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GSM is the most popular method that uses all over the world for mobile
communication. Before going into the details of the GSM System it is worthy
to have some understanding about the history of GSM.
History of GSM in brief
In 198!8" #onf$rence %urop$enne des &ostes et '$l$communications
(#%&') began specifying a %uropean digital telecommunications
standard in the 9** M+, fre-uency band. 'his standard later became
.nown as Global System for Mobile communication (GSM).
In 198/ field tests were held in &aris to select which digital
transmission technology to use. 'he choice was 'ime 0ivision Multiple
1ccess ('0M1) or 2re-uency 0ivision Multiple 1ccess (20M1).
In 1983 a combination of '0M1 and 20M1 was selected as the
transmission technology for GSM.
In 1989 %uropean 'elecommunication Standards Institute (%'SI) too.
over responsibility for GSM specification.
In 1991 the GSM 18** standard was released.
In 199 first commercial &hase 1 GSM networ.s were launched.

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'he Base Station Subsystem of a GSM networ. contains the Base 'ransceiver Station (B'S)4 the Base
Station #ontroller (BS#)4 and the 'ranscoder #ontroller ('5#). 1 figure of GSM networ. components is
given bellow.

GSM Network architecture
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
1 B'S acts as the interface between MS6s (Mobile Station) and the networ.4 by providing radio coverage
functions from their antennae. 'he channel concept used in the communication between B'S and MS will
be described in section 7...

Base Station Controller (BSC)
'he BS# controls a ma8or part of the radio networ.. Its most important tas. is to ensure the highest
possible utili,ation of the radio resources. 'he main functional areas of the BS# are9
5adio :etwor. Management
B'S Management
'5# +andling
'ransmission :etwor. Management
Internal BS# ;peration and Maintenance
+andling of MS connections
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BS# handles MS connections during a call setup and during a call.

#all set up involves the following processes9
Paging the BS# sends paging messages to the B'S6s defined within the desired <1 (<ocation 1rea). 'he
load situation in the BS# is chec.ed before the paging command is sent to the B'S.
Signaling set!u" during call set!up4 the MS connection is transferred to an S0##+ (Stand alone
0edicated #ontrol #hannel) allocated by the BS#. If the MS initiated the connection4 the BS# chec.s its
processor load before the re-uest is further processed.
#ssign$ent of traffic channel after S0##+ assignment4 the call set!up procedure continues with the
assignment of a '#+ ('raffic #hannel) by the BS#. 1s this place4 the radio channel supervision
functions in the BS# are informed that the MS has been ordered to change channels. If all '#+s in the
cell are occupied an attempt can be made to utili,e a '#+ in a neighboring cell.

'he main BS# functions during a call are9
%yna$ic "ower control in MS an& BTS the BS# calculates ade-uate MS and B'S output power based on
the received measurements of the uplin. and downlin.. 'his is sent to the B'S and the MS every 78* ms
to maintain good connection -uality.

'ocating 'his function continuously evaluates the radio connection to the MS4 and4 if necessary4
suggests a handover to another cell. 'his suggestion includes a list of handover candidate cells. 'he
decision is based on measurement results from the MS and B'S. 'he locating process is being e=ecuted in
the BS#.

Han&over if the locating function proposes that a handover ta.e place4 the BS# then decides which cell
to handover to and begins the handover process. If the cell belongs to another BS#4 the MS#>?<5 (Mobile
Switching #entre > ?isitor <ocation 5egister) must be involved in the handover. +owever4 in a handover4
the MS#>?<5 is controlled by the BS#. :o decision is performed in the MS# because it has no real
time information about the connection.

Transco&er Controller (T(C)
'he primary functions of a '5# are to perform transcoding and to perform rate adaptation. 'he function
of converting from the &#M (&ulse #ode Modulation) coder information to the GSM speech coder
information is called transcoding. 'his function is present in both the MS and the BSS.
5ate adaptation involves the conversion of information arriving from the MS#>?<5 at a rate of /7.bits>s
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to a rate of 1/.bits>s4 or transmission to a BS# (for a full rate call). 'his 1/.bits>s contains 1@.bits>s of
traffic and @.bits>s of inband signaling information.
'his is an important function. Aithout rate adaptation the lin.s to BS#6 would re-uire four times the
data rate capabilities. Such transmission capabilities form an e=pensive part of the networ.. By reducing
the rate to 1/.bits>s4 it is possible to use one -uarter of the transmission lin.s and e-uipment.
In %ricsson6s GSM systems4 the '5# contains units4 which perform transcoding and rate adaptation. 'hese
hardware units are called 'ranscoder and 5ate 1daptation Bnits ('51Bs). 1ll '51Bs are pooled4 meaning
that any BS# connected to the '5# can re-uest the use of one of the '51Bs for a particular call.
'he '5# also supports discontinuous transmission. If pauses in speech are detected4 comfort noise is
generated by the '51B in the direction of the MS#>?<5.

%ata rates for a single call on GSM links

)MC!( ()"erations * Maintenance Center!(a&io)
;M#!5 is the interface between the BSS and the human in the system. 'he operations and
maintenance center (;M#) is connected to all e-uipment in the switching system and to the BS#. ;M#
is that connected to the BS#. 'hus the operations and maintenance needs of the :etwor. ;perations
division is provided by the ;M#!54 while the ;M#!S connected to the switching system is used for
controlling the switch operations. 'he ;M# is the functional entity from which the networ. operator
monitors and controls the system. 'he purpose of ;M# is to offer the user cost!effective support for
centrali,ed4 regional and local operational and maintenance activities that are re-uired for a GSM
networ.. 1n important function of ;M#!5 is to provide a networ. overview and support the maintenance
activities of different operation and maintenance organi,ations.

