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Ethics of the Brahmanas tradition and Sramana tradition

Br a hma n as tradition
The beginning of an evaluation of human behaviour is evident in the Rg veda. In the
Varuna Sukta, it explains how the God Varuna controls the Rita (truth). Varuna God is
the controller of the truth, the order to the nature. This means everything in the nature
works according to a system. The nature does not work against the order. Thus this is the
truth. In this way, people give the judgement that truth! is good and the untruth! is bad.
"eople of the vedic period applied this pattern of the good and bad to the human
kinds. God Varuna who maintained the human behaviour. Vedic men thought that the God
Varuna would punish those who do bad and bless those who do good. #uring this period
the $edic people believed that those who violated the peace and harmony of the society
were going against the order and would be punished by Varuna. %ith the development of
the idea of afterlife, Varuna became very much important among the people.
The idea of good and bad conduct became stronger with the development of the
concept of Yama. Yama influenced the Vedic people to maintain the good conduct. %hen
people die they go to Yama. Yama inquires about the various behaviour of the dead man
and keeps him on the heaven, if he has earned merits or sends him to the hell, if he has
earned demerits Punishment for bad deeds, incentives for good deeds.!
$edic man was afraid to do bad, because he knew he would have to face the bad
consequences even in the afterlife. The basis of ethics became stronger with the
transference of merits. It is clear that the dead person has gathered only a limited amount
of merits and demerits.
Good human conduct became very significant with the idea of afterlife and the
transference of merits. %ith the idea of rebirth and transmigration of the value of good
conduct increased. giving& loving kindness& 'peaking the truth etc. were considered as good
activities, while hatred speaking lies misery etc. are considered as bad activities.
The identity of the person who is responsible for his conduct is precisely interpreted
during the period of panisad. That is Atman. The code of ethic was developed up to a
position that would encourage people to follow it.
Srama n a tradition
They have different philosophies. They were not unanimous about the significant of
the code of ethics. 'ome re(ected the code of ethics& some degraded the value of ethics,
while some accepted the code of ethics.

)ccording to !eterminists" they re(ected ethics, man is not responsible for his
behaviour, because all his activities are predetermined. "erson will automatically reach to
his goal with the fullness of time i.e. #$"%%% aeons.
&kiriyavada Theory of non*action!, Purana 'assapa who taught akiriyavada
also re(ected the value of ethics. Purana kassapa holds the view that there will be no use
of doing good or bad because man does not face any consequence.
+or materialists, they do not believe in afterlife. They re(ected the &tman and Vedas.
They also re(ected the results of 'usala and &kusala kamma. )ccording to materialists,
life ends with the death of the person.
(ains emphasi,es the significance of kamma. )ccording to them, (iva)aya is similar
to Atman. )ccording to (ains, to remove all previous kamma by the way of self*
mortification and not to engage in any new kamma. -y that way one can destroy all
kamma and get released from this sajsara.