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Prepared by:

Farhan Israq Ahmed


1110440030
Law 200
Section 9
Date 16/7/2014
Organized crime
in Bangladesh
with a special
reference to
Drugs and Arms
Prepared for: Barrister Arife Billah
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Topic: Organized crime in Bangladesh with a special reference to Drugs and Arms


Abstract
The objective of the illustration was on organized crime and its characteristics. There are lots of
offenses in organized crime but this paper is narrowly focused on drugs and arms out of all other
elements of organized crimes. Organized crime is like a spider web spread out in all over the
world. Organized crime can affect socially economically and politically in a nation. It does not
happen in one country rather all states are connected. There are organizations combating it but is
tough to tackle it.



Key words: Organized crime, Transnational Organized crime, Drugs, Arms,













Introduction
Organized crime and often criminal organizations are terms which categories transnational,
national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals, who intend to
engage in illegal activity, most commonly for monetary profit.
1
The definition organized crime
differs broadly from nation to nation. Organized crime make threats to peace and human security
abuse human rights and weaken economic, social, cultural, political and civil development of
societies around the world. Organized crime takes up all type of corruption to penetrate political,
economic and social stages all over the globe. Well-built organization is believed to be resistant
to corruption. In contrast, fragile authority time and again coexists with corruption and a jointly
connecting nexus live stuck between corruption and delicate governmental establishment
frequently resulting up in a cruel phase. From end to end corruption, criminal groups produce
poverty. Corruption establishes the abuse of Governments' possessions by reroute them from
division of essential significance such as health, education and development. Deprived populace
is consequently depressed of economic growth and development opening. The price of public
services goes up to the stage where economically depressed people can no longer avail them. As
the poor become poorer, corruption supply scarcity and discrimination. Organized crime has
expanded, gone worldwide and get to macro-economic magnitude: illegitimate commodities may

1
Organized crime. (2014, June 30). Wikipedia. Retrieved July 2, 2014, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organized_crime
be starting place from one continent, trafficked across another, and promote in a third.
2

Transnational organized crime can infuse government organization and foundation increase
corruption, insightful business and politics, and hold back economic and social development.
And it is discouragement governance and democracy by giving power to those who function
exterior to the law. The roundabout or affirmed reply to the trouble of organized crime
recognized in this good judgment engages in rising the law enforcement authority of all
individual country and, because these organizations are now acknowledged to function
worldwide, growing the combined influence of the globally society. The hazard caused by
organized crime in other words must be met by states consign more resources towards escalating
the efficacy of regulating hard work at home and mutual hard work among countries.
3








A Global Overview
Today, organized crime is one of the key threats to development and security in any country.
Often considered the "dark side" of globalization, transnational crime is capitalizing on the
expansion of international trade and is broadening its range of activity.
4
Criminal organizations
are acting as multinational corporations, who look for profit through the evaluation of countries'
risks, benefits and markets analysis. The capability to constantly fiddle with to the changes at
local and international levels, to make transnational networks and branch out activities in order
to exploit the potential offered by globalization are the major barrier for all entities combating
organized crime. Organized crimes terrorize human security and hold back economic and