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The GSM network an& "rotocols
Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC)
'he primary node in a GSM networ. is the MS#. It is the node4 which
controls calls both to MS6s and from MS6s. 'he primary functions of an MS#
include the following9
Switching and call routing
MS# interact with other nodes to successfully establish a call. 0uring a call it
involves in handovers from one BS# to another and inter MS# handover.

MS# contains functions for charging mobile calls and information about the
particular charge rates to apply to a call at any given time or for a given
destination. 0uring a call it records this information (#all 0ata 5ecord!#05)
and sends it to the billing center.

Service provisioning
Supplementary services are provided and managed by a MS#. In addition4
the SMS service is handled by MS#6s

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#ommunication with +<5 C ?<5
MS# is communicating with +<5 C ?<5 when call setup and release and get
subscription information.

#ommunication with other MS#s
MS#6s communicate with each other during call setup or handovers between
cells belonging to different MS#6s.

#ontrol of the connected BS#s
1n MS# may communicate with its BS#6s duringD for e=ample4 call set!up and
handovers between two BS#6s.

+isitor 'ocation (egister (+'()
'he role of a ?<5 in a GSM networ. is to act as a temporary storage location
for subscription information for MSs which are within a particular MS#
service area. 'hus4 there is one ?<5 for each MS# service area. 'his means
that the MS# does not have to contact the +<5 every time the subscriber
uses a service or changes its status.
?<5 contains following data.
Identity numbers for the subscriber
Supplementary service information (e.g. whether the subscriber
has call forwarding on busy activated or not)
1ctivity of MS (e.g. idle)
#urrent <1 of MS
Ho$e 'ocation (egister
'he +<5 is a centrali,ed networ. database that stores and manages all
mobile subscriptions belonging to a specific operator. It acts as a permanent
store for a personEs subscription information until that subscription is
cancelled. 'he information stored includes9
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Subscriber identity (i.e. IMSI4 MSIS0:)
Subscriber supplementary services
Subscriber location information (i.e. MS# service area)
Subscriber authentication information
#uthentication Center (#,C)
'he primary function of an 1B# is to provide information4 which is then used
by an MS#>?<5 to perform subscriber authentication and to4 establish
ciphering procedures on the radio lin. between the networ. and MS6s. 'he
information provided is called a triplet and consists of9
1 non predictable 5andom number (51:0)
1 Signed 5esponse (S5%S)
1 ciphering Fey (Fc)
-.ui"$ent /&entity (egister
'he e-uipment identification procedure uses the identity of the e-uipment itself
(IM%I) to ensure that the MS terminal e-uipment is valid.

'here are two main types of cells9
)$ni &irectional cell
1n omni!directional cell (or omnicell) is served by a B'S with an antenna
which transmits e-ually in all directions (@/* degrees).
Sector cell
1 sector cell is the area of coverage from an antenna4 which transmits4 in
a given direction only. 2or e=ample4 this may be e-ual to 1* degrees or
18* degrees of an e-uivalent omni! directional cell. ;ne B'S can serve one
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of these sector cells with a collection of B'S6s at a site serving more than
one4 leading to terms such as two!sectored sites and more commonly4
three!sectored sites.
'ypically4 omni!directional cells are used to gain coverage4 whereas sector
cells are used to gain capacity.

Cell ty"es
5euse of fre-uency is an important factor when planning a GSM networ..
'he fre-uency re!use patterns recommended for GSM are the 7>1 and the
@>9 pattern. 7>1 means that there are four three!sector sites supporting
twelve cells using twelve fre-uency groups.

0re.uency reuse "atterns

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Multi wave propagation varies the signal strength which causes fading dips.
'his is .nown as 5ayleigh fading which is fre-uency dependent. 2re-uency
+opping changes the fre-uency with time to eliminate fre-uency dependent
5ayleigh fading. 2re-uency +opping reduces the effects of interferences and
gives a great support to cater the capacity upgrading as well.
'here are types of fre-uency hopping4 Base Band +opping (BB+) and
Synthesi,ed 2re-uency +opping (S2+)
Base Ban& Ho""ing (BBH)

Base band hopping
In this type of hopping4 only fre-uencies used by the '5Gs can be allocated
to the 2+S (2re-uency +opping Se-uence).'he B##+ supporting 'ime Slot
cannot hop. 'S * of the B##+ '5G is always transmitting on the B##+
fre-uency. ;ther timeslots can use other fre-uencies unless the B##+
fre-uency is transmitted by any other '5G at the same time.
'he ma8or advantage of the BB+ is the time 'S 1 to 'S 3 of the B##+
fre-uency containing '5G is allowed to perform hopping. But 2re-uency
+opping performs best with at least 7 hopping fre-uencies. So cells need at
least 7 '5Gs and it is the disadvantage of this system.

