalling unit switchover or restart the unit.
/*** SIO ALREADY CONNECTED TO MATRIX MEASUREMENT ***/
The service information octet is already connected to the MTP statistics matrix measure-
ment.
/*** SIO DOES NOT CONNECT TO MATRIX MEASUREMENT ***/
The service information octet is not connected to the MTP statistics matrix measure-
ment.
/*** SLC RESERVED FOR OTHER SIGNALLING LINK ***/
The signalling link code has been reserved for another signalling link in the signalling
link set. Check with the NSI command.
/*** SLINKF FILE ACCESSING ERROR ***/
An attempt to access files outside the Signalling Link File (SLINKF).
/*** SLNPAR FILE ACCESSING ERROR ***/
An attempt to access files outside the Signalling Link Parameter File (SLNPAR).
/*** SLN PARAMETER SET ALREADY EXISTS ***/
The user is trying to create an SLN parameter set which already exists. The NOI
command shows the existing parameter sets.
/*** SLN PARAMETER SET DOES NOT EXIST ***/
The SLN parameter set does not exist. Check the identifiers of the parameter set. The
NOI command shows the existing SLN parameter sets.
/*** SLN PARAMETER SET IS IN USE ***/
The SLN parameter set is in use. The NCI command shows the links using the param-
eter set.
/*** SOURCE PARAMETER SET DOES NOT EXIST ***/
The source parameter set does not exist. Check the identifiers of the parameter set.
/*** SOURCE PARAMETER SET IS NOT USED ***/
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The source parameter set is not used by any signalling point.
/*** SOURCE SLN SET DOES NOT EXIST ***/
The source SLN parameter set does not exist. Check the identifiers of the parameter set
with the NOI command.
/*** SP IS USED AS OWN ADDITIONAL SP ***/
The signalling point is used as an own additional signalling point which is saved in the
CCITT7 Level 3 Parameter File (L3PARA). Check with the NMI command.
/*** SP IS USED AS SIGNALLING TRANSFER POINT IN OTHER SIGNALLING ROUTE SET ***/
The signalling point which the direct signalling route to be deleted is connected to is
used as a signalling transfer point in another signalling route set.
/*** STATE CHANGE IS IMPOSSIBLE ***/
The state change is impossible. Check the route state with the NVI command.
/*** THE HANDLING OF THE LINK IN THE JAPANESE NETWORK IS DENIED ***/
It is not possible to block the signalling link in the Japanese SS7 network (specification
of NTT and TTC).
/*** TIME LIMIT EXCEEDED ***/
The message set by CCADMI was not answered before the time-out.
/*** UNKNOWN SERVICE ***/
The service indicator is unknown.
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12 SS7 signalling network parameters
With the signalling parameters it is possible to control and modify certain functions of the
signalling network. The signalling parameters are divided into six different levels,
depending on which part of the signalling system they affect.
MTP level parameters
MTP level 3 parameters
CCS7 signalling network-specific parameters
signalling link-specific parameters
signalling route set-specific parameters
SCCP and TC level parameters
SCCP signalling point parameters
SCCP subsystem parameters
For some levels, it is possible to define the number of special parameter sets. The
parameter sets can be connected so that different parts of the signalling system use dif-
ferent parameter sets. This way, it is possible to use different kinds of signalling in dif-
ferent directions.
For example, there can be two different signalling link parameter sets defined, one of
which is connected to the signalling links leading to network element X, and the other
one is connected to the signalling links leading to network element Y. In this case, the
signalling functions are different towards network element X, from the ones towards
network element Y.
There are few parameter sets predefined for a different kind of SS7 signalling standards
(for example, ITU-T, ANSI, JAPAN). It is recommended to use these parameter sets or,
at least, to start with them. If there is a need to change them, it is reasonable to create
a new one on the basis of the predefined one.
Table Parameter files and their contents lists the signalling levels and the predefined
parameter sets within the level. There can also be some country-specific parameter sets
predefined, or some of the sets listed below can be left out depending on the used
software release.
Parameter level Effected parts MML commands
MTP level 3 parameters Message Transfer Part (MTP) of the
network element
NMI, NMM
signalling network parameters signalling network (NA0, NA1, IN0,
or IN1), that is, all four signalling
networks have own network param-
eters
NMO, NMC
signalling link parameters signalling links NO command group
signalling route set parameters signalling route set NN command group
SCCP signalling point parame-
ters
SCCP signalling point NFL, NFN
SCCP subsystem parameters SCCP subsystems NFM, NFO
Table 6 Parameter levels, affected parts, and the MML commands to handle them
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Signalling level Predefined parameter sets
MTP level 3 parameters All parameters have a default value.
Signalling network parameters These parameters can be defined separately for each signalling
network (IN0, IN1, NA0, and NA1). All parameters have a default value.
Signalling link parameters The following parameter sets are predefined:
ITU-T for signalling parameters defined by International Telecom-
munications Union (ITU) in Q.703Q.704.
BTNR 146 for signalling parameters defined by British Telecom-
munications Network Requirement (BTNR).
ANSI T111 for signalling parameters defined by American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) in T1.111 and T1.114.
JAPAN TTC for signalling parameters defined by Telecommunica-
tion Technology Committee (TTC) in JT.Q703 and JT.Q704.
JAPAN NTT for signalling parameters defined by Nippon Tele-
graph and Telecommunication Corporation (NTT) in JT.Q703 and
JT.Q704.
ITU-T 2.0M for large capacity signalling links defined by Interna-
tional Telecommunications Union (ITU).
TU-T 1.5M for large capacity signalling links defined by Interna-
tional Telecommunications Union (ITU).
IETF M3UA for IP type signalling links defined by Internet Engi-
neering Task Force (IETF).
Signalling route set parame-
ters
The following parameter sets are predefined:
ITU-T for signalling parameters defined by International Telecom-
munications Union (ITU) in Q.703 and Q.704.
A INTERFACE for A interface, for example, between DX MSC and
BSC or ATM Module and DX MSC.
BTNR 146 for signalling parameters defined by British Telecom-
munications Network Requirement (BTNR).
ANSI T111 for signalling parameters defined by American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) in T1.111 and T1.114.
JAPAN TTC for signalling parameters defined by Telecommunica-
tion Technology Committee (TTC) in JT.Q703 and JT.Q704.
JAPAN NTT for signalling parameters defined by Nippon Tele-
graph and Telecommunication Corporation (NTT) in JT.Q703 and
JT.Q704.
IETF M3UA for routes using IP type signalling links defined by
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
SCCP signalling point param-
eters
The following parameter sets are predefined:
BLUE for signalling parameters defined by International Telecom-
munications Union (ITU) in Q.700 - Q.716, Blue Book.
A-INT for A interface e.g. between DX MSC and BSC or ATM
Module and DX MSC.
WHITE for signalling parameters defined by International Tele-
communications Union (ITU) in Q.700 - Q.716 3/93, White Book.
Table 7 Signalling levels and their predefined parameter sets
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Since several signalling route sets and signalling links use identical parameter combi-
nations, the parameter files RSPARA and SLNPAR contain these combinations, which
we call parameter sets, so you only need to store information on which parameter sets
the signalling route sets or links use with the actual route set files or signalling link files.
This means that if you modify the contents of a signalling link parameter set, for
example, the functions of the MTP change in the same way for all the links that use the
modified parameter set.
12.1 MTP level 3 parameters
Level 3 parameters define the functions of the whole MTP. Some of the parameter
values are related to monitoring the functions, while others define various limits.
