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PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE : COST-EFFECTIVE

TECHNIQUE TO PRESERVE INDIAN HIGHWAYS

Maj. Shailendra Singh
Former M.Tech Student
Transportation Engineering Division
Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Chennai

Prof. A. Veeraragavan
Professor of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Chennai.

ABSTRACT

For the development of economy of any nation, road networks in good condition play an
important role. It has been felt that new highway construction is as important as preserving the
existing highway system in a good condition. By adopting preventive maintenance strategies into
the maintenance programs, the quality of the road network can be enhanced with reduced
expenditures and improved road user satisfaction. . There is a need to quantify the benefits due
to various preventive maintenance strategies to decide the choice and timing of application of
appropriate preventive maintenance treatment duly considering the traffic level and the
condition of the pavement.
In the present study, the benefits due to different preventive maintenance strategies have
been quantified over the service life of the pavement and the best timing for the application of
appropriate treatment has been presented. The pavement performance data collected for an
existing state highway and a national highway sections are considered in the present study.
Based on the projected traffic and the present structural condition of the pavement, appropriate
first stage strengthening by overlays has been suggested. The performance of the overlaid
pavement in terms of deflection, roughness, cracking and ravelling are predicted for do-nothing
strategy and after the application of different preventive maintenance strategies.
The cost effectiveness is computed during the service life of the pavement considering
various performance indicators. The best timing for the application of the preventive
maintenance strategy and the effect of varying the threshold values of the performance indicator
are also analyzed for the different preventive maintenance strategies. The strategy giving
maximum road user cost benefit and cost effectiveness are considered as the most cost- effective
preventive maintenance strategy. The suggested approach may be adopted for the
upgraded/newly constructed National and State Highway sections in the country. The application
of appropriate preventive maintenance treatment is likely to significantly reduce the future
maintenance cost of these highways and thereby preserving the road assets in the country.

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Asset Management
An efficient road transport system is seen by most countries as an essential precondition for
economic development, and considerable resources are devoted to road construction and
improvements. The resultant road network usually has an asset value that represents a significant
proportion of the national wealth, and the road sub sector should make an important contribution
to gross national product (GNP). It is therefore, important and appropriate that this asset is
managed in a business like manner.
As we proceed into the 21
st
century, highway agencies are undergoing a significant transition
from the original focus on new highway construction to the preservation of the existing highway
system. These agencies are facing a tremendous challenge in preserving and improving their
highway infrastructure because of aging highway networks, budget constraints, and the
continuous increase of traffic demand. As a result, highway agencies have started to adopt
Preventive Maintenance (PM) strategies into their maintenance programs. The demand to “do
more with less” has become an operating slogan for many highway agencies.
1.2 The Challenge of Maintenance
Maintaining India’s present highway network to full maintenance standards will require annual
funding of about Rs.70 billion, three times the current level of expenditure. The economic road
user costs are 23 percent higher on roads in poor condition than on good roads and 55 percent
higher, if the roads are in very poor condition. Goods are the building blocks of economy of a
country. Better road systems will bring significant economic and social benefits and increased
employment opportunities. The quantifiable benefits accruing from the improvements and better
maintenance of road consists of savings in vehicle operating costs and travel time, which will
reduce overall transport costs. Though, the direct beneficiaries are road users and transport
operators, the benefits of transport cost savings will be passed on to end-users. For every rupee
spent on maintaining the road network, there are net benefits (NPV) in excess of Rs.7/-.
Indian road network at nearly 3.2 million km falls under one of the world’s largest road
networks. Out of this length, less than 1% of the roads are being developed under various
schemes and projects by central and state governments. Considerable amount of manpower,
technology and expertise are being used for these roads at various levels from inception to
completion. The remaining 99% of the roads are being maintained by mere routine and periodic
maintenance by the respective road agencies. According to World Bank the loss in vehicle
operation costs on account of poor road maintenance in India is estimated to be about Rs. 20,000
crores per annum.
1.3 Importance of Timely Maintenance
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Often pavement maintenance decisions are based on skimpy rules and rules of thumb. The road
maintenance is generally based on routine maintenance and periodic maintenance, which are
generally carried out on a fixed time frame. The functional condition parameters of the roads
(viz. roughness, cracking and ravelling) are generally not considered while deciding timing and
choice of the maintenance treatment. The timing of maintenance intervention and standards of
the maintenance governs the service life of a pavement. The rate of pavement deterioration
depends on the timing, type and quality of the maintenance treatment. If the maintenance is not
carried out with due consideration to the structural and functional condition parameters of the
pavement section (viz. roughness, cracking and ravelling), it may not be possible for the
pavement to serve its intended function at the desired level of performance during its service life.
1.4 Penalties Due To Deferred Maintenance
If the maintenance of the pavement is deferred by 2-3 years, the condition of the pavement will
further deteriorate causing discomfort to users and loss in terms of monetary value. There will be
substantial increase in agency cost due to pavement deterioration during the deferred period due
to the requirement of additional overlay for strengthening to have the desired level of
serviceability. It is seen that construction of thicker overlays more than what is required based on
the structural requirements will result in lower economic benefits.
1.5 Benefits Of Timely Maintenance
If the pavements are maintained in time, significant benefits viz. savings in vehicle operating
costs, comfort, savings in travel time can be achieved. Preventive maintenance is a systematic
process of applying a series of preventive maintenance treatments over the life of the pavement
to maintain a good condition, extend pavement life and minimize life cycle costs without
substantially increasing the structural aspects. It is believed to result in lowering the agency cost,
improved pavement condition and increased road user satisfaction. Preventive maintenance is
applying the right treatment to the right pavement at the right time. The experience with
pavement preventive maintenance demonstrates that each rupee spent now is estimated to save
up to six rupees in future. But the barriers or potential pitfalls to the development of a pavement
preventive maintenance technique are public/user perception, management perception, research
needs, training, dedicated funding and data management which can be overcome by explaining
the added advantage of the treatment as a whole.
1.6 Need for Pavement Preservation
Pavement preservation is aimed at preserving the investment in our highway system, extending
pavement life and meeting the road users’ needs. It is the timely application of carefully selected
surface treatments to maintain or extend a pavement’s effective service life. Pavement
preservation does not include any activity that significantly increases the structural capacity of
the existing pavement.
An effective pavement preservation program encompasses a full range of preventive maintenance
techniques and strategies, such as crack sealing, fog seals, slurry seals, surface dressing, thin
