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1969 VIENNA CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF TREATIES

Adopted in Vienna, Austria on 2 !a" 1969


#ART I$ INTRO%&CTION $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 6
Article 1 Scope of the Present Convention ....................................................................... 6
Article 2 Use of Terms ...................................................................................................... 6
Article 3 International Agreements Not within the Scope of the Present Convention ........
Article ! Non"#etroactivit$ of the Present Convention ......................................................
Article % Treaties Constit&ting International organi'ations an( Treaties A(opte( within An
International organi'ation ................................................................................................. )
#ART II$ CONCL&SION AN% ENTR' INTO FORCE OF TREATIES $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ (
SECTION 1$ CONCL&SION OF TREATIES $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ (
Article 6 Capacit$ of States to Concl&(e Treaties ............................................................ )
Article *&ll Powers ........................................................................................................ )
Article ) S&+se,&ent Confirmation of An Act Performe( witho&t A&thori'ation ................ )
Article - A(option of the Te.t ........................................................................................... -
Article 1/ A&thentication of the Te.t ................................................................................. -
Article 11 0eans of 1.pressing Consent to +e 2o&n( +$ A Treat$ .................................. -
Article 12 Consent to +e 2o&n( +$ A Treat$ 1.presse( +$ Signat&re .............................. -
Article 13 Consent to +e 2o&n( +$ A Treat$ 1.presse( +$ An 1.change of Instr&ments
Constit&ting A Treat$ ...................................................................................................... 1/
Article 1! Consent to +e 2o&n( +$ A Treat$ 1.presse( +$ #atification3 Acceptance or
Approval ......................................................................................................................... 1/
Article 1% Consent to +e 2o&n( +$ A Treat$ 1.presse( +$ Accession ........................... 1/
Article 16 1.change or 4eposit of Instr&ments of #atification3 Acceptance3 Approval or
Accession ....................................................................................................................... 1/
Article 1 Consent to +e 2o&n( +$ Part of A Treat$ an( Choice of 4iffering Provisions .11
Article 1) 5+ligation Not to 4efeat the 5+6ect an( P&rpose of A Treat$ Prior to Its 1ntr$
into *orce ....................................................................................................................... 11
SECTION 2$ RESERVATIONS $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 11
Article 1- *orm&lation of #eservations ........................................................................... 11
Article 2/ Acceptance of an( 5+6ection to #eservations ................................................ 11
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Article 21 7egal 1lects of #eservations an( of 5+6ections to #eservations .................... 12
Article 22 :ith(rawal of #eservations an( of 5+6ections to #eservations ...................... 12
Article 23 Proce(&re #egar(ing #eservations ................................................................ 13
SECTION $ ENTR' INTO FORCE AN% #ROVISIONAL, A##LICATION OF TREATIES 1
Article 2! 1ntr$ into *orce .............................................................................................. 13
Article 2% Provisional Application ................................................................................... 13
#ART III$ O)SERVANCE, A##LICATION AN% INTER#RETATION OF TREATIES $$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 1*
SECTION 1$ O)SERVANCE OF TREATIES $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 1*
Article 26 =Pacta S&nt Servan(a> ................................................................................... 1!
Article 2 Internal 7aw an( 5+servance of Treaties ....................................................... 1!
SECTION 2$ A##LICATION OF TREATIES $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 1*
Article 2) Non"#etroactivit$ of Treaties .......................................................................... 1!
Article 2- Territorial Scope of Treaties ........................................................................... 1!
Article 3/ Application of S&ccessive Treaties #elating to the Same S&+6ect 0atter ....... 1!
SECTION $ INTER#RETATION OF TREATIES $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 1+
Article 31 ?eneral #&le of Interpretation ........................................................................ 1%
Article 32 S&pplementar$ 0eans of Interpretation .......................................................... 1%
Article 33 Interpretation of Treaties A&thenticate( in Two or 0ore 7ang&ages .............. 16
SECTION *$ TREATIES AN% THIR% STATES $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 16
Article 3! ?eneral #&le #egar(ing Thir( States ............................................................. 16
Article 3% Treaties Provi(ing for 5+ligations for Thir( States ......................................... 16
Article 36 Treaties Provi(ing for #ights for Thir( States ................................................. 16
Article 3 #evocation or 0o(ification of 5+ligations or #ights of Thir( States ............... 1
Article 3) #&les in A Treat$ +ecoming 2in(ing on Thir( States thro&gh International
C&stom ........................................................................................................................... 1
#ART IV$ A!EN%!ENT AN% !O%IFICATION OF TREATIES $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 1,
Article 3- ?eneral #&le #egar(ing the Amen(ment of Treaties ..................................... 1
Article !/ Amen(ment of 0&ltilateral Treaties ................................................................ 1
Article !1 Agreements to 0o(if$ 0&ltilateral Treaties +etween Certain of the Parties 5nl$
....................................................................................................................................... 1)
#ART V$ INVALI%IT', TER!INATION AN% S&S#ENSION OF THE O#ERATION OF
TREATIES $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 1(
SECTION 1$ -ENERAL #ROVISIONS $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 1(
Article !2 ;ali(it$ an( Contin&ance in *orce of Treaties ................................................ 1)
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Article !3 5+ligations Impose( +$ International 7aw In(epen(entl$ of A Treat$ ............ 1)
Article !! Separa+ilit$ of Treat$ Provisions .................................................................... 1-
Article !% 7oss of A #ight to Invo@e A ?ro&n( for Invali(ating3 Terminating3 :ith(rawing
from or S&spen(ing the 5peration of A Treat$ ............................................................... 1-
SECTION 2$ INVALI%IT' OF TREATIES $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 19
Article !6 Provisions of Internal 7aw #egar(ing Competence to Concl&(e Treaties ...... 1-
Article ! Specific #estrictions on A&thorit$ to 1.press the Consent of A State ............. 2/
Article !) 1rror ............................................................................................................... 2/
Article !- *ra&( .............................................................................................................. 2/
Article %/ Corr&ption of A #epresentative of A State ...................................................... 2/
Article %1 Coercion of A #epresentative of A State ........................................................ 2/
Article %2 Coercion of A State +$ the Threat or Use of *orce ......................................... 21
Article %3 Treaties Conflicting with A Peremptor$ Norm of ?eneral International 7aw
A=B&s Cogens>C ............................................................................................................... 21
SECTION $ TER!INATION AN% S&S#ENSION OF THE O#ERATION OF TREATIES $ $ 21
Article %! Termination of or :ith(rawal from A Treat$ &n(er Its Provisions or +$ Consent
of the Parties .................................................................................................................. 21
Article %% #e(&ction of the Parties to A 0&ltilateral Treat$ +elow the N&m+er Necessar$
for Its 1ntr$ into *orce .................................................................................................... 21
Article %6 4en&nciation of or :ith(rawal from A Treat$ Containing No Provision
#egar(ing Termination3 4en&nciation or :ith(rawal ..................................................... 21
Article % S&spension of the 5peration of A Treat$ &n(er Its Provisions or +$ Consent of
the Parties ...................................................................................................................... 22
Article %) S&spension of the 5peration of A 0&ltilateral Treat$ +$ Agreement +etween
Certain of the Parties 5nl$ ............................................................................................. 22
Article %- Termination or S&spension of the 5peration of A Treat$ Implie( +$ Concl&sion
of A 7ater Treat$ ............................................................................................................ 22
Article 6/ Termination or S&spension of the 5peration of A Treat$ as A Conse,&ence of
Its 2reach ....................................................................................................................... 22
Article 61 S&pervening Impossi+ilit$ of Performance ..................................................... 23
Article 62 *&n(amental Change of Circ&mstances ........................................................ 23
Article 63 Severance of 4iplomatic or Cons&lar #elations ............................................. 2!
Article 6! 1mergence of A New Peremptor$ Norm of ?eneral International 7aw A=B&s
Cogens>C ........................................................................................................................ 2!
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SECTION *$ #ROCE%&RE $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 2*
Article 6% Proce(&re to +e *ollowe( with #espect to Invali(it$3 Termination3 :ith(rawal
from or S&spension of the 5peration of A Treat$ ........................................................... 2!
