72 views

Uploaded by VladimirDvortsov

- Automotive Stirling Engine
- IEEE Solar Stirling Paper
- 70914822 ST TA2 1 Experimental V4x Stirling Engine
- stirling engine
- The 4 - 95 Stirling Engine for Underwater Application
- He Design Stirling Engine
- BASIC STIRLING ENGINE MODAL
- Stirling Engines - G Walker (Oxford, 1980) WW
- Low Power Stirling Engine for Underwater
- Don Clucas Stirling engine generator development
- Roelf Meijer - Stirling Engine Patent (#4669736 1987)
- Stirling Engine
- Stirling Design Calculations for Alpha Type based on certain Theories
- design-of-stirling-engine
- Stirling
- Solar Stirling Manual
- Second Law Analysis of Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine on Reduced Valve Lift Utilizing Residual Trapped Gases
- A novel active free piston Stirling engine
- Stirling Engine
- Farm Power & Engine System

You are on page 1of 4

GONG Xiao-mao

College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering

China University of Mining and Technology

Xuzhou ,Jiangsu Province,China

gongxiao_mao@126.com

ZHANG Bao-sheng*,ZHOU Fan,YUAN Yu-

jie,ZHAO Wei,LIU Xi

School of Electric Power Engineering

China University of Mining and Technology

Xuzhou , Jiangsu Province,China

bshzhang-1997@163.com

AbstractIn order to attain the maximum external cycle power

of -type Stirling Engine, first,this paper uses multi-objective

optimization of the linear weighted evaluation method and with

reference to the group AHP method to gain the optimal range of

link rod ratio of general crank-connecting rod mechanism,then

on that basis,it establishes optimal design model for the

maximum external cycle power of -type stirling engine.finally,it

presents and resolves a practical example.

Keywords-stirling engine;crank-connecting rod mechanism; link

rod ratio; optimal design

I. INTRODUCTION

Stirling engine is an external heating, closed cycle,

reciprocating piston engine, which is suitable for a variety of

fuels,and has advantages of high thermal efficiency, less

pollution etc.

The structure of stirling engine can be classified as , ,

types, -type structure is shown below:

Figure 1. Structure of -type stirling engine

As shown in fig.2,Stirling cycle consists of process of

isothermal compression (process 1-2), process of isovolumic

endotherm(2-3), process of isothermal expansion(3-4) and

process of isovolumic exotherm (4-1).

Figure 2. Stirling circle

The external cycle power derived from [1]:

r

V E

RT W )ln 1 ( =

(1)

Where,

W

represents external cycle power,R is gas constant,

cyclic temperature ratio

E

C

T

T

=

,

C

T ,

E

T stands for heat source

and cold source temperature respectively, volume compression

ratio

2

1

V

V

r

V

=

,

1

V ,

2

V corresponds with the volume of 1,2 points

depicting in fig.2.

In general,the heat source and cold source temperature of

stirling system could not alter because the ability to heat

higher and refrigerate colder is limited.Therefore,the cyclic

temperature ratio can be regarded as a static.On that

conditon,the greater the volume compression ratio, the greater

external cycle power, namely the greater power output.

Thereby,when the optimal link rod ratios of crank-connecting

rod mechanism in the expansion chamber and compression

chamber are determined, the volume compression ratio of

stirling system attain the maximum value, this system attain

the maximum output power as well.

The specific process to establish the optimal design

model is shown as follows:Linear weighting function derived

from multi-objective optimization evaluation function which

is established first is bulit and then solved,which gians the

optimal range of link rod ratio of crank-connecting rod

mechanism.Afterwards the link rod ratios in expansion

chamber and compression chamber are regarded as

variables,which comply to the optimal range of link rod ratio

gained by the first step.Next,the optimal design model of -

type stirling engine could be set up.Finally,resolve that model

and can attain the optimal link rod ratios,which can be treated

as references for designing -type stirling engine.