overlays etc. A traditional rehabilitative approach allows the original pavement section to
deteriorate to a fair to poor condition in terms of both ride quality and structural conditions. At
this stage, structural damage occurrs, and the objective of the rehabilitation treatment is to repair
that damage and restore the pavement. Thus the traditional approach is reactive and can be costly
and time consuming process, when compared to preventive maintenance which is a pro-active
and cheaper approach.
2.0 OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF THE PRESENT STUDY
2.1 Objectives of the Present Study
The main objectives of the present study are to-
i. Quantify the benefits due to application of various preventive maintenance
treatments
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ii. Evaluate the short term and long term effectiveness of the preventive maintenance
treatments
iii. Quantify the effect of variation in threshold values on the benefits due to different
preventive maintenance treatments
2.2 Scope of the Present Study
The present study is aimed to quantify the benefits of timely preventive maintenance. The data
on road geometrics, traffic, pavement condition viz.,, roughness, deflection, cracking, raveling
etc are collected for a typical state highway section in Karnataka and a National highway section
in Kerala. The structural and functional condition needs of the sections are evaluated. The short
term and long term cost effectiveness are calculated for various preventive maintenance
strategies. The best timing for the application of preventive maintenance treatment and the
effects of benefit cutoff values for various preventive maintenance strategies are computed.
3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 Pavement Performance Models
The flexible pavement deteriorates gradually over a period of time, as a function of material
properties, structural design details, traffic loading and environmental factors. The pavement
evaluation has two distinctly different components. The first one relates to evaluation of
pavement performance from the point of view of road users’ requirement, such as riding quality
in terms of pavement surface undulations and road safety in terms of skid resistance of the
pavement surface. The second one relates to evaluation of the pavement structure in terms of
deflection or stresses or strains in pavement layers due to load related factors and the structural
deterioration that has occurred to a pavement layer system.
Arunachalam (1971) carried out an analysis of data from extensive field investigations for
evaluating the strengthening requirements of flexible pavements both by California Bearing
Ratio and Benkelman Beam deflection methods. The analysis shows that the deflection method
gives realistic results in consonance with pavement performance and is more reliable than CBR
method. A design relationship for working out the overlay thickness of the flexible pavement is
evolved.
Ralph Haas (1994) has emphasized that pavement evaluation is generally directed towards
selection of projects and treatment strategies at the network level and identification of specific
maintenance requirements at the project level. This requires the use of a Pavement Condition
Index (PCI) considering two or more distress parameters and assigning suitable weighing factor
for each pavement distress parameter based on its severity and magnitude.
Sharma et al (1996) developed deterioration models for Indian conditions. The various factors
considered in the prediction models are pavement type, traffic, climate, condition of the road, age
and type of maintenance treatment. Periodic pavement performance observations were made for
a period of 3-5 years. Models are developed to predict initiation of distress, progression of
distress and roughness progression. The models are developed to predict the deterioration of
pavement sections resurfaced with Premix Carpet (PMC), Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete
(SDBC) and Bituminous Concrete (BC). The various parameters considered are cracking,
ravelling, pothole and roughness.
3.2 Effectiveness and Timing of Preventive Maintenance
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Theeffectiveness of a particular preventive maintenance application can be assessed in terms of
both benefit it provides and cost required to obtain that benefit. Here, benefit is defined as the
quantitative influence on pavement performance as measured by one or more condition
indicators. The benefits due to preventive maintenance can be compared in terms of the benefits
per unit cost of applying the treatment over the life of pavement as compared to do-nothing
scenario. Costs that may be included in the analysis include the treatment costs, road user costs
and additional routine maintenance costs.
The effectiveness of a preventive maintenance treatment is directly related to the condition of the
pavement .Delays in preventive maintenance increases the quantity and severity of pavement
defects and results in higher maintenance costs during pavement life. Routine and reactive
approach is expected to considerably increase the life cycle costs of the pavement. Accepting a
preventive maintenance philosophy is the most important factor in an agency’s maintenance
management programme.
Baker (2005) attempted to explain various maintenance processes and their choice and timing
for the maintenance intervention under diminishing funds and increased traffic load repetitions.
The author has suggested the various type of preventive maintenance treatments viz., fog seal,
slurry seal, and microsurfacing etc., that may be used for different problems viz.,crack, rut,
corrugation, depression etc.. Four different strategies for pavement evaluation were selected
based on the value of the lowest possible Present Serviceability Index (PSI) level. It was
demonstrated that the economic discount rate assumed for analysis make a substantial impact on
the final outcome of results.
Samuel Labi et al (2003) developed an approach for cost-effectiveness evaluation of various
levels of preventive maintenance activities over pavement life-cycle. Pavements were grouped by
surface type, traffic, and functional class. For each pavement family, alternative preventive
maintenance strategies were formulated, and the cost and benefit (effectiveness) associated with
each strategy was determined. The cost of each strategy was measured in terms of agency and
user costs associated with the various constituent treatments .The costs and benefits of each
strategy were estimated and non linear statistical cost-effectiveness models were developed to
reflect the relationship between preventive maintenance effort and cost effectiveness of such
efforts over pavement life cycle. The modeling results show that increasing preventive
maintenance is generally associated with increasing cost-effectiveness but only up to certain time
period during the design life.
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Transportation engineers are accustomed to selecting “worst first” highway sections as
candidates for rehabilitation and reconstruction. However, using this criterion for preventive
maintenance can lead to disastrous results. Although it is understood that periodic inexpensive
treatments are more economical than infrequent high cost treatments, engineers must recognize
the causes of pavement deterioration and timing of application of appropriate treatments at
appropriate times during the pavement life. This is best illustrated by Figure 1 and Figure 2. Both
figures display a diagonal line on the graph, representing normal pavement distress accumulating
over time. A distress value between zero and 50 points indicates a pavement in satisfactory
condition. Distress value more than 50 points, measures a pavement in unsatisfactory condition.
Figure 1 shows the result when preventive maintenance is applied to a pavement in
unsatisfactory condition. Figure 2 shows the results when a preventive maintenance treatment is
applied early, to a pavement in a satisfactory condition. The shaded area represents the
improvement to the pavement condition over the treatment life. If the shaded areas from both
graphs are compared it can be observed that the treatments applied to severely distressed
pavements received little benefit. However, treatments applied to pavements with light to
moderate distress provide substantial benefits by extending the pavement life. The long term
effectiveness can increase in service life of the pavement due to application of preventive
maintenance. The effectiveness in short term can be described as performance jump and
reduction in deterioration level.