The parameters are divided into six groups (A-F):
A SS7 general parameters
B Parameters for managing overload
C Timing parameters of own signalling point
D Parameters for testing
E SIO parameters
F Parameters for SS7 statistics
The following table lists the parameter groups, parameters and their indexes, parameter
names and their meanings, the possible values of each parameter, and the value range,
as well as the recommended value if that exists.
SCCP subsystem parameters The following parameter sets are predefined:
GENER for general use in other than with A interface.
A-INT for A interface, for example, between DX MSC and BSC or
ATM Module and DX MSC.
Signalling level Predefined parameter sets
Table 7 Signalling levels and their predefined parameter sets (Cont.)
The name of the parameter file Content
L3PARA level 3 parameters
RSPARA signalling route set parameters
SLNPAR signalling link parameters
SNWPAR signalling network parameters
Table 8 Parameter files and their contents
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Parameter group Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter group
and number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
A SS7 COMMON PARAMETERS
A0-A9 DISTRIB_MTP_UNIT_TYPE_0 - 9
Defines those unit types on an exchange where you
can create signalling links.
Usually, parameter values do not need to be changed
in the DX MSC, DX HLR, BSC, or fixed network
exchanges because the unit types CCSU, BCSU, and
BSU have been prebuilt. In the PMR, the units CM
and CCC have been prebuilt.
B OVERLOAD CONTROL PARAMETERS
B0 MAX_NB_OF_NOTICES 10 to 30
The largest amount of incoming messages are
allowed to enter a centralised unit during a message
monitoring period (100 ms). The purpose of the
parameter is to control overload within the exchange.
The parameter value should not be changed.
C TIMER PARAMETERS FOR OWN SIGNALLING
POINT
C0 LINK_TEST_PERIOD 1500 to 45000 (10 ms)
The sending period for signalling link test messages.
The period applies to a group of ten signalling links.
This means that when an exchange has 30 links, the
test message goes to each link in every third sending
period.
4000 (40 sec.)
C1 Q704_T18_LINK_AVAIL_WAIT 1000 to 6000 (10 ms)
The time used to control the availability of the links
when a signalling transfer point is restarted. The value
depends on the implementation and on the network.
2000
C2 Q704_T19_TRA_WAIT 200 to 1000 (10 ms)
The timer controlling the reception of all TRA
messages while the signalling transfer point is being
restarted when the restarting is made as defined in
the CCITT Blue Book. The timer is defined by the P7
parameter when the system follows the White Book.
400
C3 Q704_T20_TRAF_RESTARTING_TIME 200 to 1000 (10 ms)
The timer controlling the sending of all TRA messages
when the signalling transfer point is being restarted.
400
C4 T111_T26 1000 to 2000 (10 ms)
Defines the timer for the resending of TRW messages
when the signalling transfer point is being restarted.
The timer is defined in the ANSI standards.
1500
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C5 Q714_T_GUARD 600 to 15000 (100 ms)
Defines the monitoring time used for the signalling
connections when the signalling transfer point is being
restarted.
6000
C6 T111_T27 300 to 500 (10 ms)
After commencing the restart procedure of a signal-
ling point, all the signalling links of the exchange keep
sending the processor outage state indicator to the
partner exchanges for a given time (defined in this
parameter), in order to make sure that all adjacent sig-
nalling points recognise that this point cannot be
reached any more.
D PARAMETERS FOR TESTING
D0 L2_TEST_MSG_SIO 0 to FF
The service information octet used by the CCS
System Test Message Generator (MSGGEN) reads
the data only when it starts up. After changing the
parameter values, the MSGGEN has to be restarted
before new values can be included in the contents of
the test messages.
8F (NA0 network user part
F)
D1 TEST_MSG_LENGTH 0 to 272
The length of the SIF part in the MSGGEN messages
of the CCS System Test Message Generator. This
parameter affects only those messages whose length
can be modified. The value for this parameter can be
changed while the MSGGEN is running, and the
MSGGEN does not need to be restarted.
smaller than 272
E INTERNAL ROUTING PARAMETERS
E0 INT_ST7_ROUTE
Defines the number of the internal route which
includes the PCM time slots used by the signalling link
terminals between the unit and the switching network.
E1 EXT_ST7_ROUTE
Defines the number of the external route which
includes the external PCM time slots used by the sig-
nalling link terminals.
E2 INT_ST7_ROUTE_NAME
Defines the name of the internal route which includes
the PCM time slots used by the signalling link termi-
nals between the unit and the switching network.
E3 EXT_ST7_ROUTE_NAME
Parameter group Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter group
and number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
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Defines the name of the external route which includes
the external PCM time slots used by the signalling link
terminals.
E4 INTERNAL_ROUTING_FOR_SL
Defines whether the system tries to update the signal-
ling link-related PCM/TSL data in the routing data of
the CM3PRO. Used only on test exchanges that have
no group switch (GSW).
F SS7 STATISTICS PARAMETERS
F0 SUCC_UNIT_COLL_COUNT_5 2 to 10
Defines the amount of MTP decentralised units from
which the statistics counters are collected at a time
during a 5minute monitoring period.
4
F1 SUCC_UNIT_COLL_COUNT_30 2 to 20
Defines the amount of MTP decentralised units from
which the statistics counters are collected one-by-one
during a 30 minute monitoring period.
10
F2 SL_LOG_TYPE NORMAL,CYCLIC
Type of the signalling link event log can be either
NORMAL or CYCLIC. The buffer can be emptied with
the OLE command.
CYCLIC
F3 SP_LOG_TYPE NORMAL,CYCLIC
Type of the signalling point event log can be either
NORMAL or CYCLIC. The buffer can be emptied with
the ONE command.
CYCLIC
F4 SL_LOG_MAX_COUNT 16 to 32
The maximum amount of changes in the state of a sig-
nalling link that can be stored in the buffer.
F5 SP_LOG_MAX_COUNT 16 to 32
The maximum amount of changes in the state of a sig-
nalling point that can be stored in the buffer.
F6 USER_NOTICE_ACT ACTIVE, PASSIVE
Controls the notices that statistics output for the user.
F7 SCCP_LOG_TYPE NORMAL, CYCLIC
Type of the SCCP event log buffer. The buffer can be
emptied with the OTE command.
F8 TC_LOG_TYPE NORMAL, CYCLIC
Type of the TC event log buffer. The buffer can be
emptied with the OTE command.
Parameter group Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter group
and number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
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12.2 SS7 signalling network parameters
These parameters apply to the whole signalling network.
The parameters are divided into four groups (J-M):
J Network-specific parameters
K Parameters for controlling international congestion
L Parameters controlling national congestion
M SLS parameters
Table CCS7 signalling network-specific parameters lists the parameter groups, param-
eters and their indexes, parameter names and their meanings, all possible values, the
quality of parameter value, and the recommended value, if any.
Parameter group Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter group
and number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
J NETWORK SPECIFIC PARAMETERS
J0 CONGESTION_METHOD NO, INT, NAT, and NATP
There are three congestion methods:
International method (INT): the congestion criteria
is the filling degree (1 limit) of the sending buffer,
whose limit values are defined in the Signalling Link
Parameter File (SLNPAR). The congestion level
directly follows the occupancy of the buffer. T29
and T30 timers are used to control traffic restriction
according to the definitions made with the K0 to K5
parameters.
National method without prioritisation of signalling
messages (NAT): the congestion criteria is the
filling degree (1 limit) of the sending buffer, the limit
values of which are defined in the Signalling Link
Parameter File (SLNPAR). The congestion level is
determined by Tx and Ty timers. The congestion
level can have 1 to 3 values, and the traffic is
restricted as required by the prevailing congestion
level and as defined in the L1 to L3 parameters.