2
. (n.d.). . Retrieved July 14, 2014, from https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/organized-crime/index.html
3
. (n.d.). . Retrieved July 14, 2014, from http://www.britsoccrim.org/volume1/017.pdf
4
Organized Crime and Corruption. (n.d.). Organized Crime and Corruption. Retrieved July 3, 2014, from
http://www.unicri.it/topics/organized_crime_corruption/
political stability at an enormous cost to development. Fuelled by the similar forces of
globalization that enlarge trade, communications and information, criminal syndicates have
unparalleled reach into the lives and associations of ordinary people, multinational companies
and governments. The cross-border flow of global proceeds from criminal activities, corruption
and tax evasion is estimated at over US$ 1 trillion, with illegal drugs and counterfeit goods each
accounting for 8% of world trade. Research has revealed intricate cooperation between the licit
and illicit economies. Enablers of organized crime that are legitimate elements of the official
economy include professional service providers, loosely monitored online data storage systems
and complex supply chains.
5
Law enforcement has only recently given greater attention to such
activities. Another consideration is how organized crime negatively impacts conditions for
business, and thus the competitiveness of entire countries. The nexus between illicit drugs and
organized crime is increasingly apparent; as the violence associated with drug trafficking wreaks
havoc in fragile states and corrodes institutions in consumer countries. This violence calls into
question the effectiveness of the war on drugs policies that target the supply, rather than the
demand for illicit drugs. The shift in production locations closer to target markets (particularly of
illicit synthetic drugs), suggests that crime organizations are extremely adaptable in profit-
maximization strategies. Further, interlink ages between organized crime, drug trafficking and
terrorism are surfacing in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Africa and Latin America. Incidents of criminal
organizations using terrorist tactics for their profit-seeking ends have forced authorities to
reconsider their approaches to combating such organizations. Meanwhile, the growth of human
trafficking or illicit trade in environmental resources is linked to the diversification of drug
organizations that capitalize on the low risk and high profit of resource exploitation, alongside
addiction. This rising socio-economic unfairness is the basis the defeat of confidence in public
organizations. Social volatility and hostility boost as of the rising disparity, poverty and mass
distrust of political leaders and organizations.




5
Pearce, F. (1976). Crimes of the Powerful: Marxism, Crime and Deviance.
London: Pluto Press.



Transnational Organized Crime
The transnational character of organized crime means that criminal networks build connection
across borders also rise above cultural and linguistic distinction in the commission of their crime.
Organized crime is not sluggish, but adjusts as fresh crimes appear and as affairs linking criminal
system grown into both additionally flexible and other sophisticated, with ever-greater extension
at around the world.
6
Briefly, transnational organized crime goes beyond cultural, social,
linguistic and geographical borders and should be met with an intensive combat.
7
Globalization
leaves out fragment of economies and societies starting the set-up of information on hand to the
central civilization. Unemployment, hostility, and youth desertion, which build up what Castells
identifies the "black holes of informational capitalism,"
8
provide the ideal terrain for criminal
recruitment of for instance; global drug traffickers.
9









6
Ploscowe, M. (Ed.). (1952). Organized Crime and Law Enforcement, Volume I. New York: The Grosby Press.
7
. (n.d.). . Retrieved July 10, 2014, from https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/organized-crime/index.html
8
Mehanna, A. R. (2004). Poverty and Economic Development: Not as Direct as it May Seem. Journal of Socio-
Economic
Volume 33, Issue 1. Elsevier Inc.
9
Raine, L. P. and Cilluffo, F. J. (1994). Global Organised Crime: The New Empire of Evil. Washington DC: Center for
Strategic and International Studies












Drug Trafficking
The illicit trade in drugs persists to have an upsetting result on the developing world, both
economically and socially. Estimates differ as to the assessment of the unlawful trade in drugs,
but there is small disbelief that, of all the illegitimate markets, the drug market is the biggest.
Moreover, it is commonly understood that groups engaging in drug trafficking also employ in
other kind of violent and criminal activity, from mass murders and human smuggling in counties
like Mexico, to the financial supporting militant insurgents and terrorists such Al Qaeda, the
FARC in Colombia, and possibly Hezbollah in Lebanon. The United Nations Office on Drugs
and Crimes (UNODC) yearly World Drug Report is one of the most comprehensive resources
on the state of the global drug trade, and is also one of the rare reports that challenge to evaluate
the overall value of the global market. According to the 2010 World Drug Report, the illicit drug
market can be divided into four main class: cocaine, opiates (heroin and opium), amphetamine-
type stimulants (ATS), and cannabis.
10
Of these four categories, most of the long-distance
trafficking involves cocaine and heroin, while much of the cannabis and ATS is produced and
sold intraregional. Cocaine and opiates are produced almost exclusively in developing
countriescocaine in Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia; opiates in Afghanistan, Myanmar, Mexico,
and Colombia.
11
There is a self-perpetuating connection that continues existing, linking both
transnational crime and developing countries.
12
Nowhere is this association more noticeable or
unstable than with the trafficking of illicit drugs. These nations continue living in an
international arena where communications and trade networks are effortlessly recognized and
worldwide demand for unlawful drugs provide the opportunity of huge profits. In this framework
it is not complex to perceive why a farmer possibly will grow coca instead of bananas, or why a
low-paid customs official could be tempted to look the other way as illicit drugs depart his
country. Subsequently, every profit that is made, hardly ever serves to strengthen the official
economy or the capacity of the state. Criminals making profit from the drug business will usually
perform one of two things with the funds. First, in a lot of cases, earnings will be channeled into
an unauthorized shadow economy where they finance further criminal enterprises like human
trafficking, prostitution, arms dealing, and more.
13
In these cases, criminal flows breed more
criminal flows, which only carry on to seize benefit of the inability of the state.
Second and yet additional damaging, drug profits will time and again be utilized to criminalize
the state itself. These usually take place at times when traffickers encourage state executive to
discard their loyalty to maintain the rule of law. This corruption is attained all the way through
the assurance of a number of material gain and, if necessary, the risk of harm. In some cases,
traffickers will use profits to support electoral campaigns, thus protecting the goodwill of an