Article 66 Proce(&res for B&(icial Settlement3 Ar+itration an( Conciliation ..................... 2%
Article 6 Instr&ments for 4eclaring Invali(3 Terminating3 :ith(rawing from or
S&spen(ing the 5peration of A Treat$ ........................................................................... 2%
Article 6) #evocation of Notifications an( Instr&ments Provi(e( for in Articles 6% an( 6
....................................................................................................................................... 2%
SECTION +$ CONSE.&ENCES OF THE INVALI%IT', TER!INATION OR S&S#ENSION
OF THE O#ERATION OF A TREAT' $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 26
Article 6- Conse,&ences of the Invali(it$ of A Treat$ .................................................... 26
Article / Conse,&ences of the Termination of A Treat$ ............................................... 26
Article 1 Conse,&ences of the Invali(it$ of A Treat$ which Conflicts with A Peremptor$
Norm of ?eneral International 7aw ................................................................................. 26
Article 2 Conse,&ences of the S&spension of the 5peration of A Treat$ ..................... 2
#ART VI$ !ISCELLANEO&S #ROVISIONS $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 2,
Article 3 Cases of State S&ccession3 State #esponsi+ilit$ an( 5&t+rea@ of <ostilities . 2
Article ! 4iplomatic an( Cons&lar #elations an( the Concl&sion of Treaties ............... 2
Article % Case of An Aggressor State ........................................................................... 2
#ART VII$ %E#OSITARIES, NOTIFICATIONS, CORRECTIONS AN% RE-ISTRATION $$$$$$$$$ 2(
Article 6 4epositaries of Treaties .................................................................................. 2)
Article *&nctions of 4epositaries ............................................................................... 2)
Article ) Notifications an( Comm&nications ................................................................. 2-
Article - Correction of 1rrors in Te.ts or In Certifie( Copies of Treaties ....................... 2-
Article )/ #egistration an( P&+lication of Treaties ......................................................... 3/
#ART VIII$ FINAL #ROVISIONS $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ /
Article )1 Signat&re ........................................................................................................ 3/
Article )2 #atification ..................................................................................................... 3/
Article )3 Accession ....................................................................................................... 3/
Article )! 1ntr$ into *orce .............................................................................................. 3/
Article )% A&thentic Te.ts ............................................................................................... 31
ANNE0 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 2
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The States Parties to the present Convention3
CONSI%ERIN- the f&n(amental role of treaties in the histor$ of international relations3
RECO-NI1IN- the ever"increasing importance of treaties as a so&rce of international law an(
as a means of (eveloping peacef&l cooperation among nations3 whatever their constit&tional
an( social s$stems3
NOTIN- that the principles of free consent an( of goo( faith an( the pacta sunt servanda r&le
are &niversall$ recogni'e(3
AFFIR!IN- that (isp&tes concerning treaties3 li@e other international (isp&tes3 sho&l( +e
settle( +$ peacef&l means an( in conformit$ with the principles of 6&stice an( international law3
RECALLIN- the (etermination of the peoples of the Unite( Nations to esta+lish con(itions
&n(er which 6&stice an( respect for the o+ligations arising from treaties can +e maintaine(3
HAVIN- IN !IN% the principles of international law em+o(ie( in the Charter of the Unite(
Nations3 s&ch as the principles of the e,&al rights an( self"(etermination of peoples3 of the
sovereign e,&alit$ an( in(epen(ence of all States3 of non"interference in the (omestic affairs of
States3 of the prohi+ition of the threat or &se of force an( of &niversal respect for3 an(
o+servance of3 h&man rights an( f&n(amental free(oms for all3
)ELIEVIN- that the co(ification an( progressive (evelopment of the law of treaties achieve( in
the present Convention will promote the p&rposes of the Unite( Nations set forth in the Charter3
namel$3 the maintenance of international peace an( sec&rit$3 the (evelopment of frien(l$
relations an( the achievement of cooperation among nations3
AFFIR!IN- that the r&les of c&stomar$ international law will contin&e to govern ,&estions not
reg&late( +$ the provisions of the present Convention3
HAVE A-REE% AS FOLLOWS2
#ART I$ INTRO%&CTION
Article 1 Scope of the Present Convention
The present Convention applies to treaties +etween States.
Article 2 Use of Terms
1. *or the p&rposes of the present ConventionD
AaC =treat$> means an international agreement concl&(e( +etween States in written form an(
governe( +$ international law3 whether em+o(ie( in a single instr&ment or in two or more
relate( instr&ments an( whatever its partic&lar (esignationE
A+C =ratification>3 =acceptance>3 =approval> an( =accession> mean in each case the
international act so name( where+$ a State esta+lishes on the international plane its
consent to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$E
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AcC =f&ll powers> means a (oc&ment emanating from the competent a&thorit$ of a State
(esignating a person or persons to represent the State for negotiating3 a(opting or
a&thenticating the te.t of a treat$3 for e.pressing the consent of the State to +e +o&n( +$ a
treat$3 or for accomplishing an$ other act with respect to a treat$E
A(C =reservation> means a &nilateral statement3 however phrase( or name(3 ma(e +$ a
State3 when signing3 ratif$ing3 accepting3 approving or acce(ing to a treat$3 where+$ it
p&rports to e.cl&(e or to mo(if$ the legal effect of certain provisions of the treat$ in their
application to that StateE
AeC =negotiating State> means a State which too@ part in the (rawing &p an( a(option of the
te.t of the treat$E
AfC =contracting State> means a State which has consente( to +e +o&n( +$ the treat$3
whether or not the treat$ has entere( into forceE
AgC =part$> means a State which has consente( to +e +o&n( +$ the treat$ an( for which the
treat$ is in forceE
AhC =thir( State> means a State not a part$ to the treat$E
AiC =international organi'ation> means an intergovernmental organi'ation.
2. The provisions of paragraph 1 regar(ing the &se of terms in the present Convention are
witho&t pre6&(ice to the &se of those terms or to the meanings which ma$ +e given to them in
the internal law of an$ State.
Article 3 International Agreements Not within the Scope of the Present Convention
The fact that the present Convention (oes not appl$ to international agreements concl&(e(
+etween States an( other s&+6ects of international law or +etween s&ch other s&+6ects of
international law3 or to international agreements not in written form3 shall not affectD
AaC the legal force of s&ch agreementsE
A+C the application to them of an$ of the r&les set forth in the present Convention to which the$
wo&l( +e s&+6ect &n(er international law in(epen(entl$ of the ConventionE
AcC the application of the Convention to the relations of States as +etween themselves &n(er
international agreements to which other s&+6ects of international law are also parties.
Article Non!"etroactivit# of the Present Convention
:itho&t pre6&(ice to the application of an$ r&les set forth in the present Convention to which
treaties wo&l( +e s&+6ect &n(er international law in(epen(entl$ of the Convention3 the
Convention applies onl$ to treaties which are concl&(e( +$ States after the entr$ into force of
the present Convention with regar( to s&ch States.
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Article $ Treaties Constituting International organi%ations and Treaties Adopted within
An International organi%ation
The present Convention applies to an$ treat$ which is the constit&ent instr&ment of an
international organi'ation an( to an$ treat$ a(opte( within an international organi'ation witho&t
pre6&(ice to an$ relevant r&les of the organi'ation.
#ART II$ CONCL&SION AN% ENTR' INTO FORCE OF TREATIES
SECTION 1$ CONCL&SION OF TREATIES
Article & Capacit# of States to Conclude Treaties
1ver$ State possesses capacit$ to concl&(e treaties.
Article ' (ull Powers
1. A person is consi(ere( as representing a State for the p&rpose of a(opting or a&thenticating
the te.t of a treat$ or for the p&rpose of e.pressing the consent of the State to +e +o&n( +$ a
treat$ ifD
AaC he pro(&ces appropriate f&ll powersE or
A+C it appears from the practice of the States concerne( or from other circ&mstances that
their intention was to consi(er that person as representing the State for s&ch p&rposes an(
to (ispense with f&ll powers.
2. In virt&e of their f&nctions an( witho&t having to pro(&ce f&ll powers3 the following are
consi(ere( as representing their StateD
AaC <ea(s of State3 <ea(s of ?overnment an( 0inisters for *oreign Affairs3 for the p&rpose
of performing all acts relating to the concl&sion of a treat$E
A+C hea(s of (iplomatic missions3 for the p&rpose of a(opting the te.t of a treat$ +etween the
accre(iting State an( the State to which the$ are accre(ite(E
AcC representatives accre(ite( +$ States to an international conference or to an international
organi'ation or one of its organs3 for the p&rpose of a(opting the te.t of a treat$ in that
conference3 organi'ation or organ.
Article ) Su*se+uent Confirmation of An Act Performed without Authori%ation
An act relating to the concl&sion of a treat$ performe( +$ a person who cannot +e consi(ere(
&n(er article as a&thori'e( to represent a State for that p&rpose is witho&t legal effect &nless
afterwar(s confirme( +$ that State.
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Article , Adoption of the Te-t
1. The a(option of the te.t of a treat$ ta@es place +$ the consent of all the States participating in
its (rawing &p e.cept as provi(e( in paragraph 2.
2. The a(option of the te.t of a treat$ at an international conference ta@es place +$ the vote of
two thir(s of the States present an( voting3 &nless +$ the same ma6orit$ the$ shall (eci(e to
appl$ a (ifferent r&le.
Article 1. Authentication of the Te-t
The te.t of a treat$ is esta+lishe( as a&thentic an( (efinitiveD
AaC +$ s&ch proce(&re as ma$ +e provi(e( for in the te.t or agree( &pon +$ the States
participating in its (rawing &pE or
A+C failing s&ch proce(&re3 +$ the signat&re3 signat&re a( referen(&m or initialling +$ the
representatives of those States of the te.t of the treat$ or of the *inal Act of a conference
incorporating the te.t.