National method with prioritization of messages
(NATP): the congestion criteria is the occupancy (3
limits) of the sending buffer, the limit values of
which are defined in the Signalling Link Parameter
File (SLNPAR). The congestion level determines
how the messages are handled (for example, on
congestion level 3, only messages with priority 3 or
higher are routed forwards).
K INTERNATIONAL CONGESTION CONTROL
METHOD PARAMETERS
K0 NB_OF_UP_LEVELS 1 to 5
The number of restriction levels for the originating traffic
concerning the international congestion method.
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K1 RESTRICT_PR_OF_UP_L1 0 to 40 (%)
The restriction percentage for the originating traffic on
restriction level 1. The T29 and T30 timers determine
the restriction level. The default value is 40%.
K2 RESTRICT_PR_OF_UP_L2 20 to 60 (%)
The restriction percentage for the originating traffic on
restriction level 2. The T29 and T30 timers determine
the restriction level. The default value is 60%.
K3 RESTRICT_PR_OF_UP_L3 40 to 80 (%)
The restriction percentage for the originating traffic on
restriction level 3. The T29 and T30 timers determine
the restriction level. The default value is 70%.
K4 RESTRICT_PR_OF_UP_L4 60 to 90 (%)
The restriction percentage for the originating traffic on
restriction level 4. The T29 and T30 timers determine
the restriction level. The default value is 80%.
K5 RESTRICT_PR_OF_UP_L5 80 to 100 (%)
The restriction percentage for the originating traffic on
restriction level 5. The T29 and T30 timers determine
the restriction level. The default value is 90%.
K6 Q764_T29 30 to 60 (0.01s)
When the first congestion indication is received by the
ISDN User Part, the traffic load in the affected destina-
tion point code is reduced by one step. At the same
time, two timers T29 and T30 are started. During
T29, all the received congestion indications for the
same destination point code are ignored not to reduce
traffic too rapidly. Reception of a congestion indication
after the expiry of T29, but still during T30, decreases
the traffic load by one more step and restarts T29 and
T30. This step-by-step reduction of the ISDN User Part
signalling traffic is continued until a maximum reduction
is obtained by arriving at the last step. If T30 expires
(that is, no congestion indications are no longer
received during the T30 period), the traffic is increased
step-by-step and T30 is restarted unless the full traffic
load has been resumed.
50
K7 Q764_T30 500 to 1000 (0.01s)
See K6. 600
L NATIONAL CONGESTION CONTROL METHOD
PARAMETERS
L0 PREDETERMINED_CONG_LEVEL 1 to 3
Parameter group Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter group
and number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
Table 10 CCS7 signalling network-specific parameters (Cont.)
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Defines the default value for the congestion level that is
reached when the buffer occupancy limit is exceeded
for the first time, or when the congestion level is coded
as 0 in a received TFC message.
L1 RESTRICT_PR_OF_MTP_L1 0 to 50 (%)
The restriction percentage for originating traffic on con-
gestion level 1.
L2 RESTRICT_PR_OF_MTP_L2 20 to 80 (%)
The restriction percentage for originating traffic on con-
gestion level 2.
L3 RESTRICT_PR_OF_MTP_L3 50 to 100 (%)
The restriction percentage for originating traffic on con-
gestion level 3.
L4 Q704_TX 5 to 200 (0.01s)
The timer raising the congestion level when the filling
limit of the transmit buffer has been exceeded. The
smaller the parameter value is, the quicker the conges-
tion level is raised. If the signalling link congestion
status is set to 's' and the buffer occupancy continues to
be above the set congestion threshold during Tx, the
signalling link congestion status is updated with the new
value s + 1.
200
L5 Q704_TY 5 to 200 (0.01s)
The timer that lowered the congestion level when con-
gestion was on, but then the filling degree of the
sending buffer decreased and went below the set limit.
The smaller the value of Ty is, the quicker the conges-
tion level decreases. If the signalling link congestion
status is set to s and the buffer occupancy continues to
be below the abatement threshold during Ty, the signal-
ling link congestion status is updated with the new value
s - 1.
M SLS BITS
M0 LINK_SLS_BIT_MASK 11111111
Defines the SLS bit mask for link selection in message
routing.
M1 ROUTE_SLS_BIT_MASK 11111111
Defines the SLS bit mask for route selection in message
routing.
M2 SLS_LENGTH 4
Defines the bit length of SLS code in the signalling
network for link selection.
Parameter group Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter group
and number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
Table 10 CCS7 signalling network-specific parameters (Cont.)
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12.3 Signalling link parameters
The parameters in the signalling link-specific parameter set define how the signalling
links function.
You can interrogate the values of the parameters of an existing signalling link parameter
set with the NOI command.
The parameters are divided into seven groups (A-G):
A Miscellaneous parameters on MTP level 2
B Control parameters for the error ratio on MTP level 2 (as defined by the
ITU)
C Timer parameters for MTP level 2 (as defined by ITU)
D Miscellaneous parameters on MTP level 3
E Signalling congestion control parameters
F Timer parameters for MTP level 3
G ATM-specific parameters (SAAL level)
Table Signalling link parameters lists the parameter groups, parameters and their
indexes, parameter names and their meanings, all possible values, the quality of the
value, and the recommended value, if any.
M3 INTERNAL_SLS_LENGTH 5
Defines the bit length of SLS code used internally in
message routing.
M4 NEW_SLS_IN_SCCP0- CLASS NOT IN USE
Indicates whether MTP reselects an SLS code for STP
messages whose in-sequence delivery is not manda-
tory.
M5 LS_LICENCE_KEY_1 0
Specifies licence key 1 for advanced load sharing pro-
cedures.
M6 LS_LICENCE_KEY_2 0
Specifies licence key 2 for advanced load sharing pro-
cedures.
Parameter group Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter group
and number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
Table 10 CCS7 signalling network-specific parameters (Cont.)
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Parameter
group
Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter
group and
number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
A MISCELLANEOUS MTP LEVEL 2 PARAMETERS
A0 LI_CODING STANDARD, BTNR
Controlling the LI coding.
BTNR is a specific method in BTNR Spec. (UK)
STANDARD
A1 BIT_D_CODING_IN_LSSU STANDARD, BTNR
Controlling the D bit coding in the LSSUs.
BTNR is a specific method in BTNR Spec. (UK)
STANDARD
A2 BIT_D_CHECK_IN_LSSU YES, NO
Controlling the D bit checking in the received LSSUs (1H
Bit D checked from the received LSSU).
NO
A3 L2_ERROR_CORRECTION BASIC, PCR
Controlling error rate monitoring in the transmission direc-
tion. PCR is for preventive cyclic retransmission for satel-
lite links. (See the parameters B7, PCR_N1 and B8,
PCR_N2.)
BASIC
A4 SN_RANGE 40 to 4095
Maximum value for backward sequence number and
forward sequence number of signalling unit.
A5 JT_Q703_K 40 to 127
Defines the number of transmitted MSU messages
without positive acknowledgement.
This parameter is relevant only in the Japanese signalling
network.
JAPAN: 40
B MTP LEVEL 2 ERROR RATE MONITORING PARAME-
TERS
B0 SUERM_T 8 to 512
Controlling the error rate of the message units SUERM_T,
SUERM_D, and SUERM_N (see CCITT Q703 10.2).
ITU: 64
ANSI: 64
JAPAN: 285
B1 SUERM_D 16 to 1024
Controlling the error rate of the message units SUERM_T,
SUERM_D, and SUERM_N (see CCITT Q703 10.2).
ITU: 256
ANSI: 256
JAPAN: 16
B2 SUERM_N 8 to 24
Controlling the error rate of the message units SUERM_T,
SUERM_D, and SUERM_N (see CCITT Q703 10.2).