C u r r e n t C o n d i t i o n
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Figure 1: Application of Preventive Maintenance to a Pavement in an Unsatisfactory
Condition (Larry Galehouse, 1999)

L i f e E x t e n d e d
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Figure 2: Application of Preventive Maintenance to a Pavement in a Satisfactory Condition
(Larry Galehouse, 1999)

Maintenance effectiveness or deterioration reduction, may be viewed as the increase in
“positive” service attributes of an infrastructure system in response to the treatment .Such
effectiveness may be in the form of an improved surface conditions [such as Present
Serviceability Index (PSI) and pavement quality index] or decreased surface roughness
[roughness number (RN), International Roughness Index (IRI), etc.] .There are three measures of
deterioration reduction i.e. deterioration reduction level (DRL), performance jump (PJ ) and
deterioration rate reduction (DRR).
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i. Deterioration Reduction Level (DRL) – It is defined as the improvement in
infrastructure condition due to maintenance application, calculated on the basis of
deterioration measurements taken between two consecutive, spaced out points in time
period, which is typically one year. It can be expressed as absolute change or a simple
difference between two measurements in time relative to the first of the two
measurements (such as change in PSI).
ii. Performance Jump (PJ) - Performance jump may simply be considered as the vertical
or instantaneous elevation in the performance or condition of a pavement due to
maintenance. This is computed using values of deterioration taken just before and just
after maintenance.
iii. Deterioration Rate Reduction (DRR) – The DRR concept involves the “slowing
down” of pavement deterioration with respect to time or cumulative loading , due to the
application of maintenance. DRR is calculated as the difference in the slope of the
deterioration curve before maintenance and after maintenance.
Mamlouk et al (1998) stressed that the level of funding by various highway agencies is
inadequate to keep road networks in a good condition. Through preventive maintenance program,
pavements can be maintained in a cost effective manner. Pavement preventive maintenance has
been found to be successful for low as well as high volume of roads. He emphasized that the
selection of preventive maintenance treatment should be based on the condition of the existing
pavement, traffic volume and environmental conditions.
Larry Galehouse (1999) proposed that accepting preventive maintenance philosophy in an
agency’s pavement maintenance program affords to the manager the capability to achieve
maximum benefits from available funds. A strategy that incorporates preventive maintenance can
significantly alter the distribution of the pavement’s remaining life. By targeting large
concentration of pavements with similar remaining lives, preventive maintenance treatment can
be used to equalize project work loads before problem develops and will ensure manageable
work loads for available revenues.
Wael et al (2005) analyzed the effects of implementing preventive preservation programme in
Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO). In this programme a practical Preventive
Maintenance (PM) model is developed through a set of dedicated decision trees. It determines the
feasible maintenance activities for each pavement section based on a number of factors including
existing pavement surface layer, condition, age and traffic. The impact of preventive
Maintenance activities has shown an increase in PCI value and slower rate of deterioration.
Samuel Labi et al (2005) investigated the cost effectiveness of preventive maintenance for three
Asphaltic pavement functional class families. The field data for validation was used from in
service state highway pavements in Indiana. The strategy formulated in the present study consists
of various treatment types, timings and vary by the level of the preventive maintenance effort.
The effectiveness is defined as the increase in service life relative to a base case (the “do nothing
“strategy). The study suggests that preventive maintenance cost effectiveness generally increases
with increase in preventive maintenanceeffort up to a certain maximum, after which it declines
with increasing effort.
3.3 Cost Considerations
The inclusion of cost may be those cost that have an impact on the application of preventive
maintenance activities. The various costs that may be considered are preventive maintenance
treatment cost (agency cost), vehicle operating costs, work zone related user delay costs and
other routine maintenance costs.
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Reddy et al (2003) made an effort to develop Road User Cost Models by conducting intense
research through experimentation as well as road user surveys. They updated the existing Road
User Cost models by including many more vehicle types. It is observed that significant increase
in levels of congestion on Indian roads is affecting the road user costs.
3.4 Discussions
For specific climate conditions and traffic levels, the performance of the restored pavement will
depend not only on the types of maintenance treatment, but also on the existing pavement
condition. The need for various type of deterioration models are felt for different surface, climate
and traffic levels. Deterioration models are needed to predict post-treatment scenario for different
types of preventive maintenance treatments.
For decision making, the road user cost model is effective as benefits can be evaluated in rupee
value that is easily understandable to the politicians and top management levels. For comparison
of strategies, cost-effectiveness can be used, as it is a simple ratio of effectiveness divided by
cost. This ratio has no physical or economic meaning but is valuable in carrying out priority
programming.
4.0 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
4.1 General
AASHTO (Foundation for Pavement Preservation, 2001) defines preventive maintenance as:
…the planned strategy of cost-effective treatments to an existing roadway system and its
appurtenances that preserves the system, retards future deterioration , and maintains or
improves the functional condition of the system(without substantially increasing structural
capacity) . Pavement preventive maintenance narrows the focus to the application of one or more
treatments, generally to a surface of a structurally sound roadway. AASHTO’s Lead State Team
on pavement preservation summed things up quite nicely by defining pavement preventive
maintenance as,
“Applying The Right Treatment To
The Right Pavement At The Right Time”.
The cost of a typical preventive maintenance like surface dressing forroads in good condition is
66 percent lower than resurfacing or strengthening for roads in fair condition and only 25 percent
of the reconstruction cost. Traditionally, the highway agencies have allowed the ride quality and
structural condition of a pavement to deteriorate to fair to poor condition before taking steps to
rehabilitate the pavement. The aim of rehabilitation is to repair structural damage and restore
measurable pavement conditions such as ride, rutting and cracking. This is costly and time
consuming activity. The service lives of the pavements can be extended by applying a series of
low cost preventive treatments. This translates into a better investment, better ride quality,
increased customer satisfaction and support. The application of pavement preventive
maintenance demonstrates that – each rupee spent now has been estimated to save up to six
rupees in the future.
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Pavement preventive treatments are surface rehabilitation and operations applied to improve or
extend the functional life of a pavement. It is a strategy intended to arrest deterioration, retard
progressive failures, and reduce the frequent need for the routine maintenance and service
activities. It preserves the structural capacity of the pavement structure. Preventive maintenance
treatments are limited to pavements in sound structural condition. The pavement treatments can
be used for preventive, corrective or emergency maintenance. The difference between all these is
the condition of the pavement when the treatment is applied rather than the type of the treatment.
4.2 Benefits of Pavement Preventive Maintenance
The various benefits of pavement preventive maintenance are-
i. Higher road user satisfaction
ii. Better informed decisions
iii. Improved strategies and techniques
iv. Improved pavement condition
v. Cost savings
vi. Increased safety
4.3 Preventive Maintenance Treatment
Preventive maintenance treatments that are suitable for use by a given agency can be identified
by considering the following factors or treatment attributes-
i. Purpose of the treatment
ii. Applicability- Traffic, environment, pavement condition
iii. Construction considerations
iv. Expected performance and cost
v. Customer satisfaction
Several types of treatments can be adopted for preventive maintenance. It includes conventional
treatments such as crack treatment, fog seal, slurry seal, surface dressing, micro-surfacing, Stone
Matrix Asphalt (SMA) and thin hot mix overlay.
4.3.1 Crack Filling and Crack Sealing
These treatments are intended to prevent the intrusion of moisture through existing cracks.
Crack sealing refers to a sealant operation that addresses working cracks i.e. those that open and
close with changes with temperature. Crack filling is for cracks that undergo little movement.
Sealants used are typically thermoplastic bituminous materials. The conditions addressed are
longitudinal cracking, minor block cracking and transverse cracking. The expected life of
treatment is 2-6 years.
4.3.2 Fog Seals
Fog seals are placed primarily to seal the pavement, inhibit ravelling and enrich the
hardened/oxidized bitumen. Fog seals are very light applications of a diluted bituminous
emulsion placed directly on the pavement surface with no aggregates. The conditions addressed
are longitudinal cracking, minor block cracking, transverse cracking, ravelling, bitumen aging,
oxidation, hardening and moisture infiltration. The expected life of treatment is 1-2 years when
placed in a preventive maintenance mode.
4.3.3 Slurry Seals
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Slurry seal is a mixture of well graded aggregates, sand, mineral filler and bituminous emulsion
that is spread over the entire pavement surface. It is effective in sealing low severity surface
cracks, waterproofing the pavement surface and improving the skid resistance. The conditions
addressed are longitudinal cracking, minor block cracking, transverse cracking, ravelling,
bitumen aging, oxidation, hardening, moisture infiltration and friction loss. The expected life of
treatment is 3-5 years when placed in a preventive maintenance mode.
4.3.4 Microsurfacing
Microsurfacing consists of a mixture of polymer modified emulsified bitumen, mineral
aggregate, mineral filler, water and additives applied in a process similar to slurry seals. The
conditions addressed are longitudinal cracking, transverse cracking, ravelling, weathering,
bleeding, roughness, friction loss and moisture infiltration. The expected life of the treatment is
4-7 years when placed in a preventive maintenance mode. Maximum thickness of the treatment
may be 40 mm.
4.3.5 Surface Dressing
Bitumen is applied directly to the pavement surface followed by the application of aggregate
chips, which are then immediately rolled to imbed chips. Application rates depend upon
aggregate gradation, traffic level and type of surface. The conditions addressed are longitudinal
cracking, transverse cracking, block cracking, ravelling, weathering, bleeding, roughness, friction
loss and moisture infiltration. The expected life of treatment is 4-7 years when placed in a
preventive maintenance mode. Maximum thickness of the treatment may be 25 mm.
4.3.6 Thin Hot-Mix Bituminous Overlays
Plant –mixed combinations of bitumen and aggregates applied to the pavement in thickness
between about 25 and 40 mm are considered as thin overlays. Dense- graded, open graded and
stone matrix mixes are used. The conditions addressed are longitudinal cracking, transverse
cracking, block cracking, ravelling, weathering, bleeding, roughness and friction loss. The
expected life of treatment is 7-10 years when placed in a preventive maintenance mode.
Maximum thickness of the treatment may be 40 mm.
An effective pavement preventive maintenance program must include the periodic application of
the preventive maintenance treatments. A program can be a mixture of various preventive
maintenance treatments. For example fog seal may be used 3 and 6 years after construction and
from 7 to 9 years after the construction of the pavement surface dressing or slurry seal.
4.4 Treatment Selection and Timing
The selection of preventive maintenance treatments for evaluation in the project should be based
on the specific goals of the agency’s preventive maintenance program. The selected treatment
should match the agency’s preventive maintenance objective. For example, if the agency’s
objective is to reduce the crack area, then treatment that reduce crack area should be used in the
maintenance program. The Table 1 summarizes some of the primary benefits provided by the
different preventive maintenance treatments. This will help in selecting treatments to support
specific preventive maintenance objectives.
Table 1: The Primary Benefits of Different Preventive Maintenance Treatment (Peshkin et
al, 2004)
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Treatment Roughness Crack Ravelling Friction Moisture reduction Life extension
Crack seal
Fog seal
Slurry seal
Surface dressing
Thin overlay
Micro-surfacing

