You are on page 1of 9

ORIGINAL PAPER

Distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in Dezful


aquifer, Southwest of Iran
Ali Akbar Shahsavari & Kamal Khodaei & Rahele Hatefi &
Farhad Asadian & Seyed Mohammad Zamanzadeh
Received: 2 October 2012 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published online: 16 February 2013
#Saudi Society for Geosciences 2013
Abstract Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbon
distribution (TPH) in groundwater of Dezful aquifer was
the main purpose of this study. The study area, which is
located between latitudes 3200 and 3235 N and longi-
tudes 4810 and 4935 E, covers about 1,920 km
2
in the
north of Khuzestan Province, Iran. Hydrocarbon pollutants
in the area were being released into the aquifer, from a
variety of sources. An oil pipe crash accident, which oc-
curred on 19 Feb. 2009 in the vicinity of the northern part of
the study area, released about 6,000 barrels of crude oil to
the Karkhe River. Other possible sources of TPH in the
region are asphalt factories, gas stations, and the Sabzab
oil pump station. Since the main source of drinking water in
the Dezful area is groundwater reservoirs, this study would
be very crucial, especially when there is considerable agri-
cultural activity in the area as well. In order to determine the
presence of TPH and heavy metals in the groundwater,
samples were taken from wells with different usage within
two periods, i.e., in Nov. 2008 and May 2009. The second
sampling operation was carried out to determine the effect
of the accident in the water resources. In situ groundwater
parameter measurements including pH, dissolved oxygen,
temperature, and electrical conductivity were also carried
out in the field. Based on the results, there are four zones in
the study area which were contaminated with TPH from
different origins: (1) southeast of Dezful City, which was
contaminated by Shokati gas station; (2) southeast of Shush
City, which was contaminated by an asphalt factory; (3)
southwest of Dezful City, which was contaminated by
Sabzab oil pump station; and (4) the shores of Karkhe
River which were contaminated due to the pipeline crash
accident. This could be a serious threat to the environment
and human health because TPH concentration was higher
than the EPA standard in the study area. Heavy metals were
not distributed in a uniform pattern in the aquifer. The
concentrations were lower than the contamination level
based on the EPA drinking standard, and there was no
meaningful relation between concentrations of TPH and
the heavy metals. It was recommended that a monitoring
network should be designed to monitor oil contaminants in
the ground and surface water monthly because of impor-
tance of the water resources and presence of potential oil
contaminant sources.
Keywords Groundwater quality
.
Total petroleum
hydrocarbons
.
TPH
.
Oil pollutant
.
Dezful aquifer
Introduction
Release of crude oil and its refined products is one of the
most common sources of environmental pollution. Oil spills
come from accidental or chronic leakage of land and marine
pipelines, tankers, and barges; they cause damage to flora
and fauna and affect natural resources and human health.
The aboveground storage containers at tank farms can con-
tribute to the release of petroleum products into the envi-
ronment as well (Riccardi et al. 2008). Refined petroleum
products are obtained by distillation of crude oil and contain
a wide range of components such as hydrocarbons, heavy
metals, dye additives, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, etc.
(Wang and Fingas 2003). Total petroleum hydrocarbons
(TPH) is a term used to describe a broad family of several
A. A. Shahsavari (*)
:
K. Khodaei
:
R. Hatefi
:
F. Asadian
Department of Geology, Research Institute of Applied Science,
ACECR, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
e-mail: aliakbar.shahsavari@gmail.com
S. M. Zamanzadeh
Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Arab J Geosci (2014) 7:23672375
DOI 10.1007/s12517-013-0887-4
hundred chemical compounds that originally come from
crude oil. In this sense, TPH is really a mixture of
chemicals. They are called hydrocarbons because almost
all of them are made entirely from hydrogen and carbon
(ATSDR 2006).
In addition to hydrocarbons, heavy metals, such as vanadi-
um (V), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb), can also give information
about the origin of contamination since crude oils and heavy
distillates contain a wide range of concentration of trace
metals. Vand Ni are present in the oils as metallo-porphyrin
complexes as well as non-porphyrin complexes, and their
concentration increases with increasing hydrocarbon heavy
fraction content (Shekel and Ravid 1977; Wang et al. 1999).