Mechanical drive performance researched by

accumulated transmission angle could hardly seen in

literatures in Domestic and international. Most of the

researches fasten on designing four-bar mechanism by the

minimum transmission angle,or by the maximum value of

minimum transmission angle.such as Zhang Jing et al

[2]

Analytical method of crank rocker mechanism design

according to the minimum transmission angle.Pengan Hua et

al

[3]

Crank-connecting rod mechanism design according to the

maximum value of minimum transmission angle.Yang

Shiming et al

[4]

A study of average transmission angle of

planar linkage and its application, this paper points out the

shortcomings of weighing mechanical transmission

performance by the minimum transmission angle,and

Project supported by the National Innovation Experiment Program for

University Students(091029012), the Specialized Research Fund for the

Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China(200802901509), the China

Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project(20100471402), the Science

Foundation for Youth Scholars of China University of Mining &

Technology(2008A015), and the Innovation Experiment Program for

University Students of China University of Mining & Technology.

519

978-1-61284-459-6/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE

introduces concept of average transmission angle which can

better reflects mechanical transmission performerce.Suzuki, et

al

[5]

effect of the ratio between the connecting-rod length and

the crank radius on thermal efficiency,this paper studies the

issue that the difference of link rod ratio affects speed of

piston movement,then affects thermal efficiency.That doesnt

refer to issues of mechanical efficiency and drive

performance.The researches about optimal design of crank-

connecting rod mechanism in stirling are also hardly seen in

literatures in domestic and international . Most studies focuses

on the heat exchange performances of heater, regenerator,

cooler and the optimal design of working fluid temperature

ratio, sweep gas volume ratio, dead volume ratio, phase

difference, working fluid etc. Such as Yan Zijun et al

[6]

stirling

for the basic optimization of relations and the limits of power

and efficiency.This paper studies the optimal performance of

stirling with thermal resistance,heat leakage and regenerative

loss by the use of finite time thermodynamics theory; Atrey,

MD, et al

[7]

optimization of design parameters of stirling cycle

machine, a more comprehensive study of optimal issues of

sweep gas volume ratio, dead volume ratio,phase difference

etc.

II. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CRANK-

CONNECTING ROD MECHANISM

As shown in fig.3,Piston gets force from working fluid

pressure in the dynamic system including stirling and internal

combustion engine and passes it to crank by the connecting

rod.The acting process is from 0 degree to 180 degree of

marked in fig.3.

Figure 3. Analysis of transmission angle in crank-connecting rod mechanism

H obtained by Cosine Theorem:

) ( ) cos ( cos H

2 2 2

l r r r = (2)

0 H r l derived from [8].

So, ) ( ) cos ( cos H

2 2 2

l r r r + = (3)

sin obtained by Sine Theorem in the range of 0 degree to

180 degree of crank angle:

sin ] ) 1 ( ) cos ( cos [ sin

2 2

+ = (4)

In the acting process(isothermal expansion process), the

greater the accumulated transmission angle is, the better the

transmission performance will be. Which can be derived from

[4].Accumulated transmission angle attained by integrating

(4):

d d f } sin ] ) 1 ( ) cos ( cos arcsin{[ ) (

2 2

180

0

180

0

+ = =

(5)

From (5),that every certain link rod ratio corresponds with its

accumulated transmission angle.The curve of accumulated

transmission angle with change of link rod ratio is shown

below.

Figure 4. Curve of accumulated value of transmission angle with the change

of link rod ratio

What can be obtained from the curve is listed as follows:

1)The smaller link rod ratio,namely the length of connecting

rod is relatively longer,the greater of accumulated

transmission angle,and the better of drive performance.

2)Acumulated transmission angle declines faster with the link

rod ratio increasing.

3)There must be exist an optimal range of link rod ratio of

crank-connecting rod mechanism if the space occupied by

dynamic machine and the drive performance are

comprehensively considered.Accumulated transmission angle

can weight transmission performance,at the same time,the

change rate of accumulated transmission angle can indirectly

determine the space occupied by dynamic machine .As the

curve shown in fig.4,ponit where the change rate of

accumulated transmission angle is moderate not only has

moderate drive performance,but also make efficiently use of

space of machine.Ponit where the change rate is gentle wastes

space while point where the change rate is sharp takes little

space but it greatly affects drive performance.Therefore,with

reference to Theory of modern design

[9]

and Decision analysis

and decision support system

[10]

, linear weighted evaluation

function is established.while its multi-objective child-

functions are established dimensionless method.The process of

establishing and solving the evaluation function is listed as

follows.