For computing the pavement preventive maintenance treatment timing, two critical issues are
important for consideration. First determining when the first treatment should be applied and
determining how often subsequent treatments should be applied. The timing of cycles is
influenced by traffic, climate and construction quality. The suggested treatment timing cycles are
given as in Table 2.
Table 2: Suggested Treatment Timing Cycles (Peshkin et al, 2004)
Treatment Recommended year of initial treatment Treatment timing cycle
Crack seal 1 to 3 Annually
Fog seal 0 to 3 Annually
Slurry seal 2 to 6 Annually
Surface dressing 2 to 5 Annually/2 years
Thin overlay 2 to 6 Annually
Microsurfacing 3 to 7 2 years

4.5 Quantification of Benefits
The quantification of benefits of preventive maintenance treatments can be carried out by two
methods-
i. Cost- effectiveness method
ii. Road user cost method
4.5.1 Cost Effectiveness Method
Effectiveness of a maintenance strategy is the net area above the deterioration curve ( for
increasing condition indicator like roughness index) multiplied by length of the section and
volume of the traffic duly considering the axle load spectrum and the transverse distribution of
traffic. The calculation of the cost effectiveness would be a simple ratio of effectiveness divided
by the cost of the treatment. This ratio has no physical or economic meaning but is valuable in
the relative comparison of various alternatives. The important benefit related areas are those
below condition indicator curves that decreases over time like skid resistance and above the
condition indicator curves that increases over time like the roghness. The benefit areas associated
with do-nothing strategy for increasing condition indicator is shown in Figure 3. The benefit
areas associated with preventive maintenance strategy for increasing condition indicator is shown
in Figure 4. The computation of benefit areas is done by subtraction of do-nothing condition
curve areas from areas associated with the post treatment case.
Effectiveness =(area under the deterioration curve) × volume of the traffic over the service life
in msa (million standard axles) × length of the section (in kilometre)
Cost - effectiveness =effectiveness/discounted agency cost

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U B C - U p p e r b e n e f i t c u t o f f v a l u e
L B C - L o w e r b e n e f i t c u t o f f v a l u e
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Fig 3: Determination of benefit areas associated with increasing individual condition
indicator for do-nothing strategy (Peshkin et al, 2004)

A g e ( Y e a r s )
X ( 2 ) X ( 1 ) X ( 0 )







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A R E A ( P o s t T r e a t m e n t )
U B C - U p p e r b e n e f i t c u t o f f v a l u e
L B C - L o w e r b e n e f i t c u t o f f v a l u e
T r e a t m e n t
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c u r v e
Fig
4: Determination of benefit areas associated with increasing individual condition indicator
with preventive maintenance strategy (Peshkin et al, 2004)

4.5.2 Road User Cost Method
Only preventive maintenance cost (agency cost) and road user cost are considered in the study
for calculation of benefits. The vehicle operating cost equations developed by Reddy et al (2003)
for different classes of vehicles are used in the computation of vehicle operation cost per km. The
cost associated with each treatment at different time periods during the design life is converted to
present worth at discount rate of 6%. The costs of various bituminous treatments are based on
prevailing standard schedule of rates. The difference in vehicle operating costs for do-nothing
strategy and post treatment strategy is considered as the benefit. The treatment with the
maximum benefit per unit agency cost is considered as the best preventive maintenance strategy.
5.0 Deterioration Models
5.1 Deflection Criteria
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The performance in case of deflection for the set of alternatives in each section is evaluated by
using deflection progression models (Reddy, 1996). The deflection progression models are
function of initial deflection (iDEF), age and cumulated standard axles (N).The set of deflection
progression models are shown in Table 3.
Table 3: Deflection Progression Models (Reddy, 1996)
iDef Range(mm) Model Form n R
2
S.E
.44<iDEF<0.61 D
t
=iDEF+0.07884[(N
t
*Age)
iDEF
] 28 0.92 0.11
.66<iDEF<0. 80 D
t
=iDEF+0.0027exp[(iDEF*N
t
)
iDEF
]+.0859(Age) 47 069 0.29
.84<iDEF<1.05 D
t
=iDEF+0.04513(expN
t
)
0.45
+0.0924(exp Age)
log
iDEF
45 0.82 0.82
1.10<iDEF<1.25 D
t
=iDEF+0.03658[exp(iDEF*N
t
]
0.5
+0.19864(Age)
0
.26
29 0.82 0.02

Where, iDEF : Stabilised Initial deflection (mm) after the construction
D
t
: Corrected characteristic rebound deflection (mm) at any time t
N
t
: Cumulative standard axles (millions) at time, t
Age : Age of pavement at t (years)
5.2 Roughness Index Criteria (For MDR and State Highway)
The performance of the pavement section is predicted by using roughness progression models
(Reddy, 1996). The critical values are taken for various types of bituminous surfacing as per
IRC: SP: 16-2004. Roughness progression model is a function of Initial Roughness, age,
deflection and Cumulative standard axle load repetitions (CSA)

UI
t
=UI
0
[1+0.065187(N
t
)
1.22
+0.18426(DEF
0
)
0.61Age
]
[n=62, R
2
=0.62, S.E=0.233]
Where, UI
t
: Roughness Index (mm/km) at any time t
UI
0
: Initial Roughness Index (mm/km) at time t=0
N
t
: Cumulative standard axles (millions) at time, t
Age : Age of pavement at t (years)
DEF
0
: Deflection (mm) at the time t=0

5.3 Roughness Index Criteria (For National Highway)
The road section performance is predicted by using roughness progression models (Reddy,
1996). The critical values for roughness are considered from IRC: SP: 16:2004 for the different
types of surfacings. Roughness progression model is a function of initial roughness, age,
deflection and CSA.
UI
t
=iUI [1+0.3012(N
t
× DEF
0
)
0.08 Age
(N=64, R
2
=0.7, S.E=0.2067)
5.4 Cracking Criteria
The crack in the bituminous surfacing occurs due to combined action of traffic loading and the
environment. The cracking initiation model by Sood et al, 1996 is as follows:

For AC Surfacing: AGECRIN=4.00EXP [-1.09
2
MSN
CSALYR
]

[n=20, R
2
=0.45, SE=0.43]

12

Cracking progression model is given by-
i
t
t
CR Δ
=4.26[
MSN
CSALYR
]
0.65
*SCR
i
[n=124, R
2
=.25, SE=1.14]
Where, AGECRIN : Age of pavement at the time of cracking initiation (years)
CSALYR : Cumulative standard axles per year (millions)
MSN : Modified structural number
Where, MSN=3.28(DEF
0
)
-0.23
Δ CR
t
: Percentage change in Crack area over time (t) in
years (%)
SCR
i
: Initial crack area (%)
t
i
: Time interval (years)
For the analysis purpose, the initial crack area is assumed as 2% of the whole area.