Article 11 /eans of 0-pressing Consent to *e 1ound *# A Treat#
The consent of a State to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$ ma$ +e e.presse( +$ signat&re3 e.change of
instr&ments constit&ting a treat$3 ratification3 acceptance3 approval or accession3 or +$ an$ other
means if so agree(.
Article 12 Consent to *e 1ound *# A Treat# 0-pressed *# Signature
1. The consent of a State to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$ is e.presse( +$ the signat&re of its
representative whenD
AaC the treat$ provi(es that signat&re shall have that effectE
A+C it is otherwise esta+lishe( that the negotiating States were agree( that signat&re sho&l(
have that effectE or
AcC the intention of the State to give that effect to the signat&re appears from the f&ll powers
of its representative or was e.presse( (&ring the negotiation.
2. *or the p&rposes of paragraph 1D
AaC the initialling of a te.t constit&tes a signat&re of the treat$ when it is esta+lishe( that the
negotiating States so agree(E
A+C the signat&re a( referen(&m of a treat$ +$ a representative3 if confirme( +$ his State3
constit&tes a f&ll signat&re of the treat$.
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Article 13 Consent to *e 1ound *# A Treat# 0-pressed *# An 0-change of Instruments
Constituting A Treat#
The consent of States to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$ constit&te( +$ instr&ments e.change( +etween
them is e.presse( +$ that e.change whenD
AaC the instr&ments provi(e that their e.change shall have that effectE or
A+C it is otherwise esta+lishe( that those States were agree( that the e.change of instr&ments
sho&l( have that effect.
Article 1 Consent to *e 1ound *# A Treat# 0-pressed *# "atification2 Acceptance or
Approval
1. The consent of a State to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$ is e.presse( +$ ratification whenD
AaC the treat$ provi(es for s&ch consent to +e e.presse( +$ means of ratificationE
A+C it is otherwise esta+lishe( that the negotiating States were agree( that ratification sho&l(
+e re,&ire(E
AcC the representative of the State has signe( the treat$ s&+6ect to ratificationE or
A(C the intention of the State to sign the treat$ s&+6ect to ratification appears from the f&ll
powers of its representative or was e.presse( (&ring the negotiation.
2. The consent of a State to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$ is e.presse( +$ acceptance or approval &n(er
con(itions similar to those which appl$ to ratification.
Article 1$ Consent to *e 1ound *# A Treat# 0-pressed *# Accession
The consent of a State to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$ is e.presse( +$ accession whenD
AaC the treat$ provi(es that s&ch consent ma$ +e e.presse( +$ that State +$ means of
accessionE
A+C it is otherwise esta+lishe( that the negotiating States were agree( that s&ch consent ma$ +e
e.presse( +$ that State +$ means of accessionE or
AcC all the parties have s&+se,&entl$ agree( that s&ch consent ma$ +e e.presse( +$ that State
+$ means of accession.
Article 1& 0-change or 3eposit of Instruments of "atification2 Acceptance2 Approval or
Accession
Unless the treat$ otherwise provi(es3 instr&ments of ratification3 acceptance3 approval or
accession esta+lish the consent of a State to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$ &ponD
AaC their e.change +etween the contracting StatesE
A+C their (eposit with the (epositar$E or
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AcC their notification to the contracting States or to the (epositar$3 if so agree(.
Article 1' Consent to *e 1ound *# Part of A Treat# and Choice of 3iffering Provisions
1. :itho&t pre6&(ice to articles 1- to 233 the consent of a State to +e +o&n( +$ part of a treat$ is
effective onl$ if the treat$ so permits or the other contracting States so agree.
2. The consent of a State to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$ which permits a choice +etween (iffering
provisions is effective onl$ if it is ma(e clear to which of the provisions the consent relates.
Article 1) 4*ligation Not to 3efeat the 4*5ect and Purpose of A Treat# Prior to Its 0ntr#
into (orce
A State is o+lige( to refrain from acts which wo&l( (efeat the o+6ect an( p&rpose of a treat$
whenD
AaC it has signe( the treat$ or has e.change( instr&ments constit&ting the treat$ s&+6ect to
ratification3 acceptance or approval3 &ntil it shall have ma(e its intention clear not to +ecome a
part$ to the treat$E or
A+C it has e.presse( its consent to +e +o&n( +$ the treat$3 pen(ing the entr$ into force of the
treat$ an( provi(e( that s&ch entr$ into force is not &n(&l$ (ela$e(.
SECTION 2$ RESERVATIONS
Article 1, (ormulation of "eservations
A State ma$3 when signing3 ratif$ing3 accepting3 approving or acce(ing to a treat$3 form&late a
reservation &nlessD
AaC the reservation is prohi+ite( +$ the treat$E
A+C the treat$ provi(es that onl$ specifie( reservations3 which (o not incl&(e the reservation in
,&estion3 ma$ +e ma(eE or
AcC in cases not failing &n(er s&+paragraphs AaC an( A+C3 the reservation is incompati+le with the
o+6ect an( p&rpose of the treat$.
Article 2. Acceptance of and 4*5ection to "eservations
1. A reservation e.pressl$ a&thori'e( +$ a treat$ (oes not re,&ire an$ s&+se,&ent acceptance
+$ the other contracting States &nless the treat$ so provi(es.
2. :hen it appears from the limite( n&m+er of the negotiating States an( the o+6ect an(
p&rpose of a treat$ that the application of the treat$ in its entiret$ +etween all the parties is an
essential con(ition of the consent of each one to +e +o&n( +$ the treat$3 a reservation re,&ires
acceptance +$ all the parties.
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3. :hen a treat$ is a constit&ent instr&ment of an international organi'ation an( &nless it
otherwise provi(es3 a reservation re,&ires the acceptance of the competent organ of that
organi'ation.
!. In cases not falling &n(er the prece(ing paragraphs an( &nless the treat$ otherwise provi(esD
AaC acceptance +$ another contracting State of a reservation constit&tes the reserving State
a part$ to the treat$ in relation to that other State if or when the treat$ is in force for those
StatesE
A+C an o+6ection +$ another contracting State to a reservation (oes not precl&(e the entr$
into force of the treat$ as +etween the o+6ecting an( reserving States &nless a contrar$
intention is (efinitel$ e.presse( +$ the o+6ecting StateE
AcC an act e.pressing a StateFs consent to +e +o&n( +$ the treat$ an( containing a
reservation is effective as soon as at least one other contracting State has accepte( the
reservation.
%. *or the p&rposes of paragraphs 2 an( ! an( &nless the treat$ otherwise provi(es3 a
reservation is consi(ere( to have +een accepte( +$ a State if it shall have raise( no o+6ection to
the reservation +$ the en( of a perio( of twelve months after it was notifie( of the reservation or
+$ the (ate on which it e.presse( its consent to +e +o&n( +$ the treat$3 whichever is later.
Article 21 6egal 0lects of "eservations and of 4*5ections to "eservations
1. A reservation esta+lishe( with regar( to another part$ in accor(ance with articles 1-3 2/ an(
23D
AaC mo(ifies for the reserving State in its relations with that other part$ the provisions of the
treat$ to which the reservation relates to the e.tent of the reservationE an(
A+C mo(ifies those provisions to the same e.tent for that other part$ in its relations with the
reserving State.
2. The reservation (oes not mo(if$ the provisions of the treat$ for the other parties to the treat$
inter se.
3. :hen a State o+6ecting to a reservation has not oppose( the entr$ into force of the treat$
+etween itself an( the reserving State3 the provisions to which the reservation relates (o not
appl$ as +etween the two States to the e.tent of the reservation.
Article 22 7ithdrawal of "eservations and of 4*5ections to "eservations
1. Unless the treat$ otherwise provi(es3 a reservation ma$ +e with(rawn at an$ time an( the
consent of a State which has accepte( the reservation is not re,&ire( for its with(rawal.
2. Unless the treat$ otherwise provi(es3 an o+6ection to a reservation ma$ +e with(rawn at an$
time.
3. Unless the treat$ otherwise provi(es3 or it is otherwise agree(D
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AaC the with(rawal of a reservation +ecomes operative in relation to another contracting
State onl$ when notice of it has +een receive( +$ that StateE
A+C the with(rawal of an o+6ection to a reservation +ecomes operative onl$ when notice of it
has +een receive( +$ the State which form&late( the reservation.
Article 23 Procedure "egarding "eservations
1. A reservation3 an e.press acceptance of a reservation an( an o+6ection to a reservation m&st
+e form&late( in writing an( comm&nicate( to the contracting States an( other States entitle( to
+ecome parties to the treat$.
2. If form&late( when signing the treat$ s&+6ect to ratification3 acceptance or approval3 a
reservation m&st +e formall$ confirme( +$ the reserving State when e.pressing its consent to
+e +o&n( +$ the treat$. In s&ch a case the reservation shall +e consi(ere( as having +een
ma(e on the (ate of its confirmation.
3. An e.press acceptance of3 or an o+6ection to3 a reservation ma(e previo&sl$ to confirmation
of the reservation (oes not itself re,&ire confirmation.
!. The with(rawal of a reservation or of an o+6ection to a reservation m&st +e form&late( in
writing.
