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# AC CONTROLLERS

(EEL 744)
Department of Electrical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi,
Hauz Khas, New Delhi-10016, India- 110016
email: bsingh@ee.iitd.ac.in, bhimsingh1956@gmail.com
Ph.:011-2659-1045
Prof. Bhim Singh
Lecture - 3
2
Single phase
AC Voltage controller
3
Single phase bidirectional controller with series resistive-
T
1
T
2
i
L
v
L
+
v=V
m
sint
-
Triggering circuit
Control signal
R
L
L
v
R
v
l
4
Waveforms for thyristor control of series R-L 1 = 90, = 60
The thyristors are triggered at a
triggering angle < = (sinusoidal
phase angle) of the load impedance.
The use of single , short triggering
angle < could cause only one
thyristor to conduct because of
continuation of conduction after the
end of the voltages half cycles
ensures that gating of the reverse
thyristor would have no effect. The
thyristor pair then act as a rectifier.
5
i
1
i
2
v
s
v
o
i
o
T
2
T
1
Single phase bidirectional controller with RL load
6
To derive an expression for rms output voltage of a single
phase full-wave ac voltage controller with RL load.
1
2
2 2
1
2
When the load current and load voltage waveforms become discontinuous as
shown in the figure above.
1
sin .
Output sin for to , when is ON.
1 cos 2
2
m O RMS
o m
m
O RMS
O
V V t d t
v V t t T
t
V
V d t
1
2
7
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2 2
1
2
cos 2 .
2
sin 2
2 2
sin 2 sin 2
2 2 2
1 sin 2 sin 2
2 2 2
1 sin
2
m
O RMS
m
O RMS
m
O RMS
m O RMS
m
O RMS
V
V d t t d t
V t
V t
V
V
V V
V
V
1
2
1
2 sin 2
2 2
The RMS output voltage across the load can be varied by changing the trigger angle
For a purely resistive load 0, therefore load power factor angle 0
tan 0; Exti
L
L
R
0
nction angle radians 180
8
PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF A SINGLE PHASE FULL
WAVE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER WITH R-L LOAD
1
The Expression for the Output (Load) Current
The expression for the output (load) current which flows through
the thyristor, during
to is given by
sin sin ; for
R
t
m
L
O T
t
V
i i t e
Z
2
2
1
Where, 2 = Maximum or peak value of input ac supply voltage.
tan = Load impedance angle (load power factor angle).
= Thyristor trigger angle = Delay angle.
m S
t
V V
Z R L
L
R
= Extinction angle of thyristor, (value of ) at which the thyristor
(load) current falls to zero.
is calculated by solving the equation sin sin
R
L
e
9
1
Thyristor Conduction Angle
Maximum thyristor conduction angle radians = 1800 for
RMS Output Voltage
1 sin 2 sin 2
2 2
2
The Average Thyristor Current
1
2
m
O RMS
T T Avg
V
V
I i d t
1
sin sin
2
sin . sin
2
Maximum value of occur at 0.The thyristors should be rated for maximum
R
t
m
L
T Avg
R
t
m
L
T Avg
T Avg
m
T Avg
V
I t e d t
Z
V
I t d t e d t
Z
I
I
I , where
m
m
V
I
Z
10
1
2
RMS Thyristor Current
1
2
Maximum value of occurs at 0
Thyristors should be rated for maximum
2
When a Triac is used in a single phase full wave ac voltage
T RMS
T
T RMS
T RMS
m
T RMS
I
I i d t
I
I
I

controller with RL type of load, then 0
and maximum
2
T Avg
m
T RMS
I
I
I
11
Waveforms of single phase bidirectional ac voltage controller
12
When the triggering angle is greater than the load phase angle
the current occurs in discontinuous, non sinusoidal pulses .
The waveforms shown in figure
for a load of phase angle = 60 or
power factor 0.5 lagging and
triggering angle = 120
If > the onset of the non
sinusoidal load current pulses i
L
always coincides with triggering
angle.
