Year

Event

By Whom

1946

First use of the term bit for binary digit, the basic unit of data for computers. A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of data in a computer. A bit has a single binary value, either 0 or 1. Although computers usually provide instructions that can test and manipulate bits, they generally are designed to store John Tukey data and execute instructions in bit multiples called bytes. In most computer systems, there are eight bits in a byte. The value of a bit is usually stored as either above or below a designated level of electrical charge in a single capacitor within a memory device. The First High-Speed, General-Purpose Computer , the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer Eckert and Mauchly (ENIAC) is developed The Williams-Kilburn Tube (or Williams Tube), a type of altered cathode-ray tube is invented.Scientists conducted research on cathode-ray tubes serving as computer data storage. The first RAM (Random Access memory) is invented. On 21 June, MARK-1, the first programmable computer at Manchester University, runs its first program. In computing, a program is a specific set of ordered operations for a computer to perform. Sir Frederick Williams and Tom Kilburn Fred Williams Prof. Tom Kilburn wrote the program

1946

1946 1947 1948

1948

The point-contact transistors replace the bulky and fragile vacuum tube. The transistor is an electronic Developed by John signal regulator. A transistor regulates current or Bardeen, William Shockley voltage flow and acts as a switch or gate for electronic and Walter Britain signals. EDSAC became the first stored-program computer in general use. Maurice Wilkes

1948 1948

The computer memory core. Memory is the electronic holding place for instructions and data in your Wang computer that the microprocessor can reach quickly. Short Code developed for the UNIVAC 1. This is both the first interpreted language and the first assembly language. The first chess playing machine is invented. NA Claude Shannon of MIT

1949 1949

Year 1951

Event UNIVAC, (UNIVersal Automatic Computer) is a programmable computer considered to be the first commercially marketed computer sold for over 1 million dollars. The compiler , a program that scans a programmer's instructions, produces an organized program and carries it out. It will be used first time in 1954 with UNIVAC I. It remained in service for 12 years.

By Whom Developed by Presper Eckert and John Mauchly under the Ramington-Rand Co., Grace Hooper

1951

1951 1951

The first machine designed specifically for commercial NA purposes was LEO (Lyons Electric Office) in Britain. The junction transistors are invented. Technical feats Dr. W. B. Shockley, R.L. that previously required relatively large, mechanically Wallace and Morgan fragile, power-hungry vacuum tubes were suddenly Sparks

achievable with tiny, mechanically rugged, powerthrifty specks of crystalline silicon. This revolution made possible the design and manufacture of lightweight, inexpensive electronic devices that we now take for granted. 1951 WHIRLWIND the first real-time computer is completed. Jay Forrester and Ken Olsen

1952 1952 1952 1952 1953

IBM (Industrial Business Machines) made the decision to add computers to their line of business equipment NA products. This led IBM to become a dominant force in this field. AUTOCODE, a rudimentary compiler is developed Alick E. Glennie The first production-line electronic digital computer from IBM, Model 701, marketed for scientific use. It Designed by Nathaniel includes 1 Kb RAM, a Tape Drive that used magnetized Rochester plastic tape and a punched-card reader. First computer manual is made. Transistors are first used in a computer. Fred Gruenberger NA

Year

Event

By Whom

1953

Magnetic-core memory replaces electrostatic tubes on WHIRLWIND, doubling the speed, quadrupling the input data rate and reducing memory bank NA maintenance time from 4 hours per day to 2 hours per day ILLIAC - the world most powerful computer University of Illinois. IBM 650 - a smaller version of 701- was a big success selling over 1800 units. Like 701, the 650 could read from and write to both magnetic tape and punched NA cards. It is considered to be the first mass-produced computer. SNARC, the first neural network simulator is invented. Marvin Minsky A Semiconductor Laboratory is the first company established in Silicon Valley, San Francisco Bay William Shockley

1953

1953

1953 1955

1955 1955

The term "artificial intelligence" is coined.

John McCarthy

TRIDAC is the first computer to use transistors. Computers based on transistors marked the beginning NA of the 2-nd Generation of Computers IPL-II, the first artificial intelligence language. Artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. Allen Newell, J.C. Shaw These processes include learning (the acquisition of and Herbert Simon information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction.

1955

Year 1956 1956

Event IBM shipped 55% of all the data processing equipment.