10
United Nations General Assembly Special Session on the World Drug Problem (UNGASS), New York, 8-10 June,
1998 (A/S-20/4, chapter V, section A).
11
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, World Drug Report, 2010: 12, accessed October 1, 2010, http://www.unodc.org/documents/
wdr/WDR_2010/World_Drug_Report_2010_lo-res.pdf.
12
High-level Segment to the 2009 United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Political Declaration and Plan of
Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug
Problem, March 2009 (E/2009/28 - E/ CN.7/2009/12).
13
Fabre, Guilhem and Michel Schiray, Globalisation, Drugs and Criminalisation: Final Research Paper on Brazil,
China, India and Mexico,
UNESCO, 2002: Executive Summary, p. 11, accessed October 18, 2010,
http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001276/127644e.pdf.
arriving elected administrator for the period of his term.
14
In extreme cases, traffickers will
merely exercise funds to field their own contenders in elections. According to UNESCO, when
this occurs criminals become, both personally and officially, the servants of the very state
whose laws they breach, as a few segment of state administration are positioned underneath their
legal duties. In this way, drug traffickers profit from the unfortunate state of affairs that live in
developing countries, and then make use of those profits to wear away the ability of the state
even more. When taken to the excessive, these criminals can still criminalize or go into the state
entirely, in which case the public sector turn out to be a haven for criminal enterprise, and the
social bond with the citizenry is out of order.
The Illicit Trade of Arms
According to Rachel Stohl, small arms specialist and senior analyst at the Center for Defense
Information (CDI), small arms and light weapons (SALW) are categorized as whichever
weapons that can be bear by one or two people, mounted on a vehicle, or transported by a pack
animal. This classification ranges from machine guns to Stinger missiles and includes rocket-
propelled grenades and mortars.
15
As UNODC indicates, SALW are not like several other
trafficked commodities since arms are durable goods.
16
Once a weapon is produced it can last for
an indefinite period, frequently passing from one individual to another and nation to nation.
Many of the weapons spread to developing nations during the Cold War, for example, are even
now functional and put in significantly to insurgencies and armed uprisings. The Small Arms
Survey estimation shows that there are roughly 900 million SALW in flow around the globe
17

and that the legal international trade in SALW (including parts, accessories, and ammunition) is
valued at approximately $3 billion.
18
According to UNODC, the illegitimate market is about 10