Synthesi1e& 0re.uency Ho""ing (S0H)
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Synthesi,ed 2re-uency +opping
In S2+ each frame unit is connected to one carrier unit. +opping is
performed by changing the carrier unit by changing a synthesi,er. 1s the
communication is not hopping between the carrier units but the carrier unit
fre-uency itself is hopping. So many fre-uencies can be used as hopping
fre-uencies. In S2+4 '5G returns in every time slot to a different fre-uency.
'hus the '#+ remains on the same '5G but the fre-uencies of that '#+
BCCH 2 Broa&cast Control Channel
B##+ fre-uency planning is done for each sector in the site individually.
'he B##+ fre-uency must be determined so that the same fre-uency of
some other site does not interfere with the planning site (#o!channel
interference) and the ad8acent higher fre-uency and the lower fre-uency
also should not be used in a near site that can be in a position to interfere
the given site (1d8acent channel interference).
HSN 2 Ho""ing Se.uence Nu$ber
It is one of 7 input parameters to the GSM hopping se-uence generator
algorithm.5ange of +S: is * to /@. +S: H * means the hopping is in cyclic
M#/) ! Mobile #llocate& /n&e3 )ffset
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'he Mobile 1llocated Inde= allows determining the correct line in the
Mobile 1llocation loo. up table to find the corresponding 152#: .'he M1I;
is selectable for each timeslot and each '5G separately. It is constant on
the '5G but it changes between the frame units.
BS/C 2 Base Station /&entification Co&e
BSI# #hannels are to identify each station and sub stations. It can be
represented in codes.
NCC (Network Color Co&e) I Is represented in @ bit binary form.
'herefore it the numbers are from * to 3.
BCC (Base station Color Co&e) I It6s also in @ bit form. #an be used * to
%ach timeslot on a '0M1 ('ime 0ivision Multiple 1ccess) frame is called a physical
channel. 'herefore4 there are 8 physical channels per carrier fre-uency in GSM.
&hysical channels can be used to transmit speech4 data or signaling information. 1
physical channel may carry different messages4 depending on the information that is
to be sent. 'hese messages are called logical channels. Information is transmitted via
physical channels as the form of bursts. 'he relationship between bursts and logical
channels is shown in the figure below.

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The relationshi" between bursts an& logical channels

'he #ontrol channels are control the communication (signaling) of the mobile station
with the base transceiver station while the 'raffic channels bares the voice
information. <ogical channels are transmitted on physical channels. 'he method of
placing logical channels on physical channels is called mapping. Ahile most logical
channels ta.e only one time slot to transmit4 some ta.e more. If so4 the logical
channel information is carried in the same physical channel time slot on consecutive
'0M1 frames. Because logical channels are short4 several logical channels can share
the same physical channel4 the use of time slots more efficient.

Most of the cells are having 7 simultaneous carriers (or '5Gs). 'he figure below shows
the carrier fre-uencies for a sample cell4 including an additional allocation of a time
slot for 0##+ (0edicated #ontrol #hannel) in '5G1 due to a high call set!up load in
the cell. ;therwise one 0##+ is enough.

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The relationshi" between "hysical channels an& logical channels

'ime slot * of the first carrier fre-uency in a cell is always reserved for
signaling purposes. In this way4 when an MS is determining whether a carrier
fre-uency is a B##+ (Broadcast #ontrol #hannel) carrier4 it .nows where to loo..

8 S0##+Es and 7 S1##+Es all can share the same physical channel (#hannel 0 in the
figure above). 'his means that 8 calls can be set!up simultaneously on one physical

1ll time slots in a cell other than those assigned for signaling information are used for
traffic4 i.e. speech or data. <ogical channel '#+ is used. In addition4 at regular
intervals during a call4 an MS transmits to the B'S measurements it has made about
signal strength and -uality. <ogical channel S1##+ is used for this4 replacing one '#+
time slot at a time.

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Subscriber authentication "rocess
1t subscription time4 each subscriber is assigned a subscriber authentication
Fey (Fi). Fi is stored in the 1B# (1uthentication #enter) along with the
subscriber6s IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity). Both are used in
the process of providing a triplet. 'he same Fi and IMSI are also stored in
the SIM.
1. 1 non!predictable random number4 51:04 is generated at the 1uthentication
2. 51:0 and Fi are used to calculate Signed 5esponse (S5%S) and Fc4 using two
different algorithms4 1@ and 18 respectively.
3. 51:04 S5%S and Fc are delivered together to the +<5 as a triplet.
4. 'he MS#>?<5 transmits the 51:0 to the MS.
5. 'he MS computes the signature S5%S using 51:0 and the subscriber
authentication .ey (Fi) through the 1@ algorithm.
6. 'he MS computes the Fc by using Fi and 51:0 through 18 algorithm. Fc will
thereafter be used for ciphering and deciphering in MS.
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7. 'he signature S5%S is sent bac. to MS#>?<54 which performs authentication4 by whether4 the S5%S from the MS and the S5%S from the 1B# match. If
so4 the subscriber is permitted to use the networ.. If not4 the subscriber is
barred from networ. access.

:etwor. identities are numbers that a GSM networ. uses to locate a mobile
subscriber when it is establishing a call to that subscriber. 1s the networ.
relies on these identities to route calls to subscribers4 it is important that
each identity is uni-ue and correct.
Mobile Station /S%N nu$ber (MS/S%N)
'he Mobile Station IS0: number (MSIS0:) uni-uely identifies a mobile
telephone subscription in the &S': numbering plan. 'his is the number
dialed when calling a mobile subscriber.

## #ountry #ode
:0# :ational 0estination #ode
S: Subscriber :umber

/nternational Mobile Subscriber /&entity (/MS/)
'he International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is a uni-ue identity
allocated to each subscriber that facilitates correct subscriber
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identification over the radio path and through the networ.. It is used for
all signaling in the &<M:.

M## Mobile #ountry #ode
M:# Mobile :etwor. #ode
MSI: Mobile Station Identification :umber

Te$"orary Mobile Subscriber /&entity (TMS/)
'he 'emporary Mobile Subscriber Identity ('MSI) is a temporary IMSI
number made .nown to an MS at registration. It is used to protect the
subscriberEs identity on the air interface. 'he 'MSI has local significance
only (that is4 within the MS#>?<5 area) and is changed at time intervals or
when certain events occur such as location updating
/nternational Mobile -.ui"$ent /&entity (/M-/)
'he International Mobile %-uipment Identity (IM%I) is used to uni-uely
identify MS e-uipment to the networ.. 'he IM%I is used for security
procedures such as identifying stolen e-uipment and preventing
unauthori,ed access to the networ..

