Final Project Presentation

Study of Frontal Impact of a Passenger Bus

Manjunath Rao T S
BBB0906034 M. Sc. (Engg.) in Automotive Engineering

Academic Guide : Mr. Madan J Project Manager, SASTECH, Bangalore
M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

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Aim and Objectives of the Project Aim :
To study frontal impact of a passenger bus and to recommend methods to improve safety

Objectives :
• To review the literature on effects of impact on passenger buses • To study relevant analytical models that are available in the literature • To simulate the frontal impact behavior of the passenger bus • To analyze and interpret the results with the experimental data available in literatures • To suggest some design changes in order to improve structure safety
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Methodology
• Literature review on Crashworthiness of bus will be carried out by referring reviewed journals, books and related documents • Geometric modeling of bus structure will be carried out using CATIA V5 R16 / Pro-E 2001 • FE model generation for all the parts will be carried out using Hypermesh 7.0 • Input deck for simulation will be created using Hypermesh 7.0 • Frontal impact simulation will be carried out using LS-DYNA and post processing will be carried out using LS-POST • Investigation of the analysis results in order to improve the crashworthiness

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Introduction
•Among all the accidents that take place, frontal impact has got a major share of 40%. Again in these conditions the injury caused to drivers or the front passenger is extremely high. •In automotive domain more emphasis has been given to the safety of passenger cars, but seldom the importance is given to passenger bus. •Though the damage due to frontal impact of the bus is lesser when compared to other vehicles, the consequences of such impact on drivers are fatal. •According to the study during frontal impact of bus more than 80% of drivers die than any other members of the bus. •In frontal impact scenario more significance should be given on structural integrity, and hence this project work is carried out in this direction.
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Design
Bus Specifications:
Dimension (mm) (as per IS 9435) LPO 1510/55 Wheel base Front overhang Rear overhang Overall length Max. width Track front Track rear Min. ground clearance in mm Max. Seating capacity 5334 1775 3200 10309 2375 1930 2050 240-275 53

Weights (kg.) Bare chassis kerb weight Max. G.V.W Permissible F.A.W. Permissible R.A.W. Fuel Tank Capacity Engine & subsystems Powertrain Drivetrain 4010 12500 5080 10160 160 litres 500 400 300

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Construction

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Design

Material : Structural steel Std. : IS 2062

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Design
Geometric Modeling: Geometric modeling has been carried out using Pro-E 2001 software. All the geometric datas were collected from “KMS Coach Builders Pvt. Ltd.” (Official partners of KSRTC for coach building). All the structural details were as per the 2D drawings provided. Various views of modeled bus is shown in following sections:

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Design
Assumptions: • Parts which are not directly related to the frontal impact or which have no significant effect on the final output have not been considered. • All the sub-systems that were discarded in design process have been considered as lumped mass at appropriate locations. • All structural designs are as per the documents obtained from KSRTC.

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FE Model
Meshed bus with shell elements and 1-D Beam Elements

Total Elements Shell Elements 1D Elements Total Parts

264139 260779 2963 105
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FE Model
Parts replaced with Mass Element
Mass Elements

Rigid Elements

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Boundary Conditions
Contact interface is done by defining the box and providing *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_SINGLE_SURFACE

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Boundary Conditions

Friction between tyres and rigid plane
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Simulation Inputs
Material Properties assigned
Density Kg/mm3 7.85e-6 3.55e-6 7.85e-6 Young’s modulus GPa 210 210 210 Poisson’s Ration 0.3 0.3 0.3 Yield Stress MPa 350

Material MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY MAT_24 MAT_RIGID MAT_ELASTIC MAT_1

Simulation Inputs Velocity Simulation time 30 km/hr 0.2 secs

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Simulation & Results

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Simulation & Results (contd.)

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Simulation & Results (contd.)

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Simulation & Results (contd.)

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Simulation & Results (contd.)

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Simulation & Results (contd.)

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Design Improvement
Comparison of various crush initiators

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Design Improvement
Comparison of bead type crush initiators

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Simulation & Results (contd.)

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Simulation & Results (contd.)

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Simulation & Results (contd.)
Comparison of Load pattern with both designs

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Conclusion
•It has been understood that the load distribution on the structures are not uniform, which lays down the road to improvement in buckling characteristics of the structures. •By having crush initiators, the peak load can be reduced. This has been achieved by implementing such designs to some of the structural members, which is around 4% reduction in peak load. •The design improvement that has been achieved is just for few structural elements, if this approach is followed for many other key structural members then the design could be far superior. •The floor deceleration is around 12g, which is well in agreement with ECE R80 regulation that specifies the floor deceleration to be around 8-12g at 30km/hr.
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Future Work
•In today’s automotive body engineering advancements there are various systems that improves the crashworthiness of the vehicle significantly. Many such systems can be implemented in order improve the structural safety. •Simulation of the frontal impact behavior of the passenger bus can be carried out by considering various subsystems of the vehicle like engines, transmission, steering system etc.. •Positioning of dummy in the driver’s seat helps in finding the injury parameters. •Seat belt concept in passenger bus is an alien concept in India, efforts can be made in developing such a concept. •More understanding is required in order to improve the structural behavior of chassis, which can be detrimental in overall design.

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References
[1] VINCZE-PAP Sándor, CSISZÁR András, “Real and Simulated Crashworthiness Tests on Buses” ESV 19th Conference, NHTSA, Paper Number 05-023, 2005 [2] Jeffrey C. Elias, Lisa K. Sullivan, Linda B. McCray, “Large School Bus Safety Restraint Evaluation” NHTSA, Paper No. 345, 2001 [3] Yoshiriro Sukegawa, Fujio Matsukawa, Takeshi Kuboike, Motomu Oki, “Heavy Duty Vehicle Crash Test Method in Japan”, NHTSA, Paper number 98-S4-O-13, 1998 [4] Mátyás Matolcsy, “Technical Questions Of Bus Safety Bumpers”, NHTSA, Paper number 05-0161, 2005 [5] Willibrordus J. Witteman “Improved Vehicle Crashworthiness Design by Control of the Energy Absorption for Different Collision Situations”
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Thank You

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