16
B3 AERM_TIN 1 to 16
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Controlling the error rate of the alignment AERM_TIN
(see CCITT Q703 10.3).
4
B4 AERM_TIE 1 to 8
Controlling the error rate of the alignment AERM_TIE
(see CCITT Q703 10.3).
1
B5 AERM_M 1 to 16
Controlling the error rate of the alignment AERM_M (see
CCITT Q703 10.3).
5
B6 AERM_N 8 to 24
Controlling the error rate of the alignment AERM_N (see
CCITT Q703 10.3).
16
B7 PCR_N1 (preventive cyclic retransmission) 1 to 127
PCR_N1, number of MSUs that can be resent. The
parameter is valid only if the A3 parameter,
L2_ERROR_CORRECTION has the value PCR.
The parameter is normally used with satellite signalling
links. Both link ends must support this method.
For more information, see ITU-T Recommendation Q.703
(07/96) - Signalling link (chapter 6).
127
B8 PCR_N2 300 to 6000
PCR_N2, number of MSUs that can be resent. The
parameter is valid only if the A3 parameter,
L2_ERROR_CORRECTION has the PCR value.
The parameter is normally used with satellite signalling
links. Both link ends must support this method.
For more information, see ITU-T Recommendation Q.703
(07/96) - Signalling link (chapter 6).
800
B9 EIM_TE 8 to 793544
Errored interval monitor parameter (see ITU-T Q703
A.10.2)
B10 EIM_UE 1 to 198384
Errored interval monitor parameter (see ITU-T Q703
A.10.2)
B11 EIM_DE 1 to 11328
Errored interval monitor parameter (see ITU-T Q703
A.10.2)
B12 JT_Q703_TE 20 to 30 (1 ms)
Defines the normalised time for error rate monitoring.
This parameter is relevant only in Japanese signalling
networks.
JAPAN: 24
Parameter
group
Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter
group and
number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
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C MTP LEVEL 2 TIMER PARAMETERS
C0 Q703_T1 130 to 500 (0.1s)
Q703_T1, Alignment Completed timer ITU: 400
ANSI: 130
JAPAN: 150
C1 Q703_T2 50 to 5000 (0.1s)
Q703_T2, No Alignment timer ITU: 100
ANSI: 115
JAPAN: 50
C2 Q703_T3 10 to 116 (0.1s)
Q703_T3, Alignment timer ITU: 10
ANSI: 115
JAPAN: 30
C3 Q703_T4 23 to 95 (0.1s)
Q703_T4, Length of Test Period timer ITU: 82
ANSI: 23
JAPAN: 30
C4 Q703_T5 8 to 30 (0.01s)
Q703_T5, SIB Transmission timer ITU: 10
ANSI: 10
JAPAN: 20
C5 Q703_T6 30 to 72 (0.1s)
Q703_T6, Remote End Congestion timer ITU: 50
ANSI: 60
JAPAN: 30 for SEP, 50 for
STP
C6 Q703_T7 5 to 20 (0.1s)
Q703_T7, Delayed Acknowledgement timer ITU: 10
ANSI: 15
JAPAN: 20
C7 Q703_T8 8 to 12 (0,01 s)
Errored interval monitor timer
C8 JT_Q703_TF 20 to 30 (1 ms)
Parameter
group
Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter
group and
number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
Table 11 Signalling link parameters (Cont.)
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Defines the interval for sending an FISU when there are
no MSUs transmitted.
This parameter is relevant only in Japanese signalling
networks.
JAPAN: 24
C9 JT_Q703_TO 20 to 30 (1 ms)
Defines the interval for transmitting SIO and SIE
messages used for initial set-up and during verification.
This parameter is relevant only in Japanese signalling
networks.
JAPAN: 24
C10 JT_Q703_TS 10 to 30 (1 ms)
Defines the interval of SIOS to be transmitted during sus-
pension.
This parameter is relevant only in Japanese signalling
networks.
JAPAN: 24
D MISCELLANEOUS MTP LEVEL 3 PARAMETERS
D0 PERIODIC_LINK_TEST_DENIED YES, NO
Controlling the transmission of signalling link test mes-
sages.
NO
D1 MAX_LENGTH_OF_SIF 62, 272
Maximum length of the SIF field in the MSU message. 272
D2 INHIBIT_ATTEMPT_LIMIT 1 to 5
Limit for repeated attempts to inhibit a link. 3
D3 INHIBIT_TEST_DENIED YES, NO
Controlling the inhibition of a test procedure. NO
D4 ECO_SENDING_ALLOWED YES, NO
Defines the control of the Emergency Changeover proce-
dure.
ITU-T: YES
ANSI: YES
JAPAN: NO (NTT), YES
(TTC)
D5 INHIBITION_DENIED YES, NO
Control of the link inhibition procedure. NO
D6 SIN_DENIED YES, NO
Control of the link alignment procedure. NO
D7 SIPO_DENIED YES, NO
Control of the local processor outage procedure. NO
D8 LINK_SUSPEND_DENIED YES, NO
Control of the link oscillation prevention procedure. YES
Parameter
group
Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter
group and
number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
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D9 FALSE_CONG_DENIED YES, NO
Control of the false link congestion detection procedure. YES
D10 LINK_SRT_DENIED YES, NO
Control of the signal routing test procedure. YES
E SIGNALLING CONGESTION CONTROL PARAMETERS
E0 CONG_FILTERING_TIME 10 to 100 (0.01s)
Defines the time after which continuing congestion on a
signalling link is reported to level 3. This feature prevents
the signalling traffic control procedures from starting
during very short-time peakloads.
1
E1 BUFF_FILTERING_TIME 50 to 300 (0.01s)
Defines the time after which continuing congestion on a
signalling link is reported to level 3 while signalling
message buffering is active. This feature keeps the sig-
nalling traffic control procedures from starting in special
situations, such as changeovers, changebacks, and con-
trolled reroutings.
1
E2 CONG_ONSET_THRESHOLD1 2 to 1000, NOT IN USE
Reports the occupancy of the transmission buffer that is
interpreted as level 1 congestion. Congestion can be set
for threshold values 0 to 127; if the value is 128 to 255, the
signalling link congestion is never on.
49 Limit for congestion
onset (messages)
E3 CONG_ABATE_THRESHOLD1 1 to 800, NOT IN USE
Reports the occupancy of the transmission buffer that is
interpreted as the ending for level 1 congestion (that has
been on). It is advisable to set the release level of conges-
tion clearly lower that the activation level to avoid vibra-
tions.
2 Limit for congestion reset
(messages)
E4 CONG_DISC_THRESHOLD1 0 to 2500, NOT IN USE
Reports the occupancy of the transmission buffer that
makes the signalling terminal software set the signalling
message destroying status on in the transmission mail
box. When the CCSEND program block notices that the
destroying status is set on, it destroys the signalling
messages addressed to the mentioned signalling termi-
nal. The threshold values for the destroying status are
selected from the range 0 to 127; if the value is 128 to
255, the status is never set to ON. However, when the
transmission buffer fills up, signalling messages have to
be destroyed. The status value must therefore be higher
than the limit for signalling link congestion in order to
avoid unnecessary destroying of messages.
NOT IN USE Limit for
message discarding (mes-
sages)
E5 CONG_ONSET_THRESHOLD2 2 to 1000, NOT IN USE
Parameter
group
Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter
group and
number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
Table 11 Signalling link parameters (Cont.)
