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tyco FLOW CONTROL

CONTROL VALVE MANUAL

PROCESS CONTROL TERMINOLOGY

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What is a Control Valve?


The most common final control element in the process industry is a control valve. The control
valve manipulates flowing fluids such as gas, steam, water or chemical compounds to
compensate for load disturbances and assist in regulating process variables to the desired set
point.
In achieving this within the desired operating range it ensures the quality of the end product that
the particular industry is producing.
To reduce the effect of load disturbances sensors and transmitters collect process information
and their relationship to the desired set point. Controllers then process this information and
decide how to adjust the control valve in order to move the variable back to set point. When all
the measuring, comparing and calculating are complete, generally it is a control valve that must
implement the adjustment within the process to achieve the set point.
Generally control valves are really an assembly consisting of the valve, internal trim parts, an
actuator to provide power to operate the valve and a variety of additional valve accessories
which could include positioner, transducers, supply regulators or limit switches to name a few.
This control valve manual is both a textbook and reference that we feel will be a useful tool to
assist you in your daily sales efforts.

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Process Control Terminology


Accessory: A device that is mounted on the actuator to complement the actuators function.
Examples include positioners, solenoids and limit switches.
Actuator: A pneumatic, hydraulic or electrically powered device that supplies force and motion
to open or close a valve.
Automated Valve: A valve and actuator package capable of responding to a remote signal.
Position selection is usually fixed as opposed to the variable positioning capable in a control
valve.
Ball, V-Notch: The most common type of segmented ball control valve. The v-notch ball
includes a partial sphere that rotates against the seat or seal ring. The v-shape notch permits
wide rangeability and produces equal percentage flow characteristics.
Bench Set: The calibration of the actuator spring range of a control valve to account for the inservice process forces.
Capacity: Rate of flow through a valve under stated conditions.
Cascade Control: An arrangement utilizing two conventional feedback controllers connected in
series so as to increase the speed of response of a closed loop system.
Consider that a system may have two sources of disturbance. For example, in a mixing
operation, either of two inputs could vary:

CONTROLLER

In this system the control loop regulates the flow of fluid A to compensate for changes in the
mixture caused by disturbances to either fluid A or B. When a change in the mixture is
sensed, the controller acts to modify flow of fluid A. There may be such a time lag however,
that he control is too slow, causing loss of product.
A Cascade Control system using two controllers as shown can serve to initiate corrective action
with any change in fluid A or the mixture.

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Here the M loop is the primary or outer loop. The F loop is secondary or inner loop.
Disturbances in fluid A that would affect the mixture are now corrected by the secondary loop
without having to wait for the mixture to change. If a change in fluid B occurs, the response of
the system will be similar to what it would have been with single loop control. On the basis of
response time, the secondary loop should be applied to the flow most likely to experience
disturbances.
For tuning, the secondary loop F is tuned first, followed by the primary. Otherwise tuning of
each controller is similar to single loop controllers.
Cavitation: Cavitation is a phenomenon that occurs inside of a piping system when a vapor
implodes to a liquid due to an increase in fluid pressure. Normally, cavitation is a two-stage
process where liquid is caused in the first stage to flash into vapor by a sudden drop in fluid
pressure to some point less than the vapor pressure. This can occur, for instance, as the fluid
experiences increased velocity and decreased pressure as it passes through a valve. In the
second stage, as the fluid exits the valve, it experiences decreased velocity and increased
pressures. If the increased pressures are above the fluids vapor pressure, the vapor
implodes back to liquid.
In its mildest form, cavitation is a minor, but somewhat noisy occurrence. At its worst, cavitation
can cause rapid failure of the control valve, as well as the piping adjacent to the valve. In t his
worst condition, cavitation produces very high sound levels, which are often compared to
gravel flowing through the system.
Cavitation is predictable and often preventable.
Choked Flow (Gases): Choked flow is a term used to indicate a condition where maximum
flow rate has been achieved through a valve for a given inlet pressure. Dependent upon the
type of gas flowing, there exists for each inlet pressure, some maximum value of pressure
differential at which maximum flow rate and velocity occur. When this maximum pressure
differential exists, the flow is said to be Choked. The velocity through the valve is at sonic
value and no additional flow can be forced through the valve except by increasing the inlet
pressure or the valve travel position.
Closed Loop System: A closed loop system is a control system capable of sensing values of a
preselected variable and generating corrective action without interaction of human operator.

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CONTROLLER

Note: While the human operator may interact to modify the control desired, once modified, the
operator need not remain involved.
Compression Set: Many materials such as elastomers, will deform when a load is applied.
Compression set is the term used to define the amount by which the material fails to recover
after the load is removed. For example, if a sample of elastomer was compressed by .060
inches under load and if it recovered only .040 of this amount upon load removal, it would be
said to have

.020
x 100, or 33% compression set.
.060

Normally, compression set is measured after some number of hours of continual compression
and immediately upon removal of the compressive forces. Thus compression set is given as
X% compression after Y hours.
Control Valve: A valve and actuator package capable of responding to a variable remote
signal, resulting in modulation of the valve position and regulation of the flowing media.
Control Characteristics: This term is generally employed to describe the relationship which
exists between flow rate through a valve and the valve travel as the latter varies from full closed
to full open. Control Characteristic is given as inherent or as installed. The Inherent
Characteristic is the relationship which exists under a normal test situation where constant
pressure differential is maintained across the valve at all travel positions.
The Installed Characteristic is the relationship which occurs when the valve is installed in a
working system, and where pressure differential may vary dependent upon valve travel and
overall system characteristics.
Control Range: The range of valve travel over which a control valve can maintain the installed
valve gain between the normalized values of 0.5 and 2.0.
Dead Band: The minimum change in input signal, which will result in any detectable movement
of the valve. Expressed in percent of full input signal span.
Dead Time: The time which elapses between a change in input and the initial response to that
change.

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Derivative Control (Rate): An optional function available on controllers which causes the
normal corrective proportional action to take effect more rapidly. Derivative action is
proportional to the rate of change of the controlled process variable. When no change is
occurring to the process variable, no derivative action occurs.
Disc Conventional: The symmetrical flow-controlling member used in the most common
varieties of butterfly rotary valves. High dynamic torques normally limits conventional discs to
60-degree maximum rotation in throttling service.
Disc Eccentric: Common name for the valve design in which the positioning of the valve/disc
connections causes the disc to take a slightly eccentric path on opening. This allows
disengagement of the disc from the seat at a relatively slight rotation reducing wear and friction.
Double Acting: An actuator in which power is supplied in either direction.
Droop (Offset): The difference between the desired value of a controlled process variable and
the actual value of that variable.
Durometer: A measure of the hardness or stiffness of elastomeric materials.
Fail Closed: A condition where the valve upon loss of power moves to the closed position.
(Normally Closed Valve, reverse acting)
Fail Open: A condition where the valve upon loss of power moves to the open position.
(Normally Open Valve, direct acting)
Fail Safe: A condition where the valve upon loss of power will move to either the fully closed,
fully open or remain in the last position which has been defined as necessary to protect the
process. Fail-safe action can involve the use of auxiliary controls connected to the actuator.
Feedback Control: A control system which monitors system output and which modifies system
input to maintain the output at the desired value.

Feed Forward Control: A control system which monitors input variables and which
compensates for deviations in their values prior to their having an effect on the system output.
This requires predictable corrective action for minimal disturbance to the system output.

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Final Control Element: The control valve (or variable speed pump, if control is achieved via
this pump).
Flashing: A liquid flashes in a control valve if it enters the valve as a liquid and exits as a
vapor. The initial stages of flashing are identical to those of cavitation, in that the increased
velocities internal to the valve create a lowering of pressure such that the pressure decreases to
below the fluids vapor pressure. In flashing however, the fluid pressure does not recover
sufficiently downstream of the valve to cause a return to the liquid state.
Flow Characteristic: Relationship between flow through the valve and percent travel as the
latter is varied from 0-100 percent. This term should always be designated as either the
inherent flow characteristic or installed flow characteristic.
Flow Coefficients: There are numerous coefficients used by industry to predict valve
capacities. The most common is Cv, which is determined via test or analysis. Cv is defined as
the number of U.S. gallons per minute of water at 60F that will flow through the valve with the 1
psi pressure differential.
In order that consistency exist between valve manufacturers, standard means of Cv
determination have been established. Values of Cv used in this manual are determined as
described by ISA S39.2 for incompressible fluids and by ISA S39.4 for compressible fluids.
Frequency Response: Refers to the ability of a device to respond to changes of input which
occur at various frequencies. As the input signal varies, there is always some time lag before
response. Normally this time lag is small. If the input is caused to change at constantly
increasing frequencies, the time lag becomes significant as the time available for response is
small. At some frequency, phase shift between input and response is noticeable. Attenuation
of response also occurs as full response is not achieved prior to input reversal.
Frequency response is expressed in units of Hertz and degrees of phase shift at the frequency
where attenuation has decreased to 6db for a 5 percent sinusoidal change in input based
upon full span.
Friction Factor Piping: A factor used to determine pressure losses in piping systems due to
frictional forces occurring between the pipe and the flowing media. Both the type of piping (size
and surface finish) and fluid characteristics (Reynolds number) affect the resultant friction
factors.

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Gain: Used to relate an incremental change in output to an incremental change in input. Gain
may be used to describe individual components or the control system as a whole.
Gain need not be constant at all inputs, and in fact, often is not constant. Examples:
The gain of a valve having a linear control characteristic is constant over the range of
valve travel where the linear characteristic occurs.
The gain of a valve having an equal percentage control characteristic is greater at the
more open travel positions of the valve.
The gain of a proportional controller is constant, but can be varied by modification of the
selected proportional band.
Head, Static: The height of a body or column of liquid above a given point of reference. Used
to express pressure as in feet of water. One foot of water is equal to .433 psi.
High Recovery Valve: Used to describe a valve having little pressure loss at given flow rates,
high internal velocities and low internal pressures. The pressure is said to recover from the
low internal pressures to the relatively higher pressures of the downstream piping. Straightthrough flow valves such as rotary-shaft ball valve and butterfly valves are typically highrecovery valves.
Hydrostatic Testing: A shell test on a valve body using a liquid such as water to verify
structural integrity of the part. Hydrostatic testing often serves the dual purpose of assuring that
porosity is not present in the valve body.
Verification of zero porosity is not always appropriate as certain valve types employ full surface
liners which eliminate potential for leakage regardless of porosity presence.
Hysteresis: The difference in valve position for a given input signal when approached from full
closed position and the position for the same input when approached from the full open position.
Hysteresis may apply to the system as a whole or to the valve/actuator only.
Integral Control (Reset): An optional function available on controllers which provides the
controller with the ability to reduce or eliminate droop (offset).
Laminar Flow: A state of flow in which the fluid moves in unmixed parallel layers or laminae.
This flow state exists in most applications having a Reynolds number value less than 2000 and
rarely exists when the Reynolds number value exceeds 4000.
Leak Rate: That amount of flow that passes through a fully closed valve at rated pressure
conditions. See the Leakage section of this manual for further discussion.
Low Recovery Rate: A valve design that dissipates a considerable amount of flow stream
energy due to turbulence created by the contours of the flow path. Consequently, pressure
downstream of the valve vena contracta recovers to a lesser percentage of its inlet value than is
the case with a valve having a more streamlined flow path. Although individual designs vary,
conventional globe style valves generally have a low-pressure recovery capability.

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Manipulated Variable: That which is changed so as to effect correction in a control system.