4986 . 2 415 . 0 2748 . 0 0889 . 1 ) (

2 3

+ + = f (6)

is attained by method of cubic curve fitting of the curve in

fig.4. represents link rod ratio, ) ( f represents

accumulated transmission angle.

415 . 0 5496 . 0 2667 . 3 ) ( '

2

+ = f (7)

representing for the change rate of the curve comes from the

derivation of (6).

Objective function 1 deriving from (6) is non-

dimensionalized:

{ } ) ( max

4986 . 2 4150 . 0 2748 . 0 0889 . 1

) (

2 3

1

f

f

+ +

=

520

4986 . 2

4986 . 2 415 . 0 2748 . 0 0889 . 1

2 3

+ +

=

x

1 1661 . 0 1100 . 0 4358 . 0

2 3

+ + = ; [ ] 1 , 0 (8)

Objective function 2 deriving from (7) is non-

dimensionalized:

{ } 4150 . 0

4150 . 0 5496 . 0 2667 . 3

) ( ' min

4150 . 0 5496 . 0 2667 . 3

) (

2 2

2

+

=

+

=

f

f

1 324 . 1 8716 . 7

2

+ = , [ ] 1 , 0 x (9)

Thereby, comprehensive objective function:

) ( ) ( ) ( F

2 2 1 1

f f x + = ; [ ] 1 , 0 , ( 1

2 1

= + ) (10)

Where,weight value

2 1

, are decided by field experiment or

evaluation function established by experts in this fields.Then

solve the comprehensive objective function to attain the

optimal range of link rod ratios

Because of need of field or experts dates,it may be a

difficulty for a college student.Nevertheless, the optimal range

of link rod ratio can be attained by observing accumulated

transmission angle and its change rate of the curve in

fig.4.When is between 0.2 and 0.4,both accumulated

transmission angle and its change rate are moderate,it can gain

more comprehensive performance that both drive performance

and the space occupied by dynamic machine are

appropriate.The result of optimal range of link rod ratio is at

the range of 0.2 and 0.4 which corresponds well with the in

contemporary internal combustion engine

[11]

.

III. ESTABLISHMENT OF OPTIMAL DESIGN MODEL

Figure 5. Movement diagram of crank-connecting rod mechanism in -type

stirling engine

In fig.5,

2 1

, A A are top dead center and bottom dead

center of crank-connecting rod mechanism of expansion

chamber respectively,while

4 3

, A A are top dead center and

bottom dead center in compression chamber.

C E

l , l are lengths

of connecting rod in expansion and compression

chambers.The stroke is s ,radius of crank is r .Then 2 / r s = .

C E

X X , are the distance measured from each reference point

respectively. represents rotation angle of crank.

In general,the phase difference of , , -type stirling

engine is 90 degree.Which can gain almost the highest thermal

efficiency.Thereby,assume that the phase difference of -type

Stirling Engine studied in this paper is 90 degree,

C E

X X ,

shown below are calculated by using the geometric relation in

fig. 5 .

2

) sin ( 1 cos x

E E E E

l r l r + = (11)

2

) cos ( 1 sin x

C C C C

l r l r + = (12)

Where,

C E

, are link rod ratios of crank-connecting rod

mechanism in expansion and compression chamber

respectively.

Therefore,system volume of certain rotation angle of crank:

) x x ( D

4

1

2

d C E S

V V + + = (13)

Equation (14) is from substituting (11) and (12) for (13).

cos sin 2 [ D

4

1

2

r r l l r V

C E S

+ + =

] ) cos ( 1 ) sin ( 1

2 2

C C E E

l l (14)

In (13) and (14),

S

V stands for system volume while

d

V

stands for death volume. D represents for the diameter of

piston in expansion and compression chamber.Which,in

general,are the same in -type stirling engine.

On the basis of discussions above,the optimal design model

can be established as follows:

1)The death volume of engine system

d

V ,diameter of the two

pistons D and stoke of piston s are known.Then 2 / r s = .

2)To attain the design variables

C E

,

3)To make the function

{ }

{ }

S

S

V

V

f

min

max

= maximization

4)Subject to: ] 4 . 0 , 2 . 0 [

E

.