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CONG_ONSET_THRESHOLD2,
CONG_ABATE_THRESHOLD2,
CONG_DISC_THRESHOLD2,
CONG_ONSET_THRESHOLD3,
CONG_ABATE_THRESHOLD3, and
CONG_DISC_THRESHOLD3 are similar to the above
mentioned parameters when the used congestion control
method has several levels. The parameter values on level
2 must be higher than the corresponding values on level
1, and also values on level 3 must be higher than those on
level 2, in order to get the congestion method work
properly with several levels. When the congestion method
uses only one level, set the parameter values on levels 2
and 3 as 255 = 0FFH. See the E2, E3, and E4 parame-
ters.
NOT IN USE
E6 CONG_ABATE_THRESHOLD2 1 to 800, NOT IN USE
See the E5 and E3 parameters. NOT IN USE
E7 CONG_DISC_THRESHOLD2 10 to 2500, NOT IN USE
See the E5 and E4 parameters. NOT IN USE
E8 CONG_ONSET_THRESHOLD3 2 to 1000, NOT IN USE
See the E5 and E2 parameters. NOT IN USE
E9 CONG_ABATE_THRESHOLD3 1 to 800, NOT IN USE
See the E5 and E3 parameters. NOT IN USE
E10 ONG_DISC_THRESHOLD3 10 to 2500, NOT IN USE
See the E5 and E4 parameters. NOT IN USE
E11 T111_T31_ONSET_THRESHOLD 1, 2, 3, NOT IN USE
Congestion threshold for starting timer T111_T31. NOT IN USE
E12 T111_T31_RESET_THRESHOLD 1, 2, 3, NOT IN USE
Congestion threshold for reseting timer T111_T31. NOT IN USE
E13 SL_LOAD_THRESHOLD 100 to 900
Allows a maximum value for signalling link load in
Merlangs without notification.
F MTP LEVEL 3 TIMING PARAMETERS
F0 Q704_T1 5 to 12 (0.1s)
Delay to avoid message mis-sequencing on changeover. ITU: 8
ANSI: 8
JAPAN: 10
F1 Q704_T2 7 to 20 (0.1s)
Parameter
group
Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter
group and
number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
Table 11 Signalling link parameters (Cont.)
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Waiting for changeover acknowledgement. ITU: 14
ANSI: 14
JAPAN: 10
F2 Q704_T3 7 to 12 (0.1s)
Time-controlled diversion-delay to avoid mis-sequencing
on changeback.
ITU: 8
ANSI: 8
JAPAN: 10
F3 Q704_T4 5 to 12 (0.1s)
Waiting for changeback acknowledgement (first attempt). ITU: 8
ANSI: 8
JAPAN: 10
F4 Q704_T5 5 to 12 (0.1s)
Waiting for changeback acknowledgement (second
attempt).
8
F5 Q704_T12 8 to 12 (0.1s)
Waiting for uninhibition acknowledgement. 10
F6 Q704_T13 6 to 15 (0.1s)
Waiting for force uninhibit. 10
F7 Q704_T14 8 to 30 (0.1s)
Waiting for inhibition acknowledgement. 20
F8 Q704_T17 8 to 60 (0.1s)
Delay to avoid oscillation of initial alignment failure and
link restart.
10
F9 Q704_T22 180 to 600 (1s)
Local inhibit test timer. 180
F10 Q704_T23 180 to 600 (1s)
Remote inhibit test timer. 180
F11 Q707_T1 8 to 120 (0.1s)
Waiting for signalling link test message acknowledge-
ment.
80
F12 T111_T19 120 to 600 (1s)
Time supervision for setting an alarm about a signalling
link that refuses to start up, as defined in ANSI standards.
120
F13 T111_T20 90 to 120 (1s)
Control for local inhibition testing as defined in ANSI stan-
dards.
120
Parameter
group
Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter
group and
number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
Table 11 Signalling link parameters (Cont.)
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F14 T111_T21 90 to 120 (1s)
Control for remote end inhibition testing as defined in
ANSI standards.
120
F15 T111_T31 10 to 120 (1s)
False link congestion detection timer. ITU: 10
ANSI: 30
F16 T111_T32 5 to 120 (1s)
Link oscillation timer - Procedure A 5
F17 JT_Q704_TS 0 to 600 (1 s)
Defines the time for transmitting SIOS on a periodical
basis during suspension.
This parameter is relevant only in Japanese signalling
networks.
JAPAN: 30
F18 JT_Q707_T10 20 to 150 (0.1 s)
Waiting time for signal routing test confirmation. This
parameter is relevant only in Japanese signalling net-
works.
100
F19 ALIGN_RESP_WAIT 10 to 7000 (0.1 s)
Supervision time for inherently short alignment phases. 40
G ATM SPECIFIC PARAMETERS (SAAL LEVEL)
G0 Q2140_T1 2 to 60 (1 s)
Time between the link release action and the next link re-
establish action during the alignment.
5
G1 Q2140_T2 10 to 120 (1 s)
Maximum time SSCF-NNI attempts alignment. 30
G2 Q2140_PROVING_LOAD 10 to 90 (%)
The load percentage of the signalling link during align-
ment. SSCFNNI T3 is derived from this parameter.
50
G3 Q2110_MAXCC 2 to 20
Maximum amount of time during which SSCOP tries con-
nection establishment, release, resynchronisation, and
recovery.
4
G4 Q2110_MAXPD 50 to 1000
Maximum count of SD PDUs before SSCOP sends a poll. 500
G5 Q2110_TIMER_CC 50 to 1000 (1ms)
Parameter
group
Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter
group and
number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
Table 11 Signalling link parameters (Cont.)
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12.4 Signalling route set parameters
The parameters included in the parameter set of the signalling route set are used to
handle the signalling functions of the signalling route set.
You can interrogate the values of the parameters of an existing signalling route set
parameter set with the NNI command.
TIMER_CC ensures successful SSCOP connection man-
agement actions. Maximum amount of time for which
SSCOP waits for acknowledgement for connection estab-
lishment, release, resynchronisation, and recovery PDUs.
200
G6 Q2110_TIMER_KEEP_ALIVE 100 (1 ms)
Timer to ensure that the peer SSCOP is still working in a
transient phase when there are no SD PDUs to be trans-
ferred.
100
G7 Q2110_TIMER_NO_RESP 100 to 3000 (1 ms)
Timer to recognise that the SSCOP connection is avail-
able. Maximum amount of time for which SSCOP waits for
STAT PDU.
1500
G8 Q2110_TIMER_POLL 10 to 100 (1 ms)
TIMER_POLL is running to assure that the peer SSCOP
receiver is polled often enough.
100
G9 Q2110_TIMER_IDLE 100 to 3000 (1 ms)
TIMER_IDLE defines the time for SSCOP idle phase. At
the expiry of TIMER_IDLE, the SSCOP enters the tran-
sient phase again.
100
G10 Q2110_MAXSTAT 10 to 200
Maximum number of list elements placed in a SSCOP
STAT PDU.
67
G11 Q2144_MAXNRP 0 to 100
Maximum permissible SSCOP retransmissions during a
proving attempt.
0
G12 Q2144_TIMER_REPEAT_SREC 10 to 300 (1 min)
TIMER_REPEAT_SREC is used to recognise closely
spaced SSCOP connection recoveries. Minimum time
between SSCOP connection recoveries.
60
G13 Q2144_TIMER_NO_CREDIT 100 to 5000 (1 ms)
TIMER_NO_CREDIT supervises the unavailability of
SSCOP credit. Maximum time LM allowes SSCOP to be
without credit.
1500
Parameter
group
Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter
group and
number
Parameter explanation Recommended value
Table 11 Signalling link parameters (Cont.)
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The parameters are divided into four groups (A-D):
A Common timers of all destinations
B Signalling point restart timers
C Adjacent signalling point parameters
D Common parameters of all signalling points
Table Signalling route set parameters lists the signalling route set parameters, their
names, all possible values, the quality of the given value, and the recommended value,
if any.