In order to conduct an environmental damage assessment
in sites contaminated by petroleum products, the characteriza-
tion of oil spills and their link with known sources should be
performed. Many studies have been published concerning
source identification of environmental pollution of river
basins, seawater, etc. (Bence et al. 1996; Yunker et al. 1999,
2002; Wang and Fingas 2003; Oros and Ross 2004; Doong
and Lin 2004; Wang et al. 2004; Christensen and Bzdusek
2005; Franco et al. 2006; Tolun et al. 2006).
Natural organic matters are readily broken down by
microorganisms in water and soil. However, synthetic or-
ganic products like TPH are not readily biodegradable and
may persist and bioaccumulate in environmental media
(Alloway 1992). Most inorganic and organic contaminants
have been implicated as possible carcinogenic and terato-
genic agents for humans (IARC 2000; Tyler 1981; Navarro
et al. 1991). Animal studies have shown effects on the lungs,
central nervous system, liver, kidney, developing fetus, and
reproductive system from exposure to TPH compounds,
generally after breathing or swallowing the compounds.
One TPH compound (benzene) is reported to cause cancer
(leukemia) in people (ATSDR 2006). WHO International
Standards for Drinking-Water in 1958, 1963, and 1971, and
the first, second, and third editions of the Guidelines for
Drinking-Water Quality did not refer to petroleum products
in general, although guideline values were established for
individual petroleum hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene, ethylben-
zene, toluene, xylenes) and individual polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbon contaminants of petroleum products (e.g.,
benzo(a)pyrene) (WHO 2008).
After Saudi Arabia, Iran is ranked the second among
OPEC members with regard to oil production. In 2008,
Iran produced approximately 4.2 million barrels of oil per
day (bbl/d) (US EIA 2010). Most of the oil fields are located
in Khuzestan Province in the southwest of Iran with com-
plicated pipelines connecting the oil fields to the north and
west of the country. The pipelines, gas stations, Sabzab oil
pump station, asphalt factories (in Shush and Dezful cities),
and release of wasted lubricating oil on the ground surface
along Dez and Karkhe River and dry streams are potential
sources of oil contamination of groundwater in the study
area based on field observations. The spent oil, which is
called waste lubricating oil, obtained after servicing and
subsequent draining from automobile, generators, and in-
dustrial machines, is disposed of indiscriminately in Iran,
and adequate attention has not been given to its disposal.
This study is a crucial issue because the main source of
drinking water in the present study area is groundwater. The
Dezful study area with heavy agricultural activities (over
80 % of the study area) and high-density population is one
of the most important locations that require more environ-
mental protection and health care attention. The purpose of
this study is determination of the TPH concentration in
groundwater of the Dezful aquifer.
Materials and methods
Study area
The study area (Dezful aquifer), with an area about
1,920 km
2
, is located between latitudes 3200 and 3235 N
and longitudes 4810 and 4835 E in the north of Khuzestan
Province, Iran. Dezful, Andimeshk, and Shush are three pop-
ulous cities in this area. The Dez River, one of the most
important rivers in Iran, flows from the north to the south of
the study area and flows out of the area fromthe southern part.
Karkhe and Kohnak rivers are the western and eastern bound-
aries of the study area, and to the north and south, it is bound
by the Lur Heights and Sardar-Abad anticline, respectively
(Fig. 1).
