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Department of Civil Engineering

Project no. 2

Photo Files with Discussion of Different pumps
used in industries: centrifugal, gear, rotary, piston
pumps, and multistage submersible pump

Name: Ramos, Lalaine G.
Course/Year: BSCE- 4
Schedule: Monday 1-4 p

Date Submitted: August 4, 2014
Instructor: Bro. German Barlis, DT

Centrifugal pumps are the most common
type of pump, with dozen of different
configurations available including: fire
pumps, end suction pumps, chopper pumps,
grinder pumps, magnetic drive pumps and
many more.
Centrifugal pumps use one or more
impellers which attach to and rotate with
the shaft, providing the energy that moves
liquid through the pump and pressurizes the
liquid to move it through the piping system.
They are usually quick to install, require less
maintenance than other alternatives, and
are generally easy to repair.
Centrifugal pumps are usually the best
choice for lower viscosity (thin) liquids and
high flow rates. They are also used in many
residential, commercial, industrial, and
municipal applications. Multi-stage
centrifugal pumps have more than one
impeller, and are used for applications that
require higher pressure or head.
They generally work within the following
Flow rate ranges between 5 and 200,000
Total head (pressure) ranges between 10
and 7,500 ft
Horsepower ranges between 0.125 and
5,000 hp
There are a wide variety of materials of
construction, ranging from various plastics
and cast iron or stamped stainless steel for
lighter duties - to bronzes, stainless steels,
exotic alloys, and specialty plastics for more
corrosive, abrasive, hygienic, or other
difficult applications.
Piping connections on centrifugal pumps are
available with standard pipe threads on
smaller sizes, and flanges on larger sizes.
Specialty connections are available from
some pump manufacturers for particular
applications. The normal drivers supplied
are A.C. induction motors, but some
manufacturers offer pumps with D.C. drives
or adaptable to other power transmission
devices such as engines and gear boxes.
A centrifugal pump works by:
1. First the pump directs the liquid in the
system into the suction port of the pump
and from there into the inlet of the impeller.
2. The rotating impeller moves the liquid along
the spinning vanes, which increases the
velocity energy of the liquid.
3. The liquid then leaves the impeller vanes
and then moves into the pump volute or
diffuser casing, where the high velocity of
the fluid is converted into high pressure
through a diffusion process.
4. The fluid is then guided into the discharge
port of the pump and from there out into
the system, or on to the next stage in the
case of a multi-stage pump.
Gear pumps are the most common type
of positive displacement pump. They are
considered fixed displacement pumps,
meaning that an unchanging volume of
liquid moves through at a constant rate
provided the pump speed is constant.
Gear pumps generally work within the
following ranges:
Flow rate ranges between 1 and 1,500 gpm
Total head (pressure) ranges between 10
and 2,500 psi
Horse power ranges between 0.5 and 2,000
Viscosity ranges from clear liquids to 2
million SSU
Gear pumps work by using a rotating set of
gears, which are spur or helical for standard
types, and herringbone gears for specialty
applications. The moving gears create
suction at the inlet port of the pump that
draws the fluid into the gears. The rotating
gears then move the liquid between the
teeth of the gears and the walls of the
casing and direct the fluid flow to the
discharge port, where the pressure
continues to build as the volume of the
casing gets smaller near the outlet of the
There are two main types of gear pumps,
which both consist of a drive gear (the gear
that pushes) and an idler (the gear that is
pushed). External gear pumps, which are
usually found in lower flow applications, use
two side-by-side spur, helical, or
herringbone gears that mesh together;
while internal gear pumps consist of a
smaller idler gear that fits inside of the
larger drive gear. The internal configuration
contains a crescent-shaped internal barrier
that helps direct flow through the pump.
Both types often contain built-in pressure
relief valves to protect the pump and the
system in the event that a valve in the
discharge piping is inadvertently closed.
Gear pumps are designed to have very tight
clearances and are ideal for thicker, high
viscosity fluids such as automotive oils,
plastics, paint, adhesives, or soaps.

Considered a positive displacement type
that uses rotating mechanisms to move
fluids or gases through piping systems.
There are several types including gear
pumps, screw pumps and vane pumps.
Unlike reciprocating pumps, which create a
pulsing flow, rotary pumps are designed to
generate a steady, unvarying flow. The main
disadvantage is in order to work with
maximum effectiveness, they need to have a
very close clearance between the rotating
mechanism and the walls of the pump
chamber. Any wear and tear around the
edges of the mechanism can greatly reduce
pump performance.
The most basic types contain one or two
rotating parts that are moving withing a
non-concentric casing. The rotating parts
create a vacuum in the suction, and move
the liquid through the pump to the
discharge. Some types, particularly screw
pumps and rotary vane pumps, are a little
more complicated than this, but the basic
principles are the same. The turning
mechanism simultaneously moves liquid
through the outlet while drawing more
liquid through the intake.
Rotary pumps have a wide variety of
applications, making up about 10 percent of
all the pumps used in industry. Theyre best
for pumping clean and non-corrosive, non
abrasive liquids, which makes them useful in
oil transfer applications in the food industry.

