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Submitted To:

Engr. Ramon F. Manga


Submitted By:
Luigi G. De Real

1 Transmission Lines and Antenna Systems

In communications and electronic engineering, a transmission line is a specialized cable
designed to carry alternating current of radio frequency, that is, currents with
a frequency high enough that their wave nature must be taken into account.

Transmission lines are used for purposes such as connecting radio and receivers with
their antennas, distributing cable television signals, and computer network connections.

Ordinary electrical cables suffice to carry low frequency AC,
such as mains power, which reverses direction 100 to 120 times
per second (cycling 50 to 60 times per second). However, they
cannot be used to carry currents in the radio frequency range
or higher, which reverse direction millions to billions of times per
second, because the energy tends to radiate off the cable
as radio waves, causing power losses. Radio frequency currents
also tend to reflect from discontinuities in the cable such
as connectors, and travel back down the cable toward the
source. These reflections act as bottlenecks, preventing the
power from reaching the destination.

Transmission lines use specialized construction such as precise conductor dimensions and
spacing, and impedance matching, to carry electromagnetic signals with minimal
reflections and power losses. Types of transmission line include ladder line, coaxial
cable,dielectric slabs, stripline, optical fiber, and waveguides. The higher the frequency,
the shorter are the waves in a transmission medium. Transmission lines must be used when
the frequency is high enough that the wavelength of the waves begins to approach the
length of the cable used. To conduct energy at frequencies above the radio range, such
as millimeter waves, infrared, and light, the waves become much smaller than the
dimensions of the structures used to guide them, so transmission line techniques become
inadequate and the methods of optics are used.

The theory of sound wave propagation is very similar
mathematically to that of electromagnetic waves, so
techniques from transmission line theory are also used to
build structures to conduct acoustic waves; and these are
also called transmission lines.


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Twin-lead cable is a two-conductor flat cable used as
a transmission line to carry radio frequency (RF) signals.
It is constructed of two multistranded copper or
copperclad steel wires, held a precise distance apart
by a plastic (usually polyethylene) ribbon. The uniform
spacing of the wires is the key to the cable's function as
a parallel transmission line; any abrupt changes in
spacing would reflect frequency power back toward
the source. The plastic also covers and insulates the

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The wires in twisted pair cabling are twisted together in pairs. Each pair
consists of a wire used for the +ve data signal and a wire used for the -ve
data signal. Any noise that appears on 1 wire of the pair will also occur
on the other wire. Because the wires are opposite polarities, they are 180
degrees out of phase (180 degrees - phasor definition of opposite
polarity). When the noise appears on both wires, it cancels or nulls itself
out at the receiving end. Twisted pair cables are most effectively used in
systems that use a balanced line method of transmission: polar line
coding (Manchester Encoding) as opposed to unipolar line coding (TTL


The degree of reduction in noise interference is
determined specifically by the number of turns per
foot. Increasing the number of turns per foot reduces
the noise interference. To further improve noise
rejection, a foil or wire braid "shield" is woven around
the twisted pairs. This shield can be woven around
individual pairs or around a multi-pair conductor
(several pairs).

Category 1/2/3/4/5/6 a specification for the type of copper wire (most telephone
and network wire is copper) and jacks. The number (1, 3, 5, etc) refers to the revision
of the specification and in practical terms refers to the number of twists inside the wire
(or the quality of connection in a jack).
CAT1 is typically telephone wire. This type of wire is not capable of supporting
computer network traffic and is not twisted. It is also used by phone companies who
provide ISDN, where the wiring between the customer's site and the phone
company's network uses CAT 1 cable.
CAT2, CAT3, CAT4, CAT5 and CAT6 are network wire specifications. This type of wire
can support computer network and telephone traffic. CAT2 is used mostly for token
ring networks, supporting speeds up to 4 Mbps. For higher network speeds (100Mbps
plus) you must use CAT5 wire, but for 10Mbps CAT3 will suffice. CAT3, CAT4 and CAT5
cable are actually 4 pairs of twisted copper wires and CAT5 has more twists per inch
than CAT3 therefore can run at higher speeds and greater lengths. The "twist" effect
of each pair in the cables will cause any interference presented/picked up on one
cable to be cancelled out by the cable's partner which twists around the initial cable.
CAT3 and CAT4 are both used for Token Ring and have a maximum length of 100
CAT6 wire was originally designed to support gigabit Ethernet (although there are
standards that will allow gigabit transmission over CAT5 wire, that's CAT 5e). It is similar
to CAT5 wire, but contains a physical separator between the 4 pairs to further reduce
electromagnetic interference.

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Twisted pair cables are often shielded in an attempt to
prevent electromagnetic interference. Because the
shielding is made of metal, it may also serve as a
ground. However, usually a shielded or a screened
twisted pair cable has a special grounding wire added
called a drain wire.

This shielding can be applied to individual pairs, or to the collection of pairs.
When shielding is applied to the collection of pairs, this is referred to as
screening. Shielding provides an electric conductive barrier to attenuate
electromagnetic waves external to the shield and provides conduction path
by which induced currents can be circulated and returned to the source, via
ground reference connection.

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RG-59/U is a specific type of coaxial cable, often used for
low-power video and RF signal connections. The cable
has a characteristic impedance of 75 ohms. The 75 ohm
impedance matches a dipole antenna in free space.
"RG" (for Radio Guide) was originally a unit indicator for
bulk radio frequency (RF) cable in the U.S. military's Joint
Electronics Type Designation System. The suffix "/U" means
for general utility use. The number "59" was assigned
sequentially. The "RG" unit indicator is no longer part of
the JETDS system (MIL-STD-196E) and cable sold today
under the RG-59 label does not necessarily meet military

RG-59 is often used at baseband video frequencies, such
as composite video. It may also be used for broadcast
frequencies, but its high-frequency losses are too high to
allow its use over long distances; in these applications, RG-
6 or RG-11 is used instead. In cases where the transmission
distance is too long for these media, such options as UTP
(unshielded twisted pair) or fiber optic can be used.

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RG-58/U is a type of coaxial cable often used for low-power signal and RF connections.
The cable has a characteristic impedance of either 50 or 52 . "RG" was originally a unit
indicator for bulk RF cable in the U.S. military's Joint Electronics Type Designation System.
There are several versions covering the differences in core material (solid or braided wire)
and shield (70% to 95% coverage).
The outside diameter of RG-58 is around 0.2 inches (5 mm). RG-58 weighs around
0.025 lbs/ft (37 g/m), exhibits approximately 25 pF/ft (82 pF/m) capacitance and can
tolerate a maximum of 300 V potential (1800 W).[1] Plain RG-58 cable has a solid center
conductor. The RG-58A/U features a flexible 7 or 19 strand center conductor.

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