14
United Nations General Assembly Special Session on the World Drug Problem (UNGASS), New York, 8-10 June,
1998 (A/S-20/4, chapter V, section A
15
Stohl, Rachel, Fighting the Illicit Trafficking of Small Arms, Center for Defense Information (13 May 2005),
accessed August 12, 2010,
http://www.cdi.org/program/document.cfm?DocumentID=2996.
16
UNODC, The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment, 2010: p. 129.
17
Weapons and Markets, Small Arms Survey, accessed November 4, 2010,
http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/weapons-and-markets.
html.
18
Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War (Geneva: Graduate Institute of International Studies, Oxford University
Press, 2009) Table
1.1, p. 12, accessed August 12, 2010, http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/A-
Yearbook/2009/en/Small-Arms-Survey-2009-
to 20 percent of the licit market.
19
At this pace, the yearly assessment of the illicit arms business
can be predictable at around $300 to $600 million. By contrast, Rachel Stohl quotes a 2002
Small Arms Survey approximation of $1 billion for the illicit trade. On the grounds of these
estimate, this report presume the value of the illicit trade of SALW to be between $300 million
and $1 billion. According to a 2006 report entitled Consequences of the Proliferation and
Misuse of Small Arms and Light Weapons, by the Small Arms Working Group (SAWG), the
rise of SALW can harm developing countries in a variety of ways. This harm can be analyzed
from the point of view of the individual, the state, or the global system as in one piece. It is not
hard to observe how SALW proliferation can cause a hazard to citizens. In states like Democratic
Republic of the Congo and Sudan these weapons have been widely used to kill, maim, rape, and
forcibly displace thousands. In some way, SALW can injure people by meddling with the
stipulation of fundamental services like food assistance, harvesting, and delivery, as well as the
delivery of healthcare. Possibly further criminal market, a study of arms trafficking display the
way criminals, are driven by profit, can openly intimidate the lives and well-being of being
citizens who have no association to the criminal activity. From a wide viewpoint, comparable to
other criminal markets, the illicit trade of SALW can demoralize economic development and
wear down the capacity of the state. Placing weapons in the hands of insurgents and rebels
breeds insecurity and volatility. In this kind of surroundings, sustainable development is
impractical. Equipped with armed groups seek out to disturb transportation path and redirect
natural resource development for their individual rationale. Faced with an armed insurgency,
government is strained to expend extra on defense, sidetracking finances away from agriculture,
education, and healthcare projects. Moreover, lack of security a lot times cancels foreign
investment, an essential economic element for a lot of developing countries. External to the state
system is an uncontrollable world where there is no such thing as legality or sovereignty. In this
rowdy world, goods are traded to anybody who can have the money for them, no matter who
they are, where they live, or what are their purposes. By selling arms to insurgents and criminals,
arms traffickers add to the deteriorating of a country, basically by means of chaos in the global
arrangement to raise more disorder. In economic language they are crafting their individual
demand.

Chapter-01-0-EN.pdf.
19
UNODC, The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment, 2010: p. 129.













CURRENT PROVISIONS IN COMBATING ORGANIZED TRANSNATIONAL CRIMES
Defining the expression efficient countermeasures in legal justice systems is hard, the
collection is yet of the view that it should be a dignified system or understanding made easy
either by requirements or administrative action (procedural) which is too promptly and well-
timed covenant with the suspect in the path of examination and/or lawbreaker upon his/her
arrest.
20
Performance signs are consequently positioned upon: simplify events in look into and
perceive offences; well-timed procedure of call for for aid; and immediate trial. Requirements for
exclusion of illegal takings, even though restricted to unlawful trafficking in drugs, are in force
in further than half of the 22 states reviewed namely Bangladesh, Colombia, Hong Kong, India,
Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Madagascar, Mexico, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and

20
. (n.d.). . Retrieved July 14, 2014, from http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/RS_No54/No54_17RS_Topic3.pdf
Turkey.
21
In the midst of them, Bangladesh, Colombia, Hong Kong, Mexico, Nepal, Pakistan,
Saudi Arabia and Turkey additional contain necessities for elimination of illegitimate takings
resulting extra than from drug trafficking. Pro-active policy in inspecting organized crimes are
restricted to those review to be a good figure dependable and useful facts collecting system for
instance undercover operations, wiretapping, immunity, and controlled delivery.
22


















21
. (n.d.). . Retrieved July 14, 2014, from http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/RS_No54/No54_09VE_Vlassis.pdf
22
International Peace Institute Blue Papers, Transnational Organized Crime, p. 4, (2000)



























