Parameter group Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter group
and number
Parameter name Recommended value
A COMMON TIMERS OF ALL DESTINATIONS
A0 Q704_T6 5 to 20 (0.1s)
Delay to avoid message mis-sequencing on controlled
rerouting. The parameter sets the time for waiting during
controlled rerouting before traffic is activated to the desti-
nation point through a new or alternative transfer point.
ITU: 8
ANSI: 8
JAPAN: 10
A1 Q704_T8 5 to 20 (0.1s)
Time supervision for inhibition of the Transfer Prohibited
messages. The Transfer Prohibited messages generated
by the reply system are not sent to the destination point, if
other - similar - messages have been sent there during the
time specified by the parameter.
10
A2 Q704_T10 10 to 120 (1s)
Time supervision for repetition of test messages in the sig-
nalling route set. Test messages related to another signal-
ling point are sent at intervals defined by the time
parameter.
ITU: 31
ANSI: 31
JAPAN: 30
A3 Q704_T11 30 to 90 (1s)
Transfer Restricted time supervision. This parameter sets
the time for which a signalling link set, which uses another
signalling point as the transfer point, has to be faulty before
it is set in state 'long-term failure'. When this state is set for
a signalling link set, Transfer Restricted messages are
sent to the adjoining signalling points. The messages
concern all route sets where one of the primary routes are
using the failed link set and where the traffic is now
directed to secondary routes.
60
A4 Q704_T15 20 to 30 (0.1s)
Table 12 Signalling route set parameters
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If within T15, after the reception of the last Transfer Con-
trolled message related to destination X, signalling point Z
receives another Transfer Controlled message related to
the same destination, the following action is taken: If the
value of the congestion status carried in the new Transfer
Controlled message is higher than the current value of the
congestion status of the signalling route set towards desti-
nation X, then the current value is updated to the higher
one. If T15 expires after the last update of the signalling
route set towards destination X in a Transfer Controlled
message related to the same destination, the signalling-
route-set-congestion-test procedure is invoked.
25
A5 Q704_T16
JT_Q704_TC
14 to 25 (0.1s)
26 to 250 (0.1 s)
If within T16, after sending a signalling-route-set-conges-
tion-test message, a Transfer Controlled message related
to the concerned destination is received, the signalling
point updates the congestion status of the signalling route
set towards the concerned destination with the value of the
congestion status carried in the Transfer Controlled
message. If T16 expires after sending a signalling-route-
set-congestion-test message without a Transfer Con-
trolled message related to the concerned destination
having been received, the signalling point changes the
congestion status associated with the signalling route set
towards the concerned destination to the next lower
status.
ITU: 15 (for Q704_T16)
ANSI: 15 (for Q704_T16)
JAPAN: 200 (for
JT_Q704_TC)
A6 T111_T18 2 to 20 (1s)
A signalling point starts the MTP restart procedure when
its first link is in service on level 2. Restarting the MTP: if it
has the transfer function, it starts the T18 timer.
3
B SIGNALLING POINT RESTART TIMERS
B0 * Q704_T21
ANSI_T111_T25
20 to 70 (1s)
Q704_T21: The waiting period before traffic is restarted
through an adjacent signalling point. Traffic on the routes
using the adjacent signalling point is started only when the
time defined in this parameter has passed after the restart
of the adjacent point (or when the point has sent the Traffic
Restart Allowed message).
T111_T25: Waiting for the Traffic Restart Active message.
Blue Book 31
White Book 64
ANSI 64
B1 T111_T28 3 to 35 (1s)
Parameter group Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter group
and number
Parameter name Recommended value
Table 12 Signalling route set parameters (Cont.)
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Signalling point X starts the T28 timer either when the first
signalling link goes into 'in service' state on level 2, or
when the first signalling link becomes available on level 3.
This parameter is used only in networks built according to
the ANSI standards.
30
B2 Q704_T19_WHITE
T111_T29
60 to 80 (1s)
Supervision timer during the MTP restart to avoid possible
'back and forward' of TFP, TFR, and TRA messages.
68
B3 * T111_T30 20 to 40 (1s)
If the receiving point has the transfer function, it starts the
T30 timer, and sends a Traffic Restart Waiting message
followed by the necessary Transfer Restricted and
Transfer Prohibited messages (preventive Transfer Pro-
hibited messages are required for traffic currently being
routed through the point from which the unexpected Traffic
Restart Allowed or Traffic Restart Waiting messages were
received) and a Traffic Restart Allowed message.
ANSI: 30
C ADJACENT SIGNALLING POINT PARAMETERS
C0 * TRM_DENIED YES, NO
The use of message pair TRA/TRW is denied in network
management. In an ANSI network, the use of TRW in con-
nection with the SP restart is denied.
ITU: NO
ANSI: NO
JAPAN: YES
C1 * TRM_EXPECTED YES, NO
This parameter controls the use of message pair
TRA/TRW:
TRA_EXPECTED means that traffic restart is allowed. It
controls the waiting for message reception when the sig-
nalling link set is taken into use.
TRA_WAITING controls the waiting of message reception
when the signalling link set is taken into use.
TRA_DENIED means that sending of the Traffic Restart
Allowed messages is denied.
ITU: YES
ANSI: YES
JAPAN: NO
C2 * SP_RESTART_TYPE BLUE, NONE, WHITE,
ANSI
Controlling the denial of the signalling point restart proce-
dure. When the usage of the procedure is denied, the
restart procedure of the adjacent signalling point is not
used. When the own signalling point is restarted, the
Traffic Restart Allowed message is not sent to the adjacent
SP, either.
ITU: BLUE
ANSI: ANSI
JAPAN: NONE
Parameter group Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter group
and number
Parameter name Recommended value
Table 12 Signalling route set parameters (Cont.)
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C3 * INDIRECT_ROUTES_DEFAULT AVAILABLE,
RESTRICTED,
UNAVAILABLE, TFM
BASED
Parameter for controlling the signalling link set restarts
when the adjacent SP has not been started. The possible
parameter values are available, restricted, unavailable,
and TFM-based.
ITU: AVAILABLE
ANSI: AVAILABLE
JAPAN: AVAILABLE
C4 * TFM_CONTROL ALL ALLOWED,
BROADCAST DENIED,
ALL DENIED
Control parameter for broadcasting messages: Transfer
Allowed, Transfer Restricted, and Transfer Denied. When
the parameter denies broadcasting of messages and an
SP becomes either available or unavailable, it is not
reported to the adjacent SP.
ALL ALLOWED
C5 * RESP_TFM_CONTROL TFR ALLOWED, TFP
ALLOWED, TFP FOR
KNOWN, TFM DENIED
Control parameter for response method messages. The
possible parameter values are 'TFR allowed', 'TFP
allowed', 'TFP for known', and 'TFN denied'.
ITU: TFP ALLOWED
ANSI: TFR ALLOWED
JAPAN: TFP ALLOWED
C6 * TFR_DENIED YES, NO
Control parameter for the use of the Transfer Restricted
procedure. If the use of the procedure is denied, the
Transfer Restricted messages coming from the source
point are not handled, and Transfer Restricted messages
are not sent to the destination point. Instead, the system
sends Transfer Allowed messages (unless their use is also
denied).
ITU: YES
ANSI: NO
JAPAN: YES (TTC),
NO(NTT)
C7 M3UA_PSTN_IMPLICATION FAIL, ALIGN
Alignment of PSTN link sets when designated M3UA link
sets are unavailable. If the value of the parameter is FAIL
and the M3UA connection to the Application Node of the
management cluster fails, the PSTN links are also discon-
nected until the M3UA connection is available again. The
default value is ALIGN.