5.5 Ravelling Criteria
Ravelling occurs either due to loss of fines/stone particles from the surfacing and/or due to loss
of adhesion /bonding between binder and aggregates. The general form of ravelling initiation
model by Sood et al, 1996 is as follows:

AGERVIN=3.18 AXLEYR
-0.138
* (CQ+1)
-0.38
[n=26,R
2
=0.43, SE=0.38]
The model for ravelling progression is:
i
t
t
RV
=3.94 AXLEYR
0.32
*SRV
i

0.46
[n=82, R
2
=0.28, SE=1.02]
Where , AGERVIN : Age of the pavement at the time of ravelling initiation
AXLEYR : No. of vehicle axle per year (million)
CQ : Construction quality (For NH=0, For SH=1)
RV
t
: Ravelling at time t (%)
SRV
i
: Initial ravelling (%)
t
i
: Time interval (years)
For the analysis purpose the initial ravelling is assumed as 1% of the whole area.
5.6 Pavement Condition Index
Pavement Condition Index (PCI) is a numerical indicator of present pavement condition that is
directly related to the pavement surface operational condition. The PCI is a function of the type
of distress, severity of distress and the density of the distress.
The distress parameters for the present study were selected as roughness, cracking and ravelling.
The weighted factors assigned to the roughness, cracking and ravelling are 60%, 30%, and 10%
respectively. The Pavement Condition Index (PCI) for each section of road stretch is calculated
as-
PCI=100-CDV
13
Where, CDV=Corrected or Normalized Deduct Value (Not exceeding 100)
The PCI value ranges from 0 to 100 with a score of 100 representing a pavement in perfect
condition. The classes of PCI and appropriate maintenance intervention to be adopted are
presented in the Table 4.
Table 4: Ranges of PCI and suggested maintenance interventions
PCI Rating Type of maintenance
80-100 Very good Preventive / resurfacing
60-80 Good Thin overlay (<50 mm)

5.7 Cost considerations
Only agency cost and vehicle operation costs are included in the present study. The vehicle
operation costs differ between different classes of vehicles for the same roadway conditions. The
total vehicles operation costs is the total operating costs of all vehicles plying on the road. The
vehicles operation cost for the same class of vehicles depends upon the width of the road,
roughness and rise and fall of the road stretch. Reddy et al (2003) gave different equation for
different classes of vehicles for calculating the vehicle operation cost per km including the tax.
The vehicle classifications covered are new technology cars, old technology cars, two wheelers,
buses, light commercial vehicles (LCV), two axle heavy commercial vehicles (HCV) and multi
axle heavy commercial vehicles (MAV).The rise and fall value is considered as 7.5m/km.The
width of the road for MDR and SH is considered as 3.75 m and for NH is taken as 7.00 m. The
cost associated with each treatment is converted to present worth at discount rate of 6%.The
equations used in the present study are as shown in Table 5.

Table 5: Equations for Calculating Vehicle Operating Cost (Rs/km/vehicle) for Different
Classes of Vehicles (Reddy et al, 2003)
Vehicle type VOC equations
New technology cars Log
e
VOCNBC=1.381-0.115*W+0.00008300*RG+0.01302*RF
Old technology cars Log
e
VOCOBC=1.666-0.134*W+.00008789*RG+0.01145*RF
LCV Log
e
VOCLCV=2.143-0.039*W+0.00002668*RG+0.01323*RF
Buses Log
e
VOCBUS=2.135-0.070*W+0.00004553*RG+0.01208*RF
Two-Wheelers Log
e
VOCTW =0.452-0.13*W+0.000111*RG+0.01473*RF
HCV 2-axle Log
e
VOCHCV=2.472-0.065*W+0.00004121*RG+0.00992*RF
HCV Multiaxle Log
e
VOCMAV=2.926-0.050*W+0.00002969*RG+0.01443*RF

Where, W : Road width (m)
RG : Roughness (mm/km)
RF : Rise and fall (m/km)
14

6.0 Case Study of Preventive Maintenance Options for an Upgraded MDR and a State
Highway
Three road stretches, a Major District Road of 25.6 km, a State Highway of 70.3 km in Karnataka
and a National Highway of 46.7 km in Kerala are considered in the present study. The existing
MDR and SH is single lane with two way traffic and NH is two lanes with two way traffic.
6.1 Prediction of Cumulative Standard Axle Load Repetitions
In the entire stretch of MDR and SH, there were four traffic count stations. The traffic was
projected upto year 2020. The projected traffic is given in Table 6.
Table 6: Predicted Traffic Load Repetitions (per year)
Year Count station1
(in msa)
Count station 2
(in msa)
Count station 3
(in msa)
Count station 4
(in msa)
2003 0.52 0.38 0.36 0.25
2004 0.56 0.42 0.39 0.27
2005 0.62 0.45 0.43 0.30
2006 0.67 0.49 0.47 0.33
2007 0.73 0.54 0.51 0.36
2008 0.80 0.58 0.56 0.39
2009 0.87 0.64 0.60 0.42
2010 0.95 0.69 0.66 0.46
2011 1.04 0.75 0.71 0.50
2012 1.13 0.82 0.77 0.54
2013 1.23 0.89 0.84 0.59
2014 1.35 0.97 0.91 0.64
2015 1.47 1.05 0.99 0.69
2016 1.60 1.14 1.08 0.75
2017 1.75 1.25 1.17 0.82
2018 1.91 1.36 1.28 0.89
2019 2.09 1.48 1.39 0.97
2020 2.29 1.61 1.51 1.05

The road was opened for traffic in the year 2003. The traffic in commercial vehicles per day at
count station 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 531,457,405,275 respectively.

15

6.2 Upgradation Details
The data for the project road in terms of PCI values, characteristic Benkelman beam rebound
deflection values and roughness index for different homogenous sections are shown as in Table
7. The existing pavement was strengthened for the projected traffic for the design life of 20
years. Based on the procedure given in IRC: 81-1997 the overlay thickness values were
calculated for all the sections. The strengthening requirements for each section are summarized
in Table 7.
Table 7: List of Homogenous Sections and their Recommended Strengthening
Deflection (mm) Homogenous
Section
Count
Station
Max. Min.
PCI Recommended
Treatment
1 1.55 1.23 20-40 Thick Overlay
2 1.68 .94 20-40 Thick Overlay
3 1.2 .97 20-40 Thick Overlay
4 1.45 .99 20-40 Thick Overlay
5



CS-4
1.14 .91 20-40 Thick Overlay
6 1.57 1.01 40-60 Thin overlay
7

CS-3
1.41 1.02 40-60 Thin overlay
8 1.61 1.2 40-60 Thin overlay
9

CS-2
.99 .65 80-100 Resurfacing
10 .81 .36 80-100 Resurfacing
11 1.12 .56 40-60 Thin overlay
12


CS-1
1.19 .74 20-40 Thick Overlay

6.3 Calculation of initial deflection
16
By strengthening the existing pavement with the suitable overlay, the deflection will reduce to its
minimum value. The percentage reduction in the deflection is computed by using the deflection
reduction chart (Arunachalam, 1971) shown in Fig.5.
0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0
0
1 0
2 0
3 0
4 0
5 0
6 0
7 0
8 0
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

i
n

B
e
n
k
e
l
m
a
n

D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
O v e r l a y th i c k n e s s i n te r m s o f g r a n u l a r m a te r i a l ( c m )