Geology and hydrogeology
Major formations around the study area are Aghajari and
Bakhtiari formations and Lahbari member of the Aghajari
formation. Coarse sediments with high specific yield (with
average value of 5 %) and high hydraulic conductivity of
about 200 m/day in the northern part of the study area, and
which were eroded from the Bakhtiari formation formed the
Dezful aquifer (Khuzestan Water and Power 1973). The
hydraulic conductivity decreases moderately from the north-
ern parts to the southern parts of the area. Alluvial sedi-
ments, which are the youngest sediments in the study area,
are dominantly composed of gravel and rarely of sand, silt,
and clay. The Dezful aquifer is dominantly an unconfined
aquifer, and in some parts in the southwest of the plain
where a clayey layer extends, the aquifer becomes confined
by the existence of artesian wells in the study area and the
results of geoelectric exploration. Fine gypsiferous sedi-
ments, with low specific yield and low hydraulic conduc-
tivity, eroded from the Aghajari formation and formed the
confining layer. The aquifers average thickness is about
2368 Arab J Geosci (2014) 7:23672375
Fig. 1 Study area and geological map with important potential oil contaminant sources and general groundwater direction (blue arrow)
Arab J Geosci (2014) 7:23672375 2369
100 m with clay bedrock related to the Aghajari formation.
The Dezful anticline with a northwestsoutheast trend is
located in the northern part of the study area, and Dezful
city is located on it (Fig. 1.)
The dominant soil texture is light in the Dezful plain, and
it becomes moderately heavy from the north to the south;
over 80 % of the study area is for agricultural land use. The
maximum depth of the groundwater is about 90 m in the
north, and the minimum depth is about 35 m in the west of
the plain based on the water level data obtained from piez-
ometers located in the study area. The volume of water
extracted from groundwater by wells is about 270 million
m
3
per year, and most of the product wells are located in the
northern part of the study area (Fig. 1). General groundwater
flow direction is from the north to the south, and the
groundwater discharges the surface water along the northern
part of the Dez and Karkhe rivers. Therefore, there are
interactions between the rivers and the groundwater. A
number of factors were identified to explain the distribution
of the hydrocarbon contaminants and hydrogeochemical
parameters. These factors include indigenous biodegrada-
tion, hydrostratigraphy, recharge by rainfall, and subsequent
water level fluctuations (Lee et al. 2001). Therefore, it is
expected that the TPH concentration in the northern part of
the study area is higher than the TPH concentration in the
southwest due to the existence of the confined aquifer with
lower permeability.
Sampling and chemical analysis
It is necessary to take into account the impact of the field
stages on the chemical analysis of natural water, in terms of
both sampling representativeness and spatial and temporal
variability (Roy and Fouillac 2004). Sampling from Dezful
aquifer was carried out in two periods in October 2008 and
April 2009 simultaneous with two wet and dry seasons,
respectively, regarding the aquifer hydrograph fluctuations.
Sampling locations were determined based on the expert
judgment type (EPA 1995) and in the direction of the
groundwater in the vicinity of TPH contaminant sources
such as pipelines, gas stations, the Sabzab pump station,
and the asphalt factories. The locations and numbers of the
sampling wells were not the same in those two periods
because some of the wells were shut down or there was no
pumping equipment to extract freshwater while sampling
crew were at the site. In addition, a pipeline crash accident
happened in Feb. 19, 2009, and a huge release of crude oil in
Karkhe River occurred (about 6,000 barrels). Based on the
standard sampling method and quality assurance guidance
document (EPA 2000), two samples were taken from each
well in the two periods with different usage (EPA 2003)
(Figs. 2 and 3). One sample was taken in a 100-ml polyeth-
ylene bottle and the other in dark glassy 1-l bottles to carry
out analyses for heavy metals and TPH compound detec-
tion, respectively. The samples were kept in 4 C before
handing them to the laboratories in the ACME Analytical
Laboratory for analysis of heavy metals with ICP-AES Varian
Liberty 150 instrument via ASTM method and in the labora-
tory of the Iran Mineral Processing Research Center for anal-
ysis of TPH with gas chromatography equipment (Hewlett-
Packard instrument) via EPA-8015B&MOOPAM Method. In
situ parameters such as temperature, electrical conductivity
(EC), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured with the
Multi-parameter 350 instrument in the field.
Statistical studies were done on the chemical analysis
results to find a meaningful relation between TPH concen-
tration, the field measurements, and a few heavy metals such
as Cr, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn which were associated with hydro-
carbon pollution (Gawad et al. 2008).
