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# JT ME 741: FEA Introduction

ME 741
Energy & Variational Methods in
Mechanics I
Instructor:
Lecture 3:
FEA Introduction
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Introduction
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Altair HyperWorks Software
The class uses HyperWorks software
predominantly
The software is available in TBE B367 & A311
computer labs
I can give out the software to interested students
to install on their personal laptop or desktop
I would highly recommend this to all the students
The license for the software is \$2500 (free for ME 741
students!)
Hence, make sure you do not pass on the software to
non-ME 741 individuals
The license is valid for at least one year

JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Computer Aided Design (Drafting)
Involves designing/modeling a component with the aid of a
computer software
CAM:
Computer Aided Manufacturing
Involves controlling machine tools with the help of computer
software
Mastercam, CAMWorks, HyperMill, .
CAE:
Computer Aided Engineering
Involves detailed analysis of engineering components with the aid
computer software
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) comes under this category
ANSYS, Altair HyperWorks, Nastran, LS-DYNA, COMSOL, .
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
Analysis of a problem by using finite element method is
known as FEA
Finite element method is a numerical method for solving
problems of engineering and mathematical physics
The problem can be structural analysis, heat transfer,
fluid flow, mass transport, and electromagnetic potential
For problems involving complicated geometries,
possible to obtain analytical mathematical solutions
Most of the methods require solving of differential equations,
which is difficult or impossible for complicated problems
Finite element method (FEM) helps to solve such
complicated problems
FEM involves solving a system of simultaneous algebraic
equations irrespective of the complication of the problem
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Simple structural analysis problem
Apply basic material mechanics concepts
Find out the required stresses and strains

Complicated structural analysis problem
Can not apply basic material mechanics concepts
Can be solved by FEM
Application of FEA
L
P
b
h
Apply
Material Mechanics
Stress = P / (b x h)
Strain = L / L
w
P
V
Cannot Apply
Material Mechanics
Need to Apply FEM
Stress & Strain are obtained
by solving a set of
simultaneous algebraic
equations and finding out the
unknown displacements
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Complicated structural analysis problem

FEM divides the structure into such smaller elements (discretization)
Solves the necessary unknowns for each element
Combines the results from all the elements to give the solution for
the overall complicated structure
Dividing a body into an equivalent system of smaller bodies (finite
elements) interconnected at points common to two or more
elements and/or boundary lines and/or surfaces is called
discretization.

FEA Procedure
w
P
V
Consider a small element
of the structure
Enlarged view
of the element
P
Element
Boundary condition
Boundary condition
B
o
u
n
d
a
r
y

c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n

Analyze this element and
determine the necessary unknowns
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
FEA History
1943
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) first developed by R. Courant
Used the Ritz method and variational calculus to obtain
approximate solutions to vibration systems

1947
Prager and Synge also applied this method to analyze frames in
1947

1952
BOEING structural dynamics group begins using the method for
aircraft design

1960
The term Finite Element Method (FEM) is coined

JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
FEA History
1960
The term Finite Element Method (FEM) is coined

1965
NASA sponsors a project to develop a unified approach to
computerized structural analysis
NASTRAN (NASA Structural Analysis Program) is born

1970
FEA was limited to expensive mainframe computers generally
owned by the aeronautics, automotive, defense, and nuclear
industries
ANSYS came into being

1985
Altair was established
HyperMesh was introduced in 1990

JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Easily model complex shaped bodies
Model bodies composed of several different
materials because the element equations are
evaluated individually
Handle unlimited numbers and kinds of
boundary conditions
Can vary size of the elements within a body
Can alter the FE model relatively easily and
cheaply
Can include dynamic effects
Handle non-linear behavior
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
FE Software
Altair HyperWorks, ANSYS, Abaqus, NASTRAN,
LS-DYNA, Pro/MECHANICA..