FAIL
D COMMON PARAMETERS OF ALL SIGNALLING POINTS
D0 TFR_SENDING_BASIS NONE, ITU, ANSI
Control parameter for managing overload on a spare route
when the last available route becomes unavailable. The
possible parameter values are NONE (no TFR messages
broadcast), ITU (follows ITU-T Rec. Q704), and ANSI
(examines state of the T11 timer).
ITU: NONE
ANSI: ANSI
JAPAN:ITU
Parameter group Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter group
and number
Parameter name Recommended value
Table 12 Signalling route set parameters (Cont.)
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D1 CIRC_ROU_PREV_IN_USE YES, NO
Control parameter for restricting the possibilities of the
occurrence of circularly routed messages. When this
parameter has the YES value, an extra Transfer Prohibited
message is used concerning one of the destination signal-
ling points. If traffic to the point goes through alternative
routes, the system sends the Transfer Prohibited message
about that point to all adjacent signalling points, and orders
them to switch all traffic to the point through other signal-
ling points.
ITU: NO
ANSI: YES
JAPAN: NO
D2 TFC_DENIED YES, NO
Control parameter for the sending of the Transfer Con-
trolled message. If the parameter has the value NO and
denies message sending, Transfer Controlled messages
are not sent to the destination point.
NO
D3 CONG_LEVEL_SUPPORT NONE, TFC, TFC AND
RCT
Control parameter for the encoding of the congestion level
of Transfer Controlled messages. If the parameter has the
value NO and the message control is inactive, the system
sets congestion level 0 for the TFC messages directed to
the destination point, but otherwise, they get a congestion
level as defined by the overloaded signalling terminal. This
control parameter can also be used to define the overload
of a destination point to be monitored, using the Conges-
tion Level Test messages.
ITU: TFC
ANSI: TFC AND RCT
JAPAN: TFC (NTT), TFC
AND RCT (TTC)
D4 CONFUSION_MSG_DENIED YES, NO
Control parameter for the sending of the MTP Confusion
message. If sending of the messages is prohibited, the
messages are not transmitted to the destination point. This
feature is implemented as defined in the BTNR 146 Stan-
dard.
YES
D5 UPU_ALLOWED YES, NO
This parameter either allows (YES) or denies (NO) the
sending of the UPU message (user part unavailable).
ITU: NO
ANSI: YES
JAPAN: NO
D6 RST_ON_TFP_ALLOWED YES, NO
This parameter either allows (YES) or denies (NO) imme-
diate sending of Route Set Test (RST) messages when a
Transfer Prohibited message (TFP) is received. When this
parameter has the NO value, the RST message is sent
after the Q704_T10 timer has expired.
ITU: YES
ANSI: YES
JAPAN: NO
D7 USE_OF_M3UA_NW_APP YES, NO
Parameter group Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter group
and number
Parameter name Recommended value
Table 12 Signalling route set parameters (Cont.)
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* The parameters are significant only to the local signalling points.
12.5 SCCP signalling point parameters
The parameter set related to the SCCP signalling point defines the parameters for
certain timers that are used in monitoring the signalling connections, and for managing
the subsystems (ITU-T Recommendation Q.714). The parameter set also defines some
of the signalling network functions.
The parameter values vary according to the release level and delivery. Usually, the
default parameter values are suitable and it is not necessary to change them. But the
values can be changed if, for example, the national definition of signalling differs from
the set default values.
You can interrogate the values of the parameters of an existing SCCP signalling point
parameter set with the OCI command.
Table SCCP signalling point parameters lists the parameter names, all possible param-
eter values, the quality of the value, and the recommended values, if any, which are
related to the SCCP signalling point.
Control of using the Network Appearance parameter in
M3UA signalling network management messages.
D8 SUPPORT_OF_M3UA_SNM YES, NO
Control of sending M3UA signalling network management
messages.
Parameter group Parameter name Value range (quality of
value)
Parameter group
and number
Parameter name Recommended value
Table 12 Signalling route set parameters (Cont.)
Paramete
number
Parameter name
Parameter explanation
Value range (quality of value)
Recommended value
1 Q714_T_CONN_EST 30 to 240 (1s)
Timer for connection setup. Defines the time for
waiting for a response to the connection request
message.
90
You do not need to change the
parameter value.
2 Q714_T_IAS 60 to 600 (1s)
Send inactivity timer. When the set timer
expires, an inactivity test-message (IT) is sent to
the connection section.
90
This timer should normally be at
least two times smaller than
Q714_T_IAR at the other end.
3 Q714_T_IAR 150 to 1260 (1s)
Table 13 SCCP signalling point parameters
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Receive inactivity timer. Connection is released
if no messages have been received when the
timer expires.
270
This timer should normally be at
least two times greater than
Q714_T_IAS at the other end.
4 Q714_T_REL 100 to 200 (100ms)
If the first connection release message
(Released, RLSD) produces no acknowledge-
ment (release message or Release Completed,
RLC), the release message is repeated and
new time supervision is started for it
(Q714_T_REP_REL).
150
5 Q714_T_INT 45 to 90 (1s)
Control parameter for connection release time.
The release message is being repeated during
that time. After the time-out, the resources allo-
cated for the connection are frozen for a certain
time and an alarm is set.
60
6 Q714_T_RES 10 to 20 (1s)
Time supervision for resetting the signalling
connection: service class 3 timer that is not in
use.
15
7 Q714_T_REP_REL 40 to 200 (100ms)
If a repeated connection release message
(Released, RLSD) produces no acknowledge-
ment (release message or Release Completed,
RLC) during the set time supervision period, the
release message is repeated and new time
supervision is started for it
(Q714_T_REP_REL).
100
8 Q714_T_STAT_1ST 50 to 600 (100ms)
Time supervision, after which the first Subsys-
tem Status Test (SST) message is sent out.
100
9 Q714_T_STAT_INC 150 to 3000 (100ms)
Time that is added to the repeat interval of the
SST message after each repeat event, unless
the message Subsystem Allowed (SSA) is
received.
300
10 Q714_T_STAT_MAX 600 to 12000 (100ms)
The maximum time for the repeat interval of the
SST message.
9000
11 A_INTERFACE YES, NO
Defines whether the system uses the A inter-
face specification in the direction of the SP.
YES for A interface
NO for other interfaces
12 WHITE_BOOK_MGMT_USED YES, NO
Paramete
number
Parameter name
Parameter explanation
Value range (quality of value)
Recommended value
Table 13 SCCP signalling point parameters (Cont.)
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Defines whether the system uses the SCCP
management procedures ITU-T Q711-Q714,
1993/3 (defined in the White Book) in the direc-
tion of the SP.
NO
13 SS_MANAGEMENT_USED YES, NO
Defines whether subsystem status manage-
ment functions are used.
YES
14 XUDT_USED YES, NO
Defines whether Extended Unit Data (XUDT)
messages can be sent to the mentioned SP.
The parameter value is read from the parameter
set of the called SP.
NO
15 UDT_DENIED YES, NO
Defines when the sending of Unit Data (UDT)
messages to the mentioned SP are denied. The
parameter value is read from the parameter set
of the called SP.
NO
16 SEG_X_THRES 1 to 272
The local segmentation threshold value is X for
connectionless messages. The parameter
value defines the length of the data part in the
connectionless messages that are sent to the
network. The X value can define segmentation
if the value is smaller than Y depending on the
local implementation. (This feature is not yet in
use.)
272
Usually, this parameter has the
same value as the SEG_Y_THRES
parameter.