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'1# 'ype 1pproval #ode4 determined by a central GSM body
21# 2inal 1ssembly #ode4 identifies the manufacturer
S:5 Serial :umber4 an individual serial number of si= digits
uni-uely identifies all e-uipment within each '1# and 21#
spare 1 spare digit for future use. Ahen transmitted by the MS this
digit should always be ,ero

Mobile Station (oa$ing Nu$ber (MS(N)
'he Mobile Station 5oaming :umber (MS5:) is a temporary networ.
identity which is assigned during the establishment of a call to a roaming
'ocation #rea /&entity ('#/)
'he <ocation 1rea Identity (<1I) is a temporary networ. identity4 which is
also re-uired for routing. 'he two main purposes of the <1I are4 paging4
which is used to inform the MS# of the <1 in which the MS is currently
situated and location updating of mobile subscribers.
Cell Global /&entity (CG/)
'he #ell Global Identity (#GI) is used for identifying individual cells within
a <1. #ell identification is achieved by adding a #ell Identity (#I) to the <1I
Base Station /&entity Co&e (BS/C)
'he Base Station Identity #ode (BSI#) enables MSEs to distinguish between
different base stations sending on the same fre-uency.

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:## :etwor. #olor #ode (@ bits) identifies the &<M:. It does not
uni-uely identify the operator. :## is primarily used to
distinguish between operators on each side of a border
B## Base Station #olor #ode (@ bits) identifies the Base Station to
help distinguish between B'S using the same control fre-uencies


Mobile originating call
1 call is originated from a MS as follows4
1. 'he MS uses 51#+ (5andom 1ccess #hannel) to as. for a signaling channel.
2. 'he BS#>'5# allocates a signaling channel4 using 1G#+
(1ccess Grant #hannel).
3. 'he MS sends a call set!up re-uest via S0##+ (Stand alone 0edicated #ontrol
#hannel) to the MS#>?<5. ;ver S0##+ all signaling preceding a call
place. 'his includes9 the MS as JactiveK in the ?<5
'he authentication procedure
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Start ciphering
%-uipment identification
Sending the B!subscriber6s number to the networ. if the subscriber has the service JBarring of outgoing callsK activated
4. 'he MS#>?<5 instructs the BS#>'5# to allocate an idle '#+. 'he B'S and MS
are told to tune to the '#+.
5. 'he MS#>?<5 forwards the BInumber to an e=change in the &S':4 which
establishes a connection to the subscriber.
6. If the B!subscriber answers4 the connection is established.

M#/N C)MP)N-NTS )0 # M/C()4#+- '/N5

#omponents of a Microwave lin.
'he radio e-uipment configuration of a microwave lin. consists of4
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Indoor Bnit (I0B)
;utdoor Bnit (;0B)
1ntenna Bnit
;0B to I0B cabling (I2 cable)
0igital 0istribution 2rame (002)
Indoor Bnit (I0B)
'he I0B contains much of the intelligence of the system. Main functions of
the I0B include &roviding the 0ata interface4 %rror correction4 Modulation
and 0emodulation4 1larm status monitoring and Site!to!site
communications. 1n I0B located in an e-uipment shelter to interface with
the operator interface and is connected to a close coupled ;0B 1ntenna
assembly on the tower by a single coa=ial cable. 'he I0B is independent of
any fre-uency band and will operate over all fre-uency ;0Bs. But it is
capacity dependant and there are separate modules capable of handling
different capacity inputs. #onfiguring and monitoring of lin. performance
can be done through the I0B front panel. 0isplay of <ocal C 5emote radios
and 1larm 5elay Status <%0s are there in the I0B front panel for fault
identification. Memory bac.up inside the I0B ensures that it maintains its
configuration in the event of a 0# power loss.

%MC 6P7 /%,
;utdoor Bnit (;0B)
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'he ;0B converts data from the I0B into an 52 signal for transmission. It
also converts the 52 signal from the far end to suitable data to transmit to
the I0B. ;0Bs are weatherproofed units that are mounted on top of a
tower either directly connected to a microwave antenna or connected to it
through a wave guide. +ere ;0Bs are full duple= configured. 'he ;0B
receives its power from the I0B through acoa=ial cable. ;0B parameters
are configured and monitored through the I0B. %ach ;0B is designed to
operate over a predefined fre-uency band. 2or e=ample 1. ! @./G+, for
a @G+, system4 13.3 ! 19.3G+, for a 18G+, system and 7." ! /."G+, for
a /G+, system as for 0M# G&7 ;0Bs. Suitable ground wire should be
connected to the ;0B ground lug to an appropriate ground point on the
antenna mounting or tower for lightning protection. It should be noted
that this unit is electronically controlled. 'ransmitted power is controlled
by ad8usting a value on the I0B which instructs the ;0B to ad8ust the drive
voltage on its '= &I: diode attenuator. 'he configuration of a 0M# G&7
;0B is shown below.

