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Different Types of delusion

Persecutory delusions are the most common type of delusions experienced by
schizophrenic people, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). These types of delusions are based
on suspicions of being targeted by someone or something. Schizophrenic people with
these types of delusion mistakenly believe that they are being followed, harmed,
poisoned or tormented. Delusions of persecution are suggestive of the paranoid type of
Referential delusions are another common type of delusion reported by schizophrenics,
especially those of the paranoid type. This type of delusion is based on an egocentric
interpretation of information. Schizophrenics with referential delusions believe that gestures and
words of others are specifically directed at them. They become convinced that they are the focus
of song lyrics, books or comments made by someone on television.
Delusions of grandeur are based on the schizophrenic person's mistaken idea that he is someone
of extreme importance. Schizophrenic people with this type of delusions may believe they are a
popular celebrity or a powerful political figure. Since they believe they are well-known or
famous, it is disturbing to them when others do not recognize or acknowledge them as such.
Religious delusions center around misguided ideas about one's relationship with God.
Schizophrenic people with this type of delusion may believe they have a special relationship with
God or that God has given them special powers. They may profess an ability to speak directly to
God or a responsibility to carry out God's plans. In some cases, these individuals may actually
believe that they are God.
Somatic delusions involve a preoccupation with one's body. These delusions commonly consist
of erroneous beliefs that they are suffering from a physical condition, such as a tumor. However,
the perceived source of the physical malady is usually bizarre, such as having a foreign substance
in one's body.
Delusions of control involve the belief that one's thoughts and actions have been taken over by
some outside force. Schizophrenic people with delusions of control believe that their thoughts
have been involuntarily taken from their mind. Therefore, they are convinced that the thoughts in
their mind are not their own. Delusions of control may also include the belief that their bodies
are being manipulated to perform certain actions.

Different Types of Hallucination
The most common modality referred to when people speak of hallucinations. These
include the phenomena of seeing things which are not present or visual perception
which does not reconcile with the consensus reality.
There are many different causes, which have been classed as psychophysiologic (a
disturbance of brain structure), psychobiochemical (a disturbance of
neurotransmitters), and psychological (e.g. meaningful experiences
Numerous disorders can involve visual hallucinations, ranging
from psychotic disorders todementia to migraine, but experiencing visual
hallucinations does not in itself mean there is necessarily a disorder. Visual
hallucinations are associated with organic dos orders of the brain and with drug and
alcohol related illness.
Auditory hallucinations (also known as Paracusia), particularly of one or more
talking voices, are particularly associated with psychotic disorders such
as schizophrenia or mania, and hold special significance in diagnosing these
conditions, although many people not suffering from diagnosable mental illness
may sometimes hear voices as well.
Auditory hallucinations of non-organic origin are most often met with in paranoid
Their visual counterpart in that disease is the non-reality-based feeling of being
looked or stared at.
Other types of auditory hallucination include exploding head syndrome and musical
ear syndrome, and may occur during sleep paralysis. In the latter, people will hear
music playing in their mind, usually songs they are familiar with.
Recent reports have also mentioned that it is also possible to get musical
hallucinations from listening to music for long periods of time. This can be caused
by: lesions on the brain stem (often resulting from a stroke); also,
tumors, encephalitis, or abscesses.
Other reasons include hearing loss and epileptic activity. Auditory hallucinations are
also a result of attempting wake-initiation of lucid dreams.
Phantosmia is the phenomenon of smelling odors that aren't really present. The
most common odors are unpleasant smells such as rotting flesh, vomit, urine,
feces, smoke, or others.
Phantosmia often results from damage to the nervous tissue in the olfactory
system. The damage can be caused by viral infection, brain tumor, trauma,
surgery, and possibly exposure to toxins or drugs.
Phantosmia can also be induced by epilepsy affecting the olfactory cortex and is
also thought to possibly have psychiatric origins. Phantosmia is different from
parosmia, in which a smell is actually present, but perceived differently from its
usual smell.
Olfactory hallucinations have also been reported in migraine, although the
frequency of such hallucinations is unclear.
Other types of hallucinations create the sensation of tactile sensory input,
simulating various types of pressure to the skin or other organs. This type of
hallucination is often associated with substance use, such as someone who feels
bugs crawling on them (known as formication) after a prolonged period of cocaine
or amphetamine use.
This type of hallucination focuses typically on food and is common to individuals
presenting persecutory perceptions along with the experience of epileptic aura.
General Somatic Sensations
General Somatic Sensations of a hallucinatory nature is experienced when an
individual feels that his body is being mutilated i.e. twisted, torn, or disembowelled.
Other reported cases are invasion by animals in the person's internal organs such
as snakes in the stomach or frogs in the rectum.