SECTION $ ENTR' INTO FORCE AN% #ROVISIONAL, A##LICATION OF
TREATIES
Article 2 0ntr# into (orce
1. A treat$ enters into force in s&ch manner an( &pon s&ch (ate as it ma$ provi(e or as the
negotiating States ma$ agree.
2. *ailing an$ s&ch provision or agreement3 a treat$ enters into force as soon as consent to +e
+o&n( +$ the treat$ has +een esta+lishe( for all the negotiating States.
3. :hen the consent of a State to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$ is esta+lishe( on a (ate after the treat$
has come into force3 the treat$ enters into force for that State on that (ate3 &nless the treat$
otherwise provi(es.
!. The provisions of a treat$ reg&lating the a&thentication of its te.t3 the esta+lishment of the
consent of States to +e +o&n( +$ the treat$3 the manner or (ate of its entr$ into force3
reservations3 the f&nctions of the (epositar$ an( other matters arising necessaril$ +efore the
entr$ into force of the treat$ appl$ from the time of the a(option of its te.t.
Article 2$ Provisional Application
1. A treat$ or a part of a treat$ is applie( provisionall$ pen(ing its entr$ into force ifD
AaC the treat$ itself so provi(esE or
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A+C the negotiating States have in some other manner so agree(.
2. Unless the treat$ otherwise provi(es or the negotiating States have otherwise agree(3 the
provisional application of a treat$ or a part of a treat$ with respect to a State shall +e terminate(
if that State notifies the other States +etween which the treat$ is +eing applie( provisionall$ of
its intention not to +ecome a part$ to the treat$.
#ART III$ O)SERVANCE, A##LICATION AN% INTER#RETATION OF
TREATIES
SECTION 1$ O)SERVANCE OF TREATIES
Article 2& 8Pacta Sunt Servanda9
1ver$ treat$ in force is +in(ing &pon the parties to it an( m&st +e performe( +$ them in goo(
faith.
Article 2' Internal 6aw and 4*servance of Treaties
A part$ ma$ not invo@e the provisions of its internal law as 6&stification for its fail&re to perform a
treat$. This r&le is witho&t pre6&(ice to article !6.
SECTION 2$ A##LICATION OF TREATIES
Article 2) Non!"etroactivit# of Treaties
Unless a (ifferent intention appears from the treat$ or is otherwise esta+lishe(3 its provisions (o
not +in( a part$ in relation to an$ act or fact which too@ place or an$ sit&ation which cease( to
e.ist +efore the (ate of the entr$ into force of the treat$ with respect to that part$.
Article 2, Territorial Scope of Treaties
Unless a (ifferent intention appears from the treat$ or is otherwise esta+lishe(3 a treat$ is
+in(ing &pon each part$ in respect of its entire territor$.
Article 3. Application of Successive Treaties "elating to the Same Su*5ect /atter
1. S&+6ect to Article 1/3 of the Charter of the Unite( Nations3 the rights an( o+ligations of States
Parties to s&ccessive treaties relating to the same s&+6ect matter shall +e (etermine( in
accor(ance with the following paragraphs.
2. :hen a treat$ specifies that it is s&+6ect to3 or that it is not to +e consi(ere( as incompati+le
with3 an earlier or later treat$3 the provisions of that other treat$ prevail.
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3. :hen all the parties to the earlier treat$ are parties also to the later treat$ +&t the earlier
treat$ is not terminate( or s&spen(e( in operation &n(er article %-3 the earlier treat$ applies onl$
to the e.tent that its provisions are compati+le with those of the later treat$.
!. :hen the parties to the later treat$ (o not incl&(e all the parties to the earlier oneD
AaC as +etween States Parties to +oth treaties the same r&le applies as in paragraph 3E
A+C as +etween a State part$ to +oth treaties an( a State part$ to onl$ one of the treaties3 the
treat$ to which +oth States are parties governs their m&t&al rights an( o+ligations.
%. Paragraph ! is witho&t pre6&(ice to article !13 or to an$ ,&estion of the termination or
s&spension of the operation of a treat$ &n(er article 6/ or to an$ ,&estion of responsi+ilit$ which
ma$ arise for a State from the concl&sion or application of a treat$ the provisions of which are
incompati+le with its o+ligations towar(s another State &n(er another treat$.
SECTION $ INTER#RETATION OF TREATIES
Article 31 :eneral "ule of Interpretation
1. A treat$ shall +e interprete( in goo( faith in accor(ance with the or(inar$ meaning to +e given
to the terms of the treat$ in their conte.t an( in the light of its o+6ect an( p&rpose.
2. The conte.t for the p&rpose of the interpretation of a treat$ shall comprise3 in a((ition to the
te.t3 incl&(ing its pream+le an( anne.esD
AaC an$ agreement relating to the treat$ which was ma(e +etween all the parties in
connection with the concl&sion of the treat$E
A+C an$ instr&ment which was ma(e +$ one or more parties in connection with the
concl&sion of the treat$ an( accepte( +$ the other parties as an instr&ment relate( to the
treat$.
3. There shall +e ta@en into acco&nt3 together with the conte.tD
AaC an$ s&+se,&ent agreement +etween the parties regar(ing the interpretation of the treat$
or the application of its provisionsE
A+C an$ s&+se,&ent practice in the application of the treat$ which esta+lishes the agreement
of the parties regar(ing its interpretationE
AcC an$ relevant r&les of international law applica+le in the relations +etween the parties.
!. A special meaning shall +e given to a term if it is esta+lishe( that the parties so inten(e(.
Article 32 Supplementar# /eans of Interpretation
#eco&rse ma$ +e ha( to s&pplementar$ means of interpretation3 incl&(ing the preparator$ wor@
of the treat$ an( the circ&mstances of its concl&sion3 in or(er to confirm the meaning res&lting
from the application of article 313 or to (etermine the meaning when the interpretation accor(ing
to article 31D
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AaC leaves the meaning am+ig&o&s or o+sc&reE or
A+C lea(s to a res&lt which is manifestl$ a+s&r( or &nreasona+le.
Article 33 Interpretation of Treaties Authenticated in Two or /ore 6anguages
1. :hen a treat$ has +een a&thenticate( in two or more lang&ages3 the te.t is e,&all$
a&thoritative in each lang&age3 &nless the treat$ provi(es or the parties agree that3 in case of
(ivergence3 a partic&lar te.t shall prevail.
2. A version of the treat$ in a lang&age other than one of those in which the te.t was
a&thenticate( shall +e consi(ere( an a&thentic te.t onl$ if the treat$ so provi(es or the parties
so agree.
3. The terms of the treat$ are pres&me( to have the same meaning in each a&thentic te.t.
!. 1.cept where a partic&lar te.t prevails in accor(ance with paragraph 13 when a comparison
of the a&thentic te.ts (iscloses a (ifference of meaning which the application of articles 31 an(
32 (oes not remove3 the meaning which +est reconciles the te.ts3 having regar( to the o+6ect
an( p&rpose of the treat$3 shall +e a(opte(.
SECTION *$ TREATIES AN% THIR% STATES
Article 3 :eneral "ule "egarding Third States
A treat$ (oes not create either o+ligations or rights for a thir( State witho&t its consent.
Article 3$ Treaties Providing for 4*ligations for Third States
An o+ligation arises for a thir( State from a provision of a treat$ if the parties to the treat$ inten(
the provision to +e the means of esta+lishing the o+ligation an( the thir( State e.pressl$
accepts that o+ligation in writing.
Article 3& Treaties Providing for "ights for Third States
1. A right arises for a thir( State from a provision of a treat$ if the parties to the treat$ inten( the
provision to accor( that right either to the thir( State3 or to a gro&p of States to which it +elongs3
or to all States3 an( the thir( State assents thereto. Its assent shall +e pres&me( so long as the
contrar$ is not in(icate(3 &nless the treat$ otherwise provi(es.
2. A State e.ercising a right in accor(ance with paragraph 1 shall compl$ with the con(itions for
its e.ercise provi(e( for in the treat$ or esta+lishe( in conformit$ with the treat$.
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Article 3' "evocation or /odification of 4*ligations or "ights of Third States
1. :hen an o+ligation has arisen for a thir( State in conformit$ with article 3%3 the o+ligation
ma$ +e revo@e( or mo(ifie( onl$ with the consent of the parties to the treat$ an( of the thir(
State3 &nless it is esta+lishe( that the$ ha( otherwise agree(.
2. :hen a right has arisen for a thir( State in conformit$ with article 363 the right ma$ not +e
revo@e( or mo(ifie( +$ the parties if it is esta+lishe( that the right was inten(e( not to +e
revoca+le or s&+6ect to mo(ification witho&t the consent of the thir( State.
Article 3) "ules in A Treat# *ecoming 1inding on Third States through International
Custom
Nothing in articles 3! to 3 precl&(es a r&le set forth in a treat$ from +ecoming +in(ing &pon a
thir( State as a c&stomar$ r&le of international law3 recogni'e( as s&ch.