17 SEG_Y_THRES 67 to 272
Threshold value Y for the segmentation of the
connectionless messages. The value can be
used to adjust the length of data part in the con-
nectionless messages that are sent to the
network. The Y value mainly controls the seg-
mentation.
272
Usually, this parameter has the
same value as SEG_X_THRES
parameter.
18 TCAP_LOAD_SHARING_USED YES, NO
Defines whether load sharing is used on TCAP
messages. Load sharing applies only to
messages that start a TCAP transaction. Load
sharing means that the SCCP connectionless
service distributes the TCAP messages coming
from the network to the TC units in a circular
sequence. The parameter value is read from the
parameter set of the SP that has sent the
message.
NO
It is advisable to use the YES value
for this parameter if the traffic
coming in to the CCSU is not evenly
distributed.
19 ADD_DPC_IF_RI_SSN YES, NO
Paramete
number
Parameter name
Parameter explanation
Value range (quality of value)
Recommended value
Table 13 SCCP signalling point parameters (Cont.)
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Defines whether a signalling point code has to
be added or left in the called address when
routing is done according to the subsystem
number. Adding the code is only possible with
messages going out into the network. The
parameter value is read from the parameter set
of the called SP.
NO
You do not need to modify this
parameter value.
20 ADD_GT_IF_RI_SSN YES, NO
Defines whether a global title has to be left in the
called address when routing is done according
to the subsystem number. Adding the address is
only possible with messages going out into the
network. The parameter value is read from the
parameter set of the destination SP.
NO
You do not need to modify this
parameter value.
21 ADD_DPC_IF_RI_GT YES, NO
Defines whether a signalling point code has to
be added or left in the called address when
routing is done according to the global title.
Adding the code is only possible with messages
going out into the network. The parameter value
is read from the parameter set of the destination
SP.
NO
You do not need to modify this
parameter value.
22 ANALYSE_ROOT_OF_CALLING_GT YES, NO
The parameter indicates if the global title root of
calling address is analysed or not.
NO
23 ALLOWED_GTI_VALUES 1 to 15
The parameter declares the global title indicator
values the use of which is allowed in calling
address.
ITU-T: 1-4
ANSI: 1-2
ETSI: 4
ALL: 1-15
24 SSA_FILTER_TIMER 5 to 3000 (100 ms)
Defines the delay of local broadcast of Subsys-
tem Allowed (SSA) state information.
10
25 SSP_FILTER_TIMER 5 to 3000 (100 ms)
Defines the delay of local broadcast of Subsys-
tem Prohibited (SSP) state information.
10
26 LUDT_USED YES, NO
Defines whether the long unit data (LUDT)
messages are used. Remote SP must support
this function.
NO
27 CO_SEGM_USED YES, NO
Usage of connection-oriented segmentation.
28 GT_ADDR_FIXED_LEN YES, NO
Paramete
number
Parameter name
Parameter explanation
Value range (quality of value)
Recommended value
Table 13 SCCP signalling point parameters (Cont.)
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12.6 SCCP subsystem parameters
The parameter set related to the SCCP subsystems defines, for example, the timers
monitoring the various subsystems.
The parameter values vary depending on the release level and delivery. Usually, it is not
necessary to change the parameter values. But, for example, if the national definitions
on signalling are different from the default values, the parameter values can naturally be
modified.
You can interrogate the values of the parameters of an existing SCCP subsystem
parameter set with the OCJ command.
Table SCCP subsystem parameters lists the parameter names, the possible parameter
values, the quality of the given parameter value, and the recommended values, if any,
for parameters related to the SCCP subsystems.
Indicates whether the called GT space reserva-
tion is optimised in the (X)UDT message. If the
parameter value is YES, no extra space is
reserved for the GT expansion due to the GT
modifications in the intermediate nodes. The
parameter concerns messages coming from a
local SCCP user. The parameter value is set in
the parameter set of the destination signalling
point.
NO
Paramete
number
Parameter name
Parameter explanation
Value range (quality of value)
Recommended value
Table 13 SCCP signalling point parameters (Cont.)
Parameter
number
Parameter name
Parameter explanation
Value range (quality of value)
Recommended value
1 Q714_T_COORD_CHG 30 to 240 (1s)
The time supervision period spent waiting for a
reply (Subsystem-Out-of-Grant, SOG,
message) as an acknowledgement to the Sub-
system-Out-of-Service-Request (SOR)
message when the subsystem is being removed
from service in a controlled manner.
90
2 Q714_T_IGN_SST 30 to 300 (1s)
Time supervision during which the SST
message is not answered after receiving an
SOG message.
60
3 A_INTERF_APPLIC YES, NO
Defines whether the A interface specification
parameter of an SP is applied for this subsys-
tem.
NO
4 A_INTERF_ERR_IGNORED YES, NO
Table 14 SCCP subsystem parameters
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Defines whether the system ignores Protocol
Data Unit Errors (ERR) received from the A
interface.
NO
5 TRANSLATION_SELECTION SCCP, REDIGO
Defines where the global address is modified if
the SCCP routing address (the result of the
modification) is the own SP. Routing is made
according to the global address. The parameter
value is read from the parameter set of the
called subsystem.
SCCP
6 CALLING_ADDR_MODIFICATION YES, NO
Defines whether the calling address is modified
if the routing is based on the subsystem number
when the global address has been modified and
the message has been received from the SCCP
user. In the calling address, the global title is
replaced with the own point code. The parame-
ter value is read from the parameter set of the
calling subsystem.
NO
7 CSCC_ALLOWED_OUT YES, NO
Defines whether the subsystem is allowed to
request coordinated state transition.
NO
8 CSCC_ALLOWED_IN YES, NO
Defines whether the request on coordinated
state transition is sent to the subsystem.
NO
9 TRANSLATE_AT_DPC_IF_DPC_SSN_GT YES, NO
Defines whether the global title is translated in
the SP, the signalling point code of which is
included in the called address or a message is
sent to the SP so that the routing indicator is
routed on SSN, although the called address also
includes the GT when the called address of the
incoming message includes a signalling point
code, subsystem number, and global title. This
parameter only applies to the messages
received from the own user part. The parameter
value is read from the parameter set of the
called subsystem.
YES
10 TC_TRANSACTION_IDS_THRESHOLD 25 to 90 (%)
Threshold for open TC transaction. If the thresh-
old is exceeded, a statistics event log is set.
75
11 SEND_CALLING_SSN_IF_RI_SSN YES, NO
Indicates whether the calling address is
modified so that it includes only the SSN when
the routing of the called address is based on
SSN.
NO
Parameter
number
Parameter name
Parameter explanation
Value range (quality of value)
Recommended value
Table 14 SCCP subsystem parameters (Cont.)
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SS7 signalling network parameters
12 SEND_CALLING_SPC_SSN_IF_RI_GT YES, NO
Indicates whether the calling address is
modified so that it includes the SPC and SSN
when the routing of the called address is based
on the GT.
NO
13 KEEP_CLD_GT_IF_RI_SSN YES, NO
Indicates if the GT is kept in the called address,
even if routing of the called address is based on
SSN. The parameter concerns messages going
to a local SCCP user.
NO
14 IMMEDIATE_STATE_INFO YES, NO
Indicates whether subsystem state information
is transferred immediately to a local SCCP user.
NO
15 TC_PROTOCOL_VERS_EXCLUDED YES, NO
Indicates whether the optional protocol version
field is included in the outgoing TCAP message.
If the parameter value is YES, the protocol
version field is not included. The parameter
concerns messages coming from a local TC
user. The parameter value is set in the parame-
ter set of the calling subsystem.
NO
Parameter
number
Parameter name
Parameter explanation
Value range (quality of value)
Recommended value
Table 14 SCCP subsystem parameters (Cont.)