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Name of Work Design of bus Body

Tamilnadu State Express Transport
Reference No. CTC/0101210801
Design Algorithm Input/Computations/Decisions
100 Description, location and overall
geometry of product
a. Purpose of the vehicle
Bus/Truck(t)/Cargo truck/ Refrigerated
truck ( R ) others B
b. Kind of body Struture
Stiffned panel/Sandwich/grid Stiffened/grid
c. Shape of body configuration
Retagular ono box shape/two box Rectangular one box shape
d. Shape of front and rear
Flat/Curved streamlined Flat
102 Dimensions
a. Overall length L in mm 10,100
b. Overall Width B in mm 2430
c. Height of side walls H above the
chassis in mm 2350
102 Internal arrangements
a. Whether separate driver's cabin
provided yes/No No
b. The lenth ld of drivers cabin in mm NA
c. Whether the passenger/ Cargo cabin is
integral with drivers cabin or separtely on
a trailer NA
d. Location, Width Wd and height hd of
driver entry door in mm 700
e. Location, Width Wd and height hd of
helper entry door opposite drivers door
in mm 700
f. If driver cabin is separate, length Lc of
cargo cabin in mm NA
Design Input
Design of all composite busbody
g. Whether the top is covered or open 30
h. If top is open height hf of the side walls NA
i.. If top is open whether the side walls
can be rigity fixed or hinged for loading
and un loading NA
j. Whether the bus is ordinary
(OB),Luxury bus(LB), or Air-conditioned
k. No of passengers seats to be fixed 45+2
l. No. Of additional passengers allowed to
travel as standees 60
m. Cargo weight Wc to be permitted
inside in kg 1000kg
n. No . Of seats per row 4
o. Distance between successive row,ls of
seats in mm 1000
p. Self weight of seats in kg 20kg
q. Method of fixing of seats
Fixed on the floor board by bolting Fixed on floor board
r Whether luggage carrier racks/ boxes to
be provided yes
s. Whether interior padding is to be
provided on the side walls
Yes if 1025 is LB or AB NA
t. Location width We and height he of
passanger entry door in mm 700
u. Location width Wpc and height hpc of
passanger entry door in mm
This can be same as helper entry door in
1012 if the driver cabin is integral with
passanger cabin 700
v. If the bus is AB, Temperature T in C
inside during operation NA
w. If the bus is AB, location and weight of
air conditioner in kg NA
x. Type of cargo
Vegetables/Meat/ Fish /Others NA
y. Whether the cargo can exert weight on
walls during acceleration / deceleration /
storage / or while negotiating curves
No. of the cargo is firmly fixed on floor
with gap between wall and cargo NA
z. Location width Wr and heighy hr of the
cargo door NA
bb Whether metallic lining is required
inside to take local impacts NA
cc. Temperature oc cabin in C NA
dd. Whether insulated container only with
no AC or with refrigerator attached NA
ee. if with refrigerator location and weight
of refrigerator NA
130. Support conditions
a.Whether to be supported in chassis
(SC) or to be an integral monocoqe
shell(SM) SC
b.If 1061 is SC
No . And dimensions of longitudinal
beams in chassis over body to be
Two channels
229mm x 76mm x 6.35mm
c.Spacing Wc of chassis beam in mm 840
d. Environmental temperature in C 45
e. Design temperature Dt in C
( if not given takes as 90 C for vehicles
exposed to sunlight on outside pannel 90
f. Minimum environmental temperature in
C 15 C
g. Minimum design temperature DTM in C
DTM can be minimum of
1073,1054,1037 15 C
110. Major product elements of
busbody and dimensions
120. Functional requirements
m. Expected life given in running km 3x 10^5 KM
130. Operational Static and Dynamc
a. Total design pay load in kg Wp
Wp is passanger and cargo / luggage
weight 9000kg
b. Snow load Ps on roof in N/mm2
if not applicable take Ps as zero NA
c. Self weight of body in kg
Assumed 50% of pay load for deign
purpose 5000kg
d. No. of fitting with concentrated load
effect their location and weigh tin kg give
sl. No. location as distance in mm from
front and weight in kg under 3 column on
right hand side 6150N
131. Aerodynamic loads
a. Pressure acting on front end on roof
and front wall rear walls pa in N/mm2 rear end
b. wind pressure Pw in N/mm2, when
vehicle, is stationery in N/mm2 Not to be considered
c. Impact factor a
a. Vertical accelerator mZS for symmenric
b. Vertical accelerator mZU for
unsymmenric load
c. Longitudinal l accelerator or load factor
d. Load factor for corning mY
e.Load factor for kerbing mK
f. Load factor for turn over mR
d. Fatigue design load and the no. of
cycles during lie period 10^6
e. Normal operational speed Vm in km ph 60
f. Peak operational speed Vp in km ph 100
g. Frequency vibration due to traffic or
other wise in HZ 50
h. Corrosion or chemical attack nil
i. whether moisture effect can give
degradation Nil effect
j. whether moisture effect can give
degradation Impact in sea coast and
places where deicing is done Negligible
k. whether thrmal stresses can arise due
to thermal expansion or thermal gradient NO
l. Whether degradation due to fire, friction