Discussion and results
Chemical analysis results from the groundwater samples for
TPH, heavy metals, and in situ parameters in the first period of
sampling (October 2008) are shown in Table 1. According to
this table, seven samples had a concentration value of more
than 5 ppm (the instrument detection limit). All of these
samples are located near one of the main oil contaminant
sources mentioned above in the study area. The maximum
recorded concentration value is from the sample located in the
southeast of Dezful City (well E-2784 with drinking and
irrigation usage) in the vicinity of the Shokati gas station with
a 20.5-ppm concentration value. It is possible that this old gas
station has a damaged underground storage tank, which
caused leakage of fuel to groundwater. The concentration
level of TPH in the sample taken from the Sabzab pump
station (well E-3288 used for drinking) was 13.5 ppm. The
TPH concentration level of sample E-2869 (industrial and
drinking usage) taken from the south of Shush City in the
vicinity of the asphalt factory of Shush City was recorded at
5.2 ppm (Fig. 2). Analysis results from the samples gathered
in the second period of sampling in 23 wells showed that the
TPH maximum concentration level in one of the drinking
wells of Shush City (E-3313) was 43 ppm. This can be
harmful for the people (ATSDR 2006; WHO 2008) (Table 2
and Fig. 3). Groundwater pollution due to crude oil releases
into Karkhe River and their transportation to the aquifer was
determined by groundwater sampling in the vicinity of the
river. The TPH concentration value in the E-2798 and E-3311
samples along Karkhe River in the north of Shush City was 9
and 12 ppm, respectively.
All of the samples were analyzed to determine heavy
metals as mentioned before. Distribution of these metals
was not uniform, and their concentration values were lower
than the maximum contamination level based on the EPA
2370 Arab J Geosci (2014) 7:23672375
Fig. 2 TPH concentration level of the groundwater samples in part per million (October 2008)
Arab J Geosci (2014) 7:23672375 2371
Fig. 3 TPH concentration level of the groundwater samples in part per million (April 2009) and four groundwater zones contaminated by
TPH (red ellipses)
2372 Arab J Geosci (2014) 7:23672375
Table 1 Analytical results of 18 groundwater samples in the study area to determine TPH, in situ parameters, and heavy metals (EC in micromoh
per centimeter), October 2008
X-UTM Y-UTM Index EC pH Temp.
(C)
DO
(ppm)
TPH
(ppm)
Cr
(ppb)
Ni
(ppb)
Pb
(ppb)
V
(ppb)
Zn
(ppb)
270012 3581308 E-2812 3,490 7.7 23.5 7.4 8.4 ND ND ND ND ND
268969 3585015 E-2813 1,734 7.2 23.0 7.7 <5 ND ND ND ND ND
262409 3579946 E-2810 864 7.5 23.8 7.0 <5 ND ND ND ND 27
264660 3580364 E-2811 2,710 7.1 25.8 6.8 <5 ND ND ND ND 67
258338 3583205 E-2784 685 7.5 25.5 6.7 20.5 ND ND ND ND ND
254041 3584261 E-2785 723 7.5 20.9 7.5 <5 ND ND ND ND ND
258819 3580781 E-2853 812 7.9 23.2 6.9 5.2 ND ND ND ND ND
258364 3574912 E-2863 1,090 7.2 22.0 5.8 5.2 ND ND ND ND ND
264761 3573987 E-3309 899 7.6 23.1 6.2 <5 ND ND ND ND ND
254638 3552012 E-2937 1,463 7.6 24.3 6.0 <5 ND ND ND ND ND
257108 3554368 E-2939 1,343 7.4 23.6 3.9 <5 ND ND ND ND ND
249968 3594284 E-2772 758 7.5 22.7 7.0 5.8 ND ND ND ND ND
244588 3585803 E3288 791 7.6 23.5 6.6 13.0 ND ND ND ND ND
249451 3591146 E-2795 900 7.5 23.8 5.3 <5 ND ND ND ND ND
249890 3566088 E-2941 659 7.7 21.6 6.6 <5 ND ND ND ND ND
243707 3563967 E-3292 715 7.6 23.5 6.8 <5 ND ND ND ND ND
241323 3563543 E-2869 892 7.7 24.7 7.0 5.2 ND ND ND ND ND
253187 3582383 E-2816 732 7.1 19.5 7.5 <5 ND ND ND ND ND
ND: No Detection
Table 2 Analytical results of 18 groundwater samples in the study area to determine TPH, in situ parameters, and heavy metals (EC in micromoh
per centimeter), April 2009
X-UTM Y-UTM Index EC pH Temp.