Conduction of current is found to
cease prior to the end of the
sinusoidal current cycle

13
Theoretical components of load current waveform for series R L circuit
1 = 60, = 120
14
, ,2
0, ,
cot
cot
0
2
cot
2
sin( )
sin
sin
sin
sin( ) sin(
x x
L
x
t
x
t
t
Theload current is described bytheequation
V
i t
Z
e
e
e
Extinctionangle xis defined bythetranscendental eqn
x
cot ( )
1 2 2 2
) 0
tan ;
x
e
L
Z R L
R
15
2
0
0
2
1
0
cot ( )
1
1
( ) 0
2 2
1
( )cos( )
cos(2 ) cos(2 ) sin (2 2 )
2
cos( )
4sin sin( ) 2
cos( )
i
L
i L
x
i
The Fourier cofficients of theload current
waveformareobtained as
a
i t d t
a i t t d t
x x
V
a
x e
Z
16
2
1
0
cot ( )
1
2 2
1 1 1
1
1
1
1
1
( )sin( )
sin(2 ) sin(2 ) cos (2 2 )
2
sin( )
4sin sin( ) 2
sin( )
tan
L
x
i
i i i
i
i
i
b i t t d t
x x
V
a
x e
Z
c a b
a
b
17
17
T
1
T
2
i
o
v
o
+
-
v=V
m
sint
Performance parameters of a single phase full wave AC
voltage controller with inductive load
18
, ,2
0, ,
cot
cot
0
2
cot
2
sin( )
sin
sin
sin
sin( ) sin(
x x
L
x
t
x
t
t
Theload current is described bytheequation
V
i t
Z
e
e
e
Extinctionangle xis defined bythetranscendental eqn
x
cot ( )
1 2 2 2
0
) 0
tan ;
Substititing R = 0 in the equation gives us 90
x
e
L
Z R L
R
19
2 2
0
1
0 0
cot ( )
1
1 1
( ) 0 ; ( )cos( )
2 2
cos(2 ) cos(2 ) sin (2 2 )
2
cos( )
4sin sin( ) 2
cos( )
i
L i L
x
i
The Fourier cofficients of theload current
waveformareobtained as
a
i t d t a i t t d t
x x
V
a
x e
Z
0
1
substituting 90 the above equation as R = 0
2
2( ) sin2
i
L
in
V
a
X
20
2
1
0
cot ( )
1
2 2
1 1 1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
( )sin( )
sin(2 ) sin(2 ) cos (2 2 )
2
sin( )
4sin sin( ) 2
sin( )
0
is the peak value of fundamental current
tan
L
x
i
i i i i
i
i
i
i
b i t t d t
x x
V
b
x e
Z
c a b a
c
a
b
Single phase bidirectional controllers for
different loads thyristor based
21
21
I M
T
1
T
2
i
o
v
o
+
-
v=V
m
sint
T
1
T
2
i
o
v
o
+
-
v=V
m
sint
T
1
T
2
i
o
v
o
+
-
v=V
m
sint
I M
T
i
o
v
o
+
-
v=V
m
sin? t
T
i
o
v
o
+
-
v=V
m
sin? t
T
i
o
v
o
+
-
v=V
m
sin? t
T
i
o
v
o
+
-
v=V
m
sin? t
22
Single phase bidirectional controllers for
different loads TRIAC based
I M
23
To have the common cathode for thyristors T
1
and T
2
two diodes as shown in figures for different loads.
One isolation circuit is required, but at the expense of two power
diodes
24
A single phase full wave controller can also be implemented with
one thyristor and four diodes.
25
Waveforms of single phase full wave controller with
one thyristor and four diodes .
Natural commutation occurs in single phase full wave
controller with one thyristor and four diodes with resistive
If large inductance is there in the circuit , thyristor T
1
may
be not turned of in every half cycle of input voltage, and this
may result in a loss of control.
Three power devices conduct at the same time and the
efficiency is also reduced.
26
A single phase full wave controller with one
thyristor and four diodes.