A type of reciprocating pump designed to
move and pressurize fluid using one or more
reciprocating pistons, which are normally
driven by an electric motor through a
crankshaft and connecting rod.
There are many types, but they all employ at
least one piston moving in an enclosed
cylinder. The piston normally has one or
more o-rings on its periphery, to seal against
the cylinder as the piston moves. The piston
moves back and forth in the cylinder,
alternately drawing liquid into the cylinder
and then pushing it out under pressure as
the volume in the cylinder gets progressively
larger and then smaller as the piston
Piston pumps generally work within the
following ranges:
Flow rate ranges between 5 and 700 gpm
Total head (pressure) ranges between 50
and 5,000 psi
Horsepower ranges between 1 and 500 hp
Like most types of positive displacement
pumps, piston pumps use the force of the
pumping mechanism to expand and contract
an internal movable volume of liquid. The
power to drive the piston is supplied by an
electric motor, internal-combustion engine,
or other power source - although more
primitive piston pumps may be driven by
hand, wind, or flowing water. The motion
behind the piston is usually rotational.
Check valves on either side of the pumping
chamber prevent fluid from flowing in the
wrong direction. Piston pumps can have
more than one piston and set of check
valves. A pump with two pistons and two
sets of check valves would be called a duplex
pump, one with three would be called
a triplex pump, with five a quintiplex, etc.
Piston pumps can be single acting or double
acting. The double acting version involves
fluid on both sides of the piston, and two
sets of check valves, one on each side of the
piston. While the piston is in-taking on one
side, it is exhausting on the other. Thus,
each time the piston moves in one direction
from one end to the other, a full pumping
cycle (intake and discharge) has been
completed. For single acting versions, the
piston must move in both directions to
complete a full pumping cycle.
Piston pumps are used as hydraulic
pumps to power heavy machinery, and
theyre also useful in smaller machines such
as paint sprayers. Larger, more robust
versions of this pump type are used in oil
production and other industrial applications.
Axial and radial pumps, both of which
consist of several pistons arrayed in a
circular cylinder block, are useful in high-
tech and advanced industrial applications.
A pump that contains different stages within
the piping system where force is applied to
the water. Each stage consists of one
impeller as well as its accompanying
diffusion components. The term
multistage is usually used in reference
to centrifugal pumps.
In many cases, these pumps are referred to
in terms of how many stages they contain.
For example, a pump with four stages might
be referred to as a four-stage pump, or one
with 10 stages would be referred to as a
ten-stage pump.
The idea behind multistage pumps is fairly
simple. In many industrial and fluid
treatment facilities, its necessary for fluids
to be moved large distances with higher
pressure. In many of these situations, the
only way to achieve this higher pressure is
with more than one impeller. The multiple
impellers are mounted on the same shaft,
and the flow progresses from one stage to
another, building pressure as it goes.

Submersible pumps are a type of centrifugal
pump designed to function with the pump
and motor submerged in the fluid to be
pumped. The motor is sealed in a way that
prevents even tiny amounts of the fluid
from seeping in, which would cause the
motor to short out.
Since submersible pumps do not use a
motor above grade, floor space is better
utilized, and the overall cost of the
installation may be reduced. They also tend
to have lower maintenance costs and create
less noise than pumps which have the motor
mounted at grade. There is also no concern
for priming this type of centrifugal pump,
and less concern about cavitation, since the
impeller and casing are always submerged
and there is no suction pipe with this type.
The exact type of motor and pump that
comprise a submersible pump depends
upon the application and installation
details. Generally, there are two main types,
those that operate down in a bored well,
and those that operate in a sump, wet well,
or basin.
The type that operates in a bored well
normally includes a very skinny submersible
motor located at the bottom of the pump.
Just above the motor is an inlet screen and
suction bell, which directs the fluid into the
centrifugal pump stages that consist of
impellers and diffuser bowls. Usually these
pumps are multi-stage, i.e., have more than
one impeller and diffuser, so they can be
used to pump fluids from very deep wells.
Flows for both types range from less than 10
gallons per minute for a residential version,
to several thousand gallons per minute for
irrigation, industrial, or municipal