#ART IV$ A!EN%!ENT AN% !O%IFICATION OF TREATIES
Article 3, :eneral "ule "egarding the Amendment of Treaties
A treat$ ma$ +e amen(e( +$ agreement +etween the parties. The r&les lai( (own in Part II
appl$ to s&ch an agreement e.cept insofar as the treat$ ma$ otherwise provi(e.
Article . Amendment of /ultilateral Treaties
1. Unless the treat$ otherwise provi(es3 the amen(ment of m&ltilateral treaties shall +e
governe( +$ the following paragraphs.
2. An$ proposal to amen( a m&ltilateral treat$ as +etween all the parties m&st +e notifie( to all
the contracting States3 each one of which shall have the right to ta@e part inD
AaC the (ecision as to the action to +e ta@en in regar( to s&ch proposalE
A+C the negotiation an( concl&sion of an$ agreement for the amen(ment of the treat$.
3. 1ver$ State entitle( to +ecome a part$ to the treat$ shall also +e entitle( to +ecome a part$ to
the treat$ as amen(e(.
!. The amen(ing agreement (oes not +in( an$ State alrea($ a part$ to the treat$ which (oes
not +ecome a part$ to the amen(ing agreementE article 3/3 paragraph ! A+C3 applies in relation
to s&ch State.
%. An$ State which +ecomes a part$ to the treat$ after the entr$ into force of the amen(ing
agreement shall3 failing an e.pression of a (ifferent intention +$ that StateD
AaC +e consi(ere( as a part$ to the treat$ as amen(e(E an(
A+C +e consi(ere( as a part$ to the &namen(e( treat$ in relation to an$ part$ to the treat$
not +o&n( +$ the amen(ing agreement.
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Article 1 Agreements to /odif# /ultilateral Treaties *etween Certain of the Parties
4nl#
1. Two or more of the parties to a m&ltilateral treat$ ma$ concl&(e an agreement to mo(if$ the
treat$ as +etween themselves alone ifD
AaC the possi+ilit$ of s&ch a mo(ification is provi(e( for +$ the treat$E or
A+C the mo(ification in ,&estion is not prohi+ite( +$ the treat$ an(D
AiC (oes not affect the en6o$ment +$ the other parties of their rights &n(er the treat$ or
the performance of their o+ligationsE
AiiC (oes not relate to a provision3 (erogation from which is incompati+le with the effective
e.ec&tion of the o+6ect an( p&rpose of the treat$ as a whole.
2. Unless in a case falling &n(er paragraph 1 AaC the treat$ otherwise provi(es3 the parties in
,&estion shall notif$ the other parties of their intention to concl&(e the agreement an( of the
mo(ification to the treat$ for which it provi(es.
#ART V$ INVALI%IT', TER!INATION AN% S&S#ENSION OF THE
O#ERATION OF TREATIES
SECTION 1$ -ENERAL #ROVISIONS
Article 2 ;alidit# and Continuance in (orce of Treaties
1. The vali(it$ of a treat$ or of the consent of a State to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$ ma$ +e impeache(
onl$ thro&gh the application of the present Convention.
2. The termination of a treat$3 its (en&nciation or the with(rawal of a part$3 ma$ ta@e place onl$
as a res&lt of the application of the provisions of the treat$ or of the present Convention. The
same r&le applies to s&spension of the operation of a treat$.
Article 3 4*ligations Imposed *# International 6aw Independentl# of A Treat#
The invali(it$3 termination or (en&nciation of a treat$3 the with(rawal of a part$ from it3 or the
s&spension of its operation3 as a res&lt of the application of the present Convention or of the
provisions of the treat$3 shall not in an$ wa$ impair the (&t$ of an$ State to f&lfill an$ o+ligation
em+o(ie( in the treat$ to which it wo&l( +e s&+6ect &n(er international law in(epen(entl$ of the
treat$.
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Article Separa*ilit# of Treat# Provisions
1. A right of a part$3 provi(e( for in a treat$ or arising &n(er article %63 to (eno&nce3 with(raw
from or s&spen( the operation of the treat$ ma$ +e e.ercise( onl$ with respect to the whole
treat$ &nless the treat$ otherwise provi(es or the parties otherwise agree.
2. A gro&n( for invali(ating3 terminating3 with(rawing from or s&spen(ing the operation of a
treat$ recogni'e( in the present Convention ma$ +e invo@e( onl$ with respect to the whole
treat$ e.cept as provi(e( in the following paragraphs or in article 6/.
3. If the gro&n( relates solel$ to partic&lar cla&ses3 it ma$ +e invo@e( onl$ with respect to those
cla&ses whereD
AaC the sai( cla&ses are separa+le from the remain(er of the treat$ with regar( to their
applicationE
A+C it appears from the treat$ or is otherwise esta+lishe( that acceptance of those cla&ses
was not an essential +asis of the consent of the other part$ or parties to +e +o&n( +$ the
treat$ as a wholeE an(
AcC contin&e( performance of the remain(er of the treat$ wo&l( not +e &n6&st.
!. In cases falling &n(er articles !- an( %/3 the State entitle( to invo@e the fra&( or corr&ption
ma$ (o so with respect either to the whole treat$ or3 s&+6ect to paragraph 33 to the partic&lar
cla&ses alone.
%. In cases falling &n(er articles %13 %2 an( %33 no separation of the provisions of the treat$ is
permitte(.
Article $ 6oss of A "ight to Invo<e A :round for Invalidating2 Terminating2 7ithdrawing
from or Suspending the 4peration of A Treat#
A State ma$ no longer invo@e a gro&n( for invali(ating3 terminating3 with(rawing from or
s&spen(ing the operation of a treat$ &n(er articles !6 to %/ or articles 6/ an( 62 if3 after
+ecoming aware of the factsD
AaC it shall have e.pressl$ agree( that the treat$ is vali( or remains in force or contin&es in
operation3 as the case ma$ +eE or
A+C it m&st +$ reason of its con(&ct +e consi(ere( as having ac,&iesce( in the vali(it$ of the
treat$ or in its maintenance in force or in operation3 as the case ma$ +e.
SECTION 2$ INVALI%IT' OF TREATIES
Article & Provisions of Internal 6aw "egarding Competence to Conclude Treaties
1. A State ma$ not invo@e the fact that its consent to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$ has +een e.presse(
in violation of a provision of its internal law regar(ing competence to concl&(e treaties as
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invali(ating its consent &nless that violation was manifest an( concerne( a r&le of its internal
law of f&n(amental importance.
2. A violation is manifest if it wo&l( +e o+6ectivel$ evi(ent to an$ State con(&cting itself in the
matter in accor(ance with normal practice an( in goo( faith.
Article ' Specific "estrictions on Authorit# to 0-press the Consent of A State
If the a&thorit$ of a representative to e.press the consent of a State to +e +o&n( +$ a partic&lar
treat$ has +een ma(e s&+6ect to a specific restriction3 his omission to o+serve that restriction
ma$ not +e invo@e( as invali(ating the consent e.presse( +$ him &nless the restriction was
notifie( to the other negotiating States prior to his e.pressing s&ch consent.
Article ) 0rror
1. A State ma$ invo@e an error in a treat$ as invali(ating its consent to +e +o&n( +$ the treat$ if
the error relates to a fact or sit&ation which was ass&me( +$ that State to e.ist at the time when
the treat$ was concl&(e( an( forme( an essential +asis of its consent to +e +o&n( +$ the treat$.
2. Paragraph 1 shall not appl$ if the State in ,&estion contri+&te( +$ its own con(&ct to the error
or if the circ&mstances were s&ch as to p&t that State on notice of a possi+le error.
3. An error relating onl$ to the wor(ing of the te.t of a treat$ (oes not affect its vali(it$E article -
then applies.
Article , (raud
If a State has +een in(&ce( to concl&(e a treat$ +$ the fra&(&lent con(&ct of another
negotiating State3 the State ma$ invo@e the fra&( as invali(ating its consent to +e +o&n( +$ the
treat$.
Article $. Corruption of A "epresentative of A State
If the e.pression of a StateFs consent to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$ has +een proc&re( thro&gh the
corr&ption of its representative (irectl$ or in(irectl$ +$ another negotiating State3 the State ma$
invo@e s&ch corr&ption as invali(ating its consent to +e +o&n( +$ the treat$.
Article $1 Coercion of A "epresentative of A State
The e.pression of a StateFs consent to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$ which has +een proc&re( +$ the
coercion of its representative thro&gh acts or threats (irecte( against him shall +e witho&t an$
legal effect.
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Article $2 Coercion of A State *# the Threat or Use of (orce
A treat$ is voi( if its concl&sion has +een proc&re( +$ the threat or &se of force in violation of the
principles of international law em+o(ie( in the Charter of the Unite( Nations.
Article $3 Treaties Conflicting with A Peremptor# Norm of :eneral International 6aw
=8>us Cogens9?
A treat$ is voi( if3 at the time of its concl&sion3 it conflicts with a peremptor$ norm of general
international law. *or the p&rposes of the present Convention3 a peremptor$ norm of general
international law is a norm accepte( an( recogni'e( +$ the international comm&nit$ of States as
a whole as a norm from which no (erogation is permitte( an( which can +e mo(ifie( onl$ +$ a
s&+se,&ent norm of general international law having the same character.