UV radation other radiations, biological
attacks or lightning to be considered NO
200. Selection of geometry in addition
to wht is alredy taken in input data
210. Manufacturing method
2. Design selections
a. If to be designed as per any standard,
specify standard no No
b. Type body construction
Steel frame and panel (SP) / steel and
sandwich (SS)/Steel and grid (SG)/ all
sandwich with no steel (AS) / all grid with
no steel (AG)
SP for wall,Sg for floor and SS for
c. If 2002 is not FP go to
d. Spacing of cross steel arches lse in mm
( Normally these can be considering with
the seat spacing so that a windows can
be provided in between frame for
passangers sitting in each row to see
outside) 1000mm
e. No of frame nf in long direction
nf = (L or Lc)/ Ise +1 10100/1000+ 1=11
f. No.of lingitudinal members of steel
frame excluding bottom panel 9
g. Location of lingitudinal beam
If must be such that windows can be
placed without obstruction 9
h. Spacing of cross members on the floor
panel lsf in mm
Keep it same as that of the wall cross
members 1000
i. No.of lingitudinal members on the floor
panel and that spacing wsf in mm 13
j. Method of joining of steel members
Welding / Bolting Welding
k. Type of panel between steel frame on
the floor
Sandwich / Grid / stiffened panel / single
skin grid
l. Tytpe of panel on roof
Sandwich / Grid / stiffened panel / single
skin Sandwich
m. Type of panel on side wall
Sandwich / Grid / stiffened / single skin Single skin
n. Type of panel / or the front end for
impact resistence stiffened
o. Panel structure of single skin
Flat / corrugated Flat
p. Panel material E-glass CSM-Polyester
q. Grid material E-glass UDC-Polyester
r. Sandwich material
E-glass CSM-Polyester and
s. Grade polyester resin
Isophthalic is to be used automobile
grade for ompact resistence Isophthalic
t. Heat distortion temperature HDT of
resin in C
HDT < 100 100
u. Gel coat resin and thickness
Normally 0.5 mm thickness 0.5
v. Whether gel coat to be pigmented
Yes if not painting is planned no
w. UV stabiliser material its grade and
percentage Tinovin 0.1%
x. Pigment grade colour and percentage NA
y. Whether filler can be added to lay up at
if so name of material and percentage
Yes 10% maximum Calcium carbonate
z. Area density Wcsm of CSM in gsm 450
aa. Text of rovings for grid constrution 2400
ab. Area of density of WRM to be used 610
Selection of design criteria
a. Whether to be designed by strength of
material approach only/strength of
materials for preliminary selection and
FEM for optimisation
strength of materials for each
element as Fem for final assembly
b. Whether design for functional
requirements to be under taken
Not provided in this modle No
c. Any design for safety under non-
mechanical /environment effects to be
considered No
d. factor of safetyv 6
a. Weight of passanger Wp in N
Wp = n p 90 x 9.81
9000 x 9.81
b. Chassis weight Wc in N 37200
Weight of front axle with wheel and axle
in N 10,000
Rear axle with wheel and acceleration in
N 14,050
Weight of milds / is stracture in its body
and floor in N 13000
Weight of the ghaged windows in N 4500
Weight of the 50 suels in N 7500
Weight of mi fillling in N 6150
Design of roof Phril
a. Type of stracture Sandwich with form wire
b. Span ls in mm 1000
c. Width of panel Ws in mm 2430
d. Assumed stractural behaviour
Plate if Ws < 2l s
beam if Ws > 2ls beam
Design palm load on moffing in N
25 x 90 x 9.81
= 22072.5
Design pressure Pd in N/ mm2
22072.5/10100 x 2430
Assumed skin thickness no of sand with t
in mm
Assumed 2 mm min / mm 2 in CSM 450 mat
Assumed core thickness C in mm 25
Moment of inertia
I = 2 t/2 + 2 (25F x t / 2 )2 t 2 x 2^3 / 12 + 2 (25+1)2 x 2
Deflection ymax in mm
y max = 1/38h x Pl x l s ^4 / EI
1 x 0.0008993 x 1000^4 / 384 x
6300 x 2705
= 0.1374
if deflection is acceptable
yes if y max < span / 200 Yes
Bending moment M in N-mm / mm
M = Pd . L s^2 / 8
0.0008993 x 1000^2 / 8
= 112.4125
Allowable bending moment Mal
12.5 x 2 x 27
= 675
If design acceptable
Yes if M < Mal yes
Design of bottom panel
Type of stracture Grid floor
span lb in mm 1000
Width wb in mm 2430
Assumed stractural bed view Equalent or plate
Spacing a of grid beam placed in the
axial direction in mm 100
thickness tl of grid beam placed
longitudnally 10
Spacing b of grid beam placed
longitudnally in mm 100
Thickness tt of grid beamplaced 10
Depth of beam dh in load in loaded
direction in mm 50
Depth dt of beam in direction 25
Dx = El t l dl ^3 / 12 a
30000 x 10 x 25 ^3 / 12 x 100
= 3906250 x 8
Dy = El t l dl ^3 / 12 a 3906250 x 8
2H = 2a (Jl / a + Jt /b 7812500 x 8
Distributed load
(88290+ 7500 + 6150) / 10100 x
2430 =
Deflection Ymax in mm
y max = 16 p d / 3.14^2 D
16 x 0.0041535 x 10^6 / 3.14^2 x
5.34133 x 8
= 15.075 mm
Bending moment Mx in N-mm
ml = 16 p d a / 3.14 ^4 x w^4 [D]
16 x 0.00415.35 x 100 / 3.14^4 x
1000^4 x 8 x 5.3413 x 10^-6
= 1.5998 x 10 ^-9
Bending moment Mx in N-mm
ml = 16 p d a / 3.14 ^4 x w^4 [D]
16 x 0.00415.35 x 100 / 3.14^4 x
24830^4 x 8 x 5.3413 x 10^-6 =
4.5883 x 10 ^-11