For example, if flow rate is the controlled variable, the valve position is the manipulated variable.
Manual Valve: A valve utilizing a manually operated device such as a handle or gear unit to
effect changes in the valve position.
Manual Reset: A manual change in the set point of the controller, such as to eliminate droop.
Modulus: The ratio of stress to strain (the amount by which a dimension of a body changes
when subjected to a load), within the proportional limit of a material in tension or compression.
This term applies to elastomers as well as metals and is of significance in choosing proper
elastomers for valve usage.
On/Off Control (Two Position): A control action by a controller providing output only to fully
open or fully close a valve. Of course, a controller need not be present to have on/off actuation
of a valve.
Proportional Band: The range of measured values of a monitored variable over which a
controller produces full output span.
Proportional Control: The basic control concept utilized by controllers whereby an output
signal is generated in direct proportion to the value of a monitored system variable.
Rangeability: The ratio of maximum to minimum values of valve capacity within the valves
inherent characteristic range. i.e., Max Cv Min Cv at the ends of the inherent characteristic
span. Refer to Valve Sizing section of manual for further discussion.
Recovery Coefficient: An experimentally determined value used to calculate the pressure
differential across a valve above which, for a given inlet pressure, no additional liquid flow will
be obtained.
Remote Set Point Adjustment: Denotes the ability to change the set point of a controller from
a remote location via modification of an input signal to the controller. An example could be a
change in an instrument air signal. This option of a controller avoids the need to enter the
controller for manual set point adjustment.
Seat Leak Test: Unlike disc hydrostatic testing, which confirms the structural integrity of the
valve body, seat leak testing confirms the ability of the valve disc and seat to retain rated
pressure without exceeding a specified leak rate. Several industrial standards exist which
provide seat leak test procedures. Seat leak testing should be performed by the manufacturer
on all tight shutoff valves to assure proper operation when installed by the user.
Set Point: A term used to describe the value at which a controller will attempt to maintain a
controlled variable. For example, if a controller is to maintain a system pressure of 50 psig, this
value is the set point.
Stability: The ability of a system to respond to changes in a manner such that repetitive overcorrection is avoided. When a system change occurs, such as a change in flow rate, a valve
may be directed by a controller to change its position to maintain constant system pressure.
Normally some over-correction in the form of excess valve movement will occur, thereby
necessitating a reversal of valve movement. In a stable system, such reversals occur only a
few times, with the valve reaching a new position compatible with the current flow rate.
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In an unstable system, valve reversal and resultant pressure fluctuations recur continually, or
for an excess period of time. Excessive system gain could result in this action.
Our example of a one-time change in flow rate is, of course, simplistic. In many systems, the
flow rate may change frequently such that the valve seldom rests at any one position. Valve
response must still, however, be compatible to the needs of the system.
Step Response: Step response is a measurement of the ability of a valve and actuator to
respond to a rapid change in control signal. In at least one case it is defined as the time
required for a valve to travel 63.2% of that amount of travel caused by an instantaneous change
in input signal when the change in input signal equals 10% of the full input signal span.
Step response can relate to variables other than valve position, such as process variable,
controller output, etc.
Tight Shut Off: Many valve manufacturers use this term to indicate that no visually detectable
leakage will occur past the valve seat during test or after installation. This varies with some
manufacturers however, and may in a few cases indicate only that the leak rate is small
compared to the maximum valve capacity. A leak rate standard had been developed, ANSI
B16.104-1976, which provides leakage classifications.
Torques: Rotary motion valves such as butterfly valves require the application of torque to
cause, or in some cases to prevent valve motion. This required torque is an important
consideration when selecting an actuator for the valve. The required torque is also an important
factor in valve design and material selection, as all components must accept the resultant
stresses without permanent deformation or failure.
Turbulent Flow: A state of flow in which all laminar flow has disappeared and full turbulence
exists in the fluid. Turbulent flow normally exists in applications where the Reynolds number
value exceeds 4000 and seldom exists where the Reynolds number value is less than 2000.
Two Phase Flow: The combined simultaneous flow of gas and liquid. Special sizing
techniques are required.
Vena Contracta: When the fluid in the pipeline passes through a restriction such as a valve,
there is a converging of the flow as it enters the restriction. The cross section of the flowing
stream continues to diminish for a short distance downstream of the restriction. The area of
smallest cross section is the Vena Contracta.
It is not uncommon for the term Vena Contracta to be used in a slightly broader sense to refer to
the length of flow stream, downstream of the restriction, which is less in cross section, greater in
velocity and lower in pressure than that which exists further downstream in the piping.
Viscosity: Viscosity is a measure of the internal fluid friction or the resistance of a fluid to flow.
Viscosity absolute:
The ratio of the shearing stress to the shear rate of fluid. Usually expressed in
centipoises.

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Viscosity Kinematic:
The absolute viscosity divided by the density of the fluid. Usually expressed in
centistokes.
Viscosity SUS:
Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS). Based upon the time in seconds for 50 ml of
oil to flow through a standard orifice at a given temperature (ASTM D88-56).
Viscosity Index:
A measure of the viscosity temperature characteristics of a fluid as referred to
that of two arbitrary reference fluids (ASTM DS67-53).
Water Hammer, Causes: Because certain types of valves can be closed quickly with todays
actuators and accessories, their use on water lines could cause a pressure surge in the line
known as water hammer. This condition is familiar to anyone who has closed his or her
household faucet quickly and heard the resulting noise in the adjacent piping. When this occurs
in a large pipeline where the amount and velocity of the liquid (yes, it is not only with water) are
both high, and in conjunction with the speed of closure along with the length of line, the
pressure waves rebounding in the pipe reinforce each other which results in significant damage
to pipe, fittings and valves.

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VALVE SIZING & SELECTION

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VALVE SIZING
In sizing valves it is important to understand that the control valve is sized for process
requirements that will actually occur not by the pipe size that it will be installed in. In doing this,
the process flow requirements of minimum, normal and maximum required are the key
elements. If the valve is not sized to the actual or theoretical flow requirements, then one of the
problems that will arise is valve over sizing.
Over sizing of valves generally occurs when attempting to optimize process performance
through a reduction of process variability. This usually results from using line-size valves,
especially with high-capacity rotary valves as well as the conservative addition of multiple safety
factors at different stages in the design.
Over sizing the valve impairs process variability in two ways. First, the over sized valve puts too
much gain the system leaving less flexibility in adjustments to the controller. Best performance
results when loop gain comes from the controller.
The second impairment is that the over sized valve is likely to operate more frequently at lower
valve openings where seal and friction can be greater, particularly in rotary valves. Because an
over sized valve produces a disproportionately large flow change for a given increment of travel,
this can greatly exaggerate the process variable.
Regardless of its actual inherent valve characteristic, a severely over sized valve tends to act
more along the lines of a quick opening valve which results in high installed process gain in the
lower rotation of the valve. In addition, the valve tends to reach system capacity at relatively low
travel. Consequently, there is little hope of achieving acceptable process variability in this
occurrence.
When selecting a valve, it is important to consider the valve style, inherent characteristic and
valve size that will provide the broadest possible control range for the application.
**There are numerous techniques and equations available with which to determine proper valve
sizes for each application.
What we will outline for reference purposes in this manual is a Method A sizing equation for
liquid, gas and steam. These equations reflect a simple approach and do not inherently
consider the effects of cavitation, swaged pipe or laminar flow. Under most conditions though
this method will provide suitable results.
The Tyco E-size valve sizing program will have all the updated equations as per ISA (Instrument
Society of America) that will provide consideration of all system characteristics based off of your
input into the program. This program should be used for all of your sizing purposes. The above
Method A equations are provided for that rare instance where you might have to manually
calculate a flow condition for a customer. In any case, you should always check your results
with the Tyco program.

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Method A
(1)

Liquid Sizing Equation:


A.

To solve for valve size, determine Cv required. Select valve size from Cv table.
Cv = (Q )

B.

Cv
Q

To solve for flow volume.


Q = (Cv)

C.

( S .G.)
(P)
= Valve capacity coefficient
= Flow U.S.G.P.M.
= Differential pressure
across valve - PSI
= Specific gravity of liquid
(water = 1)

(P )
( S .G )

S.G.

To solve for pressure differential

(Q 2 )
( S .G.)
(Cv 2 )

P =

Equations (B) and (C) are transformations of equation (A).


(2)

Gas Sizing Equation:


(A)

To solve for valve size, determine Cv required. Select valve size from Cv table.
Cv = (Q )

(B)

To solve for volume of flow (SCFM).


Q = (Cv)

(C)

( S .G.)
( P2 )(P)

( P2 )(P)
( S .G.)

To solve for pressure differential.

P =

P2

(Q 2 )( S .G.)
(Cv 2 )( P2 )

Q
Cv
S.G.

= Pipeline pressure downstream


of the valve absolute (PSIA)
= Pressure differential PSI P
may not exceed of the inlet
pressure absolute (PSIA). If this
should occur, refer to sizing
method ISA.
= Flow SCFM
= Valve capacity coefficient
(same value as for liquids)
= Specific gravity of gas (air = 1)

Equations (B) and (C) are transformation of equation (A).

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(3).

Steam Sizing Equation:


(A) To solve for valve size, determine Cv required. Select valve size from Cv table.

Cv =

W
(3) ( P2 )(P)

(B) To solve for of flow.

W = 3Cv ( P2 )(P )

P2
Cv

(C) To solve for pressure differential.


2

P =

(W )
(9)(Cv 2 )( P2 )

S.G.
Q
MW

= Flow lbs per hour


= Pressure differential PSI.
P may not exceed of the
inlet pressure absolute (PSIA).
If this should occur, refer to sizing
method ISA.
= Downstream pressure PSIA.
= Valve flow coefficient (same as
liquid value)
= Specific gravity (air = 1)
= SCFH
= Molecular Wt
= Density in #/ft3 at standard
conditions.

Equations (B) and (C) are transformation of equation (A).


To convert from pounds per hour to SCFH:

Q=

(W )(13.1)
S .G

To convert from SCFH to pounds per hour:

W=

(Q)( S .G.)
13.1

Q=

(W )
(379)
( MW )

Also:

Q=

S.G. = (0.0331)(MW)

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VALVE SELECTION

Page 16 of 25

CONTROL VALVE CHARACTERISTICS AND SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS


Description:
There are several control characteristics. A few are described below. It must be noted that a
valve having a stated inherent characteristic may provide a different installed characteristic due
to interaction with the system.
Linear Characteristic: Flow rate is proportional to valve travel.
Equal Percentage: Equal increments of valve travel produce equal percentage changes in flow
rate as related to the flow rate which existed at the previous travel position.
Example: If a valve travel change from 20% open to 30% open produced a 70%
change in flow rate, then a valve travel change from 30% open to 40% open would
produce another 70% change in flow rate. If flow rate at 20% open was 100 GPM, then
flow rate at 30% open would be 170 GPM and the flow rate at 40% open would be 70%
greater than at 30% travel or 289 GPM, etc. for each additional incremental travel
position.
Quick Opening: Flow rate through the valve increases very rapidly for incremental changes in
valve travel when valve position is near closed. As valve position becomes more open, flow
rate changes diminish with incremental changes in valve travel approaching zero change as the
valve position nears full open.
ROTARY VALVES
Butterfly Valves

Bodies require minimum space for installation.


Provide high capacity with low pressure loss through the valve.
Are economic, particularly in larger sizes and in terms of flow capacity per investment
dollar.
Conventional disc provides throttling control from 30-60 degree rotation.
Bodies mate with standard raised-faced pipeline flanges.
Standard liners can provide good shutoff and corrosion protection.
Standard butterfly valves are available within Tyco in sizes through 102 for
miscellaneous applications. Butterfly valves exhibit an approximately equal percentage
flow characteristic. They can be used for throttling or for on-off control.

V-Port Ball Control Valves

Construction is similar to standard ball valve but controlling member is a partial sphere
with a segmented v-port (notch). The V-notch produces an equal percentage flow
characteristic. These valves have good rangeability, control and shutoff capabilities.
The paper industry, chemical plants, power industry, petroleum refining and sewage
treatment facilities use such valves.
Straight through flow design exhibits little pressure drop.

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V-notch valves typically are used to control erosive or viscous fluids, paper stock or
other slurries containing entrained solids or fibers.
The ball or sphere remains in contact with the seat during rotation, which produces a
shearing effect as the ball closes and minimizes clogging.
Control ranges from 100:1 to 250:1
Bodies are available in flanges or flangeless configuration. Both styles mate with Class
150 and 300 flanges.

Added Note:
Butterfly valves are high recovery valves. This means that compared to some types of valves,
such as globe styles, butterfly valves exhibit lower FL values. Based upon the previous P max

formula, it would be fair to expect that cavitation occurs in butterfly valves more easily than in globe
valves. This is true when comparing valves placed in systems requiring specific pressure drops. In these
cases, globe valves can be used on higher Ps than can butterfly valves.
In flow control applications however, butterfly valves can flow considerably more for a given valve size,
than can a globe valve before cavitation occurs. An example can be used for demonstration.

Size
FL (at full travel position)
Fluid
Specific Gravity
Temperature
P1
PV
FF
P max = FL2 (P1 FF PV
Cv
Q = Cv

P
S .G

Butterfly Valve
6"
0.55
Water
1.0
100F
100 psia
.95 psia
0.96
30 PSI
2790

Globe Valve
6"
0.866
Water
1.0
100F
101 psia
.95 psia
0.96
74.3 PSI
770

15281 GPM at cavitation

6637 GPM at cavitation

The purpose of this section is to demonstrate that it is not appropriate to conclude that either
butterfly or globe style valves, or any other styles, are superior for control applications simply on
the basis of their recovery characteristics.

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Velocity vs Component Deformation:


(Butterfly Valves)
Butterfly valve seats are subjected to the forces generated by fluids passing through the valves.
As the flowing velocity increases, the forces increase in magnitude and effect. Generally the
maximum velocities are dictated by the type and geometry of the seat. Guidelines are as
follows:
Seat

Max Liquid Velocity

Max Gas Velocity

None

Full elastomer seat w/o internal support or with nonmetallic internal support

20 ft/sec

200 ft/sec

Full elastomers seat with internal steel support

25 ft/sec

300 ft/sec

Small section elastomers or polymer seat fully supported


on 3 surfaces by valve structure

25 ft/sec

350 ft/sec

Metal seats, retained on 3 surfaces by valve structure

* Note: There is no practical limit imposed by the seat geometry.


Velocity limitations for the valve would be as discussed previously in this section.