] 4 . 0 , 2 . 0 [

C

.

Annotation: { }

S

V max , { }

S

V min are the maximum and

minimum system volume in the same link rod ratios

C E

, of

-type stirling engine system.

Program flow chart solving the optimal design model:

Figure 6 Program flow chart

Figure 6. APPLICATION EXAMPLE OF OPTIMAL DESIGN MODEL

521

Death volume of engine system

4

d

10 2 = V

2

mm ,diameter of the two pistons D=44mm,and

stoke of piston 25mm = s .Then 12.5mm = s/2 = r .After

accumulation, both of optimal link rod ratios in expansion and

compression chamber are 0.2 by the use of optimal toolbox in

matlab2009r application software and programming in it.The

maximum volume compression ratio

{ }

{ }

6269 . 2 }

min

max

max{ = } ) max{f( =

S

S

V

V

.The external cycle

power is the maximum at the same time.The 3-D surface chart

of volume compression ratio versus link rod ratios in

expansion and copression chambers is shown below.

Figure 7. Volume compression ratio versus link rod ratios in expansion and

copression chambers

IV. CONCLUSIONS

1)The optimal range of link rod ratio of general crank-

connecting rod mechanism is 0.20.4 by the use of multi-

objective optimization of the linear weighted evaluation

method and with reference to the group AHP method.

2)On the basis of conclusion 1), the link rod ratios in

expansion chamber and compression chamber are regarded as

variables,which comply to the optimal range of link rod

ratio.Then the optimal design model of -type stirling engine

is established.This paper presents algorithm to solve the model

as well.

3)In the application example, both of optimal link rod ratios in

expansion and compression chamber are 0.2 ,and the

maximum volume compression ratio is 2.6269.Which can

obtain the maximum external cycle power.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Thanks National and School Innovation Experiment

Program for University Students for their support and

encouragement,also thanks my adviser,Associate Professor

Zhang Baosheng, for his elaborate guidance and help in our

whole research.Thanks my teammates Zhou Fan and Yuan

Yujie for their support of my work and hard work in the entire

project as well.

REFERENCES

!| Cao Jianming, LI Genbao,Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics

[M]. Beijing: Peking University Press,2010, pp.85-85.

?| Zhang Jing, Wang Zhanying, Liuyingdong,Liang

Yongsheng,Analytical method of crank rocker mechanism design

according to the minimum transmission angle [J]. Mechanical

Design,Vol.25,No.10 ,2008.

3| Peng Anhua,Wang Qibing,Crank-connecting rod mechanism design

according to the maximum value of minimum transmission angle [J].

Mechanical Transmission,Vol.31,No.3,2007.

+| Yang Shiming,Jin Guoguang,A study of average transmission angle of

planar linkage and its application [J]. Design and Research,

Vol.35,No.5, 2008.

| Suzuki, Masatoshi Iijima, Satoshi Moriyoshi, Yasuo;Effect of the ratio

between the connecting-rod length and the crank radius on thermal

efficiency[J]. Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol.72,No.9,

2,2006.

b| Yan Zijun,Su Guozhen,Stirling for the basic optimization of relations

and the limits of power and efficiency [J]. Journal of Engineering

Thermophysics, Vol.20,No.5,1999.

| Atrey,M.D. Bapat,S.L. Narayankhedkar,K.G. Optimization of design

parameters of Stirling cycle machine[J]. Cryogenics, Vol.4,No.1, 1993.

8| Wang Xinyuan,Xi ying,Mechanical design [M]. Beijing: Higher

Education Press, 2010,pp.52-52.

9| Wang Qiguang,Ye Ping,Theory of modern design [M]. Xuzhou:

ChinaUniversity of Ming and Technology Press,2005,pp.79-81.

[10] Liu Xinbao. Decision analysis and decision support system [M].

Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2009,pp.10-10.

!!| Zhang Baocheng,Su Tielin,Zhang Linxian. Engine dynamics [M].

Beijing: National Defence Industry Press,2009,pp.183-189.