27
Transformer tap changing
With resistive and inductive loads
I M
28
Transformer tap changing
With RL and motor loads
29
Single Phase
Induction
Motor
V
c
T
1
T'
1
T
2
T'
2
Single phase transformer connection
changers
30
Waveforms for transformer connection changer
31
Waveforms without tap changer
32
Waveforms with synchronous changer
Problem: A single phase full wave ac voltage controller has
resistive load of R = 10 and input voltage is V
s
= 120 V, 60 Hz. The
delay angle of thyristor T
1
is
1
=
2
= = /2. Determine (a) the
rms value of output voltage V
o
, (b) the input PF and (c) the
average current of thyristors I
A
, and (d) the rms current of
thyristors.
Solution: R = 10 , V
s
= 120 V, = /2 and V
m
= 2 *120 =
169.7 V
(a)
= 120 /(2)
1/2
= 84.85V
(b) The rms load current I
o
= V
o
/ R = 84.85/10 = 8.485 A
The load power P
o
= I
o
2
R = 8.485
2
* 10 = 719.95 W
Because the input current is the same as the load current, the
input VA rating is VA = Vs Is = Vs Io = 120 * 8.485 = 1018.2 VA
33
1/ 2
0 s
1 sin 2
V V
2
The input PF
PF = P
o
/VA = V
o
/V
s
=
= 1/2 = 719.95/1018.2 = 0.707 (lagging)
(c) The average thyristor current
I
A
= 2*120/(2 *10)= 2.7V
(d) The rms value of the thyristor current
=120/(2*10) = 6A
34
1/ 2
1 sin 2
2
1/ 2
s
A
2V
I cos 1
2 R
1/ 2
s
V 1 sin 2
2
2R
Solution: contd..........
35
Problem : A single-phase ac voltage controller has a resistive
load. The input voltage is 230V rms at 50Hz.The delay angle of
thyristors is =60 . Determine (a) distortion factor of supply
current (fundamental rms current/net rms current), (b)
displacement factor and (c) input power factor.
orms s
orms
2 2
s
1
s1
s
-1
230 , 50 , =60
sin2
V V 1- 206.29 V
2
217.48
I
(cos2 ) 1 2( - +sin2 V 193.04
+ = A
R 2 2 R
193.04
I
R
DF = = 0.936
206.29
I
(cos2 ) 1
= tan
2( - +sin2
orms
s
V V Hz
V
R R
I
R
16.54
DPF = cos = 0.959
PF = DPF X DF = 0.959X0.936 = 0.897
Solution:
36
Problem : A single phase full wave ac voltage controller
supplies an RL load. The input supply voltage is 230V, RMS at
50Hz. The load has L = 10mH, R = 10 , the delay angle of
thyristors and is equal to 60
0
, where . Determine Conduction
angle of the thyristor, RMS output voltage, The input power
factor. Comment on the type of operation.
0
1 2
Solution:
Given 230 , 50 , 10 , 10 , 60
3
2 2 230 325.2691193
s
m S
V V f Hz L mH R
V V V
37
2 2 2
2
3
2 2
1
1
Solution: contd..........
2 2 50 10 10 3.14159
10 3.14159 109.8696 10.4818
2 230
31.03179
10.4818
Load Impedance Angle tan
tan
10
m
m
Z R L L
L fL
Z
V
I A
Z
L
R
1 0
0
tan 0.314159 17.44059
Trigger Angle Hence the type of operation will
be discontinuous load current operation, we get
; 180 60 ; 240
Therefore the range of is from 180 degrees to 240 de
0 0
grees.
180 240
38
Solution: contd..........
Extinction Angle is calculated by using the equation
sin sin
In the exponential term the value of should be
substituted in radians. Hence
sin sin
R
R
L
R
L
e
and
e
0
10
0
0
0
3.183
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
;
3
60 17.44059 42.5594
sin 17.44 sin 42.5594
sin 17.44 0.676354
180
190
Assuming 190 ; 3.3161
180 180
e
e
39
0
3.183 3.3161
4 3
0
0 0
0
Solution: contd..........
