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This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies compiled by the
researcher from different sources like books, magazines and also the internet.
According to, diabetes affects approximately 135 million people in the
world. Diabetes and hypertension are both diseases in westernized countries. Both entities
increase with age.
Diabetic medicine: a journal of the British Diabetic Association state that according to a
study, glycaemic responses following ingestion of glucose and several rice varieties are
appreciably greater in Chinese compared with Europeans, suggesting the need to review
recommendations regarding dietary carbohydrate amongst rice-eating populations at high risk
of diabetes.
Based on the Global Human Development Index, the Republic of Moldova remains
the poorest country in Europe, ranking 111 with CV disease as the main cause of death and
treatment options for patients with NCD are very limited, especially in rural areas.
According to a press release issued by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious
Diseases and a report in this weeks edition of the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), a
transplantation technique known as the Edmonton Protocol may be of significant benefit to
patients with type I diabetes. Type I is an autoimmune disease (a condition that occurs when
the bodys immune system malfunction and attacks particular types of the bodys cell as if they
were foreign cells) in which the islet cells of the pancreas are destroyed by antibodies
produced by the bodys own faulty immune system. Type I diabetes is also known as Insulin-
Dependent diabetes because those with this condition require daily injections of insulin to
As stated in Hypoglycemia (also spelled hypoglycaemia ) is an
abnormally diminished content of glucose in the blood or low sugar blood while
Hyperglycemia (also spelled hyperglycaemia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of
glucose circulates in the blood plasma or high blood sugar.

According to science, epidemiologists from the School of Medicine at The
University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, diet soft drink consumption is
associated with increased waist circumference in humans, and a second study that found
aspartame raised fasting glucose (blood sugar) in diabetes-prone mice.
According to findings from a large Korean study, diabetes or elevated glucose levels
appear to raise the risk of several major cancers. Dr. Sun Ha Jee, from Yonsei University in
Seoul, and colleagues conducted a 10-year prospective study involving more than 1 million
Koreans between the ages of 30 and 95 years who had a biennial medical evaluation between
1992 and 1995. And according to, elevated glucose levels were most strongly link to
pancreatic cancer, doubling the risk of death from that malignancy in both genders. Other
cancers significantly linked to high glucose levels included esophagus, liver, and colon/rectum in
men and liver and cervix in women.
Based on, Annie Evangelista from University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna
(UPLB) studied about tissue culture as an alternative propagation technique of this plant. Young
leaves from shoos of rooted large diameter-stems were the source of explants. For callus
induction, sterilized explants were grown in agar-solidified Murashige & Skoog (MS) media with
2% sucrose and ), 1.0 and 10 microM each of 2,4-D in BAP [benzylaminopurine] in factorial
combinations. Shoot development was continued in MS plus 10microM BAP with and without
10 microM 2,4-D. Shoots were induced in media with 0.5 or 1.0 microM BAP. Shoots were
rooted in MS media with 2mg/l NAA and in 1 mg/l each of NAA and IBA. Calli Started to form 2-
3 days after inoculation and continued proliferating with continuous subculture every 10-14
days. These formed initially along margins and veins of explants. The highest frequency of callus
formation (100%) was in media with 10 microM each of 2,4-D and BAP. On the other hand,
shoot elongation and development occurred 20-28 days after inoculation. Shoot buds were
formed in media with only 10 microM Bap and in 10 microM each of BAP and 2,4-D. More
shoots elongated in media with 0.5 or 1.0 microM BAP compared with 10 microM BAP.
Elongated shoots rooted in Ms medium with only 2 mg/l NAA and in 1 mg/l each of NAA and
IBA. This study suggests feasibility of applying the indirect organogenesis method for
propagation of this particular forest species and conservation.

From what the researcher has been gathered, it shows that diabetes is the common
diseases not only in the Philippines but also in other countries.
The study on hand is supported from the related literatures and studies that were
gathered by the researchers. The similarities of this study with the previous study are the
process. And their difference are the raw material used and this study only focuses on lowering
the blood glucose level.
The researcher used the data gathered for the experimentations.