By Whom NA

The first Operating System is designed. The system gets the cryptic name of: GM/NAA-I/O and is installed Bob Patrick en Owen Mock on the IBM 704. The first hard drive is invented. It contains fifty 24 inch disks, has a capacity of 5 MB and costs over US$1,000,000 IBM

1956 1957

FORTRAN, the first high-level computer language used Invented by John Backus for mathematical, scientific and engineering purposes and his team at IBM. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created within the Department of Defense (DoD) to try to establish a U.S. lead in science and technology which was made applicable to the military. United States

1957

1957

Control Data Corporation builds supercomputers for scientific calculations. A supercomputer is a computer that performs at or near the currently highest Established by Seymour operational rate for computers. A supercomputer is Cray and William Norris typically used for scientific and engineering applications that must handle very large databases or do a great amount of computation (or both). FORTRAN II is able to handle subroutines and links to NA assembly languages. ALGOL (Algorithmic Oriented Language), the first high-level language to break away from using mathematical formula processing and aimed more at general problem solving. NA

1958

1958

1958

The first integrated circuits. An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called a chip or microchip, is a Created by Jack Kilby from semiconductor wafer on which thousands or millions Texas Institute of tiny resistors, capacitor, and transistor are fabricated The first modulator-demodulator device, known as modem, at a speed of 300 baud. A modem modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer to analog Developed at Bell Labs signals for a telephone line and demodulates the incoming analog signal and converts it to a digital signal for the computer.

1958

1958 1958

In USA, there are 2500 computers in use. The first virtual memory machine, Atlas, is installed in England by Feranti. LISP, an interpreted language used in Artificial Intelligence applications (AI). A feature of LISP is the use of brackets as delimiters. Over years many versions of LISP have been offered: MacLisp, ZetaLisp, ICI-Lisp, InterLisp By this year, over 200 programming languages have been created.

NA University of Manchester by R.M. Kilburn.

1959

Developed by John Mc Carthy

1959

Developed by Grace Murray.

1959

COBOL , a commercial institutional language, is developed. The language is meant for Grace Hooper computing large amounts of data, but it also fits many other purposes. The planer integrated circuit opens the door for Invented by Robert Noyce commercial development. IBM delivered the first four models of the first all-transistor computers to the United States Air NA Force. These were called the 7090 series. Don Hart and Ed Jacks at General DAC-1 (Design Augmented by Computers) is the Motors Research Laboratory and first computer aided drawing system developed. IBM Xerox 914 is the first office copier for sale. IBM defines PL/1 as a combination of ALGOL, FORTRAN, and COBOL. The new language will be used to write large application programs on large systems. PL/I stands for "Programming Language 1". PL/I was an antecedent of the C programming language, which essentially replaced it as an all-purpose serious programming language. Haloid Xerox Inc.

1959 1959

1959 1959

1960

Developed by George Radin of IBM

Year

Event

By Whom

1960

The first minicomputer, the PDP-1is invented at Digital Equipment Corporation.Typically, minicomputers have been stand-alone computers (computer systems with attached terminals and other devices) sold to small Benjamin Curley and mid-size businesses for general business applications and to large enterprises for departmentlevel operations. ALGOL 60, the first block-structured language created , became the most popular language in Europe in 60s. ALGOL (ALGOrithmic Language) is one of several high University of Colorado level languages designed specifically for programming scientific computations. Digital announced a small computer called PDP-1 (Programmed Data Processor-1) priced at 125,000 and 250,000 US$. About 6000 computers are in operation in the United States. Designed by Ben Gurley. NA

1960

1960 1960

1961

APL (A Programming Language), which uses special characters and demands APL-compatible Keneth Iversson peripheral devices to function correctly, is developed. The first computer game invented.This was a two-player game involving warring spaceships firing photon torpedoes. FORTRAN IV appears.It was a 'clean up' of FORTRAN II, improving things like the implementation of the COMMON and EQUIVALENCE statements, and eliminating some machine-dependant language irregularities. The idea of distributed, packet-switching networks emerges Steve Russell & MIT

1962

1962

ASA committee

1962

Paul Baran

1962

First use of virtual memory in mainframe computer. Virtual (or logical) memory is a concept that, when implemented by a computer NA and its operating system, allows programmers to use a very large range of memory or storage addresses for stored data. Eliza, a computer program that simulates the responses of a psychiatrist, is developed. The American National Standard Institute (ANSI) renders the ASCII character tables as the standard character representation system for the computer industry. ASCII stands for American Standard Codes for Information. Joseph Weizenbaum

1962

1963

Bob Berner is the chief designer of the ASCII code

1964 1964

BASIC (Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Created by John Kemeney and Instruction Code) developed .The first BASIC Thomas Kurtz at Dortmonth was a slow, unstructured, interpreted language. University. The world's fastest computer yet, CDC 6600, is developed CDC (Control Data Computer)

1964

The family of IBM System/360 computers released after 5 years of development. Were the first in the 3-rd generation of computers. Their NA controlling circuitry is stored on chips. System/360 was available in 5 sizes and was a huge success.