L.H.S: sin 190 17.44 sin 172.56 0.129487
R.H.S: 0.676354 4.94 10
Assuming 183
183
3.19395
180 180
3.19395 2.14675
3
L.H.S: sin si
e
0
3.183 2.14675
4
0 0
0
0
n 183 17.44 sin165.56 0.24936
R.H.S: 0.676354 7.2876 10
180
Assuming 180 ;
180 180
2
3 3
e
40
3.183
4 3
0
0 0
0
3.183
Solution: contd..........
L.H.S: sin sin 180 17.44 0.2997
R.H.S: 0.676354 8.6092 10
Assuming 196
196
3.420845
180 180
L.H.S: sin sin 196 17.44 0.02513
R.H.S:0.676354
e
e
3.420845
4 3
0
0 0
0
3
3.183 3.43829
4 3
3.5394 10
Assuming 197
197
3.43829
180 180
L.H.S: sin sin 197 17.44 7.69 7.67937 10
R.H.S: 0.676354 4.950386476 10

e
41
0
0
0
4
3.183 3.4456
4 3
0 0
Solution: contd..........
Assuming 197.42
197.42
3.4456
180 180
L.H.S: sin sin 197.42 17.44 3.4906 10
R.H.S: 0.676354 3.2709 10
Conduction Angle 197.42 60 137
e
0
0 0
.42
RMS Output Voltage
1 sin2 sin2
2 2
sin2 60 sin2 197.42
1
230 3.4456
3 2 2
1
230 2.39843 0.4330 0.285640
S O RMS
O RMS
O RMS
V V
V
V
42
2
2
Solution: contd..........
230 0.9 207.0445 V
Input Power Factor
207.0445
19.7527 A
10.4818
19.7527 10 3901.716 W
230 , 19.7527
3901.716
230 19.
O RMS
O
S S
O RMS
O RMS
O L O RMS
O
S S O RMS
S S
V
P
PF
V I
V
I
Z
P I R
P
V V I I PF
V I
0.8588
7527
43
Problem : A single phase TCR has an input 240 V, 50 Hz AC
supply and an inductance of 5mH. Calculate RMS current and
fundamental RMS at =30 .
2
L
Solution:
The expressions for the RMS current, fundamental current
and THD are
( / ( )) {( 2 )(1/ 2 sin ) 3sin2 / 2}/
( / ( )){1 2 / sin2 / }/ 2
Given that V=240 V, L=5 mH, f=50 Hz.
X =1.570796
Su
RMS
F
I V L
I V L
RMS FUND
RMS
FUND
2
bstituting the values in the expression for I and I ,
I = 44.9374 A
I = 42.2431 A
44.9374
THD= 1 *100 36.28%
42.2431
THD
44
Problem : A single phase 25 kVAr TCR has an input of 230 V, 50
Hz AC supply. Calculate (a) inductance rating (b) RMS current
under maximum THD current (c) corresponding delay angle.
2
2
Solution:
The expressions for the RMS current, fundamental current
and THD are
( / ( )) {( 2 )(1/ 2 sin ) 3sin2 / 2}/
( / ( )){1 2 / sin2 / }/ 2
( / ) 1
Given that V=230 V, Q=25 kVAR, f=50
RMS
F
RMS F
I V L
I V L
THD I I
2
L
2 2
Hz.
The inductance rating can be calculated as follows:
X =230 /25k=2.116 , L=6.7354 mH
Now, the expression for the harmonic component of the
TCR current is,
4 sin cos( ) cos sin( )
( )
( 1)
V n n n
I n
L n n
45
Solution:contd.....