0M# G&7 ;0B
'he polari,ation of the transmitted signal is determined by the position of
the polari,ation rotator fitted within the ;0B mounting collar. 'he rotator
is an integral part of the antenna!mounting 'he default setting is
for vertical polari,ation. 'he ;0B must be mounted on the collar to match
the chosen polari,ation.
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1d8ustments for polari,ation
1ntenna Bnit
1ntenna unit maintains the connection to the other end via a microwave
signal path4 provided that the line of sight condition is satisfied. In order
to have an uninterrupted communication4 the two antennas should be
placed face to face4 without any obstruction between.
0(-SN-' 8)N-
'he line of site condition must be there to correct operation of
a microwave lin.. 'he area that the signal spreads out from line of site is
called the 2resnel ,one. If there is an obstacle in the 2resnel ,one4 part of
the radio signal will be diffracted or bent away from the straight!line path.
'he practical effect is that on a point!to!point radio lin.4 this refraction will
reduce the amount of 52 energy reaching the receive antenna. 'he
thic.ness or radius of the 2resnel ,one depends on the fre-uency of the
signal L the higher the fre-uency4 the smaller the 2resnel ,one.

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Microwave lin
'he radius of the 2resnel ,one can be calculated by the formula bellow.

H 'he n
2resnel Mone radius in meter
H 'he distance of & from one end in meter

H 'he distance of & from the other end in meter

N H 'he wavelength of the transmitted signal in meter
'he direct path between the transmitter and the receiver needs a clearance
above ground of at least /*O of the radius of the first 2resnel ,one to
achieve free space propagation conditions.
0(-- SP#C- ')SS
1s signals spread out from a radiating source4 the energy is spread out over
a largersurface area. 1s this occurs4 the strength of that signal gets
2ree space loss (2S<)4 measured in dB specifies how much the signal has
wea.ened over a given distance.
0S' 9 :;<7 = ;> log?> % = ;> log?> 0
2S< H 2ree Space <oss in dB
0 H &ath <ength in .ilometers
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2 H 5adio 2re-uency in Gigahert,
'/N5 B,%G-T
<in. budget is the itemi,ed list of all system losses and gains in dB from the
transmitter on one end to the receiver at the other end.

5adio path lin. budget
0#%/NG #N% 0#%- M#(G/NS
Multipath 2ading is the dominant fading mechanism for fre-uencies lower
than 1*G+,. 1 reflected wave causes a multipath4 i.e. when a reflected
wave reaches the receiver as the direct wave that travels in a straight line
from the transmitter. 1s a thumb rule4 multipath fading4 for radio lin.s
having bandwidths less than 7*M+, and path lengths less than @*Fm is
described as flat instead of fre-uency selective.
0lat fa&ing
1 fade where all fre-uencies in the channel are e-ually affected called
2lat fading. 'here is barely noticeable variation of the amplitude of the
signal across the channel bandwidth.
0re.uency!selective fa&ing
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In 2re-uency!selective fading there are amplitude and group delay
distortions across the channel bandwidth.
(ain fa&ing
5ain attenuates the signal caused by the scattering and absorption of
electromagnetic waves by rain drops and it is significant for long paths
(P1*Fm). ?ertical polari,ation is far less susceptible to rainfall attenuation
than are hori,ontal polari,ation fre-uencies.
0a&e $argin
2ade margin is the difference (measured in dB) between the nominal signal
level received at one end of a radio lin. and the signal level re-uired by
that radio to assure that a of data is decoded without error. In
other words4 fade margin is the difference between the signal received
and the radio6s specified receiver6s sensitivity. (2igure 11.@)
0a&e $argin 9 Signal level receive& 2 Sensitivity of the receiver
#%%/NG (-%,N%#NC@
'here are two modes of system installations that are widely usedD protected
and unprotected systems.

Bnprotected system

In the unprotected system there6s only one ;0B and due to any reason if a unit fails
the communication will fail.
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&rotected system
+ere there are two ;0Bs. Ahile in operation only one ;0B is performing
the transmission while other one always .eeps trac. of the operating one
and both do the receiving. 1t any instant if the active transmitter faces any
problem4 the other one will detect that and will automatically ta.e over the
functioning in a smooth manner. 2or critical lin.s this configuration will
ensure a more reliable performance.

#%%/NG %/+-(S/T@
'here are diversity methods are basically used in the microwave lin.s4
Space diversity and 2re-uency diversity to improve the availability of the
S"ace &iversity
'his configuration caters the problems that can occur due to multi path
fading. +ere the receiving end has two antennas. Ahen a signal is being
sent from another station4 it is being received from both the antennas and
automatically one signal is ta.en in for processing. 'he best one is chosen
based on B%5 and signal strength measurements.
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System with space diversity
0re.uency %iversity
'his configuration caters the problems that can occur due to interferences.
+ere the receiver as well as the transmitter is dual systems4 I.e. they can
operate in two fre-uencies. 1t any instance only one fre-uency is actively
operating while the other is in a stand!by mode. 1t any instance if the
receiving signal6s -uality fades then the receiving end informs the
transmitter about the issue and both switches to the other fre-uency.

System with fre-uency diversity
T(#NSM/SS/)N T)4-(S
'he construction of new towers4 B'S cabins and other civil
engineering related applications come under the infrastructure
development. 'here are mainly three types of towers as shown in the
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Monopole Self Support Guyed
Monopoles consist of tapered steel tubes that fit over each other to form
astable pole
Self!supporting towers are having free!standing lattice structures
Guyed towers are stabili,ed by tethered wires

'here are several types of antennas are being used to meet the re-uirement
of the networ.. General B'S location includes GSM (9**M+, band) antennas
and 0#S (18**M+, band) antennas to provide the GSM coverage. Sometimes
dual band antennas that are having both GSM and 0#S facility are used
rather than having separate antennas. In addition to that some Sites
have @G antennas and AiMa= antennas.
1ntenna tilting is used to ad8ust the coverage area of an antenna. 'here are
two ways of antenna tilt ad8ustment mechanisms.
Mechanical tilt
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'ilting the antenna using an ad8ustable 8oint that is fi=ing the antenna to
the tower is mechanical tilting. (2igure 1)
-lectrical tilt
'here is a screw at the bottom of the antenna. 'his screw is connected to
a ferrous core4 which is in inside of the antenna. Ahen the screw is
rotated the down tilt of the main lobe is changed. (2igure B)