(C)
DO
(ppm)
TPH
(ppm)
Cr
(ppb)
Ni
(ppb)
Pb
(ppb)
V
(ppb)
Zn
(ppb)
246455 3582925 E-3315 724 8.0 24.5 6.4 15 4.6 ND ND 1.9 ND
251158 3595855 E-3314 820 7.2 25.3 6.5 <5 5.6 ND ND 2.5 0.5
262515 3579715 E-2810 1,875 7.4 24.4 9.7 <5 5.3 0.4 ND 3.8 1.0
264669 3580775 E-2811 1,760 7.0 27.5 6.1 <5 6.6 0.2 ND 3.3 2.6
256409 3586944 E-2783 622 7.6 21.5 7.3 12 4.9 ND ND 1.6 0.5
254041 3584261 E-2785 712 7.7 20.5 8.7 <5 3.4 ND ND 1.5 ND
258819 3580781 E-2853 678 7.6 25.4 8.5 <5 4.8 0.3 ND 2.4 ND
254638 3552012 E-2937 1,262 8.6 25.6 5.2 <5 8.8 ND ND 3.1 0.7
251870 3593579 E-2768 770 7.7 26.2 5.8 10 6.9 ND ND 3.2 ND
250576 3594669 E-2770 833 7.4 24.2 6.6 <5 6.1 ND ND 2.0 0.5
249782 3598779 E-2773 691 7.4 25.6 6.1 <5 5.1 ND ND 3.0 ND
250991 3594184 E-2774 465 7.8 27.4 7.2 <5 8.5 ND ND 3.6 ND
233219 3588456 E-2798 1,038 8.9 29.3 6.3 9 0.0 ND ND ND ND
247864 3599632 E-2803 739 8.3 24.9 9.3 <5 3.9 0.2 ND 2.6 0.7
244687 3585667 E-3288 721 7.5 24.4 7.7 <5 4.6 ND ND 2.4 ND
249451 3591146 E-2796 748 7.6 24.3 6.3 <5 0.0 ND ND ND ND
243707 3563967 E3292 533 7.7 25.2 7.7 <5 5.3 ND ND 3.5 ND
234844 3578894 E-3310 805 8.4 23.3 6.0 <5 0.0 ND ND ND ND
234880 3575315 E-3311 1,080 7.8 22.5 5.6 12 0.0 ND ND ND ND
239521 3561478 E-3312 1,060 7.5 26.2 8.6 <5 19.1 ND ND 4.3 1.0
241877 3565964 E-3313 700 7.8 24.5 7.3 43 6.6 ND ND 3.8 ND
ND: No Detection
Arab J Geosci (2014) 7:23672375 2373
drinking standard (EPA 2006). In most samples, they were
below the analytical detection limits shown with ND in the
tables (Tables 1 and 2). There is no significant relation
between TPH and heavy metal concentrations based on
statistical studies. Generally, there is no risk about heavy
metal concentration in Dezful aquifer based on chemical
analysis results.
Though hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer (as an im-
portant factor on TPH transport) was very high in the north
of the study area around Andimeshk City, the TPH concen-
tration level in all of the samples located in that area was
lower than the detection limit (<5 ppm) due to the lack of a
significant source of contamination. This could show the
importance of oil pollutant management to prevent subsoil
and groundwater oil contamination. However, around
Dezful City with the same hydrogeological properties,
groundwater was contaminated with TPH, probably due to
the existence of oil contaminant sources such as the numer-
ous gas stations, the asphalt factory, and the release of a
huge amount of waste lubricating oil to the ground surface
from carwashes (Fig. 3). Many similar works have been
done on subsoil and groundwater TPH contamination in
places where oil contaminants were existing such as oil
pipeline pumping stations, oil tank farms, released waste
lubricating oil, etc. (Iturbe et al. 2010; Gawad et al. 2008;
Riccardi et al. 2008; Adesodun and Mbagwu 2008).