Fig. 5 Design Chart for Strengthening the Flexible Highway Pavements (Arunachalam,
1971)
6.4 Detailed calculations and results for a road section on State Highway
The proposed approach considers that pavement with inadequate structural capacity will be
strengthened initially and the effectiveness of the preventive maintenance treatment will be
quantified for the subsequent period only. For a typical road section on State Highway, the
suggested strengthening requirement was DBM (Dense bituminous macadam) of 115 mm and
BC (Bitumen Concrete) of 40 mm. The reduction in the deflection value due to suggested
overlay was 66%. The initial deflection after the overlay construction was estimated to be 0.29
mm The roughness, cracking and ravelling progression were computed for do-nothing strategy
are shown in Table 8.
Table 8: Progression Of Functional Parameters For Do-Nothing Strategy
Year Roughness(mm/km) Cracking (%) Ravelling (%) PCI
Initial
Values
1500 0 0 100
2003 1691 0 0 95
2004 1916 0 0 90
2005 2182 0 2 82
2006 2498 2 3 72
2007 2874 4 4 59
2008 3326 7 6 45
2009 3871 10 7 27

6.5 Benefit cut-off values
The benefit cut-off values are defined as the condition indicators (viz. roughness, cracking and
ravelling) which are the boundary conditions for the performance curves that define the upper
and lower limits for the calculation of the benefit area. The specific definitions of the upper and
lower benefit cutoff values are as follows-
17
i. Upper benefit cut-off values- The Upper benefit cut-off value is the upper limit to the
benefit area computations. (i.e., no area above the upper benefit cutoff level is included
in the benefit computation) as shown in Figure 6.
ii. Lower benefit cut-off values- The lower benefit cut-off value is the lower limit to the
benefit area computations. (i.e., no area below benefit cut-off level is included in the
benefit computation).
iii. The upper and lower benefit cutoff values for different condition indicators are shown in
Table 9.
Age (Years)
UBC- Upper benefit cutoff value
LBC- Lower benefit cutoff value C
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n

I
n
d
i
c
a
t
o
r
Area limited by benefit cutoff values

Fig 6: Illustration of the upper and lower benefit cut-off values for increasing condition
indicator

Table 9: Upper and Lower benefit cut-off values for different condition indicators

Benefit cut-off values/
condition indicator
Roughness (mm/km) Cracking (%) Ravelling (%)
Upper Benefit cut-off
values
4000 30 10
Lower Benefit cut-off
values
1500 0 0

The trigger point for roughness condition indicator for different preventive maintenance
treatments are shown in Table 10. When the following trigger point is reached, the preventive
maintenance treatment is applied.
Table 10: Trigger point for different condition indicators
Condition indicator/
Preventive maintenance
strategies
Roughness(mm/km)
(Before treatment)
Roughness(mm/km)
(After treatment)
Microsurfacing 2500 1500
Thin overlay 2800 1500
Surface-dressing 2700 2500
Slurry-seal 2500 2000


18

6.6 Quantification of Benefits Due to Preventive Maintenance

The service life for the do-nothing scenario for the strengthened pavement section was
found to be six years viz., upto 2009 considering threshold value of roughness as shown in Table
9. . The deterioration progression of the strengthened pavement in terms of different performance
condition indicators viz. roughness, cracking and ravelling was computed for four different
preventive maintenance strategies viz. microsurfacing, thin overlay, surface dressing and slurry
seal. The vehicle operation costs (VOC) for the do-nothing scenario and the vehicle operating
costs after the preventive maintenance strategy were compared. The strategy that gave maximum
benefit per unit agency cost was considered as the most cost effective strategy. Both agency cost
and VOC were discounted to the present value at the discount rate of 6%. The roughness,
cracking and ravelling progression was computed for microsurfacing strategy as shown in Table
11 and benefit per unit agency cost is shown as in Table 12.

Table 11 Progression of Functional parameters for Micro-surfacing strategy

Year Roughness(cm/km) Cracking (%) Ravelling (%) PCI Remarks
2003 1691 0 0 95
2004 1916 0 0 90
2005 2182 0 2 82
2006 2498 2 3 72

2007 1500 0 0 100
Micro-surfacing
provided
2008 1736 3 2 91
2009 2021 5 3 80
2010 2368 8 5 68
2011 2794 10 6 53
2012 3322 14 8 36
2013 3980 17 9 15

Table 12 Benefit per unit agency per km cost for microsurfacing strategy

Vehicle Operation Costs (VOC) for do-nothing strategy Rs. 363.97 lakhs
Vehicle Operation Costs (VOC) after the application of micro-
surfacing treatment
Rs. 330.69 lakhs
Benefit Rs. 33.28 lakhs
Discounted Agency cost Rs. 1.82 lakhs
Benefit per unit agency cost/ lane km ( for service life of pavement) Rs. 18.28 lakhs

6.7 Cost Effectiveness
6.7.1 Computation of Benefit Area
19
The cost-effectiveness was computed by considering the area under the curve. The benefit area
for roughness, cracking and ravelling for do-nothing strategy is shown below as in Fig. 7, Fig. 8,
and Fig. 9 respectively. The benefit areas for roughness, cracking and ravelling for micro-
surfacing strategy are shown in Fig. 10, Fig. 11 and Fig. 12 respectively.

2 0 0 2 2 0 0 3 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 5 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 7 2 0 0 8 2 0 0 9
1 5 0 0
2 0 0 0
2 5 0 0
3 0 0 0
3 5 0 0
4 0 0 0
4 5 0 0
5 0 0 0
L o w e r b e n e f i t c u t - o f f v a l u e
U p p e r b e n e f i t c u t - o f f v a l u e
+ v e b e n e f i t a r e a
R
o
u
g
h
n
e
s
s

(
m
m
/
k
m
)
A g e ( Y e a r s )

Fig 7 Roughness Growth Area for do-nothing strategy
2 0 0 2 2 0 0 3 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 5 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 7 2 0 0 8 2 0 0 9
- 2
0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
1 4
1 6
1 8
2 0
2 2
2 4
2 6
2 8
3 0
3 2
L o w e r b e n e f i t c u t - o f f v a l u e
U p p e r b e n e f i t c u t - o f f v a l u e
+ v e b e n e f i t a r e a
C
r
a
c
k
i
n
g

(
%
)
A g e ( Y e a r s )

Fig 8 Crack growth area for do-nothing strategy

2 0 0 2 2 0 0 3 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 5 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 7 2 0 0 8 2 0 0 9
- 2
0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
L o w e r b e n e f i t c u t - o f f v a l u e
U p p e r b e n e f i t c u t - o f f v a l u e
+ v e b e n e f i t a r e a
R
a
v
e
l
l
i
n
g

(
%
)
A g e ( Y e a r s )

Fig 9 Ravelling growth area for do-nothing strategy
20

2 0 0 2 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 8 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 4
1 0 0 0
1 5 0 0
2 0 0 0
2 5 0 0
3 0 0 0
3 5 0 0
4 0 0 0
4 5 0 0
L o w e r b e n e f i t c u t - o f f v a l u e
U p p e r b e n e f i t c u t - o f f v a l u e
+ v e b e n e f i t a r e a
R
o
u
g
h
n
e
s
s

(
m
m
/
k
m
)
A g e ( Y e a r s )

Fig 10 Roughness growth area after Micro-surfacing strategy

2 0 0 2 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 8 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 4
- 4
- 2
0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
1 4
1 6
1 8
2 0
2 2
2 4
2 6
2 8
3 0
3 2
L o w e r b e n e f i t c u t - o f f v a l u e
U p p e r b e n e f i t c u t - o f f v a l u e
+ v e b e n e f i t a r e a
C
r
a
c
k
i
n
g

(
%
)
A g e ( Y e a r s )
Fi
g 11 Crack growth area after Micro-surfacing strategy
2 0 0 2 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 8 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 4
- 2
0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
L o w e r b e n e f i t c u t - o f f v a l u e
U p p e r b e n e f i t c u t - o f f v a l u e
+ v e b e n e f i t a r e a
R
a
v
e
l
l
i
n
g

(
%
)
A g e ( Y e a r s )
Fig 12 Ravelling growth area after Micro-surfacing strategy
The benefit due to micro-surfacing was computed by subtracting do-nothing benefit area from
micro-surfacing benefit area. After the calculation of benefit areas due to micro-surfacing
strategy, the weighted factors were applied to arrive at weighted benefit area and further cost –
effectiveness was computed as shown in Table 13.