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CAVITATION & FLASHING


Causes:
IEC liquid sizing standards calculate an allowable sizing pressure drop or dP max, which is
defined by system conditions of P1 (inlet) and P2 (outlet), which equates to actual pressure drop
across the valve. If the actual pressure drop (P1-P2) is greater than the dP max then either
cavitation or flashing may occur. This occurrence may cause structural damage to the valve
and or adjacent piping.
Cavitation and flashing are physical phenomenas that occur because they represent actual
changes in the form of the fluid. This is represented by the fluid changing from liquid state to
the vapor state which results from the increase in fluid velocity which is at or near downstream
of the greatest flow restriction, usually the valve port. As the fluid passes through this restriction
it narrows or necks down which is usually referred to as the vena contracta.
To maintain a constant flow of liquid through the valve the velocity must be the greatest at the
vena contracta. This increase in velocity is accompanied by a substantial decrease in pressure.
Further downstream as the fluid expands into a larger area, velocity decreases and pressure
increases but never recovers to the pressure that exists upstream of the valve.
Irrespective of the recovery characteristic of the valve, the pressure differential of concern
regarding cavitation and or flashing is the differential between the valve inlet pressure and the
vena contracta. If the pressure at the vena contracta drops below the vapor pressure of the
liquid, bubbles will form in the flow stream. Formation of bubbles will increase rapidly as the
vena contracta pressure drops further below the vapor pressure of the fluid.
If the pressure at the valve outlet remains below the vapor pressure of the liquid, then bubbles
will remain in the downstream system and the process is considered to have flashed. Flashing
can cause serious erosion damage to the valve internals and the typical appearance is a
smooth, polished to the eroded surface.
Furthermore, if the downstream pressure recovers and increases the outlet pressure above the
vapor pressure of the liquid, the bubbles will implode which creates tiny microscopic jets of
liquid or cavitation. The collapsing or implosion of the bubbles releases energy and produces a
noise that sounds like gravel flowing through the valve. Cavitation damage is recognized by a
rough surface usually described as a Swiss cheese appearance. Generally high recovery
valves tend to be more conducive to cavitation because the downstream pressure recovers
faster back above the liquids vapor pressure.
Flashing: To clarify this condition, the variables that create flashing are not directly controlled
by the valve. What this means is that there is no way for any control valve to prevent this
condition. The best solution to this problem is to select a valve with a proper geometry to
minimize the effects. Making the affected surfaces as hard as possible or lowering the velocity
of the flow are also effective options.
Cavitation: This condition can be addressed as follows:

Eliminate the condition by managing the pressure drop. If this can be controlled where
the pressure never drops below the vapor pressure, then the formation of bubbles is
unlikely.
Page 20 of 25

Hardening of the effected surfaces to minimize the effects, this method does not
eliminate but merely lengthens the life of the valve.
Change the system to prevent the occurrence. Elevation of P2 or downstream pressure
so that the vena contracta does not fall below vapor pressure. Applying an orifice plate
or similar backpressure devices can also raise P2 at the valve.
If using Butterfly valves, select a larger valve that has the desired Cv at a lower travel
position. The recovery factor is greater for lower travel positions; there is a practical limit
due to the control that is obtainable.
Placing valves in series where simultaneous and duplicate actuation will cause equal
sharing of the pressure drop.

Page 21 of 25

VALVE TORQUE DATA

CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING SEATING AND UNSEATING TORQUE


BY APPLICATION CATEGORY RESILIENT SEATED VALVES
The seating-unseating torque anticipated in resilient seated valves varies widely with service
conditions. Factors affecting torque values listed generally in order of significance follow:
(1) Operating Frequency: The first opening after sustained period of closure is the tough one.
(2) Media Lubricating Characteristics: Water is probably the best all-around lubricant for
metal elastomers contact. Is the service completely dry? Seat compounds contain some
lubricant. Is it extracted in service?
LUBRICATING

NON-LUBRICATING

Water

Air Dry Gas

Aqueous Process Streams

Dry Powder, Pellets

Lubricating Oil

Aromatic Hydrocarbons, i.e. diesel oil/JP fuels


Industrial Solvents, i.e. acetone/ethyl acetate

(3) Condition of Disc Edge: It is an iron disc in corrosive service? Iron discs in uninhibited
water systems corrode. The edge roughens and corrosion deposits build up. Is there
anticipated a deposit on seating surfaces calcium in a hard water system various salts in
seawater.
(4) Temperature: High or low Operating temperature approaching upper limits of seat
material tend to increase hardness over a sustained period. Temperature approaching the
lower limits of elastomers raise hardness immediately. Both conditions increase operating
torque.
(5) Chemical Attack on Elastomer Causing Swell: Increased interference and torque
results.
In the accompanying data Anticipated Seating and Unseating Torque is provided by category.
Following is a general definition of categories I, II and III.
Category I
Note: Category I values should be used only for proportioning service where full 90 closure is
not required.
Ideal Conditions
-

operating frequency at least once per day


lubricating media aqueous liquid
disc totally resistant to corrosion by line media; no solids deposition
temperature well within elastomers limits
no chemical effect on elastomers

Page 23 of 25

Torque values provided in this category approximate results of short term shop tests on new
equipment under ideal conditions. No allowance is made for torque increase under service
conditions. Selection of proportioning type actuators where shutoff requirements are not critical
or where travel stops prevent 90 closure may be made under Category I.
Category II
Normal Conditions
-

operating frequency at least once per month


lubricating media aqueous liquid
disc corrosion - mild/minor deposition
temperature within material limits
chemical effects on elastomers minor

Torque values provided in this category incorporate a factor of two over shop tests in
establishing frictional resistance of media-exposed elements. Experience has indicated that
selection of actuators based on Category II values provides totally satisfactory results except in
the most severe applications.
Category III
Severe Torque Conditions
-

operating frequency indefinitely long


non-lubricating media air, dry gas
disc corrosion severe
temperature outside recommended limits
chemical effects on elastomers unknown

Torque values provided in this category incorporate a factor of three over shop test in
establishing frictional resistance of media-exposed elements. Pneumatic conveying is a typical
Category III application.
In selecting actuators under Category III, it is also necessary to compare Anticipated SeatingUnseating Torque with Allowable Operating Torque on valve. This is especially important in
power actuators not equipped with speed controls where impact loading may occur.

Page 24 of 25

AR1/AR2 VALVES
SEATING AND UNSEATING TORQUES (INCH-LBS.)
STANDARD DISC DIAMETERS
SIZES 2" - 20"
NOTES:
(1) ALL ACTUATOR SELECTION
TABLES CONTAINED IN THE
KEYSTONE PRODUCT MANUAL
ARE BASED ON CATEGORY - II
TORQUE REQUIREMENTS.
CATEGORY - I SHOULD NOT
BE USED UNLESS ALL OF THE
CRITERIA FOR IT ARE MET.
(2) THE CHARTED TORQUE VALUES
ABOVE ARE THE TOTAL OF ALL
INTERNAL FRICTIONAL RESISTANCES FOR OPENING OR
CLOSING AGAINST INDICATED
PRESSURE.
(3) THE EFFECT OF DYNAMIC
TORSION IS NOT CONSIDERED
IN THIS TABULATION.
(4) TORSIONAL CAPACITY OF
VALVE STEM IS NOT
CONSIDERED IN THIS
TABULATION.
(5) IF PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
IS NOT KNOWN, USE FULL
RATED PRESSURE CAPABILITY
OF THE VALVE.

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
20"

CATEGORY I (IDEAL CONDITIONS)


PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
0
50
100
150
110
114
119
123
135
142
149
156
160
170
180
190
240
260
279
299
325
362
399
436
450
503
556
609
750
860
970
1080
1150
1371
1592
1813
1550
1868
2187
2505
2150
2997
3845
4692
2750
4058
5366
6674
3450
5360
7270
9180
4250
6922
9595
12267

175
125
159
195
309
454
636
1135
1924
2664
-----

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
20"

CATEGORY II (NORMAL CONDITIONS)


PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
0
50
100
150
220
224
229
233
270
277
284
291
320
330
340
350
480
500
519
539
650
687
724
761
900
953
1006
1059
1500
1610
1720
1830
2300
2521
2742
2963
3100
3418
3737
4055
4300
5147
5995
6842
5500
6808
8116
9424
6900
8810
10720
12630
8500
11172
13845
16517

175
235
294
355
549
779
1086
1885
3074
4214
-----

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
20"

CATEGORY III (SEVERE CONDITIONS)


PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
0
50
100
150
330
334
339
343
405
412
419
426
480
490
500
510
720
740
759
779
975
1012
1049
1086
1350
1403
1456
1509
2250
2360
2470
2580
3450
36741
3892
4113
4650
4968
5287
5605
6450
7297
8145
8992
8250
9558
10866
12174
10350
12260
14170
16080
12750
15422
18095
20767

175
345
429
515
789
1104
1536
2635
4224
5764
----11/13/02

AR1/AR2 VALVES
SEATING AND UNSEATING TORQUES (INCH-LBS.)
REDUCED DISC DIAMETERS
50 PSI MAXIMUM RATING
SIZES 4" - 20"
NOTES:
(1) ALL ACTUATOR SELECTION
TABLES CONTAINED IN THE
KEYSTONE PRODUCT MANUAL
ARE BASED ON CATEGORY - II
TORQUE REQUIREMENTS.
CATEGORY - I SHOULD NOT
BE USED UNLESS ALL OF THE
CRITERIA FOR IT ARE MET.
(2) THE CHARTED TORQUE VALUES
ABOVE ARE THE TOTAL OF ALL
INTERNAL FRICTIONAL RESISTANCES FOR OPENING OR
CLOSING AGAINST INDICATED
PRESSURE.
(3) THE EFFECT OF DYNAMIC
TORSION IS NOT CONSIDERED
IN THIS TABULATION.
(4) TORSIONAL CAPACITY OF
VALVE STEM IS NOT
CONSIDERED IN THIS
TABULATION.
(5) IF PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
IS NOT KNOWN, USE FULL
RATED PRESSURE CAPABILITY
OF THE VALVE.

CATEGORY I (IDEAL CONDITIONS)


VALVE
PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
SIZE
0
50
4"
165
185
5"
220
257
6"
305
358
8"
500
610
10"
750
971
12"
1000
1318
14"
1450
2297
16"
1850
3158
18"
2350
4260
20"
2850
5522

CATEGORY II (NORMAL CONDITIONS)


VALVE
PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
SIZE
0
50
4"
330
350
5"
440
477
6"
610
663
8"
1000
1110
10"
1500
1721
12"
2000
2318
14"
2900
3747
16"
3700
5008
18"
4700
6610
20"
5700
8372

(6) SIZE 2", 2.5" AND 3" ARE NOT


AVAILABLE WITH REDUCED
DISC DIAMETERS.
CATEGORY III (SEVERE CONDITIONS)
VALVE
PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
SIZE
0
50
4"
495
515
5"
660
697
6"
915
968
8"
1500
1610
10"
2250
2471
12"
3000
3318
14"
4350
5197
16"
5550
6858
18"
7050
8960
20"
8550
11222

FIGURE 99, 100, 129, 239, 990/992 AND 999 VALVES


SEATING AND UNSEATING TORQUES (INCH-LBS.)
STANDARD DISC DIAMETERS
SIZES 1" - 20"
NOTES:
(1) ALL ACTUATOR SELECTION
TABLES CONTAINED IN THE
KEYSTONE PRODUCT MANUAL
ARE BASED ON CATEGORY - II
TORQUE REQUIREMENTS.
CATEGORY - I SHOULD NOT
BE USED UNLESS ALL OF THE
CRITERIA FOR IT ARE MET.
(2) THE CHARTED TORQUE VALUES
ABOVE ARE THE TOTAL OF ALL
INTERNAL FRICTIONAL RESISTANCES FOR OPENING OR
CLOSING AGAINST INDICATED
PRESSURE.
(3) THE EFFECT OF DYNAMIC
TORSION IS NOT CONSIDERED
IN THIS TABULATION.
(4) PRESSURE CAPACITY (RATING)
OF VALVES IS NOT CONSIDERED
IN THIS TABULATION.
(5) TORSIONAL CAPACITY OF
VALVE STEM IS NOT
CONSIDERED IN THIS
TABULATION.
(6) IF PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
IS NOT KNOWN, USE FULL
RATED PRESSURE CAPABILITY
OF THE VALVE.
(7) FOR 1" AND 1.5" VALVES, USE
THE 2" VALVE TORQUE VALUES.