Differentiating the above equation w.r.t. , we
get the condition as cos cos( ) 0
Equating the first term to zero, gives us a trivial
solution when the current in the TCR branch is
n
RMS F
equal to zero. Hence we have to consider the
second term, with the value of n being assigned
as the dominant harmonic number i.e. 3
Hence, =30
Substituting the values in the expression for
I and I
UND RMS
FUND
, I =31.9690 A
I =30.0522 A
Hence THD=36.28%
46
Problem: A single-phase TCR (thyristor controlled reactor
consisting back-to-back connected thyristors with pure
inductor) has an input of 240V, 50Hz, AC supply and an
inductance of 20 mH. Calculate maximum VAR rating. Also
calculate (i) net rms current, (ii) fundamental rms current, (iii)
3rd harmonic rms current, (iv) 5th harmonic rms current, and
(v) 7th harmonic rms current at delay angle of 30 .
2
-3
2
rms
f
n
2
3 5 7
240
Solution: VAR rating =9.167kVAR
2502010
V 1 3sin2
i) I = -2 0.5+sin - = 11.23 A
L 2
V 2 sin2
ii) I = 1- - =10.71A

2L
V 4 sincosn-ncossinn
iii) I =
L n(n -1)
I =-5.25A iv) I =-1.05A v) I =0.375A
47
Problem: A single-phase ac switch having anti parallel-
connected thyristors is used between a 230 V, 50 Hz ac mains
and a load of 4.0 kW, 0.8 lagging for switching in and
interrupting it. Calculate the (i) peak and rms voltage and
current rating of the thyristors and (ii) instant of firing angles
of thyristors for transient free switching.
1
Solution: i) Peak voltage rating for thyristor =230 2
rms voltage rating= 230 V
4000 2
Peak current rating = =30.74A
0.8230
thyristor rms current=30.74/2 = 15.37 A
ii) Instant of firing angle = cos 0.8 36.86
o
48
Problem: A single-phase ac switch having anti parallel-connected thyristors
are used between a 240 V, 50 Hz ac mains and three binary weighted TSCs to
form 7 kVAR capacitor bank with a minimum of an ac capacitor of 1 kVAR
for switching in and interrupting it. Calculate the (i) peak and rms voltage
and current rating of diode and thyristors and (ii) instant of firing angles of
thyristors for transient free switching.
Solution: V
s
= 240 V, Total kVAR = 7, f =50 Hz.
(a) Peak Current (I
m
) = 2 P
o
/ V
s
P.F.
= 27000/ 2401 = 41.247 A.
r.m.s. current (I
r
) = I
m
/2 = 20.623 A.
Peak voltage (V
m
) = 2 Vs = 339.411 v.
r.m.s. voltage = 240 V.
(b) Firing Angle =90
0
(here, capacitive circuit).
AC Voltage controllers with PWM control
Naturally commutated thyristor controllers
introduce low order harmonics in both the
load and supply side and have low input
power factor.
The input power factor of AC voltage
controllers can be improved by PWM control
and producing variable output voltage.
AC Voltage controllers with PWM control
i
o
v
o
+
-
R
L
D
1
T
2
D
2
T
1
D'
1
T'
2
D'
2
T'
1
+
-
v
s
Waveforms of gating signals of AC Voltage
controllers with PWM control
Output voltage and load current of AC
voltage controllers with PWM controller
Single phase line conditioning unit
I
o
I
i
+
-
V
i
C
1
C
2
+
-
+
-
+
-
V
m
+
-
V
x
V
c1
V
c2
V
o
C
o
+
-
R
L
L
o
L
i
D
1
D
2
S
2
S
1
Single phase line conditioning unit
This type of single phase line voltage regulator has a
buck boost capability.
It has capability full output voltage regulation.
This is used in single phase cost sensitive power
conditioning applications.
Single phase line conditioning unit
Input current is seen to have reasonable
harmonics.
To control the input current two additional
switches are required.
Single phase line conditioning unit
Simulated waveforms for voltage doubler. C
1
= C
2
= 1p.u. R
L
= 1 p.u.
Single phase line conditioning unit
Load regulation for voltage doubler. Vi = 115 V
rms
. P
base
= 1KW,
C = 1 p.u. (200 F, based on 115 v, 1 KW) and 100 p.u.