21

6.5.2 Sample Calculation of Benefit Areas
The sample computation for benefit areas and cost-effectiveness is given below in detail.
Benefit area for roughness=Area under the curve for micro surfacing strategy- Area under the
curve for do- nothing =16141 – 8423 =7718
Weighted benefit area for roughness =Area under the curve for roughness × weightage factor =
7718 × 0.6 =4631
Benefit area for crack area= Area under the curve for micro surfacing strategy - Area under the
curve for do- nothing =250.6 - 162.9 =87.7
Weighted benefit area for crack area =Area under the curve for crack × weightage factor =87.7
0.3 = 26.3 ×
Benefit area for ravelling= Area under the curve for micro surfacing strategy - Benefit area for
do- nothing =69.57 - 44.3 =25.27
Weighted benefit area for ravelling =Area under the curve for ravelling × weightage factor =
25.27 × 0.1 =2.53.
Total benefit area after providing micro surfacing strategy=4631+26.3+2.53=4660
Table 13: Computation of benefit areas for micro-surfacing strategy
Strategy Do-nothing Micro-surfacing
Condition
Indicator
Area Weighted area Area Weighted
area

Total benefit
Roughness 8423 5054 16141 9684
Cracking 163 49 251 75
Ravelling 44 4.4 70 7

4660

Effectiveness =(area under the deterioration curve) × volume of the traffic over the service life
in msa (million standard axles) × length of the section (in km)
Effectiveness =4660 × 9.12 msa × 1km=42500
Cost Effectiveness=Effectiveness/discounted cost of treatment (in lakhs)
Cost-Effectiveness=
82 . 1
1 12 . 9 4660 × ×
= 23351

6.5.3 Cost Effectiveness of Different Preventive Maintenance Strategies
The benefit per unit agency cost per km per year and cost effectiveness for surface dressing, thin
overlay, surface dressing and slurry seal for the project level road are shown in Table 14 and
Table 15 respectively.







22

Table 14 Benefit Per Unit Agency Cost Per Km For Different Preventive Maintenance
Treatment
Strategy Traffic
(msa)
Life Life
extension
Application
year
VOC
(Rs. in
lakhs)
Do-
nothing
VOC (Rs.
in lakhs)
With
treatment
Benefit/agen
cy cost per
km per year
(Rs. in
lakhs)
Do- nothing 2009 - - - - -
Micro-
surfacing
2013 4 years 2007 363.97 330.69 18.28
Thin overlay 2013 4 years 2007 363.97 330.69 12.15
Surface
dressing
2012 3 years 2007,2008,
2009
315.98 299.3 3.82
Slurry-seal


21.58
2013 4 years 2007, 2009 363.97 332.06 11.99

Table 15 Cost Effectiveness For Different Preventive Maintenance Treatment
Strategy Life Life
extension
Application year Benefit area Cost effectiveness
(CE)
Do- nothing 2009 - - 5156 -
Micro-surfacing 2013 4 years 2007 9767 23106
Thin overlay 2013 4 years 2007 9767 15347
Surface dressing 2012 3 years 2007,2008,
2009
7296 3862
Slurry-seal 2013 4 years 2007, 2009 9145 13676

6.5.4 Effect of Threshold Level on the Benefits
It is understood that applying preventive maintenance to a particular pavement too early or too
late does not yield better results. So to study the effect of the different benefit cut-off values for a
typical preventive maintenance strategy, viz., micro-surfacing for three different benefit cut-off
values for roughness (viz. 2000mm/km, 2500mm/km and 3000mm/km) are considered in the
analysis. The variation in roughness, cracking and ravelling for different benefit cut-off values of
2000mm/km, 2500mm/km and 3000mm/km of study section are shown in Table 16. It can be
observed from the analysis of data that benefit per unit agency cost is maximum when a
threshold level of 2500mm/km is considered. It is not beneficial to apply the maintenance
treatment earlier than this level.

6.5.3 Deterioration progression of different condition indicators (viz. roughness, cracking
and ravelling) for different preventive maintenance strategies
23
The deterioration progression of different condition indicators (viz. roughness, cracking and
ravelling) for different preventive maintenance strategies (viz. thin overlay, surface dressing and
slurry seal) and benefit associated with them is shown in Table 17.
Table16: Computation of benefit for different benefit cut-off values for micro-surfacing treatment
Benefit Cut Off Value 2000 mm/Km Benefit Cut Off Value 2500 mm/Km Benefit Cut Off Value 3000 mm/Km
Year Roughness
(mm/km)
Crack
(%)
Ravelling
(%)
PCI Remarks Roughness
(mm/km)
Crack
(%)
Ravelling
(%)
PCI Remarks Roughness
(mm/km)
Crack
(%)
Ravelling
(%)
PCI Remarks
2003 1691 0 0 95 1691 0 0 95 1691 0 0 95
2004 1916 0 0 90 1916 0 0 90 1916 0 0 90
2005 1500 0 0 100 Microsurfacing 2182 0 1 82 2182 0 2 82
2006 1717 2 2 92 2498 2 2 72 2498 2 3 72
2007 1975 4 3 82 1500 0 0 100 Micro
surfacing
2874 4 4 59
2008 1500 0 0 100 Microsurfacing 1736 2 1 91 1500 0 0 82 Microsurfacing
2009 1746 3 2 91 2021 5 3 80 2328 3 2 77
2010 2046 5 3 79 2368 7 4 68 2728 5 3 63
2011 2414 8 5 66 2794 10 6 53 3219 8 5 47
2012 2870 11 6 51 3322 13 7 36 3827 11 6 28
2013 3439 14 8 32 3980 16 9 15
2014 4161 18 10 13
Year of application 2005,2008 Year of application 2007 Year of application 2008
Extended service life 5 years Extended service life 4 years Extended service life 3 years
5
6
Benefit per agency cost Rs.14.17 lakhs Benefit per agency cost Benefit per agency cost Rs. 10.94 lakhs Rs.18.28 lakhs

24
Table17: Progression of functional parameters for different preventive maintenance strategies
Micro-surfacing Surface Dressing Slurry seal
Year Roughness Crack Ravelling PCI Remarks Roughness Crack Ravelling PCI Remarks Roughness Crack Ravelling PCI Remarks
(mm/km) (%) (%) (mm/km) (%) (%) (mm/km) (%) (%)
2003 1691 0 0 95 1691 0 0 95 1691 0 0 95
2004 1916 0 0 90 1916 0 0 90 1916 0 0 90
2005 2182 0 1.2 82 2182 0 1.2 82 2182 0 1.2 82
2006 2498 1.9 2.4 72 2498 2 2.4 72 2498 2 2.4 72
2007 1500 0 0 100 2500 0 0 76 2000 0 0 88 Micro-surfacing Surface dressing Slurry seal
2008 1736 2.15 1.2 91 2893/2500 2.2 / 0 1.3 / 0 76 /
63
2315 2.2 1.3 77 Surface dressing
2009 2021 4.53 2.6 80 2910 / 2500 2.3 / 0 1.4 / 0 76 /
62
2000 0 0 88 Surface dressing Slurry seal
2010 2368 7.17 4.1 68 2929 2.4 1.4 62 2343 2.4 1.4 76
2011 2794 10 5.6 53 3457 5.1 2.8 45 2766 5.1 2.8 62
2012 3322 13.2 7.1 36 4109 7.9 4.3 28 3288 7.9 4.3 45
2013 3980 16.6 8.8 15 3940 11.1 5.9 24
2014
Vehicle Operation Costs (VOC) for do-
nothing strategy
Rs.363.97 lakhs Rs.315.98 lakhs Rs.363.97 lakhs
Vehicle Operation Costs (VOC) for thin
overlay strategy
Rs.330.69 lakhs Rs.299.3 lakhs Rs.332.06 lakhs
Benefit Rs.33.28 lakhs Rs.16.68 lakhs Rs.31.91 lakhs
Agency cost Rs.2.74 lakhs Rs.4.37 lakhs Rs.2.66 lakhs
Benefit per unit agency cost ( for service life
of pavement)
Rs.12.15 lakhs Rs.3.82 lakhs Rs.11.91lakhs
Note: For comparison, the preventive treatments are considered upto the do-nothing design life viz., 2009