Year 1964

Event SABRE is the first commercial network developed.

By Whom IBM

1964

First Local Area Network (LAN). LAN- computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings. Palo Alto Research Center However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. The first mouse invented. Computer Aided Design (CAD) is developed Douglas Engelbart IBM and General Motors.

1964 1964 1964 1964 1965 1965

System 360, the first family of compatible computers, IBM is developed. First fully automated, computer-controlled factory is inaugurated. Sara Lee

The first cache memory chip is developed. It was used Maurice Wilkes in mainframe and minicomputers PDP-8 computers were a big success. By 1975 Digital Digital Equipment has sold 40,000 units. Corporation

Year 1966

Event FORTRAN 66 appears. First WAN experiment (ARPAnet). A WAN (wide area network) is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network and the term distinguishes a broader telecommunication structure from a local area network (LAN).

By Whom NA

1966

NA

1967 1967

The process of developing the first floppy disk storage David Noble from IBM called Initial Control Program Load (IPL) starts. The digital compact disc, now commonplace in stereos James T. Russell and computers, is invented. Pascal, a language which is still used for educational puposes, is developed. Pascal got its name from a French philosopher and mathematician in the 17th century, Blaise Pascal. RAM (random access memory) is invented Laser Printer developed. When a document is sent to the laser printer, a laser beam "draws" the document on a selenium-coated drum using electrical charges. Niklaus Wirth Robert Dennard IBM

1968 1968 1969

1969

UNIX operating system developed. The first version of UNIX runs on a PDP-7 minicomputer of Digital Electric Ken Thompson and Dennis Company (DEC) and is completed this year. However Ritchey this version still is a single user version. The first Floppy disk was built and was incorporated in NA IBM's System/370 machines. ROM - Read Only memory - is invented. This technology makes it possible for computers to keep information stored even when the computer is switched off. Intel

1969

1970

Year 1970

Event FORTH, the first fourth generation language is

By Whom Charles Moore

developed. It was used in scientific and industrial control applications. 1970 1970 Till the end of this year, Digital has sold 10,000 computer systems. A new disk storage device called Igor is developed. It was on the market in 1971. The first operating LCDs are invented.LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) technology has completely redefined many industries, such as computer displays, medical devices, industrial devices, and the vast array of consumer electronics. NA IBM

1970

James Fergason

Year 1971

Event The eight inch floppy disk is developed. This disk is built from an 8" plastic disk on which a thin magnetic layer is applied on a single side. The storage capacity is 130 Kbytes, about 60 pages of A4 size. Computer Space, the first modern video game The first commercial microprocessor, the Intel Corp. 4004 is released.

By Whom OPIUM and IBM Developed by Nolan Bushnell. Intel

1971 1971

1971

The first single chip microcomputer was developed . The work started in 1968. A microcomputer is a Developed by Gilbert Hyatt complete computer on a smaller scale and is generally at Micro Computer Inc., a synonym for the more common term, personal Los Angeles computer or personal computer, a computer designed for an individual. The InterNetworking Working Group (INWG) becomes the first standards-setting entity to govern the NA growing network. The microprocessor is invented The first single chip microcomputer invented. Robert Noyce Gilbert Hyatt

1971 1971 1971

1971

In February, the Intel 4004 microprocessor reaches the market. It has 12 sq.mm. die size and 16 pins which fit in the motherboard. It is the "engine" that goes into motion when you turn your computer on. A NA microprocessor is designed to perform arithmetic and logic operations that make use of small numberholding areas called registers. The first personal computer, the Kenbak I is developed. John Blankenbaker

1971

1972

The first implementation of PROLOG (Programming in Logic) developed . It's the preferred language for the University of Aix-Marselle 5-th generation of machines. It's a descriptive and declarative language.