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
20"

CATEGORY I (IDEAL CONDITIONS)


PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
0
50
100
150
110
120
130
140
135
145
155
165
160
180
200
220
240
270
300
330
325
375
425
475
450
550
650
750
750
950
1150
1350
1150
1450
1750
2050
1550
2050
2550
3050
2150
2950
3750
4550
2750
3950
5150
6350
3450
5250
7050
8850
4250
6750
9250
11750

200
150
175
240
360
525
850
1550
2350
3550
5350
7550
10650
14250

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
20"

CATEGORY II (NORMAL CONDITIONS)


PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
0
50
100
150
220
230
240
250
270
280
290
300
320
340
360
380
480
510
540
570
650
700
750
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1500
1700
1900
2100
2300
2600
2900
3200
3100
3600
4100
4600
4300
5100
5900
6700
5500
6700
7900
9100
6900
8700
10500
12300
8500
11000
13500
16000

200
260
310
400
600
850
1300
2300
3500
5100
7500
10300
14100
18500

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
20"

CATEGORY III (SEVERE CONDITIONS)


PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
0
50
100
150
330
340
350
360
405
410
420
430
480
500
520
540
720
750
780
810
975
1025
1075
1125
1350
1450
1550
1650
2250
2450
2650
2850
3450
3750
4050
4350
4650
5150
5650
6150
6450
7250
8050
8850
8250
9450
10650
11850
10350
12150
13950
15750
12750
15250
17750
20250

200
370
440
560
840
1175
1750
3050
4650
6650
9650
13050
17500
22750
11/13/02

FIGURE 601/602 VALVES


SEATING AND UNSEATING TORQUES (INCH-LBS.)
STANDARD DISC DIAMETERS
SIZES 2" - 24"
LINE PRESSURE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
20"
24"

50 PSI
85
126
180
355
562
918
1440
2466
3510
5200
6900
9000
11000
16000

100 PSI
108
153
207
414
652
1035
1692
3010
4140
6000
8000
10500
14000
21000

150 PSI
126
175
256
472
715
1152
1944
3550
5616
7500
9500
12000
15200
28000

200 PSI
144
198
297
531
787
1269
2205
4095
7686
8550
10750
13500
17600
33700

250 PSI
162
221
339
590
869
1386
2476
4660
10556
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

Torque is the rotary effort required to operate a valve. This turning force in a butterfly valve is
determined by three factors -- the friction of the disc and seat due to interference for sealing,
bearing friction, and fluid dynamic torque.

Since torque greatly increases for dry and non-lubricating fluids and temperatur variations,
please contact your Tyco Valves & Controls representative for accurate values for these
applications.

FIGURE 106, 601/602 VALVES


SEATING AND UNSEATING TORQUES (INCH-LBS.)
STANDARD DISC DIAMETERS
SIZES 24" - 48"
NOTES:
(1) CATEGORY - I SHOULD NOT
BE USED UNLESS ALL OF THE
CRITERIA FOR IT ARE MET.
(2) THE CHARTED TORQUE VALUES
ABOVE ARE THE TOTAL OF ALL
INTERNAL FRICTIONAL RESISTANCES FOR OPENING OR
CLOSING AGAINST INDICATED
PRESSURE.
(3) THE EFFECT OF DYNAMIC
TORSION IS NOT CONSIDERED
IN THIS TABULATION.
(4) TORSIONAL CAPACITY OF
VALVE STEM IS NOT
CONSIDERED IN THIS
TABULATION.
(5) IF PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
IS NOT KNOWN, USE FULL
RATED PRESSURE CAPABILITY
OF THE VALVE.

VALVE
SIZE
24"
30"
36"
42"
48"

CATEGORY I (IDEAL CONDITIONS)


PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
0
50
100
150
4875
8497
12119
15741
7500
14574
21648
28722
10500
22724
34948
47172
21750
49480
77210
104940
28125
68871
109617
150364

CATEGORY II (NORMAL CONDITIONS)


VALVE
PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
SIZE
0
50
100
150
24"
9750
13372
16994
20616
30"
15000
22074
29148
36222
36"
21000
33224
45448
57672
42"
43500
71230
98960
126690
48"
56250
96996
137742
178489
CATEGORY III (SEVERE CONDITIONS)
VALVE
PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
SIZE
0
50
100
150
24"
14625
18247
21869
25491
30"
22500
29574
36648
43722
36"
31500
43724
55948
68172
42"
65250
92980
120710
148440
48"
84375
125121
165867
206614

FIGURE 222 VALVE


SEATING AND UNSEATING TORQUES (INCH-LBS.)
STANDARD DISC DIAMETERS
SIZES 2" - 12"
NOTES:
(1) ALL ACTUATOR SELECTION
TABLES CONTAINED IN THE
KEYSTONE PRODUCT MANUAL
ARE BASED ON CATEGORY - II
TORQUE REQUIREMENTS.
CATEGORY - I SHOULD NOT
BE USED UNLESS ALL OF THE
CRITERIA FOR IT ARE MET.
(2) THE CHARTED TORQUE VALUES
ABOVE ARE THE TOTAL OF ALL
INTERNAL FRICTIONAL RESISTANCES FOR OPENING OR
CLOSING AGAINST INDICATED
PRESSURE.

(3) THE EFFECT OF DYNAMIC


TORSION IS NOT CONSIDERED
IN THIS TABULATION.
(4) TORSIONAL CAPACITY OF
VALVE STEM IS NOT
CONSIDERED IN THIS
TABULATION.
(5) IF PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
IS NOT KNOWN, USE FULL
RATED PRESSURE CAPABILITY
OF THE VALVE.

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"

CATEGORY I (IDEAL CONDITIONS)


PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
0
50
100
150
81
87
94
100
105
115
126
136
122
137
152
167
189
218
248
277
312
367
422
477
410
489
569
648
1092
1257
1422
1587
1848
2180
2511
2843
2100
2577
3055
3532

250
114
157
197
336
588
807
1917
3506
4487

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"

CATEGORY II (NORMAL CONDITIONS)


PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
0
50
100
150
115
122
128
135
150
160
171
181
175
190
205
220
270
299
329
358
445
500
556
611
585
665
744
824
1560
1725
1890
2055
2640
2972
3303
3635
3000
3477
3955
4432

250
148
202
250
417
721
983
2385
4298
5387

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"

CATEGORY III (SEVERE CONDITIONS)


PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
0
50
100
150
288
294
301
307
375
385
396
406
438
452
467
482
675
704
734
763
1113
1168
1223
1278
1463
1542
1622
1701
3900
4065
4230
4395
6600
6932
7263
7595
7500
7977
8455
8932

250
321
427
512
822
1389
1860
4725
8258
9887

11/13/02

UNDERCUT FIGURE 222 TORQUE FIGURES


LUBRICIOUS SERVICE: OIL
(.7 APPLICATION FACTOR)
SIZE
(MM)
50
65
80
100
125
150
200
250
300

SIZE
(IN)
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"

TORQUE TORQUE TORQUE


0 PSI
50 PSI
100 PSI
44
51
58
58
68
78
67
82
97
104
133
163
171
227
282
225
305
384
764
929
1095
1294
1625
1957
1470
1947
2425

WATER: NON CORROSIVE DISC EDGE


(1.0 APPLICATION FACTOR)
SIZE
SIZE
TORQUE TORQUE TORQUE
(MM)
(IN)
0 PSI
50 PSI
100 PSI
50
2"
63
70
77
65
2.5"
83
93
103
80
3"
96
111
126
100
4"
149
178
207
125
5"
245
300
355
150
6"
322
401
481
200
8"
1092
1257
1422
250
10"
1848
2180
2511
300
12"
2100
2577
3055

SIZE
(MM)
50
65
80
100
125
150
200
250
300

DRY SERVICE: AIR


(2.5 APPLICATION FACTOR)
SIZE
TORQUE TORQUE TORQUE
(IN)
0 PSI
50 PSI
100 PSI
2"
158
165
171
2.5"
206
217
227
3"
241
256
270
4"
371
401
430
5"
612
667
722
6"
804
884
964
8"
2730
2895
3060
10"
4620
4952
5283
12"
5250
5727
6205

11/13/02

FIGURE 310/312 VALVES


BI-DIRECTIONAL SEATING AND UNSEATING TORQUES
SIZES 2" - 12"
NOTES:
(1) ALL ACTUATOR SELECTION
TABLES CONTAINED IN THE
KEYSTONE PRODUCT MANUAL
ARE BASED ON CATEGORY - II
TORQUE REQUIREMENTS.
CATEGORY - I SHOULD NOT
BE USED UNLESS ALL OF THE
CRITERIA FOR IT ARE MET.
(2) THE CHARTED TORQUE VALUES
ABOVE ARE THE TOTAL OF ALL
INTERNAL FRICTIONAL RESISTANCES FOR OPENING OR
CLOSING AGAINST INDICATED
PRESSURE.
(3) THE EFFECT OF DYNAMIC
TORSION IS NOT CONSIDERED
IN THIS TABULATION.
(4) PRESSURE CAPACITY (RATING)
OF VALVES IS NOT CONSIDERED
IN THIS TABULATION.
(5) TORSIONAL CAPACITY OF
VALVE STEM IS NOT
CONSIDERED IN THIS
TABULATION.
(6) IF PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
IS NOT KNOWN, USE FULL
RATED PRESSURE CAPABILITY
OF THE VALVE.
(7) FOR 1" AND 1.5" VALVES, USE
THE 2" VALVE TORQUE VALUES.

CATEGORY I (IDEAL CONDITIONS)


PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
50
100
150
200
78
86
95
103
124
141
158
176
150
169
188
207
230
265
301
336
329
413
496
580
447
558
669
779
624
873
1121
1370
933
1358
1782
2207
1338
1949
2559
3170

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"

0
69
107
131
195
245
336
375
509
728

250
112
193
226
371
664
890
1619
2632
3781

285
118
205
239
396
722
968
1793
2929
4208

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"

CATEGORY II (NORMAL CONDITIONS)


PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
0
50
100
150
200
250
92
101
109
118
126
135
122
138
155
171
188
204
133
153
173
193
213
232
260
296
333
369
406
442
327
411
495
579
664
748
448
563
677
792
906
1021
386
646
905
1165
1425
1684
678
1119
1560
2000
2441
2882
970
1604
2238
2873
3507
4141

285
141
216
246
468
807
1101
1866
3191
4585

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"

CATEGORY III (SEVERE CONDITIONS)


PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
0
50
100
150
200
250
175
183
192
200
209
217
270
287
304
322
339
356
333
351
370
389
408
427
494
529
564
600
635
670
621
705
789
872
956
1040
851
962
1073
1184
1295
1406
950
1199
1448
1696
1945
2194
1288
1713
2137
2562
2987
3411
1843
2454
3064
3675
4285
4896

285
223
368
440
695
1099
1483
2368
3709
5324

######

K-LOK
FIGURE 360, 362, 370 AND 372 VALVES
BI-DIRECTIONAL SEATING AND UNSEATING TORQUES (INCH-LBS.)
SIZES 2" - 36"
TFE AND RTFE SEATS

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
20"
24"
30"
36"
NOTES:

0
200
200
230
400
810
980
1720
2700
3750
5520
7100
8700
10000
12250
15000
35000

150
220
220
250
475
925
1370
2060
3340
4590
6750
9350
11900
15600
21700
29200
52500

PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
ANSI 150
285
200
400
280
380
460
280
380
460
320
430
520
600
820
995
1125
1350
1570
1600
1850
2150
2330
3200
4020
3650
4700
6250
5250
6400
8160
7560
9150
11450
10450
12600
15000
13300
15800
19500
17500
21000
25200
25340
30600
36900
35000
43500
54500
58500
70000
85000

500
520
520
590
1120
1750
2390
4870
7450
9690
13300
17500
21900
28700
42100
62500
97500

ANSI 300
740
580
580
650
1235
1900
2900
6720
9850
12940
17200
22200
28500
36140
54000
80000
125000

(1)

TORQUE VALUES REPRESENT TESTED BREAKAWAY


TORQUES WITH ADEQUATE SAFETY MARGIN FOR CLEAN
SERVICES WITH TEMPERATURES ABOVE -20 DEGREES F.

(2)

ABOVE VALUES INCLUDE PACKING AND BEARING AS WELL


AS ECCENTRIC DISC IMBALANCE TORQUES.

(3)

IF PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL IS NOT KNOWN, USE FULL


RATED PRESSURE CAPABILITY OF THE VALVE.

K-LOK
FIGURE 360, 362, 370 AND 372 VALVES
BI-DIRECTIONAL SEATING AND UNSEATING TORQUES (INCH-LBS.)
SIZES 2" - 36"
METAL AND FIRESAFE SEATS
NOTES:
(1)

TORQUE VALUES REPRESENT TESTED


BREAKAWAY TORQUES WITH ADEQUATE
SAFETY MARGIN FOR CLEAN SERVICES
WITH TEMPERATURES ABOVE -20
DEGREES F.

(2)

ABOVE VALUES INCLUDE PACKING AND


BEARING AS WELL AS ECCENTRIC DISC
IMBALANCE TORQUES.

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
20"
24"
30"
36"

PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
285
760
760
860
1640
2700
3700
6400
9400
12800
18300
25400
31600
42000
61200
NA
NA

11/13/02

K-LOK
FIGURE 360, 362, 370 AND 372 VALVES
BI-DIRECTIONAL SEATING AND UNSEATING TORQUES (INCH-LBS.)
SIZES 2" - 36"
ULTRA HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE SEATS (UHMWPE)

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
20"
24"
30"
36"
NOTES:

0
260
260
299
520
1053
1274
2236
3510
4875
7176
9230
11310
13000
15925
19500
45500

150
286
286
325
618
1203
1781
2678
4342
5967
8775
12155
15470
20280
28210
37960
68250

PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
ANSI 150
285
200
400
364
494
598
364
494
598
416
559
676
780
1066
1294
1463
1755
2041
2080
2405
2795
3029
4160
5226
4745
6110
8125
6825
8320
10608
9828
11895
14885
13585
16380
19500
17290
20540
25350
22750
27300
32760
32942
39780
47970
45500
56550
70850
76050
91000
110500

500
676
676
767
1456
2275
3107
6331
9685
12597
17290
22750
28470
37310
54730
81250
126750

ANSI 300
740
754
754
845
1606
2470
3770
8736
12805
16822
22360
28860
37050
46982
70200
104000
162500

(1)

FOR SOLIDS OR ABRASIVE SERVICE, USE 1.3 X THE ABOVE


VALUES.