0igure # Mechanical tilt 0igure B -lectrical tilt
+S4( M-#S,(-M-NT
?SA5 stands for ?oltage Standing Aave 5atio. 1n impedance of e=actly "*
;hm can only be practically achieved at one fre-uency. 'he ?SA5 defines
how far the impedance differs from "* ;hm with a wide!band antenna. 'he
power delivered from the transmitter can no longer be radiated without loss
because of this incorrect compensation. &art of this power is reflected at
the antenna and is returned to the transmitter. 'he forward and return
power forms a standing wave with corresponding ma=imum and minimum
voltages. 'his wave ratio defines the level of compensation of the antenna.
'his test is performed to ma.e sure the cables from B'S to antenna are
installed properly. 5eadings are ta.en of the whole system of antenna4
8umpers and cable up to the B'S. 1naly,er is used to measure the ?SA5 and
it draws a graph fre-uency to =!a=is and ?SA5 to y!a=is.
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Before any reading is ta.en4 the very first thing is to calibrate the
analy,er. 1naly,er is switched on and cable is connected to the port. 'he
desired fre-uency range is entered (89*M+, I 9/*M+, for GSM and
131*M+, I 188*M+, for 0#S). 'o the other end of the port4 the Q;pen6 side
of the dummy is connected and reading is ta.en. 'hen Q#lose6 side and
Q<oad6 side of the dummy should be connected. 'he analy,er process data
and if it gives a ?SA5 reading around 1 for the Q<oad64 then it is ready to
ta.e the readings.
Taking Measure$ents
Rumper cable to the B'S is removed from the B'S port and connected to
the analy,er and a graph is obtained. 'he connectors should be well!
tightenD otherwise a false reading may be given. 'he ?SA5 graph should be
below 1. for an acceptable installation. If not4 the ne=t chec. points
going in se-uence are4
#onnection point of 8umper and antenna cable.
5eplace the antenna by the dummy load at the ne=t end
5eplace the 8umper cable and measure.
Aorst case4 replace the antenna cable.
2ollowing are two graphs obtained from a ?SA5 test. 'he graph at top is
one with the ?SA5 at an acceptable range and the bottom one is one which
is not.
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+S4( is at an acce"table range

+S4( is not at an acce"table range
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Ahen providing an indoor coverage4 it is necessary to be aware of coverage
and interference. (i.e. signals from indoor cell must be strong enough to
guarantee a full coverage of the building and get free of interference from
the outdoor cells.) So the signals from indoor cell must be limited not to
interference with the outside networ..
Before installing an indoor cell4 it must be design a plan with antenna
locations4 cable lengths4 Splitter types4 'appersSetc by using the map of
the building and special software (e.g. 52 B?). 1fter finishing performance
tests4 indoor site installations can be done. 'here are two types of indoor
antennas for the indoor solution process9 ;mni C panel.

/n&oor antennas
By using ;mni antennas4 signal can be transmitted over an area of
hemisphere. So it is very useful for covering an open area (li.e a room4 hall
or an auditorium). It is possible to give coverage for a long directional area
(i.e. corridor4 stairsSetc) by using 0irectional antennas.
'he following figure shows the &ower System of a typical B'S site.
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Power Syste$ of a ty"ical BTS site
1 typical B'S site has a way power supply4 #%B and Generator power. 'he
1'S (1utomatic 'ransfer switch) is there to select the power source. 'he
rectifier converts the 1# supply voltage to a 0# voltage of !78?. 'he battery
ban. is there to supply the power during an emergency case that is when
both the #%B and Generator power fails. 'he +5# (+igh 5upture #apacity
2uses) prevents the e-uipment from voltage
'he B'S and modems operate in !78? 0#. 'he rectifier unit converts the 1#
supply into !78? 0#. Battery ban. is used as a bac.!up power at a mains
failure. 'he manufactures provide battery cells4 the rac. and other
necessary components for every battery ban..

1n uninterruptible power supply (B&S)4 also .nown as a continuous power
supply (#&S) or a battery bac.up4 is a device which maintains a continuous
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supply of electric power to connected e-uipment by supplying power from a
separate source when utility power is not available. It differs from an
au=iliary power supply or standby generator4 which does not provide instant
protection from a momentary power interruption4 however could be used to
provide uninterrupted power to e-uipment for 1 ! * minutes until a
generator can be turned on. 'he switch over time is stated by most
manufacturers as being less than 7 milliseconds4 but typically can be as long
as " milliseconds depending on the amount of time it the Standby
B&S to detect the lost utility voltage. 'here are types of B&S available.
)ff!line ,PS
'his type of B&S remains idle until a power failure occurs4 and then
switches from utility power to its own power source4 almost