General capabilities of a FE software:
Different element types available (beam, shell, solid..)
Different analysis types available (static, nonlinear, ..)
General load types available (concentrated, thermal..)
Automatic FE model creation (nodes, elements, .)
Plotting contour results (deformation, stress, )
Option of selecting preferred output

JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Introduction to HyperMesh
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Computational FEA Stages
Computational FEA can be broken down into
three stages:
Pre-processing
Involves creating the FE model and applying the necessary
HyperMesh
Processing (Solver)
Running the FE model created in the previous step
Post-Processing
Looking at or plotting the required results obtained from
processing the FE model
HyperView

JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Starting HyperMesh Software
Click on the Windows
start button
Click on Program Files
Click on Altair
HyperWorks 11.0 (62-
bit) folder
Click on HyperMesh
icon
(1)
(2)
Click/Select at this location
(#)
Sequence of steps
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
HyperMesh Graphics User Interface (GUI)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Description of HyperMesh GUI
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
HyperMesh View Toolbar
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
HyperMesh 3D View Control Toolbar
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Three Steps of FE Model Creation
First step in any FE software is to create nodes
The most common method is by typing the x, y & z coordinates
of the node
Second step is to create lines between any two nodes
The last step, which is meshing, is to either:
Divide the lines into smaller lines (elements) for 1D elements
For 2D models, divide the area enclosed by the lines into smaller
areas (elements)
Create
Nodes
Create
Lines
Create
Mesh
Nodes
Lines
2D
Elements
1D
Elements
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Geometry Creation in HyperMesh
Let us create a square of 2 units length
(1)
(2)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Creation of Nodes
(1)
(2) Coordinates of
the first node
(3)
(4) Coordinates of
the second node
(5) Click on create
(6) Coordinates of
the third node
(7) Click on create
(8) Coordinates of
the fourth node
(9) Click on create
(10)
(11)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Creation of Lines
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Creation of Lines
(1)
(2) Select atleast two nodes
to create a line between them
(3)
(4)
(5) Repeat steps
(2), (3) & (4) to
draw lines
between other
nodes
(6)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Collectors
In order to define any single component in HyperMesh,
four collectors need to be created
Component Collector: the geometry and mesh of the component
is stored here
Material Collector: the material of the component needs to be
created here
Property Collector: this defines if the elements (mesh) used for
the component is 1D (beam), 2D (shell) or 3D (solid)
created for the component will be assigned to this collector
The component collector links the material and property
collector
component collector
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Collectors
Property Collector
Material Collector
Component Collector
An automatic component collector was created by HyperMesh as soon
as the first line was created
This only happens when there are no collectors under the Component
tree
If there is one (or more) component collector already created, then any
geometry or mesh created will automatically be assigned to the last
active component collector
Hence, make sure before creation of any geometry or mesh that you are
assigning the right collector to it
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Deleting
(1)
(2)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Deleting
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Deleting
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Deleting
Select these 3 lines
by clicking on them
(1)
(2)
(3)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Creation of Circle
(1) (2)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Creation of Circle
Select this node by
clicking on it
This will be center
node of the circle
(1)
(2)
(3)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Creation of Circle
This defines the axis
normal to circle face
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Creation of Circle
(1)
(2)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Creating Component Collector
The circle and line are in the same component collector auto2
We are going to create a new component collector quarter circle
After step (5), there will
be component collector
named quarter circle
created in the tab area
under the Component
tree
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Creating Quarter Circle
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
These two are defined
similar to the circle
Center of the arc
(quarter circle is the
present case)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Creating Nodes on Line
We will be converting the quarter circle into
For this we need to create a node at either end of the quarter circle
(1) (2)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Creating Nodes on Line
(1) (2)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Creating Nodes on Line
Select this line
(1)
(2)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Change Component Collector
We will create the lines in auto2 collector
For this we have to make auto2 the current active component collector
The current active collector will be shown in bold in the tab area under the collector tree
and also its name will be displayed at the bottom right box of the HyperMesh screen
Active collector will
be shown in bold
Active component collector
will be displayed here
collector will
be displayed
here
(1)
(2)
(3)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Create Lines
Select these
two nodes
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4) Repeat steps (2)
& (3) to create the
other line and close
the geometry
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Changing Component Collector
We will change the
component collector of
these two lines to the
component collector of
the quarter circle
(1)
(2)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Change Component Collector
(1)
(2)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Change Component Collector
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Change Component Collector
Select these
two lines
(1)
(2)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Change Component Collector
(2)
(1)
JT ME 741: FEA Introduction
Change Component Collector
(2)
(1)