(2)

TORQUE VALUES REPRESENT TESTED BREAKAWAY


TORQUES WITH ADEQUATE SAFETY MARGIN FOR CLEAN
SERVICES WITH TEMPERATURES ABOVE -20 DEGREES F.

(3)

ABOVE VALUES INCLUDE PACKING AND BEARING AS WELL AS


ECCENTRIC DISC IMBALANCE TORQUES.

(4)

IF PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL IS NOT KNOWN, USE FULL


RATED PRESSURE CAPABILITY OF THE VALVE.

11/13/02

K-LOK
FIGURE 360, 362, 370 AND 372 VALVES
BI-DIRECTIONAL SEATING AND UNSEATING TORQUES (INCH-LBS.)
SIZES 2" - 36"
EPDM AND BUNA-N SEATS

VALVE
SIZE
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
20"
24"
30"
36"
NOTES:

0
280
280
322
560
1134
1372
2408
3780
5250
7728
9940
12180
14000
17150
21000
49000
(1)

150
308
308
350
665
1295
1918
2884
4676
6426
9450
13090
16660
21840
30380
40880
73500

PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
ANSI 150
285
200
400
392
532
644
392
532
644
448
602
728
840
1148
1393
1575
1890
2198
2240
2590
3010
3262
4480
5628
5110
6580
8750
7350
8960
11424
10584
12810
16030
14630
17640
21000
18620
22120
27300
24500
29400
35280
35476
42840
51660
49000
60900
76300
81900
98000
119000

500
728
728
826
1568
2450
3346
6818
10430
13566
18620
24500
30660
40180
58940
87500
136500

ANSI 300
740
812
812
910
1729
2660
4060
9408
13790
18116
24080
31080
39900
50596
75600
112000
175000

TORQUE VALUES REPRESENT TESTED BREAKAWAY


TORQUES WITH ADEQUATE SAFETY MARGIN FOR CLEAN
SERVICES WITH TEMPERATURES ABOVE -20 DEGREES F.

(2)
ABOVE VALUES INCLUDE PACKING AND BEARING AS WELL AS
ECCENTRIC DISC IMBALANCE TORQUES.
(3)

IF PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL IS NOT KNOWN, USE FULL


RATED PRESSURE CAPABILITY OF THE VALVE.

11/13/02

...J

if)

100

1000

10000

100000

1000000

f-------

t~=

. ..--

100

::1- -

--

200

--::::l

. =t=:O

--..-.-- ,.. -- ....----- --

----_.._-'_n

---....

-..'-,-'..-.-.---"""
" ".-- .----.~.

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. -:_ .

-:=-...:::::=I-c-

,c:..

::J=-.

cf:_

600

~.
--" '
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--------"-------"---- ----. . -- -.--.
-~:::

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700

..-.... .

---,------"'
-------- -,--..---_?~~
+---------.----'----------

..-

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE . PSI

300 400 500

1------

1--_.

: ,c_

=L

SINGLE V VALVE
WO400 (WO600)

.._

--==-------

.:::.::
----_. ~ '-"..-.-:::-j----..
"~~

--

- --

PRODUCTS INC.

IllilF!A20 :;;E REQU

TORQUE CURVE

200 C/392 F)

(MAX TEMPERATURE

III

!!II

I ,
I , .

t . ,

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10, 000

I I I , :
I I

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Fh, Vi1~r;:

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~~t:

1-1/2"

oi:~

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1/:. -+ ,
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=:':'/.;"I;'--

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r~,

~~L-

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--f- - --~~:~u,

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:L:

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m- .-

Z=o~':'=:",

iJfl~~i.

~r: ~~;A~=

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~~l~: Li~:~:'

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-- -,

1==

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i~~;-

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i:~

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~:. J:: :~-

-=~ctL ~TI3T

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100

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I:',

200

150

: I i.!
250

300

1 ~

:c-

~L~: -::::r-=--

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-c

L+-riT ,
;--;-f--r-;-I'i-- .. 1hL~_

-- u

::7-

i -...

350

~E~~: I '

"1'1'--

: H-i+I-fI - i---f---ili-

~I~w-

400

450

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE
, 0, Box 21 9007

:F.

i=;

:':~:7:~__

~G:;~~ ;~i~~~

i, .... ,-_u._--.

---==1'.
1- 1--,_.. .._.m_.._--

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t-:~~~---

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; H

i"--d-

'Li

11

T-

550

600

H--i+-

+r
650

PSI

Houston . Texas 77218 . (713) 492- 8800 . Fax (713) 492- 8905

700

ENGINEERING DATA

Page 25 of 25

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION FORMULAS


To Convert From
To
Substitute in Formula
Degrees
Degrees
(C x 9/5) + 32
Celcius
Fahrenheit
Degrees
(C = 273.16)
Kelvin
Celcius
Degrees
(F - 32) x 5/9
Degrees Fahrenheit
Celcius
Degrees
(F + 459.69)
Degrees Fahrenheit
Rankin
VOLUME EQUIVALENTS
Note: Use Multiplier
Cubic
at Convergence of Decimeters
Row and Column
(Liters)
Cubic Decimeters
(Liters)
Cubic Inches
Cubic Feet
U.S. Quart
U.S. Gallon
Imperial Gallon
U.S. Barrel
(Petroleum)

Cubic
Inches

Cubic
Feet

U.S.
Quart

U.S.
Gallon

Imperial
Gallon

U.S. Barrel
(Petroleum)

1
0.01639
28.317
0.94636
3.78543
277.274

61.0234
1
1728
57.75
231
277.274

0.035311
5.787 x 10-4
1
0.03342
0.13368
0.16054

1.05668
0.01732
29.9221
1
4
4.80128

0.264178
0.004329
7.48055
0.25
1
1.20032

0.220083
0.003606
6.22888
0.2082
0.833
1

0.00629
0.000103
0.1781
0.00595
0.02381
0.02877

5.6146

9702

5.6146

168

42

34.973

VOLUME RATE EQUIVALENTS


Note: Use Multiplier
at Convergence of
Row and Column
Liters
Per Minute
Cubic Meters Per
Hour
Cubic Feet
Per Hour
Liters
Per Hour
U.S. Gallon
Per Minute
U.S. Barrel
Per Day

Liters
Per Minute

Cubic
Meters
Per Hour

Cubic Feet
Per Hour

0.06

2.1189

60

0.264178

9.057

16.667

35.314

1000

4.403

151

0.4719

0.028317

28.317

0.1247

4.2746

0.016667

0.001

0.035314

0.004403

0.151

3.785

0.2273

8.0208

227.3

34.28

0.1104

0.006624

0.23394

6.624

0.02917

Liters Per U.S. Gallon U.S. Barrel


Hour
Per Minute
Per Day

Critical Pressure
of Various Fluids, Psia*

Ammonia
Argon
Butane
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Monoxide
Chlorine
Dowtherm A
Ethane
Ethylene
Fluorine
Helium
Hydrogen
Hydrogen Chloride
Isobutane
Isobutylene
Methane
Nitrogen
Nitrous Oxide
Oxygen
Phosgene
Propane
Propylene
Refrigerant 11
Refrigerant 12
Refrigerant 22
Water

1636
705.6
550.4
1071.6
507.5
118.7
465
708
735
808.5
33.2
188.2
1198
529.2
580
673.3
492.4
1047.6
736.5
823.2
617.4
670.3
635
596.9
716
3206.2

Properties of Water
Saturation
Temp (F)
Weight
Pressure
(Lbs/ Gallon)
(Lbs/In2 Absolute)
32
0.0885
8.345
40
0.1217
8.345
50
0.1781
8.34
60
0.2653
8.334
70
0.3631
8.325
80
0.5069
8.314
90
0.6982
8.303
100
0.9492
8.289
110
1.2748
8.267
120
1.6924
8.253
130
2.2225
8.227
140
2.8886
8.207
150
3.718
8.182
160
4.741
8.156
170
5.992
8.127
180
7.51
8.098
190
9.339
8.068
200
11.526
8.039
210
14.123
8.005
212
14.696
7.996
220
17.186
7.972
240
24.969
7.901
260
35.429
7.822
280
49.203
7.746
300
67.013
7.662
350
134.63
7.432
400
247.31
7.172
450
422.6
6.892
500
680.8
6.553
550
1045.2
6.132
600
1542.9
5.664
700
3093.7
3.623

Conversion
Specific
Gravity Factor, (1) lbs/hr
to GPM
60/60F
1.0013
0.00199
1.0013
0.00199
1.0007
0.00199
1
0.00199
0.9989
0.002
0.9967
0.002
0.9963
0.002
0.9946
0.00201
0.9919
0.00201
0.9901
0.00201
0.9872
0.00202
0.9848
0.00203
0.9818
0.00203
0.9786
0.00204
0.9752
0.00205
0.9717
0.00205
0.9681
0.00206
0.9646
0.00207
0.9605
0.00208
0.9594
0.00208
0.9566
0.00209
0.948
0.0021
0.9386
0.00211
0.9294
0.00215
0.9194
0.00217
0.8918
0.00224
0.8606
0.00232
0.827
0.00241
0.7863
0.00254
0.7358
0.00271
0.6796
0.00294
0.4347
0.0046

1. Multiply flow in pounds per hour by the factor to get equivalent flow in galls
per minute. Weight per gallon is based on 7.48 gallons per cubic foot.
TORQUE
by

To obtain

Multiply # of
Nm
kgf m
ft lb
in lb

Newton Meter
Nm

Kilogram
Force
Meter
kgf m

Foot Pound
ft lb

Inch Pound
in lb

1
9.807
1.356
0.113

0.102
1
0.1383
0.01152

0.7376
7.233
1
0.08333

8.851
86.8
12
1

11/13/02

Leakage
In the Terminology section of this manual "tight shut off" was indicated as having various meanings, dependent upon the
type of valve and the manufacturer. Such inconsistencies were recognized by many in the valve industry who worked
together to develop a uniform method of catagorizing various leakage rates. The result of these efforts is the ANSI
standard B16.104 which establishes six leakage classifications as follows:
STANDARD LEAKAGE RATES
Leakage
Class
Designation

Maximum Leakage
Allowable

Test Medium

Test Procedures

Testing Procedures Required for


Establishing Rating

--

--

--

No test required provided user and


supplier so agree.

45 - 60 psig or max
operating differential,
whichever is lower
(3 - 4 bar)

Pressure applied to valve inlet, with


outlet open to atmosphere or
connected to a low head loss
measuring device, full normal
closing thrust provided by actuator.

II

Air or water at 50 125F


0.5% of rated capacity
(10 - 52C)

III

0.1% of rated capacity

As above

As above

As above

IV

0.01% of rated capacity

As above

As above

As above

VI

0.0005 ml per minute


per inche of port
diameter per psi
differential

Water at
50 - 125F
(10 - 52C)

Not to exceed amounts Air to nitrogen at


shown in table 2 based
50 - 125F
on port diameter
(10 - 52C)

Pressure applied to valve inlet,


Max service pressure
after filling entire body cavity and
drop across valve plug,
connected piping with water and
not to exceed ANSI body stroking valve plug closed. Use
rating (100 psi pressure net specified max actuator thrust,
drop min) or lesser
but no more, even if available
pressure by agreement during test. Allow time for leakage
flow to stabilize.
Actuator should be adjusted to
50 psig or max rated
operating conditions specified with
differential pres-across full normal closing thrust applied to
valve plug, whichever is
valve plug seat. Allow time for
lower (3.5 bar)
leakage flow to stabilize and use
suitable measuring device.

11/13/02

Millimeters
25
38
51
64
76
102
152
203

NOMINAL PORT DIAMETER


Inches
ML Per Minute
1
0.15
1-1/2
0.3
2
0.45
2-1/2
0.6
3
0.9
4
1.7
6
4
8
6.75

Bubbles Per Minute*


1
2
3
4
6
11
27
45

*Bubbles per minute as tabulated are a suggested alternative to a calibrated measuring device, in this
case a 1/4 inch (6.3 mm) O.D. x 0.032 inch (0.8 mm) wall tube submerged in water to a depth of from 1/8
to 1/4 inch (3 to 6 mm). The tube end shall be cute square and smooth with no chamfers or burrs and the
tube axis shall be perpendicular to the surface of the water. Other apparatus may be constructed and the
number of bubbles per minute may differ from those shown as long as they correctly indicate the flow in ml
per minute.
Missing from the ANSI standard is any reference of zero leak rate valves. This is partially because nearly
all valves leak, even those proven to shutoff tight by specified shutoff tests. The point here is not to
indicate or to imply that valves cannot provide required shutoff and tight sealing because the leakage in
many cases is infinitesimally small. Given the most critical of tests, some leakage may be determinable,
yet for all practical purposes and for most applications, effective zero leakage exists.
Tight shutoff, for the purposes of this manual is considered to exist when 110% of the rated shutoff
pressure can be applied to one side of the valve disc with no leakage visually detectable past the seat or
any of the valve components.
Preferably the test will consist of having a small amount of air entrapped below the valve disc (pressure
generated hydraulically with water) and a pool of water on top of the disc. The absence of air bubbles
rising through the pool of water indicates tight shutoff and zero effective leakage.
Occasionally, high test pressures or the orientation of the test valve will prohibit the use of entrapped air or
the pool of water. In these instances, water may be the test media, and a lack of visually detectable water
leakage indicates tight shutoff and zero effective leakage.