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6.5.5 Summary
The results obtained from road user cost method are easily understandable as the benefits due
to preventive maintenance treatment are in rupee term and they can be effectively used in
prioritization of preventive maintenance treatment for the road projects. The results obtained
from cost-effectiveness method are not quantified in rupee terms. It can be used in selection
of most cost-effective treatment. The most cost effective treatment for different sections of
the project level road and their benefit per unit agency cost per km are shown as in Table 18.
By applying preventive maintenance treatments the benefit per unit agency cost per km for
the different sections of the project level road is 158.55 lakhs during the design life.
Table 18 Cost –effective treatment for different sections of the project level road
Section
No.
Count Treatment Benefit per unit agency cost
stations (Rs. in lakhs)
1 Thin overlay 7.15
2 Thin overlay 6.74
3 Micro-surfacing 13.8
4 Thin overlay 5.97
CS-4
5 Micro-surfacing 13.8
6 Thin overlay 13.55 CS-3
7 Thin overlay 12.71
8 Thin overlay 17.22 CS-2
9 Micro-surfacing 17.41
10 Thin overlay 14.18
11 Micro-surfacing 18.28
CS-1
12 Micro-surfacing 17.34

6.5.6 Discussion
From the analysis of the sections of the project level road for quantification of benefits due to
the preventive maintenance treatment following points are observed-
i. For the sections having the same range of deflection values (0.50 mm to 0.55 mm),
the benefits per unit agency cost per km are Rs.6.36 lakhs and Rs. 13.13 lakhs for
traffic intensity of 275 cvpd and 405cvpd respectively.
ii. Micro-surfacing is the most cost-effective option for road sections with traffic
intensity in the range between 500 cvpd to 600 cvpd.
iii. The ranking of treatment obtained from road user cost method and cost-effectiveness
method (viz.by calculating area under the curve) are nearly same with few
exceptions.
iv. The benefits per unit agency cost for surface dressing is low because of its high
initial condition indicator values for functional parameter (viz. the roughness value
decreases to 2500mm/km when surface dressing is laid when the roughness is 2700
mm/km).
7.0 Effectiveness of Preventive Maintenance for National Highway Sections
7.1 Cost Effectiveness of Different Preventive Maintenance Strategies
The benefit per unit agency cost per km and cost effectiveness for microsurfacing, thin
overlay, surface dressing and slurry seal for a pavement in a National Highway having an
initial deflection of 0.4 mm and carrying low traffic are shown in Table 19 and Table 20
26

respectively. It can be seen that the cost effectiveness of the thin overlay strategy is
maximum when compared to micro surfacing, surface dressing and slurry seal.The thin
overlay is found to be the most cost effective treatment for road sections of National
Highways carrying heavy traffic.
Table 19:Benefit per unit agency cost per km for different preventive maintenance
treatment
Strategy Traffic Life Life Application
year
VOC
(Rs. in
lakhs)
Do-
nothing
VOC (Rs. in
lakhs) With
treatment
Benefit/agency
cost per km per
year
(msa) extension
(Rs. in lakhs)
Do-
nothing
2009 - - - - -
Micro-
surfacing
2012 3 years 2007 2130.10 2076.10 29.67
Thin
overlay
2014 5 years 2009 2637.4 2526.10 45.61
87.84
Surface
dressing
2012 3 years 2008 2130.10 2093.70 25.27
Slurry-
seal
2013 4 years 2007,2008, 2377.80 2298.20 20.10
2009


Table 20: Cost effectiveness for different preventive maintenance treatment
Strategy Life Life Application year Benefit area Cost
effectiveness extension
(CE)
Do- nothing 2009 - - 5361
Micro-surfacing 2012 3 years 2007 8711 1,11,935
Thin overlay 2014 5 years 2009 10085 1,50,943
Surface dressing 2012 3 years 2008 7718 99,529
Slurry-seal 2013 4 years 2007,2008, 9368 70,105
2009

7.2 Summary
The results obtained from road user cost method are easily understandable as the benefits due
to preventive maintenance treatment are in rupee term and they can be effectively considered
in prioritization of preventive maintenance treatments for the road projects. The cost-
effectiveness method can be used in the selection of appropriate cost-effective treatment.

The analysis was performed for pavements with different structural adequacies
expressed in terms of initial deflection values of 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.6 mm and for low,
medium and high traffic for the test sections. After the application of the preventive
27

maintenance treatments, the benefit per unit agency cost per km for a typical road section is
shown in Table 8.16
Table 8.16 Cost –effective treatment for road section
S.No Traffic Initial Treatment Benefit per unit agency cost
growth Deflection
(mm)
(Rs. in lakhs)
1 0.4 Thin overlay 45.61
2 0.5 Thin overlay 42.52 Low
(7.7%) 3 0.6 Microsurfacing 33.2
4 0.4 Thin overlay 46.1
5 0.5 Thin overlay 43.4 Medium
(9.3%) 6 0.6 Thin overlay 30.14
7 0.4 Thin overlay 47.22
8 0.5 Thin overlay 44.57 High
(10%) 9 0.6 Thin overlay 35.14

7.3 Discussions

From the analysis of the National Highway section to quantify the benefits due to the various
preventive maintenance treatment following points are observed-
i. For pavement sections with higher initial deflection values (0.6 mm) the rate of
deterioration of the functional parameters (viz. roughness, cracking and ravelling) are
high when compared to low initial deflection values (0.4mm).
ii. The benefits per unit agency cost per km is more by 37% for pavement sections with
low initial deflection values (0.4 mm) for constant traffic growth rate as compared to
high initial deflection values ( 0.6 mm).
iii. For high trafficked road sections (5000cvpd-6000cvpd), thin overlay is the most cost
effective preventive maintenance treatment.

8.0 Conclusions

i. The life of the pavement can be significantly extended by the application of
appropriate preventive maintenance treatments.
ii. The best timing for the application of preventive maintenance treatment varies
with the type of treatment and the volume of traffic.
iii. The benefit cut off factor has major impact on the cost effectiveness of the
treatment. It can be seen from the analysis that maintaining the pavement too
early or too late is not beneficial. From the analysis the benefit cut-off value for
roughness of 2500 mm/km is found to have the maximum benefit.
iv. As the initial deflection value increases from 0.4 mm to 0.6 mm, the do- nothing
service life of the pavement decreases from 6 years to 5 years for national
highway sections under high traffic levels.
v. Thin overlay preventive maintaince strategy is the most cost effective for
highways carrying traffic from 5000 cvpd to 6000 cvpd.
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vi. The benefits per unit agency cost for different preventive maintenance treatment
depends on the trigger point of the functional parameters and the cost of the
treatment.
vii. The ranking of treatment obtained from road user cost method and cost-
effectiveness method (viz.by calculating area under the curve) are nearly the
same.

8.1 Scope of future research

i. For Indian conditions there is need to have good data base for different types of
pavement construction and deterioration models for functional parameters for pre-
treatment and post treatment scenario for tracking appropriate measures of
performance for different treatments.
ii. The most cost effective methodology can be evaluated from performance of test
sections overlaid with different preventive maintenance treatments and the
methodology can be enhanced.

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