Threats to Bangladesh

The injection of drugs and arms in Bangladesh are from an outside or trans-national source.
Estimates differ and perhaps will be less than what is happening in the context of India or
Pakistan. But it is the basis of security terrorization to the country and the society, for at least two
grounds: first, the rate is escalating at a frightening speed; second, Bangladesh is a pliable nation
and a fragile society, the blow is easily felt.
23
Utilization of arms and drugs are in ahead of
independent share in the sense the government and law enforcing agencies have virtually slight
control over the trafficking and use. According to an article in The Daily Star, 29 April 2003 the
perspective on Law and Order and Social Violence on Bangladesh is that the south western
districts are again becoming edgy following boost in the amount of occurrence of carnage.
24

There are several incidents that can be found out as a result of organized crime taking place. The
northern districts have been reported to terrorist assault. One of the dreadful crimes was the
slaughtering of six persons in a village of Atrai in Naogaon. More than 100 outlaws invaded the
village at night and raised party slogans.
25
The wave of crimes and ultimately breakdown of law
and order follow the local body elections that also eye witnessed considerable number of
violence in the nation previous to that cinema and mela bombings in Mymensigh and Tangail
respectively.
26
An additional defenseless area is the north-eastern haor and southeastern char
locale where the pirates and dacoits hold the local natives hostage.
27

The transit of Arms, Drugs across different part of Bangladesh such as Coastal areas, Coxs
Bazaar in particular, are making use of in arms transportation; ports apparently utilizes transit
route for drugs from the so-called golden triangle.
Exercise of Bangladesh Territories by Insurgents and Outlaws also take in the NE insurgents,
28

outlaws like Rohingya refugees who seemingly experience arms training in the forest of Coxs
Bazar, Ramu, Ukhiya. The borders are extremely spongy and resource crunch does not let
Bangladesh to watch the borders thoroughly. A puzzling display of alliance and clash happens in

23
For more details, see, Neila Husain, Proliferation of Small Arms and Violence in Bangladesh : Societal
Insecurity? in ibid: 163-180.
24
The Daily Star, 22 January 2003
25
The Daily Star, 29 April 2003
26
The Daily Star January 19, 2003
27
See, Jugantor [vernacular daily], 7 May 2003: 13
28
Insurgency in Northeast India. (2014, August 7). Wikipedia. Retrieved July 8, 2014, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insurgency_in_Northeast_India
the north east sub-region and Bangladeshs security will be put in danger if it is sucked into the
vortex of north east insurgency.
Several sources of human security concern and hazard to human security may be recognized.
These include domination by state apparatus, death in custody; Law and Order crisis and rise of
social hostility rising extortions and rent seeking behavior at all point and stage - social,
political and administrative; violence regarding gender which includes women and child
trafficking; violence related to land and etc.
Bangladesh is now faced with the rising level of cross border drug supplies. Geographically
Bangladesh is situated at the heart of three drug-producing sections: one is in the east the Golden
Triangle, another is in the north the Golden Wedge, and lastly in the west, across India, the
Golden Crescent. Bangladesh has undeviating air, sea and road connections with more or less all
the key drug producing nations in the area. This has positioned Bangladesh at a dangerous
physical intersection for unlawful drugs from Myanmar, India, Pakistan and Nepal. Enclosed by
India on three areas Bangladesh became a 'launching-pad' for illicit drugs mutually from India
and drug manufacturing countries ahead of its boundaries. In this smuggled goods deal,
numerous intercontinental drug association from Nigeria, Sri Lanka and further nations have
been exploiting the northeastern states of India for transporting drugs from the Golden Triangle
section into Bangladesh. On the other hand, Indian authorities declare that drug sellers from
southwest Asia employ the nation and then perhaps Bangladesh for passage trafficking. Current
intelligence propose that draining every imaginable means, drug dealers are now exploiting
women and children as medium for their unlawful operation. There is no uncertainty that severe
safety measures are in concern for Bangladesh being used as crossroads for intercontinental drug
trafficking. If the current tendency of drug trafficking go on and the rising drug culture remains
unabated, it is in no doubt to shape the whole socio-economic arrangement of the society. Drug-
related violence operates as a limit to investment and tourism, decreases employment prospects
and income and weakens the law and order condition drastically. Again, as the drug business
make tremendous earnings, jobless youths, street boys and even girls become drug user. The
reach of drug culture more and more add to the wearing down of social values which is
accountable for the growing occurrence of crime, administrative dishonesty and barrier to the
rule of law. The battle in opposition to drug trafficking and organized crime has shaped strict
stress on the restricted government resources. In addition, a few associates of the enforcement
agencies have purportedly build up unholy pact with the drug dealers get in the way of the
process of opposing drug dealers by revealing information to the criminals ahead of the raid.
Organized transit trafficking, coupled with the supply of Indian drugs into Bangladesh has
already caused a menace in the country.
29
India and Bangladesh decided to improve joint
collaboration through constant measures to control drug trafficking. Both nations are determined
to keep on sharing actionable intelligence and adopt a coordinated strategy to prevent cross-
border drug trafficking. Both countries are also in union to frequently take on and supply logistic
aid to each other. Specialists are of the view that to successfully control the flourishing drug
trade, additional countries in the area have to participate. It is sound that drugs are smuggled
from Myanmar through international borders, across the north eastern states of India such as
Manipur, Nagaland and Mizoram. Even if Indio-Bangladesh borders are preserved, the preferred
outcome cannot be projected if not Myanmar is brought .
Bangladesh is exploited as a transit means for narcotics created in bordering nations.
30
The
Annual Report for 2007 from the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), suggests that
Bangladesh is now the key passage position for the movement and trafficking of heroin from
Southeast Asia into the European market.
31
The statement noted that the porous borders stuck
between Bangladesh and India adds to the cross-border trafficking of narcotics.
32
The recognized
ways of trafficking drugs into Bangladesh are couriers from Pakistan, commercial vehicles and
trains from India or Burma in addition to shipments from India via the Bay of Bengal.
33
It is
projected that 100,000 inhabitants are concerned in narcotics trafficking in Bangladesh.
34
A total
of 10,331 homicides were reported to Bangladesh authorities from 2001 to 2003, presenting a
major raise in recent years.
35