Year 1972 1972

Event Pioneer 10 spacecraft used the first Intel 4004 microprocessor. PL/M, the first high-level programming language for the Intel microprocessor, is written

By Whom NA Gary Kildall

1972 1972

The first e-mail program invented Unix is rewritten in C by Kernel. UNIX is an operating system that originated at Bell Labs in 1969 as an interactive time-sharing system. Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie are considered the inventors of UNIX. The number of companies involved in computer industry reach 600. Texas Inst. announced their first microprocessor the TI F8

Ray Tomlinson of BBN NA

1972 1972 1972 1972 1973 1973

NA NA

Intel ships the 8008 microprocessor, a 8-bit version of NA 4004. First computer-to-computer chat takes place The Ethernet, the network design that allows computers to communicate to each other over a local area network (LAN), is developed. Internet consists of 25 computers. UCLA Invented by Bob Metcalfe NA

Year 1973 1973

Event FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is introduced to enable transfer of files on the Net. Barcodes are invented.

By Whom A. McKenzie UPC (Universal Products Code)

1973

ARPANet becomes operational. ARPANet was the network that became the basis for the Internet. It was funded mainly by U.S. military sources and consisted Pentagon of a number of individual computers connected by leased lines and using a packet-switching scheme. In December Intel's new microprocessor 8080 is used in the first microcomputer - Altair. It addresses a MIT memory of 64.000 bytes The ARPANET goes international with connections to University College in London, England and the Royal Radar Establishment in Norway. ARPANet becomes an international network. Digital's first Large Scale Integration processor, the MPS, is introduced. NA NA NA

1973

1973 1974 1974 1974

The first true touchscreen came on the scene in 1974. A touch interface allows users to navigate a computer Dr.Hurst of Elographics system by touching icons or links on the screen. The first game console that enables the players to interchange games is announced.The first games are called Pac Man, Breakout, and LeMan The first public packet-switched network - Telenet, is developed Atari BBN

1974 1974

Year 1974 1974 1974

Event The word "hypertext" is coined to describe dynamic documents The world's first international digital voice communications service is introduced.

By Whom Ted Nelson INTELSAT

ARPAnet more than triples in size to include 15 nodes Pentagon

and 23 hosts. 1974 Digital announces LA36 DECwriter II, which will became the market standard. NA

1975

Altair 8800 becomes the first personal computer ( microcomputer) on the market. Over 2000 sold by end of the year. It cost $395 but up to $2000 worth of Developed by MITS peripherals were needed to make it go. Used Intel 8080 microprocessor and 256 bytes memory. The first video terminal VT52l is developed Microsoft is set up as a company. C language developed.C was the first systems programming language - no longer did an operating system need to be tied to a particular piece of hardware. Digital Equipment. Bill Gates and Paul Allen Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie

1975 1975 1975

1975 1975

Sphere 1 microcomputer used a Motorola 6800, with 4 Kb RAM, a keyboard, video interface and ROM based NA monitoring, all for 650 $ First computer store opens in California. NA

Year

Event Electric Pencil, the first word processor software for microcomputers,is released. A word processor is a computer program that provides special capabilities beyond that of a text editor and usually provides a graphical user interface. On 1 April Apple Computers founded

By Whom

1976

Michael Schrayer

1976 1976

Steve Jobs and Steve Wazniak

The BIOS (Basic Input Output System) is created. The basic job of the BIOS was to communicate with an Gary Kildall external storage device such as a floppy drive. 51/4" mini floppy disk drive priced at 390 U$. In recent years, 5.25-inch diskettes have been largely replaced by 3.5-inch diskettes, which are physically more rugged. Many people also call the newer hardcased diskette a "floppy." The TMS 9000, the first 16-bit microprocessor. Microsoft licensed Microsoft BASIC to Apple. Interactive System Corp. began selling Unix in the commercial market; Unix is introduced to IBM 360 System. A version of Unix called version 4xBSD is introduced. Includes a Pascal interpreter, a Pascal shell and a selection of hardware drivers. In April Apple II, the first microcomputer with a color graphic capability had sold millions over 15 years. Based on Motorola 6502 processor could hold up 64 Kb RAM.

1976

Shugart

1976 1977 1977

Texas Inst. NA NA University of California at Berkeley Released by Apple Computer Inc.

1977

1977

1977

The first implementation of a TCP system. TCP is a tool that allows distinct networks to communicate with Kahn and Cerf each other.