SECTION $ TER!INATION AN% S&S#ENSION OF THE O#ERATION OF
TREATIES
Article $ Termination of or 7ithdrawal from A Treat# under Its Provisions or *#
Consent of the Parties
The termination of a treat$ or the with(rawal of a part$ ma$ ta@e placeD
AaC in conformit$ with the provisions of the treat$E or
A+C at an$ time +$ consent of all the parties after cons&ltation with the other contracting States.
Article $$ "eduction of the Parties to A /ultilateral Treat# *elow the Num*er Necessar#
for Its 0ntr# into (orce
Unless the treat$ otherwise provi(es3 a m&ltilateral treat$ (oes not terminate +$ reason onl$ of
the fact that the n&m+er of the parties falls +elow the n&m+er necessar$ for its entr$ into force.
Article $& 3enunciation of or 7ithdrawal from A Treat# Containing No Provision
"egarding Termination2 3enunciation or 7ithdrawal
1. A treat$ which contains no provision regar(ing its termination an( which (oes not provi(e for
(en&nciation or with(rawal is not s&+6ect to (en&nciation or with(rawal &nlessD
AaC it is esta+lishe( that the parties inten(e( to a(mit the possi+ilit$ of (en&nciation or
with(rawalE or
A+C a right of (en&nciation or with(rawal ma$ +e implie( +$ the nat&re of the treat$.
2. A part$ shall give not less than twelve monthsF notice of its intention to (eno&nce or with(raw
from a treat$ &n(er paragraph 1.
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Article $' Suspension of the 4peration of A Treat# under Its Provisions or *# Consent
of the Parties
The operation of a treat$ in regar( to all the parties or to a partic&lar part$ ma$ +e s&spen(e(D
AaC in conformit$ with the provisions of the treat$E or
A+C at an$ time +$ consent of all the parties after cons&ltation with the other contracting States.
Article $) Suspension of the 4peration of A /ultilateral Treat# *# Agreement *etween
Certain of the Parties 4nl#
1. Two or more parties to a m&ltilateral treat$ ma$ concl&(e an agreement to s&spen( the
operation of provisions of the treat$3 temporaril$ an( as +etween themselves alone3 ifD
AaC the possi+ilit$ of s&ch a s&spension is provi(e( for +$ the treat$E or
A+C the s&spension in ,&estion is not prohi+ite( +$ the treat$ an(D
AiC (oes not affect the en6o$ment +$ the other parties of their rights &n(er the treat$ or
the performance of their o+ligationsE
AiiC is not incompati+le with the o+6ect an( p&rpose of the treat$.
2. Unless in a case falling &n(er paragraph 1 AaC the treat$ otherwise provi(es3 the parties in
,&estion shall notif$ the other parties of their intention to concl&(e the agreement an( of those
provisions of the treat$ the operation of which the$ inten( to s&spen(.
Article $, Termination or Suspension of the 4peration of A Treat# Implied *#
Conclusion of A 6ater Treat#
1. A treat$ shall +e consi(ere( as terminate( if all the parties to it concl&(e a later treat$ relating
to the same s&+6ect matter an(D
AaC it appears from the later treat$ or is otherwise esta+lishe( that the parties inten(e( that
the matter sho&l( +e governe( +$ that treat$E or
A+C the provisions of the later treat$ are so far incompati+le with those of the earlier one that
the two treaties are not capa+le of +eing applie( at the same time.
2. The earlier treat$ shall +e consi(ere( as onl$ s&spen(e( in operation if it appears from the
later treat$ or is otherwise esta+lishe( that s&ch was the intention of the parties.
Article &. Termination or Suspension of the 4peration of A Treat# as A Conse+uence of
Its 1reach
1. A material +reach of a +ilateral treat$ +$ one of the parties entitles the other to invo@e the
+reach as a gro&n( for terminating the treat$ or s&spen(ing its operation in whole or in part.
2. A material +reach of a m&ltilateral treat$ +$ one of the parties entitlesD
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AaC the other parties +$ &nanimo&s agreement to s&spen( the operation of the treat$ in
whole or in part or to terminate it eitherD
AiC in the relations +etween themselves an( the (efa&lting StateE or
AiiC as +etween all the partiesE
A+C a part$ speciall$ affecte( +$ the +reach to invo@e it as a gro&n( for s&spen(ing the
operation of the treat$ in whole or in part in the relations +etween itself an( the (efa&lting
StateE
AcC an$ part$ other than the (efa&lting State to invo@e the +reach as a gro&n( for
s&spen(ing the operation of the treat$ in whole or in part with respect to itself if the treat$ is
of s&ch a character that a material +reach of its provisions +$ one part$ ra(icall$ changes
the position of ever$ part$ with respect to the f&rther performance of its o+ligations &n(er the
treat$.
3. A material +reach of a treat$3 for the p&rposes of this article3 consists inD
AaC a rep&(iation of the treat$ not sanctione( +$ the present ConventionE or
A+C the violation of a provision essential to the accomplishment of the o+6ect or p&rpose of
the treat$.
!. The foregoing paragraphs are witho&t pre6&(ice to an$ provision in the treat$ applica+le in the
event of a +reach.
%. Paragraphs 1 to 3 (o not appl$ to provisions relating to the protection of the h&man person
containe( in treaties of a h&manitarian character3 in partic&lar to provisions prohi+iting an$ form
of reprisals against persons protecte( +$ s&ch treaties.
Article &1 Supervening Impossi*ilit# of Performance
1. A part$ ma$ invo@e the impossi+ilit$ of performing a treat$ as a gro&n( for terminating or
with(rawing from it if the impossi+ilit$ res&lts from the permanent (isappearance or (estr&ction
of an o+6ect in(ispensa+le for the e.ec&tion of the treat$. If the impossi+ilit$ is temporar$3 it ma$
+e invo@e( onl$ as a gro&n( for s&spen(ing the operation of the treat$.
2. Impossi+ilit$ of performance ma$ not +e invo@e( +$ a part$ as a gro&n( for terminating3
with(rawing from or s&spen(ing the operation of a treat$ if the impossi+ilit$ is the res&lt of a
+reach +$ that part$ either of an o+ligation &n(er the treat$ or of an$ other international
o+ligation owe( to an$ other part$ to the treat$.
Article &2 (undamental Change of Circumstances
1. A f&n(amental change of circ&mstances which has occ&rre( with regar( to those e.isting at
the time of the concl&sion of a treat$3 an( which was not foreseen +$ the parties3 ma$ not +e
invo@e( as a gro&n( for terminating or with(rawing from the treat$ &nlessD
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AaC the e.istence of those circ&mstances constit&te( an essential +asis of the consent of the
parties to +e +o&n( +$ the treat$E an(
A+C the effect of the change is ra(icall$ to transform the e.tent of o+ligations still to +e
performe( &n(er the treat$.
2. A f&n(amental change of circ&mstances ma$ not +e invo@e( as a gro&n( for terminating or
with(rawing from a treat$D
AaC if the treat$ esta+lishes a +o&n(ar$E or
A+C if the f&n(amental change is the res&lt of a +reach +$ the part$ invo@ing it either of an
o+ligation &n(er the treat$ or of an$ other international o+ligation owe( to an$ other part$ to
the treat$.
3. If3 &n(er the foregoing paragraphs3 a part$ ma$ invo@e a f&n(amental change of
circ&mstances as a gro&n( for terminating or with(rawing from a treat$ it ma$ also invo@e the
change as a gro&n( for s&spen(ing the operation of the treat$.
Article &3 Severance of 3iplomatic or Consular "elations
The severance of (iplomatic or cons&lar relations +etween parties to a treat$ (oes not affect the
legal relations esta+lishe( +etween them +$ the treat$ e.cept insofar as the e.istence of
(iplomatic or cons&lar relations are in(ispensa+le for the application of the treat$.
Article & 0mergence of A New Peremptor# Norm of :eneral International 6aw =8>us
Cogens9?
If a new peremptor$ norm of general international law emerges3 an$ e.isting treat$ which is in
conflict with that norm +ecomes voi( an( terminates.
SECTION *$ #ROCE%&RE
Article &$ Procedure to *e (ollowed with "espect to Invalidit#2 Termination2 7ithdrawal
from or Suspension of the 4peration of A Treat#
1. A part$ which3 &n(er the provisions of the present Convention3 invo@es either a (efect in its
consent to +e +o&n( +$ a treat$ or a gro&n( for impeaching the vali(it$ of a treat$3 terminating it3
with(rawing from it or s&spen(ing its operation3 m&st notif$ the other parties of its claim. The
notification shall in(icate the meas&re propose( to +e ta@en with respect to the treat$ an( the
reasons therefor.
2. If3 after the e.pir$ of a perio( which3 e.cept in cases of special &rgenc$3 shall not +e less than
three months after the receipt of the notification3 no part$ has raise( an$ o+6ection3 the part$
ma@ing the notification ma$ carr$ o&t in the manner provi(e( in article 6 the meas&re which it
has propose(.