Government of Bangladesh has joint union on Mutual Legal Assistance (MLA) in Criminal
Matters and Combating Organized Crime and unlawful Drug Trafficking with India. MLA at the

29
"Cross-border Drug Trafficking :: Financial Express :: Financial Newspaper of Bangladesh." Cross-border Drug
Trafficking :: Financial Express :: Financial Newspaper of Bangladesh. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 July 2014.
30
"CIA World Factbook - Bangladesh". CIA World Factbook.
31
Bangladesh transit route for heroin trafficking
32
Analysis of the world situation
33
"100,000 people involved in drug trade in Bangladesh"
34
Dilip K. Das, Michael Palmiotto (2006). World Police Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. p69. ISBN 0-415-94251-9.
35
Bangladesh tops software piracy in Asia Pacific , Article by The Daily Star Published on 2009-05-15
SAARC and BIMSTEC discussion is being stimulated. Signed United Nations Convention on
Transnational Organized Crime (UNCTOC) is now being authorized. Government of
Bangladesh is in the progression of performimg a law on MLA.





























Conclusion
Coming across the aforementioned state of affairs of organized crime, it is comprehended that
possibly there is no nation in the globe absent from organized crime one way or other. The
trouble of crime has been countenance by all state irrespective of economic and technological
expansion or state size. However, the offenses have prospered all over the globe where on earth
there is a favorable atmosphere in respect of economic benefit and legal lacunas. On the basis of
general discussion of this group, it may be commented that there is no specific law in each
country dealing with all transnational organized crime, which has substantive and procedural
legal provisions for the efficient countermeasures. A way of tackling with the hazard of drug
trafficking plus smuggling of consumer and commercial goods, all stakeholder governments in
the region should put their heads together to formulate short and long term strategies. in total it is
distinguished that the law enforcement authorities would need lawful scope to put up effectual
technique in opposition to organized crime, also through nationwide or global methods. Being
transnational in nature, appropriate information, law and law enforcement agencies, as well as
suitable arbitration are for all time considered essential. These days, vow has been exposed by
the humankind in such subject in several debates. Yet, appropriate provision for standardized and
well-organized countermeasures is still required to be appreciated and look at as in the early
hours as probable sooner than latest crimes come. Bangladesh is no exception and it needs to
work with neighboring countries to control and minimize these established organized crimes.

















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