522

- Automotive Stirling EngineUploaded byShailesh Gupta
- IEEE Solar Stirling PaperUploaded byAli Kaiser
- 70914822 ST TA2 1 Experimental V4x Stirling EngineUploaded bysynkan
- stirling engineUploaded byNitish Manikeri
- The 4 - 95 Stirling Engine for Underwater ApplicationUploaded byVladimirDvortsov
- He Design Stirling EngineUploaded byVlcek Vladimir
- BASIC STIRLING ENGINE MODALUploaded byRohan Goralkar
- Stirling Engines - G Walker (Oxford, 1980) WWUploaded bybuzzliteyear
- Low Power Stirling Engine for UnderwaterUploaded byVladimirDvortsov
- Don Clucas Stirling engine generator developmentUploaded bytaban.khamosh
- Roelf Meijer - Stirling Engine Patent (#4669736 1987)Uploaded bycaracicula
- Stirling EngineUploaded byShivakumar Ainapur
- Stirling Design Calculations for Alpha Type based on certain TheoriesUploaded byMehroz Khan
- design-of-stirling-engineUploaded byAngad Bhalla
- StirlingUploaded byvallejo8225
- Solar Stirling ManualUploaded byRabiasalahchaban
- Second Law Analysis of Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine on Reduced Valve Lift Utilizing Residual Trapped GasesUploaded byIRJET Journal
- A novel active free piston Stirling engineUploaded byel Torques
- Stirling EngineUploaded byUmesh Pal
- Farm Power & Engine SystemUploaded bySajeet Karkee
- Motion Two DimensionsUploaded byLakshya
- Cylinder Compression.pdfUploaded byNorberto Iglesias
- Thermal Engineering IIUploaded byabinmace
- Solar Stirling EngineUploaded byAnghel Curty Jr.
- Engines_1Uploaded byDeliaChia
- PGW32Uploaded byEDDIN1960
- Stirling Engine - Animated.odtUploaded byjmsantosb852
- Development of Mathematical Model for Cooling of Internal Combustion EnginesUploaded byAJER JOURNAL
- Sarangdhar Technical Seminar PptUploaded byPurnanand Kumar
- IRJET-Green Engine (Turbo Combustion Green Engine)Uploaded byIRJET Journal

- EllipseUploaded byChiranjeevi Vasupilli
- 4Uploaded byshihabz
- ris-r-1663Uploaded byPandiyarajan Raju
- Type Test of HTLS ConductorUploaded byTravis Wood
- VECTORADDITION ADDITION.pdfUploaded bydl9s6547
- Electrophysical Phenomena in the Tribology of Polymers Sviridewok Kilmovich Kestelman (OPA 1999)Uploaded byShivangi Naik
- JFG000553Uploaded byfanaoum
- DC cicuitsUploaded byJosefina Bajamunde Policarpio II
- ALEXIS CARREL Man the Unknown 1935.pdfUploaded byoduga8
- ANSYS Tutorial_ Earthquake Analyses in Workbench - EDR&MedesoUploaded bykapola
- Reactor PolimericUploaded byLacry Coca
- Multi SpaUploaded bykirancalls
- unit1_topic1_mechanics_exam_question_comp.pdfUploaded byMaruf Hassan
- Properties of fresh and hardened concrete.pdfUploaded bydmonroy0335
- An Approximate Analysis Procedure for Piled Raft subjected to Vertical LoadingUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- Capacitors and DielectricsUploaded byNurul Afida Tahir
- Optical Fibre & NanotechnologyUploaded byhiscasio
- 20180615EXP BlackholeUploaded byRavindr Kumar
- Control MassUploaded bycjdbbt1
- Notes on Physical Geodesy - Tim Jensen.pdfUploaded byhiwire03
- Exp 5 Head Loss Due to Friction 2012Uploaded byMohd Khairi
- lec20a.pdfUploaded byLouhabAberbour
- Theory for Friction on Inclined PlaneUploaded bykheymi
- Solution Thermo(1)Uploaded byfarahanisilias
- dggUploaded bybansalr
- Column efficiency testing_28937207 (1).pdfUploaded byKa Chun Lai
- PhD Thesis Khairy ElsayedUploaded byCarlos Antonio Ribeiro
- Aerospace EngineeringUploaded byvenkat
- Chapter 5 Dcacbridges 2 0Uploaded bygurusaravana
- Microwave Lab ManualUploaded byPrem Sharma