Altitude Above Sea Level


Feet*
-5000
-4500
-4000
-3500
-3000

Miles
------

Temperature **

Meters
-1526
-1373
-1220
-1068
-915

F
77
75
73
71
70

C
25
24
23
22
21

Barometer*
Inches
MM
Hg Abs. Hg Abs.
35.58
903.7
35
889
34.42
974.3
33.84
859.5
33.27
845.1

Atmospheric Pressure
Kg/sq
PSIA
?
kPa A
17.48
1.229
120.5
17.19
1.209
118.5
16.9
1.181
116.5
16.62
1.169
114.6
16.34
1.149
112.7

-2500
-2000
-1500
-1000
-500

------

-763
-610
-458
-305
-153

68
66
64
63
61

20
19
18
17
16

32.7
32.14
31.58
31.02
30.47

830.6
816.6
802.1
787.9
773.9

16.06
15.78
15.51
15.23
14.96

1.129
1.109
1.091
1.071
1.052

110.7
108.8
106.9
105
103.1

0
500
1000
1500
2000

------

0
153
305
458
610

59
57
55
54
52

15
14
13
12
11

29.92
29.38
28.86
28.33
27.02

760
746.3
733
719.6
706.6

14.696
14.43
14.16
13.91
13.46

1.0333
1.015
0.956
0.978
0.98

101.33
88.48
97.83
85.91
34.19

2500
3000
3500
4000
4500

------

763
915
1068
1220
1373

50
48
47
45
43

10
9
8
7
6

27.32
26.82
26.33
25.84
25.37

693.9
681.2
668.2
656.3
644.4

13.41
13.17
12.93
12.69
13.45

0.943
0.926
0.909
0.892
0.876

92.45
90.81
89.15
87.48
85.91

5000
6000
7000
8000
9000

0.95
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.7

1526
1831
2136
2441
2746

41
38
34
31
27

5
3
1
-1
-3

24.9
23.99
23.1
22.23
21.39

632.5
609.3
586.7
564.6
543.3

12.23
11.78
11.34
10.91
10.5

0.86
0.828
0.797
0.767
0.738

84.33
81.22
78.19
75.22
72.4

10000
15000
20000
25000
30000

1.9
2.8
3.8
4.7
5.7

3050
4577
6102
7628
9153

23
6
-12
-30
-48

-5
-14
-24
-34
-44

20.58
16.89
13.76
11.12
8.903

522.7
429
369.5
282.4
226.1

10.1
8.29
6.76
5.46
4.37

0.71
0.583
0.475
0.384
0.307

69.64
57.16
45.61
37.05
30.13

35000
40000
45000
50000
55000

63.6
7.6
8.5
9.5
10.4

10679
12204
13730
15253
16781

-66
-70
-70
-70
-70

-57
-57
-57
-57
-57

7.06
5.558
4.375
3.444
2.712

179.3
141.2
111.1
89.5
68.9

3.47
2.73
2.15
1.69
1.33

0.244
0.192
0.151
0.119
0.0935

23.83
18.82
14.82
11.55
9.17

60000
70000
80000
90000
100000

11.4
13.3
15.2
17.1
18.9

18306
21357
24408
27459
30510

-70
-67
-62
-57
-51

-57
-55
-52
-59
-46

2.135
1.325
8.273-1
5.200-1
3.290-1

54.2
33.7
21
13.2
8.36

1.05
0.651
0.406
0.255
0.162

0.0738
0.0458
0.0285
0.0179
0.0114

7.24
4.49
2.8
1.76
1.12

Cast Iron (ASTM A126) -- Cast iron is an inexpensive, non-ductile material used for
valve bodies controlling steam, water, gas and non-corrosive fluids.
Pressure-Temperature Ratings for ASTM a216 Cast Iron Valves
(in accordance with ASME/ANSI B16.1 - 1989)
Class 125
Class 250
ASTM A 127
ASTM A 126
Temperature
Class A
Class A
Class B
Class B
NPS
NPS
NPS
NPS
NPS
NPS 1-12
1-12
14-24
1-12
1-12
14-24
F
Psig
-20 to 150
175
200
150
400
500
300
200
165
190
135
370
460
280
225
155
180
130
355
440
270
250
150
175
125
340
4156
260
275
145
170
120
325
395
250
300
140
165
110
310
375
240
325
130
155
105
295
355
230
353
125
150
100
280
335
220
375
---145
-265
315
210
406
---140
-250
290
200
425
---130
--270
-450
---125
--250
-C
Bar
-29 to 66
12
14
10
28
34
21
93
11
13
9
26
32
19
107
11
12
9
24
30
19
121
10
12
9
23
29
18
135
10
12
8
22
27
17
149
10
11
8
21
26
17
163
9
11
7
20
24
16
178
9
10
7
19
23
15
191
---10
---18
22
14
207
---10
---17
20
14
218
---9
----19
-232
---9
----17
--

Pressure-Temperature Ratings for Standard Class


ASTM A351 Grade CF8M and ASTM A479 Grade UNS S31700 Valves (in
accordance with ASME B16.34-1996) (continued)
WORKING PRESSURES BY CLASS
Temperature
150
300
600
900
1500
F
Psig
200
235
620
1240
1860
3095
300
215
560
1120
1680
2795
400
195
515
1025
1540
2570
500
170
480
955
1435
2390
600
140
450
900
1355
2255
650
125
445
890
1330
2220
700
110
430
870
1305
2170
750
95
425
855
1280
2135
800
80
420
845
1265
2110
850
65
420
835
1255
2090
900
50
415
830
1245
2075
950
35
385
775
1160
1930
350
700
1050
1750
1000
20(1)
(1)
1050
20
345
685
1030
1720
1100
20(1)
305
610
915
1525
1150
20(1)
235
475
710
1185
(1)
1200
20
185
370
555
925
1250
20(1)
145
295
440
735
(1)
1300
20
115
235
350
585
1350
20(1)
95
190
290
480
(1)
1400
20
75
150
225
380
1450
20(1)
60
115
175
290
(1)
1500
20
40
85
125
205
C
Bar
-29 to 38
19
50
99
149
248
93
16
43
85
128
213
149
15
39
77
116
193
204
13
36
71
106
177
260
12
33
66
99
165
316
10
31
62
93
155
343
9
31
61
92
153
371
8
29
60
90
150
399
7
29
59
88
147
427
6
29
58
87
145
454
4
29
58
87
144
482
3
27
57
86
143
510
2
24
533
80
133
538
1
24
48
72
121
21
47
71
119
565
1(1)
(1)
593
1
16
42
63
105
621
1(1)
13
33
49
82
(1)
649
1
10
26
38
64
676
1(1)
8
1620
30
51
704
1(1)
6
16
24
40
732
1(1)
4
13
20
33
(1)
760
1
3
10
16
26
788
1(1)
2
8
12
20
815
1(1)
2
6
9
14
1. For welding end valves only. Flanged end ratings terminate at 1000F.

11/13/02

Pressure Equivalents
Use Multiplier at
Convergence of
Row & Column
Kg Per Sq Cm
Lb Per Sq In
Atm
Bar
In of Hg

Kg Per
Sq Cm

Lb Per
Sq In

Atm

Bar

In of
Hg

Kilopascals

In of
Water

Ft of
Water

0.9678 0.98067
0.06804 0.06895
1
1.01325
0.98692
1
0.03342 0.033864

28.96
2.036
29.92
29.53
1

98.067
6.895
101.325
100
3.3864

394.05
27.7
407.14
402.156
13.61

32.84
2.309
33.93
33.513
11.134

Kilopascals

1
14.22
0.07031
1
1.0332
14.696
1.01972 14.5038
0.03453
0.4912
0.010197
2
0.145038

0.00987

0.2953

4.02156

0.33513

In of Water
Ft of Water

0.002538
0.03045

0.00246 0.00249 0.007349


0.02947 0.029839 0.8819

0.249
2.9839

1
12

0.0833
1

Pounds Per
Square Inch
0
10

0
0
.689476

0.0361
0.4332

0.01

Pressure Conversion--Pounds per Square Inch to Bar*


2
3
4
5
6
Bar
0.068948 0.1379 0.206843 0.27579 0.344738 0.413685
0.758423 0.82737 0.896318 0.965266 1.034214 1.103161
1

0.482633
1.172109

0.551581 0.620528
1.241056 1.310004

20

1.378951 1.447899 1.51685 1.585794 1.654742 1.723689

1.792637

1.861584

1.930532

30

2.068427 2.137375 2.20632

2.27527

2.344217 2.413165

2.482113

2.55106

2.620008 2.688955

40
50
60
70
80
90
100

2.757903
3.447379
4.136854
4.826330
5.515806
6.205282
6.894757

2.964746
3.654221
4.343697
5.033173
5.722649
6.412124
7.1016

3.033693
3.723169
4.412645
5.10212
5.791596
6.481072
7.170548

3.171588
3.861064
4.55054
5.240016
5.929491
6.618967
7.308443

3.240536
3.930012
4.619487
5.308963
5.998439
6.687915
7.37739

3.309484
3.998959
4.688435
5.377911
6.067386
6.756862
7.446338

2.82685
3.616326
4.205802
4.895278
5.584753
6.274229
6.963705

2.8958
3.58527
4.27748
4.96423
5.6537
6.34318
7.03265

3.102641
3.792117
4.481592
5.171068
5.860544
6.550019
7.239495

1.99948

3.378431
4.067907
4.757383
5.446858
6.136334
6.82581
7.515285

Note: To convert to kilopascals, move decimal point two positions to right; to convert to Megapascals, move decimal point one
position to left. For example, 30 psi, = 2.068427 bar = 206.8427 kPa = 0.2068427 Mpa.
Note: Round off decimal points to provide no more than the desired degree of accuracy.

Other Useful Conversions


To
To Convert From
B.T.U.
Cu Ft (Methane)
Lbs of Water
Cu Ft of Water
Radians
Degrees
Lbs of Water
Gals
Ounces
Grams
Ft Lbs per Min
Horsepower
Watts
Horsepower
Lbs
Kg
Lbs per Cu Ft
Kg per
Horsepower
Kilowatts
Kg
Lbs
Cu Ft of Air
Lbs of Air
Kg per Cu Meter
Lbs per Cu Ft
Std Cu Ft per Hr
Lbs per Hr (Gas)
Gals per Min
Lbs per Hr (Water)
Std Cu Ft per Hr
Lbs per Sec (Gas)
Degrees
Radians
Scfh Propane
Scfh Air
Scfh Butane
Scfh Air
Scfh 0.6 Natural Gas
Scfh Air
Cu Meters per Hr
Scfh

Multiply By
1000 (approx.)
622.4
0.01745
8.336
0.0352
33000
746
2.205
0.06243
1.341
0.4536
13.1
16.0184
13.1/Specific Gravity
0.002
46160/Specific
57.3
0.81
0.71
1.29
0.028317

Physical Constants of Hydrocarbons

No.

Compound

Formula

CH4
C2 H6
C 3 H8
C4H10
C4H10
C5H12
C5H12
C5H12
C6H14
C6H14
C6H14
C6H14
C6H14
C7H16
C7H16
C7H16
C7H16
C7H16
C7H16
C7H16
C7H16
C8H18
C8H18
C8H18
C9H20
C10H22
C5H10
C6H12
C6H12
C7H14
C2 H4
C 3 H6
C 4 H8
C 4 H8
C 4 H8
C4 H8
C5H10
C 4 H6
C 4 H6
C5 H8
C2 H2
C 6 H6
C 7 H8
C8H10
C8H10
C8H10
C8H10
C8 H8
C9H12

Molecular
Weight

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

Methane
Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
Isobutane
n-Pentane
Isopentane
Neopentane
n-Hexane
2-Methylpentane
3-Methylpentane
Neohexane
2,3-Dimethylbutane
n-Heptane
2-Methylhexane
3-Methylhexane
3-Ethylpentane
2,2-Dimethylpentane
2,4-Dimethylpentane
3,3-Dimethylpentane
Triptane
n-Octane
Disobutyl
Isooctane
n-Nonane
n-Decane
Cyclopentane
Methylcyclopentane
Cyclohexane
Methylcyclohexane
Ethylene
Propene
1-Butene
Cis-2-Butene
Trans-2-Butune
Isobutene
1-Pentane
1,2-Butadiene
1,3-Butadiene
Isoprene
Acetylene
Benzene
Toluene
Ethylbenzene
o-Xylene
m-Xylene
p-Xylene
Styrene
Isopropylbenzene

16.043
30.07
44.097
58.124
58.124
72.151
72.151
72.151
86.178
86.178
86.178
86.178
86.178
100.205
100.205
100.205
100.205
100.205
100.205
100.205
100.205
114.232
114.232
114.232
128.259
142.286
70.135
84.162
84.162
98.189
28.054
42.081
56.108
56.108
56.108
56.108
70.135
54.092
54.092
68.119
26.038
78.114
92.141
106.168
106.168
106.168
106.168
293.29
306.34

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Calculated values.
( ) - Estimated values.
Air saturated hydrocarbons.
Absolute values from weights in vacuum.
At saturation pressure (triple point).
Sublimation point.
Saturation pressure and 60F.
Apparent value for methane at 60F.
Specific Gravity, 119F/60F (sublimation point).