According to their results, TPH values were higher than
the standard limit in some samples.
Conclusion
This study was carried out to measure oil contamination
(TPH) of the Dezful aquifer and to determine the amount
of TPH existing in the groundwater. Groundwater is an
important resource for drinking and agricultural usage in
the study area. Pipelines, gas stations, Sabzab oil pump
station, asphalt factories, and waste lubricating oil released
on the ground surface along the river and into dry streams
are potential sources of oil contamination of groundwater in
the study area based on field works.
Based on chemical analysis results of the groundwater
samples, the TPH concentration in the groundwater is high
in some samples in the vicinity of Shush City where a huge
oil release occurred in Karkhe River due to a pipeline crash
accident between two sampling periods. Groundwater oil
contamination was also specified in the vicinity of Dezful
City where oil contaminant sources were present. There is
no TPH contamination in the groundwater in the northern
part of Dezful aquifer due to lack of oil contaminant sources
even though in this part, groundwater recharge and hydrau-
lic conductivity are higher than other parts. Based on the
results, there are four zones in the study area which were
contaminated with TPH from different origins including: (1)
southeast of Dezful city, which was contaminated by the
Shokati gas station; (2) southeast of Shush city, which was
contaminated by an asphalt factory; (3) southwest of Dezful
city, which was contaminated by the Sabzab oil pump station;
and (4) the shores of Karkhe River which were contaminated
due to the pipeline crash accident (Fig. 3).
Some heavy metals in groundwater such as vanadium (V),
nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) were also analyzed to deter-
mine their relation with TPH and to find information about
the origin of contamination. Heavy metals in the groundwater
have concentration values lower than the maximum contam-
ination level based on the EPA drinking standard, and they are
below analytical detection in most samples. Based on statisti-
cal studies, it was determined that there are no significant
relation between TPH and the heavy metals. There is no risk
of heavy metals in Dezful aquifer based on chemical analysis
results. The presence of some point contaminant sources
such as a gas station, Sabzab oil pump station, asphalt
factories, and released waste lubricant oil on the ground
surface is the main reason for TPH contamination of
groundwater. This could be a serious threat to the envi-
ronment and human health because TPH concentration is
higher than the EPA standard in the study area. Due to the
presence of potential oil contaminant sources and importance
of the water resources, a monitoring network is suggested to
be designed to monitor oil contaminants in groundwater and
surface water monthly.