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3. If3 however3 o+6ection has +een raise( +$ an$ other part$3 the parties shall see@ a sol&tion
thro&gh the means in(icate( in Article 33 of the Charter of the Unite( Nations.
!. Nothing in the foregoing paragraphs shall affect the rights or o+ligations of the parties &n(er
an$ provisions in force +in(ing the parties with regar( to the settlement of (isp&tes.
%. :itho&t pre6&(ice to article !%3 the fact that a State has not previo&sl$ ma(e the notification
prescri+e( in paragraph 1 shall not prevent it from ma@ing s&ch notification in answer to another
part$ claiming performance of the treat$ or alleging its violation.
Article && Procedures for >udicial Settlement2 Ar*itration and Conciliation
If3 &n(er paragraph 3 of article 6%3 no sol&tion has +een reache( within a perio( of 12 months
following the (ate on which the o+6ection was raise(3 the following proce(&res shall +e followe(D
AaC an$ one of the parties to a (isp&te concerning the application or the interpretation of article
%3 or 6! ma$3 +$ a written application3 s&+mit it to the International Co&rt of B&stice for a
(ecision &nless the parties +$ common consent agree to s&+mit the (isp&te to ar+itrationE
A+C an$ one of the parties to a (isp&te concerning the application or the interpretation of an$ of
the other articles in part ; of the present Convention ma$ set in motion the proce(&re specifie(
in the Anne. to the Convention +$ s&+mitting a re,&est to that effect to the Secretar$"?eneral of
the Unite( Nations.
Article &' Instruments for 3eclaring Invalid2 Terminating2 7ithdrawing from or
Suspending the 4peration of A Treat#
1. The notification provi(e( for &n(er article 6%3 paragraph 13 m&st +e ma(e in writing.
2. An$ act of (eclaring invali(3 terminating3 with(rawing from or s&spen(ing the operation of a
treat$ p&rs&ant to the provisions of the treat$ or of paragraphs 2 or 3 of article 6% shall +e
carrie( o&t thro&gh an instr&ment comm&nicate( to the other parties. If the instr&ment is not
signe( +$ the <ea( of State3 <ea( of ?overnment or 0inister for *oreign Affairs3 the
representative of the State comm&nicating it ma$ +e calle( &pon to pro(&ce f&ll powers.
Article &) "evocation of Notifications and Instruments Provided for in Articles &$ and &'
A notification or instr&ment provi(e( for in article 6% or 6 ma$ +e revo@e( at an$ time +efore it
ta@es effect.
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SECTION +$ CONSE.&ENCES OF THE INVALI%IT', TER!INATION OR
S&S#ENSION OF THE O#ERATION OF A TREAT'
Article &, Conse+uences of the Invalidit# of A Treat#
1. A treat$ the invali(it$ of which is esta+lishe( &n(er the present Convention is voi(. The
provisions of a voi( treat$ have no legal force.
2. If acts have nevertheless +een performe( in reliance on s&ch a treat$D
AaC each part$ ma$ re,&ire an$ other part$ to esta+lish as far as possi+le in their m&t&al
relations the position that wo&l( have e.iste( if the acts ha( not +een performe(E
A+C acts performe( in goo( faith +efore the invali(it$ was invo@e( are not ren(ere( &nlawf&l
+$ reason onl$ of the invali(it$ of the treat$.
3. In cases falling &n(er article !-3 %/3 %1 or %23 paragraph 2 (oes not appl$ with respect to the
part$ to which the fra&(3 the act of corr&ption or the coercion is imp&ta+le.
!. In the case of the invali(it$ of a partic&lar StateFs consent to +e +o&n( +$ a m&ltilateral treat$3
the foregoing r&les appl$ in the relations +etween that State an( the parties to the treat$.
Article '. Conse+uences of the Termination of A Treat#
1. Unless the treat$ otherwise provi(es or the parties otherwise agree3 the termination of a
treat$ &n(er its provisions or in accor(ance with the present ConventionD
AaC releases the parties from an$ o+ligation f&rther to perform the treat$E
A+C (oes not affect an$ right3 o+ligation or legal sit&ation of the parties create( thro&gh the
e.ec&tion of the treat$ prior to its termination.
2. If a State (eno&nces or with(raws from a m&ltilateral treat$3 paragraph 1 applies in the
relations +etween that State an( each of the other parties to the treat$ from the (ate when s&ch
(en&nciation or with(rawal ta@es effect.
Article '1 Conse+uences of the Invalidit# of A Treat# which Conflicts with A Peremptor#
Norm of :eneral International 6aw
1. In the case of a treat$ which is voi( &n(er article %3 the parties shallD
AaC eliminate as far as possi+le the conse,&ences of an$ act performe( in reliance on an$
provision which conflicts with the peremptor$ norm of general international lawE an(
A+C +ring their m&t&al relations into conformit$ with the peremptor$ norm of general
international law.
2. In the case of a treat$ which +ecomes voi( an( terminates &n(er article 6!3 the termination of
the treat$D
AaC releases the parties from an$ o+ligation f&rther to perform the treat$E
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A+C (oes not affect an$ right3 o+ligation or legal sit&ation of the parties create( thro&gh the
e.ec&tion of the treat$ prior to its termination3 provi(e( that those rights3 o+ligations or
sit&ations ma$ thereafter +e maintaine( onl$ to the e.tent that their maintenance is not in
itself in conflict with the new peremptor$ norm of general international law.
Article '2 Conse+uences of the Suspension of the 4peration of A Treat#
1. Unless the treat$ otherwise provi(es or the parties otherwise agree3 the s&spension of the
operation of a treat$ &n(er its provisions or in accor(ance with the present ConventionD
AaC releases the parties +etween which the operation of the treat$ is s&spen(e( from the
o+ligation to perform the treat$ in their m&t&al relations (&ring the perio( of the s&spensionE
A+C (oes not otherwise affect the legal relations +etween the parties esta+lishe( +$ the
treat$.
2. 4&ring the perio( of the s&spension the parties shall refrain from acts ten(ing to o+str&ct the
res&mption of the operation of the treat$.
#ART VI$ !ISCELLANEO&S #ROVISIONS
Article '3 Cases of State Succession2 State "esponsi*ilit# and 4ut*rea< of @ostilities
The provisions of the present Convention shall not pre6&(ge an$ ,&estion that ma$ arise in
regar( to a treat$ from a s&ccession of States or from the international responsi+ilit$ of a State
or from the o&t+rea@ of hostilities +etween States.
Article ' 3iplomatic and Consular "elations and the Conclusion of Treaties
The severance or a+sence of (iplomatic or cons&lar relations +etween two or more States (oes
not prevent the concl&sion of treaties +etween those States. The concl&sion of a treat$ (oes not
in itself affect the sit&ation in regar( to (iplomatic or cons&lar relations.
Article '$ Case of An Aggressor State
The provisions of the present Convention are witho&t pre6&(ice to an$ o+ligation in relation to a
treat$ which ma$ arise for an aggressor State in conse,&ence of meas&res ta@en in conformit$
with the Charter of the Unite( Nations with reference to that StateFs aggression.
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#ART VII$ %E#OSITARIES, NOTIFICATIONS, CORRECTIONS AN%
RE-ISTRATION
Article '& 3epositaries of Treaties
1. The (esignation of the (epositar$ of a treat$ ma$ +e ma(e +$ the negotiating States3 either in
the treat$ itself or in some other manner. The (epositar$ ma$ +e one or more States3 an
international organi'ation or the chief a(ministrative officer of the organi'ation.
2. The f&nctions of the (epositar$ of a treat$ are international in character an( the (epositar$ is
&n(er an o+ligation to act impartiall$ in their performance. In partic&lar3 the fact that a treat$ has
not entere( into force +etween certain of the parties or that a (ifference has appeare( +etween
a State an( a (epositar$ with regar( to the performance of the latterFs f&nctions shall not affect
that o+ligation.
Article '' (unctions of 3epositaries
1. The f&nctions of a (epositar$3 &nless otherwise provi(e( in the treat$ or agree( +$ the
contracting States3 comprise in partic&larD
AaC @eeping c&sto($ of the original te.t of the treat$ an( of an$ f&ll powers (elivere( to the
(epositar$E
A+C preparing certifie( copies of the original te.t an( preparing an$ f&rther te.t of the treat$ in
s&ch a((itional lang&ages as ma$ +e re,&ire( +$ the treat$ an( transmitting them to the
parties an( to the States entitle( to +ecome parties to the treat$E
AcC receiving an$ signat&res to the treat$ an( receiving an( @eeping c&sto($ of an$
instr&ments3 notifications an( comm&nications relating to itE
A(C e.amining whether the signat&re or an$ instr&ment3 notification or comm&nication
relating to the treat$ is in (&e an( proper form an(3 if nee( +e3 +ringing the matter to the
attention of the State in ,&estionE
AeC informing the parties an( the States entitle( to +ecome parties to the treat$ of acts3
notifications an( comm&nications relating to the treat$E
AfC informing the States entitle( to +ecome parties to the treat$ when the n&m+er of
signat&res or of instr&ments of ratification3 acceptance3 approval or accession re,&ire( for
the entr$ into force of the treat$ has +een receive( or (eposite(E
AgC registering the treat$ with the Secretariat of the Unite( NationsE
AhC performing the f&nctions specifie( in other provisions of the present Convention.