Boiling
Point at
14.696
PSIA (F)
-258.69
-127.48
-43.67
31.10
10.90
96.92
82.12
49.10
155.72
140.47
145.89
121.52
136.36
209.17
194.09
197.32
200.25
174.54
176.89
186.91
177.58
258.22
228.39
210.63
303.47
345.48
120.65
161.25
177.29
213.68
-154.62
-53.90
20.75
38.69
33.58
19.59
85.93
51.53
24.06
93.30
-119(6)
176.17
231.13
277.16
291.97
282.41
281.05
293.29
306.34

Critical Constants
Freezing
Vapor
Point at
Critical
Pressure at
Critical
14.696 PSIA
Pressure
100F (PSIA)
Temp (F)
(F)
(psia)
(2)

(5000)
(2)
(800)
190
51.6
72.2
15.57
20.44
35.9
4.956
6.767
6.098
9.856
7.404
1.62
2.271
2.13
2.012
3.492
3.292
2.773
3.374
0.537
1.101
1.708
0.179
0.0597
9.914
4.503
3.264
1.609
--226.4
63.05
45.54
49.8
63.4
19.115
(20)(2)
(60)(2)
16.672
--3.224
1.032
0.371
0.264
0.326
0.342
(0.24)(2)
0.188

(5)

-296.46
(5)
-297.89
(5)
-305.84
-217.05
-255.29
-201.51
-255.83
2.17
-139.58
-244.63
---147.72
-199.38
-131.05
-180.89
---181.48
-190.86
-182.63
-210.01
-12.82
-70.18
-132.07
-161.27
-64.28
-21.36
-136.91
-224.44
43.77
-195.87
-272.45(5)
-301.45(5)
-301.63(5)
-218.06
-157.96
-220.61
-265.39
-213.16
-164.02
-230.74
-114(5)
41.96
-138.94
-138.91
-13.3
-54.12
55.86
-23.1
-140.82

-116.63
90.09
206.01
305.65
274.98
385.7
369.1
321.13
453.7
435.83
448.3
420.13
440.29
512.8
495
503.78
513.48
477.23
475.95
505.85
496.44
564.22
530.44
519.46
610.68
652.1
461.5
499.35
536.7
570.27
48.58
196.9
295.6
324.37
311.86
292.55
376.93
(339)(2)
306
(412)(2)
95.31
552.22
605.55
651.24
675
651.02
649.6
706
676.4

667.8
707.8
616.3
550.7
529.1
488.6
490.4
464
436.9
436.6
453.1
446.8
453.5
396.8
396.5
408.1
419.3
402.2
396.9
427.2
428.4
360.6
360.6
372.4
332
304
653.8
548.9
591
503.5
729.8
669
583
610
595
580
590
(653)(2)
628
(558.4)(2)
890.4
710.4
595.9
523.5
541.4
513.6
509.2
580
465.4

Specific Gravity

Specific Heat Ratio (k)


Specific Heat Ratio (k)

Gas

Specific Heat Ratio (k)

Acetylene

1.38

Hydrogen

1.40

Air

1.40

Methane

1.26

Argon

1.67

0.6 Natural Gas

1.32

Butane

1.17

Nitrogen

1.40

Carbon Monoxide

1.40

Oxygen

1.40

Carbon Dioxide

1.29

Propane

1.21

Ethane

1.25

Propylene

1.15

Helium

1.66

Steam

1. Use property tables if available for greater accuracy.

1.33

(1)

(Air=1)
(8)

0.3
(7)
0.3564
(7)
0.5077
0.5844(7)
0.5631(7)
0.631
0.6247
(7)
0.5967
0.664
0.6579
0.6689
0.654
0.6664
0.6882
0.683
0.6917
0.7028
0.6782
0.6773
0.6976
0.6946
0.7068
0.6979
0.6962
0.7217
0.7342
0.7504
0.7536
0.7834
0.774
--0.5220(7)
0.6013(7)
0.6271(7)
0.6100(7)
0.6004(7)
0.6457
0.6587
0.6272(7)
0.6861
0.615(9)
0.8844
0.8718
0.8718
0.8848
0.8687
0.8657
0.911
0.8663

Gas

(1)

Gas at 60F

Liquid,(3), (4)
60F/60F

0.5539
1.0382
1.5225
2.0068
2.0068
2.4911
2.4911
2.4911
2.9753
2.9753
2.9753
2.9753
2.9753
3.4596
3.4596
3.4596
3.4596
3.4596
3.4596
3.4596
3.4596
3.9439
3.9439
3.9439
4.4282
4.9125
2.4215
2.9057
2.9057
3.39
0.9686
1.4529
1.9372
1.9372
1.9372
1.9372
2.4215
1.8676
1.8676
2.3159
0.899
2.6969
3.1812
3.6655
3.6655
3.6655
3.6655
3.5959
4.1498

PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM


Absolute
Pressure

Vacuum Temperature
(Inches of
t
Lbs/Sq In Inches of
Hg)
(F)
P'
Hg

Heat of the
Liquid
(BTU/LB)

Latent Heat of
Evaporation
(BTU/LB)

Total Heat of
Steam
Hg
(BTU/LB)

Specific
Volume
V
(Cu Ft/Lb)

0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

0.41
0.51
0.61
0.71
0.81
0.92

29.51
29.41
29.31
29.21
29.11
29.00

53.14
59.30
64.47
68.93
72.86
76.38

21.21
27.36
32.52
36.97
40.89
44.41

1063.8
1060.3
1057.4
1054.9
1052.7
1050.7

1085.0
1087.7
1090.0
1091.9
1093.6
1095.1

1526.0
1235.3
1039.5
898.5
791.9
708.5

0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90

1.02
1.22
1.43
1.63
1.83

28.90
28.70
28.49
28.29
28.09

79.58
85.21
90.08
94.38
98.24

47.60
53.21
58.07
62.36
66.21

1048.8
1045.7
1042.9
1040.4
1038.3

1096.4
1098.9
1101.0
1102.8
1104.5

641.4
540.0
466.9
411.7
368.4

1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80

2.04
2.44
2.85
3.26
3.66

27.88
27.48
27.07
26.66
26.26

101.74
107.92
113.26
117.99
122.23

69.70
75.87
81.20
85.91
90.14

1036.3
1032.7
1029.6
1026.9
1024.5

1106.0
1108.6
1110.8
1112.8
1114.6

333.6
280.9
243.0
214.3
191.8

2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80

4.07
4.48
4.89
5.29
5.70

25.85
25.44
25.03
24.63
24.22

126.08
129.62
132.89
135.94
138.79

93.99
97.52
100.79
103.83
106.68

1022.2
1020.2
1018.3
1016.5
1014.8

1116.2
1117.7
1119.1
1120.3
1121.5

173.73
158.85
146.38
135.78
126.65

3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00

6.11
7.13
8.14
9.16
10.18

23.81
22.79
21.78
20.76
19.74

141.48
147.58
152.97
157.83
162.24

109.37
115.46
120.86
125.71
130.13

1013.2
1009.6
1006.4
1003.6
1001.0

1122.6
1125.1
1127.3
1129.3
1131.1

118.71
102.72
90.63
81.16
73.52

5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50

11.20
12.22
13.23
14.25
15.27

1.72
17.70
16.69
15.67
14.65

166.30
170.06
173.56
176.85
179.94

134.19
137.96
141.47
144.76
147.86

998.5
996.2
994.1
992.1
990.2

1132.7
1134.2
1135.6
1136.9
1138.1

67.24
61.98
57.50
53.64
50.29

8.00
8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00

16.29
17.31
18.32
19.34
20.36

13.63
12.61
11.60
10.58
9.56

182.86
185.64
188.28
190.80
193.21

150.79
153.57
156.22
158.75
161.17

988.5
986.8
985.2
983.6
982.1

1139.3
1140.4
1141.4
1142.3
1143.3

47.34
44.73
42.40
40.31
38.42

11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00

22.40
24.43
26.47
28.50

7.52
5.49
3.45
1.42

197.75
201.96
205.88
209.56

165.73
169.96
173.91
177.61

979.3
976.6
974.2
971.9

1145.0
1146.6
1148.1
1149.5

5.14
32.40
30.06
28.04

PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM


Pressure
(Lbs/Sq In)
Absolute
P'

Gauge
P

14.696
15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
19.0
20.0
21.0
22.0
23.0
24.0
25.0
26.0
27.0
28.0
29.0
30.0
31.0
32.0
33.0
34.0
35.0
36.0
37.0
38.0
39.0
40.0
41.0
42.0
43.0
44.0
45.0
46.0
47.0
48.0
49.0
50.0
51.0
52.0
53.0
54.0
55.0
56.0
57.0
58.0
59.0
60.0
61.0
62.0
63.0
64.0

0.0
0.0
1.3
2.3
3.3
4.3
5.3
6.3
7.3
8.3
9.3
10.3
11.3
12.3
13.3
14.3
15.3
16.3
17.3
18.3
19.3
20.3
21.3
22.3
23.3
24.3
25.3
26.3
27.3
28.3
29.3
30.3
31.3
32.3
33.3
34.3
35.3
36.3
37.3
38.3
39.3
40.3
41.3
42.3
43.3
44.3
45.3
46.3
47.3
48.3
49.3

Temperature
t
(F)

Heat of the
Liquid
(BTU/LB)

Latent Heat of
Evaporation
(BTU/LB)

Total Heat of
Steam
Hg
(BTU/LB)

Specific
Volume
V
(Cu Ft/Lb)

212.00
213.03
213.32
219.44
222.41
225.24
227.96
230.57
233.07
235.49
237.82
240.07
242.25
244.36
246.41
248.40
250.33
252.22
254.05
255.84
257.58
259.28
260.95
262.57
264.16
265.72
267.25
268.74
270.21
271.64
273.05
274.44
275.80
277.13
278.45
279.74
281.01
282.26
283.49
284.70
285.90
287.07
288.23
289.37
290.50
291.61
292.71
293.79
294.85
295.9
296.94

180.07
181.11
184.42
187.56
190.56
193.42
196.16
198.79
201.33
203.78
206.14
208.42
210.62
212.75
214.83
216.86
218.82
220.73
222.59
224.41
226.18
227.91
229.60
231.26
232.89
234.48
236.03
237.55
239.04
240.51
241.95
243.36
244.75
246.12
247.47
248.79
250.09
251.37
252.63
253.87
255.09
256.30
257.50
258.67
259.82
260.96
262.09
263.2
264.3
265.38
266.45

970.3
969.7
967.6
965.5
963.6
961.9
960.1
958.4
956.8
955.2
953.7
952.1
950.7
949.3
947.9
946.5
945.3
944.0
942.8
941.6
940.3
939.2
938.0
936.9
935.8
934.7
933.7
932.6
931.6
930.6
929.6
928.6
927.7
926.7
925.8
924.9
924.0
923.0
922.2
921.3
920.5
919.6
918.8
917.9
917.1
916.3
915.5
914.7
913.9
913.1
912.3

1150.4
1150.8
1152.0
1153.1
1154.2
1155.3
1156.3
1157.2
1158.1
1159.0
115.8
1160.6
1161.3
1162.0
1162.7
1163.4
1164.1
1164.7
1165.4
1166.0
1166.5
1167.1
1167.6
1168.2
1168.7
1169.2
1169.7
1170.2
1170.7
1171.1
1171.6
1172.0
1172.4
1172.9
1173.3
1173.7
1174.1
1174.4
1174.8
1175.2
1175.6
1175.9
1176.3
1176.6
1176.9
1177.3
1177.6
1177.9
1178.2
1178.5
1178.8

26.800
26.290
24.750
23.390
22.170
21.080
20.089
19.192
18.375
17.627
16.938
16.303
15.715
15.170
14.663
14.189
13.746
13.330
12.940
12.572
12.226
11.898
11.588
11.294
11.015
10.750
10.498
10.258
10.029
9.810
9.601
9.401
9.209
9.025
8.848
8.678
8.515
8.359
8.208
8.062
7.922
7.787
7.656
7.529
7.407
7.289
7.175
7.064
6.957
6.853
6.752
Page 1 of 5

65.0
66.0
67.0
68.0
69.0
70.0
71.0
72.0
73.0
74.0
75.0
76.0
77.0
78.0
79.0
80.0
81.0
82.0
83.0
84.0
85.0
86.0
87.0
88.0
89.0
90.0
91.0
92.0
93.0
94.0
95.0
96.0
97.0
98.0
99.0
100.0
101.0
102.0
103.0
104.0
105.0
106.0
107.0
108.0
109.0
110.0
111.0
112.0
113.0
114.0
115.0
116.0
117.0
118.0
119.0
120.0
121.0
122.0

50.3
51.3
52.3
53.3
54.3
55.3
56.3
57.3
58.3
59.3
60.3
61.3
62.3
63.3
64.3
65.3
66.3
67.3
68.3
69.3
70.3
71.3
72.3
73.3
74.3
75.3
76.3
77.3
78.3
79.3
80.3
81.3
82.3
83.3
84.3
85.3
86.3
87.3
88.3
89.3
90.3
91.3
92.3
93.3
94.3
95.3
96.3
97.3
98.3
99.3
100.3
101.3
102.3
103.3
104.3
105.3
106.3
107.3