)ff!line ,PS
)n!line ,PS
;n!line B&S continuously powers the protected load from its energy
reserves stored in a lead!acid battery or flywheel4 while simultaneously
replenishing the reserves from the 1# power. It also provides protection
against all common power problems4 and for this reason it is also .nown as
a power conditioner and a line conditioner.
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)n!line ,PS
1 <ightning &rotection System (<&S) provides a means by which a lightning
discharge may enter or leave earth without passing through and damaging
personnel4 electrical e-uipment4 and non!conducting structures such as
buildings. 1 <ightning &rotection System does not prevent lightning from
stri.ingD it provides a means for controlling it and prevents damage by
providing a low resistance path for the discharge of the lightning energy.
'he components of a typical <ightning &rotection System (<&S) are as
#ir Ter$inal
'he 1ir 'erminal is the part of the <&S that is intended to intercept
lightning flashes. 'he 1ir 'erminal intercepts the downward!moving
stepped leader of the lightning stri.e4 by launching an upward!going
attachment spar.. ;nce the attachment is achieved4 the bul. of the
lightning current follows the ioni,ed path. In this way4 an 1ir 'erminal
diverts the lightning away from personnel and electronic e-uipment.
%own Con&uctor
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'he 0own!#onductor is that part of the e=ternal <ightning &rotection
System (<&S) that conducts lightning current from the 1ir 'erminal system
to the %arth 'ermination system.
)ut&oor ,nits Groun&ing
'he ;utdoor Bnit4 consisting of a 5adio 2re-uency Bnit and 1ntenna4 must
include a grounding point for connection to the grounding.
-arth Ter$ination Syste$
'he %arth 'ermination System is that part of e=ternal <&S that is intended
to conduct and disperse lightning current to earth.
'ightning Protectors
<ightning &rotectors provide an additional protection to the e-uipment
embedded protectors4 in places where lightning occurs with a high
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'ightning Protection Syste$
S,(G- P()T-CT)(
1 surge protector is an appliance designed to protect electrical devices from
voltage 1 surge protector attempts to regulate the voltage supplied
to an electric device by either or by shorting to ground voltages
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above a safe threshold. Some parameters regarding surge protectors are
given bellow.
Cla$"ing voltage
'his is also .nown as the let!through voltage. 'his specifies what voltage
will cause the metal o=ide varistors (M;?s) inside a protector to conduct
electricity to the ground line. 1 lower clamping voltage indicates better
protection4 but a shorter life e=pectancy.

Surge Protector
'his number defines how much energy the surge protector can absorb
without failure. 1 higher number indicates greater protection because the
device will divert more energy elsewhere and will absorb less energy
resulting in a lower voltage spi.e. Generally4 ** 8oules is undersi,ed
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protection since harmful voltage are significantly larger than **
8oules. Better protectors start at 1*** 8oules and "*4*** amperes. If
properly installed4 for every 8oule absorbed by a protector4 another 7 or @*
8oules may be dissipated harmlessly into ground.
(es"onse ti$e
Surge protectors do not .ic. in immediatelyD a slight delay e=ists. 'he
longer the response time the longer the connected e-uipment will be
e=posed to the surge. +owever4 surges donEt happen immediately either.
Surges usually ta.e around a few microseconds to reach their pea. voltage
and a surge protector with a nanosecond response time would .ic. in fast
enough to suppress the most damaging portion of the spi.e.
By definition4 the bandwidth of a A#0M1 (Aideband #ode 0ivision Multiple
1ccess) system is " M+, or more4 and this " M+, is also the nominal
bandwidth of all @G A#0M1 proposals.
'his bandwidth was chosen because4
It is enough to provide data rates of 177 and @87 Fbps (these
were @G targets)4 and even Mbps in good conditions.
Bandwidth is always scarce4 and the smallest possible allocation
should be used4 especially if the system must use fre-uency bands
already occupied by e=isting G systems.
'his bandwidth can resolve more multipaths than narrower
bandwidths4 thus improving performance.
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BG Network #rchitecture
In a #0M1 system all users occupy the same fre-uency at the same time4
no time scheduling is applied4 and their signals are separated from each
other by means of orthogonal codes. %ach user is assigned a code applied
as a secondary modulation4 which is used to transform a user6s signals into
a spread spectrum!coded version of the user6s data stream.

Tree of orthogonal co&es

'he receiver then uses the same spreading code to transform the spread!
spectrum signal bac. into the original user6s data stream. 'hese codes are
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chosen so that they have low cross!correlation with other codes. 'his means
that correlating the received spread!spectrum signal with the assigned code
despreads only the signal that was spread using the same code. 1ll other
signals remain spread over a large bandwidth. 'hat is4 only the receiver
.nowing the right spreading code can e=tract the original signal from the
received spread!spectrum signal. 'he figure above shows the tree of
orthogonal codes.

Power Control in 4C%M#
&ower control in uplin. must ma.e signal powers from different users
nearly e-ual in order to ma=imi,e the total capacity in the cell.
In downlin. the power control must .eep the signal at minimal re-uired
level in order to decrease the interference to users in other cells.