Year 1977 1977

Event 100 hosts on Arpanet.

By Whom NA

The first microcomputer called PET is released in April. Commodore founded by It offers 4 Kb RAM, 4 Kb ROM (including Basic), a Jack Tramiel Keyboard, Display and Cassette interface. The TSR-80 model 1, the first complete pre-assembled small computer system. It included 4 Kb RAM, 4 Kb Radio Shack ROM (including Microsoft's BASIC), a Keyboard, Display and Cassette interface. VAX-11/780, the first member of the VAX series of computers. Internet Protocol (IP), a separate program that handles the routing of individual messages.The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. WHATSIT, the first database manager. Digital

1977

1977

1978

Xeros Corp.

1978 1978 1978

Word Master, a word processor precursor to Word Star Micro Pro Int. Computer Headware First version of Oracle that will became the standard Oracle Corporation database for mainframe and Client/Server networking. The MX-80 dot matrix printer is released. The dotmatrix printer has been a popular low-cost personal computer printer. It's an impact printer that strikes the paper a line at a time. The first commercial laser printer, the Xerox 9700 is announced. Epson America

1978

1978

Xerox Corp.

1978 1978 1978

Commodore was the second selling 25,000 PETs, followed by Apple with 20,000 systems. Intel 8086 microprocessor hits the market. The concept of "office automation" is introduced.

NA NA WANG VS minicomputer system

1979

VisiCalc was the first computer spreadsheet program invented for microcomputers. It will be distributed on the market in 1979 by Software Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston Ants initially available only on Apple II. The program was an instant success. Magic Wand, a wordprocessor program became NA a competitor for Word Star. EIES, the first Electronic Information Exchange System is developed. Anthony Pennings

1979 1979 1979 1979

Vulcan database program that will later become dBase II. It allows up to 65,000 records, and up Wayne Ratliff to 32 fields of 1Kb each. Ada language developed ; It's a highly structured, modular language based on Pascal. US Department of Defense

Easy to learn, very readable but not efficient. 1979 Unix version 7 extended with same 143 additional commands including full K & R compiler and Bourne shell. AT&T

1979

Microsoft BASIC version 3.0 appears followed soon by version 4.Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, or BASIC, was an NA early programming language that is still among the simplest and most popular of programming languages.

Year 1979

Event Word Star

By Whom Micro Pro Int. founded by Rob Barnaby and Seymon Rubenstain

1979

The first Atari microcomputers: Atari 400 and 800 are announced. They offer 8 Kb RAM (expandable to 48 Atari Kb), a full Keyboard and a Sound and Graphics chip The Micromodem 100 is announced- It is the first commercial modem. It could transmit at 110 to 300 bps. The first 16-bit processor on the market: 9900 Hayes Microcomputers Products Texas Inst.

1979 1979 1979 1979

Developed by Ward The first Computerized Bulletin Board System (CBBS) Christensen and Randy is open to the public in Chicago. Suess Usenet, a multidisciplinary computer network of news Students of North Carolina and discussion groups, is formed. (USA There were 16 companies in microprocessor industry; The total worldwide shipments of microprocessors in NA this year were 18 mil. units, with 10 mil. microcontroller used into automobiles. Matra Datavision is created as part of Lagardere Group and starts to produce CAD/CAM software. The graphical user interface (GUI) is developed The hard disk is introduced NA Xerox Alto Seagate

1979

1980 1980 1980

Year 1980 1980 1980 1980

Event The first version of Word Perfect announced. By 1987,it was the dominant DOS word processor program. The first INTELSAT V spacecraft is launched The first CD-DA (Digital Audio) device. The original specification is called Red Book. Digital Equipment topped 2 billion revenues, second place behind IBM.

By Whom Satellite Software (later Word Perfect Corp.) INTELSAT Philips and Sony NA

1980 1980

Commodore VIC-20 becomes the first million-seller model in the history of computer industry. It has 5 Kb NA RAM, BASIC in ROM, Color Display, Modem interface, etc. for 300 U$. 5 1/4" Winchester driver that holds 80 times as much Shugart data as a standard floppy and transfers data 20 times

faster. 1980 1980 1980 Apple became a public company with 4.6 million shares. Jobs and Wozniak are instant multimillionaires. IBM chooses the new Intel 8088 microprocessor for their first microcomputer. The number of companies in computer industry reaches 3000. IBM shipped 25 % of the market. NA NA NA