297.97
298.99
299.99
300.98
301.96
302.92
303.88
304.83
305.76
306.68
307.6
308.5
309.4
310.29
311.16
312.03
312.89
313.74
314.59
315.42
316.25
317.07
317.88
318.68
319.48
320.27
321.06
321.83
322.6
323.36
324.12
324.87
325.61
326.35
327.08
327.81
328.53
329.25
329.96
330.66
331.36
332.05
332.74
333.42
334.1
334.77
335.44
336.11
336.77
337.42
338.07
338.72
339.36
339.99
340.62
341.25
341.88
342.5

267.5
268.55
269.58
270.6
291.61
272.61
273.6
274.57
275.54
276.49
277.43
278.37
279.3
280.21
281.12
282.02
282.91
283.79
284.66
285.53
286.39
287.24
288.08
288.91
289.74
290.56
291.38
292.18
292.98
293.78
294.56
295.34
296.12
296.89
297.65
298.4
299.15
299.9
300.64
301.37
302.1
302.82
303.54
304.26
304.97
305.66
306.37
307.06
307.75
308.43
309.11
309.79
310.46
311.12
311.78
312.44
313.1
313.75

911.6
910.8
910.1
909.4
908.7
907.9
907.2
906.5
905.8
905.1
904.5
903.7
903.1
902.4
901.7
901.1
900.4
899.7
899.1
898.5
897.8
897.2
896.5
895.9
895.3
894.7
894.1
893.5
892.9
892.3
891.7
891.1
890.5
889.9
889.4
888.8
888.2
887.6
887.1
886.5
886
885.4
884.9
884.3
883.7
883.2
882.6
882.1
881.6
881.6
880.6
880
879.5
879
878.4
877.9
877.4
876.9

1179.1
1179.4
1179.7
1180.0
1180.3
1180.6
1180.8
1181.1
1181.3
1181.6
1181.9
1182.1
1182.4
1182.6
1182.8
1183.1
1183.3
1183.5
1183.8
1184.0
1184.2
1184.4
1184.6
1184.8
1185.1
1185.3
1185.5
1185.7
1185.9
1186.1
1186.2
1186.4
1186.6
1186.8
1187.0
1187.2
1187.4
1187.5
1187.7
1187.9
1188.1
1188.2
1188.4
1188.6
1188.7
1188.9
1189.0
1189.2
1189.4
1189.5
1189.7
1189.8
1190.0
1190.1
1190.2
1190.4
1190.5
1190.7

6.655
6.560
6.468
6.378
6.291
6.206
6.124
6.044
5.966
5.890
5.816
5.743
5.673
5.604
5.537
5.472
5.408
5.346
5.285
5.226
5.168
5.111
5.055
5.001
4.948
4.896
4.845
4.796
4.747
4.699
4.652
4.606
4.561
4.517
4.474
4.432
4.391
4.350
4.310
4.271
4.232
4.194
4.157
4.120
4.084
4.049
4.015
3.981
3.947
3.914
3.882
3.850
3.819
3.788
3.758
3.728
3.699
3.670
Page 2 of 5

123.0
124.0
125.0
126.0
127.0
128.0
129.0
130.0
131.0
132.0
133.0
134.0
135.0
136.0
137.0
138.0
139.0
140.0
141.0
142.0
143.0
144.0
145.0
146.0
147.0
148.0
149.0
150.0
152.0
154.0
156.0
158.0
160.0
162.0
164.0
166.0
168.0
170.0
172.0
174.0
176.0
178.0
180.0
182.0
184.0
186.0
188.0
190.0
192.0
194.0
196.0
198.0
200.0
205.0
210.0
215.0
220.0
225.0

108.3
109.3
110.3
111.3
112.3
113.3
114.3
115.3
116.3
117.3
118.3
119.3
120.3
121.3
122.3
123.3
124.3
125.3
126.3
127.3
128.3
129.3
130.3
131.3
132.3
133.3
134.3
135.3
137.3
139.3
141.3
143.3
145.3
147.3
149.3
151.3
153.3
155.3
157.3
159.3
161.3
163.3
165.3
167.3
169.3
171.3
173.3
175.3
177.3
179.3
181.3
183.3
185.3
190.3
195.3
200.3
205.3
210.3

343.11
343.72
344.33
344.94
345.54
346.13
346.73
347.32
347.9
348.48
349.06
349.64
350.21
350.78
351.35
351.91
352.47
353.02
353.57
354.12
354.67
355.21
355.76
356.29
356.83
357.36
357.89
358.42
359.46
360.49
361.52
362.53
363.53
364.53
365.51
366.48
367.45
368.41
369.35
370.29
371.22
372.14
373.06
373.96
374.86
375.75
376.64
377.51
378.38
379.24
380.1
380.95
381.79
383.86
385.9
387.89
389.86
391.79

314.4
315.04
315.68
316.31
316.94
317.57
318.19
318.81
319.43
320.04
320.65
321.25
321.85
322.45
323.05
323.64
324.23
324.82
325.4
325.98
326.56
327.13
327.7
328.27
328.83
329.39
329.95
330.51
331.61
332.7
333.79
334.86
335.93
336.98
338.02
339.05
340.07
341.09
342.1
343.1
344.09
345.06
346.03
347
347.96
348.92
349.86
350.79
351.72
352.64
353.55
354.46
355.36
357.58
359.77
361.91
364.02
366.09

876.4
875.9
875.4
874.9
874.4
873.9
873.4
872.9
872.5
872
871.5
871
870.6
870.1
869.6
869.1
868.7
868.2
867.7
867.2
866.7
866.3
865.8
865.3
864.9
864.5
864
863.6
862.7
861.8
860.9
860
859.2
858.3
857.5
856.6
855.7
854.9
854.1
853.3
852.4
851.6
850.8
850
849.2
848.4
847.6
846.8
846.1
845.3
844.5
843.7
843
841.1
839.2
837.4
835.6
833.8

1190.8
1190.9
1191.1
1191.2
1191.3
1191.5
1191.6
1191.7
1191.9
1192.0
1192.1
1192.2
1192.4
1192.5
1192.6
1192.7
1192.9
1193.0
1193.1
1193.2
1193.3
1193.4
1193.5
1193.6
1193.8
1193.9
1194.0
1194.1
1194.3
1194.5
1194.7
1194.9
1195.1
1195.3
1195.5
1195.7
1195.8
1196.0
1196.2
1196.4
1196.5
1196.7
1196.9
1197.0
1197.2
1197.3
1197.5
1197.6
1197.8
1197.9
1198.1
1198.2
1198.4
1198.7
1199.0
1199.3
1199.6
1199.9

3.642
3.614
3.587
3.560
3.533
3.507
3.481
3.455
3.430
3.405
3.381
3.357
3.333
3.310
3.287
3.264
3.242
3.220
3.198
3.177
3.155
3.134
3.114
3.094
3.074
3.054
3.034
3.015
2.977
2.940
2.904
2.869
2.834
2.801
2.768
2.736
2.705
2.675
2.645
2.616
2.587
2.559
2.532
2.505
2.479
2.454
2.429
2.404
2.380
2.356
2.333
2.310
2.288
2.234
2.183
2.134
2.087
2.0422
Page 3 of 5

230.0
235.0
240.0
245.0
250.0
255.0
260.0
265.0
270.0
275.0
280.0
285.0
290.0
295.0
300.0
320.0
340.0
360.0
380.0
400.0
420.0
440.0
460.0
480.0
500.0
520.0
540.0
560.0
580.0
600.0
620.0
640.0
660.0
680.0
700.0
720.0
740.0
760.0
780.0
800.0
820.0
840.0
860.0
880.0
900.0
920.0
940.0
960.0
980.0
1000.0
1050.0
1100.0
1150.0
1200.0
1250.0
1300.0
1350.0
1400.0

215.3
220.3
225.3
230.3
235.3
240.3
245.3
250.3
255.3
260.3
265.3
270.3
275.3
280.3
285.3
305.3
325.3
345.3
365.3
385.3
405.3
425.3
445.3
465.3
485.3
505.3
525.3
545.3
565.3
585.3
605.3
625.3
645.3
665.3
685.3
705.3
725.3
745.3
765.3
785.3
805.3
825.3
845.3
865.3
885.3
905.3
925.3
945.3
965.3
985.3
1035.3
1085.3
1135.3
1185.3
1235.3
1285.3
1335.3
1385.3

393.68
395.54
397.37
399.18
400.95
402.7
404.42
406.11
407.78
409.43
411.05
412.65
414.23
415.79
417.33
423.29
428.97
434.4
439.6
444.59
449.39
454.02
458.5
462.82
467.01
471.07
475.01
478.85
482.58
486.21
489.75
493.21
496.58
499.88
503.1
506.25
509.34
512.36
515.33
518.23
521.08
523.88
526.63
529.33
531.98
534.59
537.16
539.68
542.17
544.61
550.57
556.31
561.86
567.22
572.42
577.46
582.35
587.1

368.13
370.14
372.12
374.08
376
377.89
379.76
381.6
383.42
385.21
386.98
388.73
390.46
392.16
393.84
400.39
406.66
412.67
418.45
424
429.4
434.6
439.7
444.6
449.4
454.1
458.6
463
467.4
471.6
475.7
479.8
483.8
487.7
491.5
495.3
499
502.6
506.2
509.7
513.2
516.6
520
523.3
526.6
529.8
533
536.2
539.3
542.4
550
557.4
565.6
571.7
578.6
585.4
592.1
598.7

832
830.3
828.5
826.8
825.1
823.4
821.8
820.1
818.5
816.9
815.3
813.7
812.1
810.5
809
803
797.1
791.4
785.8
780.5
775.2
770
764.9
759.9
755
750.1
745.4
740.8
736.1
731.6
727.2
722.7
718.3
714
709.7
705.4
701.2
697.1
692.9
688.9
684.8
680.8
676.8
672.8
668.8
664.9
661
657.1
653.3
649.4
639.9
630.4
621
611.7
602.4
593.2
584
574.7

1200.1
1200.4
1200.6
1200.9
1201.1
1201.3
1201.5
1201.7
1201.9
1202.1
1202.3
1202.4
1202.6
1202.7
1202.8
1203.4
1203.7
1204.1
1204.3
1204.5
1204.6
1204.6
1204.6
1204.5
1204.4
1204.2
1204.0
1203.8
1203.5
1203.2
1202.9
1202.5
1202.1
1201.7
1201.2
1200.7
1200.2
1199.7
1199.1
1198.6
1198.0
1197.4
1196.8
1196.1
1195.4
1194.7
1194.0
1193.3
1192.6
1191.8
1189.9
1187.8
1185.6
1183.4
1181.0
1178.6
1176.1
1173.4

1.9992
1.9579
1.9183
1.8803
1.8438
1.8086
1.7748
1.7422
1.7107
1.6804
1.6511
1.6228
1.5954
1.5689
1.5433
1.4485
1.3645
1.2895
1.2222
1.1613
1.1061
1.0556
1.0094
0.9670
0.9278
0.8915
0.8578
0.8265
0.7973
0.7698
0.7440
0.7198
0.6971
0.6757
0.6554
0.6362
0.6180
0.6007
0.5843
0.5687
0.5538
0.5396
0.5260
0.5130
0.5006
0.4886
0.4772
0.4663
0.4557
0.4456
0.4218
0.4001
0.3802
0.3619
0.3450
0.3293
0.3148
0.3012
Page 4 of 5

1450.0
1500.0
1600.0
1700.0
1800.0
1900.0
2000.0
2100.0
2200.0
2300.0
2400.0
2500.0
2600.0
2700.0
2800.0
2900.0
3000.0
3100.0
3200.0
3206.2

1435.3
1485.3
1585.3
1685.3
1785.3
1885.3
1985.3
2085.3
2185.3
2285.3
2385.3
2485.3
2585.3
2685.3
2785.3
2885.3
2985.3
3085.3
3185.3
3191.2

591.73
596.23
604.9
613.15
621.03
628.58
635.82
642.77
649.46
655.91
662.12
668.13
673.94
679.55
684.99
690.26
695.36
700.31
705.11
705.4

605.2
611.6
624.1
636.3
648.3
660.1
671.7
683.3
694.8
706.5
718.4
730.6
743
756.2
770.1
785.4
802.5
825
872.4
902.7

565.5
556.3
538
519.6
501.1
482.4
463.4
444.1
424.4
403.9
382.7
360.5
337.2
312.1
284.7
253.6
217.8
168.1
62
0

1170.7
1167.9
1162.1
1155.9
1149.4
1142.4
1135.1
1127.4
1119.2
1110.4
1101.1
1091.1
1080.2
1068.3
1054.8
1039.0
1020.3
993.1
934.4
902.7

0.2884
0.2765
0.2548
0.2354
0.2179
0.2021
0.1878
0.1746
0.1625
0.1513
0.1407
0.1307
0.1213
0.1123
0.1035
0.0947
0.0858
0.0753
0.0580
0.0503

Page 5 of 5