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GROUP COMMUNICATION

Here we discuss about the following concepts


1. INTRODUCTION
2. IPMULTICASTING
3. FAILURE MODEL FOR MULTICASTING DATA GRAMS
4. RELIABILITY AND ORDERING OF MULTICASTING
5. JAVA API TO MULTICAST DATAGRAMS
1. INTRODUCTION:
Here we discuss the following concepts
1. Defne !"#$%
2. Defne M$&'()*'(n!
3. +,e"e -$&'()*'(n! )n .e $*e/01Fault Tolerance based on
Replicated services, Finding the discovery servers in spontaneous
networking, Better performance through replicated data, propagation
of event notifcation2
2. IP MULTICASTING AN IMPLEMENTATION OF GROUP
COMMUNICATION
Here we discuss about the following concepts
1. Defne IP M$&'()*'(n! 3ip multicasting is defned as a technique that
allows a sender to transmit a single ! packet to a set of computers
that form a multicast group"#
2. +,' (* ',e .*e 4#" IP M$&'()*'(n!3 the basis for ! multicasting
is the nternet !rotocol , here the ip packets are addressed to the tcp
and udp ports of a computer#
3. +,' Sen/e" #4 IP P)5e' (* $n6"e #403 The sender of an ip
packet is unaware of two things he do not know the si$e of the group
i"e the number of computers or receivers in the group and also the
identity of each and every individual user"
4. C&** $*e/ '# *%e)(47 M$&'()*' !"#$% 3 a multicast group is
specifed by the class % nternet addresses , it is an address whose frst
four bits are &&&' in !(#
5. Me-.e"*,(% #4 M$&'()*' !"#$% 3 here the membership of a
multicast group is dynamic in nature i"e The computer of a multicast
group may leave at any point of time and allows them to )oin arbitrarily
in any no of groups"
8. +,' (* %#**(.&e ,e"e 3 it is possible to send datagrams to a
multicast group without being a member#
9. A%%&()'(#n %"#!"--(n! &e:e&.3at application programming level
the ip multicasting can be done only via udp"Here an application
program can perform ip multicasting by sending udp datagrams with
multicast addresses and ordinary port numbers"
;. <#6 n %%&()'(#n %"#!"- )n =#(n -$&'()*' !"#$%03an
application can )oin a multicast group by making its socket to )oin the
group"#
>. M$&'()*' R#$'e"*
<e"e 6e /(*)$** ',e 4#&&#6(n! )#n)e%'*
12 In ,#6 -n7 67* (% %)5e'* )n .e
-$&'()*'e/3multicasting of ip packets can be done on both
local networks and wide area of internet"
22 L#)& -$&'()*'* : here local multicasts use the multicast
capability of the local network such as an *thernet"
32 In'e"ne' -$&'()*'* : those that use multicasting in an
internet make use of multi cast routers"
42 Defne -$&'()*' "#$'e": these are the routers that forward
single datagram to routers on other networks with
members ,where they are again multicast to local members"
52 TTL 3ttl stands for time to live , to limit the distance of
propagation of a multicast datagram the sender can specify
the number of routers it is allowed to pass called ttl#
M$&'()*' //"e** &&#)'(#n
3.FAILURE MODEL FOR MULTICASTING DATAGRAMS
Here we discuss about the following failures i"e +omission failures,
4.RELIABILITY AND ORDER OF MULTICASTING
5.JAVA API TO MULTICAST DATAGRAMS
import java.net.*;
import java.io.*;
public class MulticastPeer{
public static void main(String args[]){
// args give message contents destination multicast group
(e.g. !""#.$.%.&!)
MulticastSoc'et s (null;
tr) {
*net+ddress group ( *net+ddress.get,)-ame(args[.]);
s ( ne/ MulticastSoc'et(%&#0);
s.join1roup(group);
b)te [] m ( args[2].get,)tes();
3atagramPac'et message4ut (
ne/ 3atagramPac'et(m5 m.lengt65 group5 %&#0);
s.send(message4ut);

// t6is 7gure continued on t6e ne8t slide
// get messages 9rom ot6ers in group
b)te[] bu:er ( ne/ b)te[.222];
9or(int i(2; i; <; i==) {
3atagramPac'et message*n (
ne/ 3atagramPac'et(bu:er5 bu:er.lengt6);
s.receive(message*n);
S)stem.out.println(!>eceived?! = ne/
String(message*n.get3ata()));
@
s.leave1roup(group);
@catc6 (Soc'etA8ception e){S)stem.out.println(!Soc'et? !
= e.getMessage());
@catc6 (*4A8ception e){S)stem.out.println(!*4? ! =
e.getMessage());@
@7nall) {i9(s B( null) s.close();@
@
@