Single phase line conditioning unit
Simulated waveforms for two switch line conditioner.C
1
= C
2
= 1.3 p.u., L
i
= 0.01
p.u., L
o
= 0.1 p.u., C
O
= 0.3 p.u., I
o
= 1.0 p.u., resistive load, switching frequency
f = 30 kHz.(a)-(d) Buck operation with 30 phase shift, V
o
/V
i
= 0.8.
Single phase line conditioning unit
Simulated waveforms for two switch line conditioner.C
1
= C
2
= 1.3 p.u., L
i
= 0.01
p.u., L
o
= 0.1 p.u., C
O
= 0.3 p.u., I
o
= 1.0 p.u., resistive load, switching frequency
f = 30 kHz. (e)-(g) Boost operation with no phase shift, V
o
/V
i
= 1.2.
Single phase line conditioning unit
Experimental waveforms for four switch line conditioner under normal
operation. V
i
= V
o
= 115 V
rms
, C
1
= C
2
, = 22.5 F, L
i
= L
o
= 3 mH, C
o
= 100 F,
C
s
= 40.000 F, R
L
= 12 , PWMswitching frequency = 3 kHz.
Single phase line conditioning unit
I
o
I
i
+
-
V
i
C
1
C
2
+
-
+
-
+
-
V
m
+
-
V
x
V
c1
V
c2
V
o
C
o
+
-
R
L
L
o
L
i
+
-
C
s
S
1
S
2
S
4
Line conditioner with sinusoidal input current control
and buck-boost output
Single phase line conditioning unit
Simulated waveforms for four switch line conditioner with diode-capacitor
1
= C
2
= 2 p.u., L
i
= L
o
= .05 p.u., C
o
= 0.1 p.u., control
sampling frequency = 60 kHz, V
o
/V
i
= 1.
Single phase line conditioning unit
Experimental waveforms for two switch line conditioner. V
i
= 75
V
rms
, V
o
= 100 V
rms
, C
1
= C
2
= 470F, C
o
= 10 F, L
o
= 1 mH, R
L
=
50, = 30, switching frequency f = 30 kHz.
Single phase line conditioning unit
UPS system with sinusoidal input current and 0-2 p.u.
output voltage regulation.
I
o
I
i
+
-
V
i
C
1
C
2
+
-
+
-
+
-
V
m
+
-
V
x
V
c1
V
c2
V
o
C
o
+
-
R
L
L
o
L
i
+
-
V
B
L
F
D
6
S
1
S
2
S
4
S
3
S
5
Single phase line conditioning unit
Capabilities
All the topologies are transformer less.
They are characterized by common neutral connection
between the output and input.
Buck boost voltage regulation capability.
The input and output filters provide a significant
measure of common mode and normal mode noise
rejection.
Single phase line conditioning unit
Features
These features are essential to low cost realization.
Isolation is not a significant issue in low power line
conditioners which feed computer and its peripherals
with internally isolated high frequency SMPS.
The four switch topology has significantly superior
operation at the expense of two additional switches
including unity power factor operation.
References
W.Shepard, Thyristor control of AC circuits, Bradford University Press, 1975,
ISBN: 0 258 96953 9.
W.Shepard, L. N. Hully and D. T. W. Liang, Power Electronics and Motor
Control, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, 1995, ISBN: 0521472415
0521478138.
M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics, circuits, Devices and Applications, Second
Edition, Prentice-Hall, 1995, India, ISBN 81-203-0869-7.
W. Shepherd and L. N. Hully, Power Electronics and Motor Control,
Cambridge University Press, 1987, Cambridge, ISBN 0-521-32155-7.
References
N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS, IEEE
Press, Delhi, 2001, ISBN 81-86308-79-2.
Chingchi Chen and Deepakraj M. Divan, Simple Topologies
for Single Phase AC Line Conditioning IEEE transactions on
industry applications, vol. 30, no. 2, march/april 1994