(eceive& "ower at the base station
P'-S/)CH()N),S %/G/T#' H/-(#(CH@ (P%H)
'here are two types of multiple=ing hierarchies of 'ime 0ivision Multiple=ing
('0M)4 used in digital transmission. 'raditionally4
digital transmission systems and hierarchies have been based on
multiple=ing signals which are plesiochronous. 'o recover a /7.bps channel
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from a 17*Mbps &0+ signal it is necessary to demultiple= the signal all the
way down to the Mbps %1 level before the location of the /7 .bps channel
can be identified. &0+ re-uires multiple=ing steps of !84 8!@74 @7!17* to
add or demultiple=ing steps of 17*!@74 @7!84 8! to drop out an individual
speech or data channel.
&lesiochronous 0igital +ierarchy
Signal %igital bit rate C (kbCs) Channels
%* /7 1 %*
%1 *78 @ %*
% 8778 7 %1
%@ @7@/8 1/ %1
%7 1@9/7 /7 %1
S@NCH()N),S %/G/T#' H/-(#(CH@ (S%H)
Synchronous 0igital +ierarchy is a standard for telecommunications
transport formulated by the International 'elecommunication Bnion (I'B).
'he basic format of an S0+ signal allows it to carry many different services
in its ?irtual #ontainer (?#) because it is bandwidth!fle=ible. 'his capability
allows for such things as thetransmission of high speed switched
services4 1'M. +owever S0+ still permits transport and at the
Mbps4 @7Mbps4 and 17*Mbps levels accommodating the e=isting &0+ signals.
In addition S0+ supports the transport of signals based on the 1."77Mbps
hierarchy used in 1merica.
Synchronous 0igital +ierarchy
Bit rate C (MbCs) #bbreviate& S%H S%H Ca"acity
"1.87 "1 Mb>s S'M!* 1 %1
1""." 1"" Mb>s S'M!1 /@ %1
/.*8 / Mb>s S'M!7 7 %7
788.@ .7 Gb>s S'M!1/ 1/ %7
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99"@.8 1* Gb>s S'M!/7 /7 %7
@981@.1 7* Gb>s S'M!"/ "/ %7

Signaling System :o. 3 (SS3 or #3) is a global standard for
telecommunication defined by the International 'elecommunication Bnion
(I'B) 'elecommunication Standardi,ation Sector (I'B!'). 'he standard
defines the procedures and protocol by which networ. elements in the
public switched telephone networ. (&S':) e=change information over a
digital signaling networ. to effect wireless (cellular) and wire line call
setup4 routing and control.
%ach signaling point in the SS3 networ. is uni-uely identified by a numeric
point code. &oint codes are carried in signaling messages e=changed
between signaling points to identify the source and destination of each
message. %ach signaling point uses a routing table to select the appropriate
signaling path for each message. 'here are three .inds of signaling points in
the SS3 networ..
SSP (Service Switching Point)
SS&s are switches that originate4 terminate or tandem calls. 1n SS& sends
signaling messages to other SS&s to setup4 manage and release voice
circuits re-uired to complete a call.
STP (Signal Transfer Point)
:etwor. traffic between signaling points may be routed via a
switch called an S'&. 1n S'& routes each incoming message to an outgoing
signaling lin. based on routing information contained in the SS3 message.
Because it acts as a networ. hub4 an S'& provides improved utili,ation of
the SS3 networ. by eliminating the need for direct lin.s between signaling
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SCP (Service Control Point)
1 S#& is a centrali,ed database that contains the information about how to
route a call.
1 figure of the SS3 &rotocol Stac. is shown below.

The SSD Protocol Stack
Message Transfer Part (MTP)
'he Message 'ransfer &art (M'&) is divided into three levels9
MTP 'evel ?
'he lowest level4 M'& <evel 14 is e-uivalent to the ;SI &hysical <ayer.
M'& <evel 1 defines the physical4 electrical and functional
characteristics of the digital signaling lin..

MTP 'evel ;
M'& <evel ensures accurate end!to!end transmission of a message
cross a signaling lin.. <evel implements flow control4 message
se-uence validation and error Ahen an error occurs on a
signaling lin.4 the message (or set of messages) is retransmitted. M'&
<evel is e-uivalent to the ;SI 0ata <in. <ayer.
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MTP 'evel B
M'& <evel @ provides message routing between signaling points in the
SS3 networ.. M'& <evel @ reroutes traffic away from failed lin.s and
signaling points and controls traffic when congestion occurs. M'& <evel @
is e-uivalent to the ;SI :etwor. <ayer.
Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP)
S##& provides connectionless and connection!oriented networ. services
and global title translation (G'') capabilities above M'& <evel @. 1 global
title is an address that is translated by S##& into a destination point code
and subsystem number. 1 subsystem number uni-uely identifies an
application at the destination signaling point. S##& is used as the transport
layer for '#1&!based services.
Transaction Ca"abilities #""lications Part (TC#P)
'#1& supports the e=change of non!circuit related data between
applications across the SS3 networ. using the S##& connectionless service.
Tueries and responses sent between SS&s and S#&s are carried in '#1&
messages. 2or e=ample4 an SS& sends a '#1& -uery to determine the
routing number associated with a dialed number and to chec. the personal
identification number (&I:) of a calling card user. In mobile networ.s (IS!
71 and GSM) '#1& carries Mobile 1pplication &art (M1&) messages sent
between mobile switches and databases to support user authentication4
e-uipment identification and roaming.
/S%N ,ser Part (/S,P)
'he IS0: Bser &art (ISB&) defines the protocol used to set!up4 manage and
release trun. circuits that carry voice and data between terminating line
e=changes (e.g.4 between a calling party and a called party). ISB& is used
for both IS0: and non!IS0: calls. +owever4 calls that originate and
terminate at the same switch do not use ISB& signaling.

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1 Mobile Intelligent :etwor. (MI:) is a telecommunications concept that
meets the demand for advanced services within the e=isting
telephony networ.4 from both the networ. operator6s and service provider6s
perspective. 'he intelligence in the MI: is reali,ed in computer
software and data. 'he ultimate ob8ective of MI: is to increase revenue for
the networ. operator and the service provider.
/N Network #rchitecture

I: :etwor. 1rchitecture
1dvantages of MI:
Increased subscriber numbers due to more attractive services
Increased revenue due to use of services
Increased subscriber loyalty
Increased fle=ibility in deploying services in a networ.
0ecreased development time for services
5eusability of service modules
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MI: services
&ersonal :umber
&re!&aid SIM #ard
#ellular ?irtual &rivate :etwor. (#?&:)
Information and business (ICB)