References
Adesodun JK, Mbagwu JSC (2008) Distribution of heavy metals and
hydrocarbon contents in an alfisol contaminated with waste-
lubricating oil amended with organic wastes. Bioresour Technol
99:31953204
Alloway BJ (1992) Land contamination and reclamation. In: Harrison
RM (Ed.), Understanding our environment: An introduction to
environmental chemistry and pollution (pp. 144163). Cambridge:
Royal Society of Chemistry
ATSDR (2006) Toxicological profile information sheet (Atlanta:
U.S. Agency Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). http://
www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/. Accessed 1 Sep 2010
Bence AE, Kvenvolden AK, Kennicutt MC II (1996) Organic geo-
chemistry applied to environmental assessments of Prince
William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spilla re-
view. Org Geochem 24:742
Christensen ER, Bzdusek PA (2005) PAHs in sediments of the Black
River and the Ashtabula River, Ohio: source apportionment by
factor analysis. Water Res 39:51124
Doong R, Lin Y (2004) Characterization and distribution of polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbon contaminations in surface sediment and
water from Gao-ping River, Taiwan. Water Res 38:173344
EPA (1995) Superfund program representative sampling guidance
EPA (2000) Quality assurance project plan: PM2.5 speciation trends
network field sampling. Office of Air Quality, Agency Research
Triangle Park, NC 27711
2374 Arab J Geosci (2014) 7:23672375
EPA (2003) Guidance on choosing a sampling design for environmen-
tal data collection, QA/G-5S
EPA (2006) Data Quality Assessment: Statistical Methods for
Practitioners. EPA QA/G-9S, Office of Environmental Information,
Washington, DC 20460
Franco MA, Vinas L, Soriano JA, de Armas D, Gonzales JJ, Beiras R
et al (2006) Spatial distribution and ecotoxicity of petroleum
hydrocarbons in sediments from the Galicia continental shelf (NW
Spain) after the Prestige oil spill. Mar Pollut Bull 53:260271
Gawad EA et al (2008) Assessment of the oil pollution extent in the
offshore sediments, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Aust J Basic Appl Sci
2(3):617631
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) (2000) Monographs
on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: some industrial
chemicals, vol 77. IARC, Lyon
Iturbe R, Flores-Serrano RM, Castro A, Flores C, Torres LG (2010)
Subsoil TPH contamination in two oil pipeline pumping stations
and one pipeline right-of-way in north Mexico. J Environ Manag
91:23962402
Khuzestan Water and Power (1973) Geophysics assessments of
Dezful-Andimeshk plain
Lee JY, Cheon JY, Lee KK, Lee SY, Lee MH (2001) Factors affecting
the distribution of hydrocarbon contaminants and hydrogeochem-
ical parameters in a shallow sand aquifer. J Contam Hydrol
50:139158
Navarro A, Rossel A, Villanueva J, Grimalt JO (1991) Monitoring of
hazardous waste dumps by the study of metals and solvent soluble
organic chemicals. Chemosphere 22:913928
Oros DR, Ross JRM (2004) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in San
Francisco estuary sediments. Mar Chem 86:16984
Riccardi C, Di Filippo P, Pomataa D, Incoronatoa F, Di Basilioa M,
Papinib MP, Spicaglia S (2008) Characterization and distribution
of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in groundwater from
three Italian tank farms. Sci Total Environ 393:5063
Roy S, Fouillac A-M (2004) Uncertainties related to sampling and their
impact on the chemical analysis of groundwater. Trends in
Analytical Chemistry 23(3):185193
Shekel Y, Ravid R (1977) Sources of tar pollution on Israeli
Mediterranean coast. Environ Sci Technol 11:5025
Tolun L, Martens D, Okay OS, Schramm KW (2006) Polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in coastal sediments of the
Izmit Bay (Marmara Sea): case studies before and after the Izmit
earthquake. Environ Int 32:75865
Tyler TG (1981) Heavy metals in soil biology and biochemistry. In:
Paul EA, Ladd JN (eds) Soil biochemistry. Marcel Dekker, New
York, pp 2233
US Energy Information Administration (US EIA) (2010) http://
www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/iran/Full.html. Accessed 17 Feb 2012
Wang Z, Fingas MF (2003) Development of oil hydrocarbon finger-
printing and identification techniques. Mar Pollut Bull 47:42352
Wang Z, Fingas M, Page DS (1999) Oil spill identification. J
Chromatogr A 843:369411
Wang Z, Fingas M, Lambert P, Zeng G, Yang C, Hollebone B (2004)
Characterization and identification of the Detroit River mystery
oil spill (2002). J Chromatogr A 1038:20114
WHO (2008) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, third edition in-
corporating the first and second addenda, volume 1
Yunker MB, Macdonald RW, Goyette D, Paton DW, Fowler BR,
Sullivan D et al (1999) Natural and anthropogenic inputs of hydro-
carbons to the Strait of Georgia. Sci Total Environ 225:181209
Yunker MB, Macdonald RW, Vingarzan R, Mitchell RH, Goyette D,
Sylvestre S (2002) PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical
appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and compo-
sition. Org Geochem 33:489515
Arab J Geosci (2014) 7:23672375 2375