2. In the event of an$ (ifference appearing +etween a State an( the (epositar$ as to the
performance of the latterFs f&nctions3 the (epositar$ shall +ring the ,&estion to the attention of
the signator$ States an( the contracting States or3 where appropriate3 of the competent organ of
the international organi'ation concerne(.
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Article ') Notifications and Communications
1.cept as the treat$ or the present Convention otherwise provi(e3 an$ notification or
comm&nication to +e ma(e +$ an$ State &n(er the present Convention shallD
AaC if there is no (epositar$3 +e transmitte( (irect to the States for which it is inten(e(3 or if there
is a (epositar$3 to the latterE
A+C +e consi(ere( as having +een ma(e +$ the State in ,&estion onl$ &pon its receipt +$ the
State to which it was transmitte( or3 as the case ma$ +e3 &pon its receipt +$ the (epositar$E
AcC if transmitte( to a (epositar$3 +e consi(ere( as receive( +$ the State for which it was
inten(e( onl$ when the latter State has +een informe( +$ the (epositar$ in accor(ance with
article 3 paragraph 1 AeC.
Article ', Correction of 0rrors in Te-ts or In Certified Copies of Treaties
1. :here3 after the a&thentication of the te.t of a treat$3 the signator$ States an( the contracting
States are agree( that it contains an error3 the error shall3 &nless the$ (eci(e &pon some other
means of correction3 +e correcte(D
AaC +$ having the appropriate correction ma(e in the te.t an( ca&sing the correction to +e
initialle( +$ (&l$ a&thori'e( representativesE
A+C +$ e.ec&ting or e.changing an instr&ment or instr&ments setting o&t the correction which
it has +een agree( to ma@eE or
AcC +$ e.ec&ting a correcte( te.t of the whole treat$ +$ the same proce(&re as in the case of
the original te.t.
2. :here the treat$ is one for which there is a (epositar$3 the latter shall notif$ the signator$
States an( the contracting States of the error an( of the proposal to correct it an( shall specif$
an appropriate time"limit within which o+6ection to the propose( correction ma$ +e raise(. If3 on
the e.pir$ of the time"limitD
AaC no o+6ection has +een raise(3 the (epositar$ shall ma@e an( initial the correction in the
te.t an( shall e.ec&te a procGs"ver+al of the rectification of the te.t an( comm&nicate a
cop$ of it to the parties an( to the States entitle( to +ecome parties to the treat$E
A+C an o+6ection has +een raise(3 the (epositar$ shall comm&nicate the o+6ection to the
signator$ States an( to the contracting States.
3. The r&les in paragraphs 1 an( 2 appl$ also where the te.t has +een a&thenticate( in two or
more lang&ages an( it appears that there is a lac@ of concor(ance which the signator$ States
an( the contracting States agree sho&l( +e correcte(.
!. The correcte( te.t replaces the (efective te.t a* initio3 &nless the signator$ States an( the
contracting States otherwise (eci(e.
%. The correction of the te.t of a treat$ that has +een registere( shall +e notifie( to the
Secretariat of the Unite( Nations.
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6. :here an error is (iscovere( in a certifie( cop$ of a treat$3 the (epositar$ shall e.ec&te a
procGs"ver+al specif$ing the rectification an( comm&nicate a cop$ of it to the signator$ States
an( to the contracting States.
Article ). "egistration and Pu*lication of Treaties
1. Treaties shall3 after their entr$ into force3 +e transmitte( to the Secretariat of the Unite(
Nations for registration or filing an( recor(ing3 as the case ma$ +e3 an( for p&+lication.
2. The (esignation of a (epositar$ shall constit&te a&thori'ation for it to perform the acts
specifie( in the prece(ing paragraph.
#ART VIII$ FINAL #ROVISIONS
Article )1 Signature
The present Convention shall +e open for signat&re +$ all States 0em+ers of the Unite( Nations
or of an$ of the speciali'e( agencies or of the International Atomic 1nerg$ Agenc$ or parties to
the Stat&te of the International Co&rt of B&stice3 an( +$ an$ other State invite( +$ the ?eneral
Assem+l$ of the Unite( Nations to +ecome a part$ to the Convention3 as followsD &ntil 3/
Novem+er 1-6-3 at the *e(eral 0inistr$ for *oreign Affairs of the #ep&+lic of A&stria3 an(
s&+se,&entl$3 &ntil 3/ April 1-/3 at Unite( Nations <ea(,&arters3 New Hor@.
Article )2 "atification
The present Convention is s&+6ect to ratification. The instr&ments of ratification shall +e
(eposite( with the Secretar$"?eneral of the Unite( Nations.
Article )3 Accession
The present Convention shall remain open for accession +$ an$ State +elonging to an$ of the
categories mentione( in article )1. The instr&ments of accession shall +e (eposite( with the
Secretar$" ?eneral of the Unite( Nations.
Article ) 0ntr# into (orce
1. The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth (a$ following the (ate of (eposit
of the thirt$"fifth instr&ment of ratification or accession.
2. *or each State ratif$ing or acce(ing to the Convention after the (eposit of the thirt$"fifth
instr&ment of ratification or accession3 the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth (a$
after (eposit +$ s&ch State of its instr&ment of ratification or accession.
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Article )$ Authentic Te-ts
The original of the present Convention3 of which the Chinese3 1nglish3 *rench3 #&ssian an(
Spanish te.ts are e,&all$ a&thentic3 shall +e (eposite( with the Secretar$"?eneral of the Unite(
Nations.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the &n(ersigne( Plenipotentiaries3 +eing (&l$ a&thori'e( thereto +$
their respective ?overnments3 have signe( the present Convention.
%ONE at ;ienna this twent$"thir( (a$ of 0a$3 one tho&san( nine h&n(re( an( si.t$"nine.
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ANNE0
1. A list of conciliators consisting of ,&alifie( 6&rists shall +e (rawn &p an( maintaine( +$ the
Secretar$"?eneral of the Unite( Nations. to this en(3 ever$ State which is a 0em+er of the
Unite( Nations or a part$ to the present Convention shall +e invite( to nominate two
conciliators3 an( the names of the persons so nominate( shall constit&te the list. The term of a
conciliator3 incl&(ing that of an$ conciliator nominate( to fill a cas&al vacanc$3 shall +e five $ears
an( ma$ +e renewe(. A conciliator whose term e.pires shall contin&e to f&lfill an$ f&nction for
which he shall have +een chosen &n(er the following paragraph.
2. :hen a re,&est has +een ma(e to the Secretar$"?eneral &n(er article 663 the Secretar$"
?eneral shall +ring the (isp&te +efore a conciliation commission constit&te( as followsD
The State or States constit&ting one of the parties to the (isp&te shall appointD
AaC one conciliator of the nationalit$ of that State or of one of those States3 who ma$ or ma$
not +e chosen from the list referre( to in paragraph 1E an(
A+C one conciliator not of the nationalit$ of that State or of an$ of those States3 who shall +e
chosen from the list.
The State or States constit&ting the other part$ to the (isp&te shall appoint two conciliators in
the same wa$. The fo&r conciliators chosen +$ the parties shall +e appointe( within si.t$ (a$s
following the (ate on which the Secretar$"?eneral receives the re,&est.
The fo&r conciliators shall3 within si.t$ (a$s following the (ate of the last of their own
appointments3 appoint a fifth conciliator chosen from the list3 who shall +e chairman.
If the appointment of the chairman or of an$ of the other conciliators has not +een ma(e within
the perio( prescri+e( a+ove for s&ch appointment3 it shall +e ma(e +$ the Secretar$"?eneral
within si.t$ (a$s following the e.pir$ of that perio(. The appointment of the chairman ma$ +e
ma(e +$ the Secretar$"?eneral either from the list or from the mem+ership of the International
7aw Commission.
An$ of the perio(s within which appointments m&st +e ma(e ma$ +e e.ten(e( +$ agreement
+etween the parties to the (isp&te.
An$ vacanc$ shall +e fille( in the manner prescri+e( for the initial appointment.
3. The Conciliation Commission shall (eci(e its own proce(&re. The Commission3 with the
consent of the parties to the (isp&te3 ma$ invite an$ part$ to the treat$ to s&+mit to it its views
orall$ or in writing. 4ecisions an( recommen(ations of the Commission shall +e ma(e +$ a
ma6orit$ vote of the five mem+ers.
!. The Commission ma$ (raw the attention of the parties to the (isp&te to an$ meas&res which
might facilitate an amica+le settlement.
%. The Commission shall hear the parties3 e.amine the claims an( o+6ections3 an( ma@e
proposals to the parties with a view to reaching an amica+le settlement of the (isp&te.
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6. The Commission shall report within twelve months of its constit&tion. Its report shall +e
(eposite( with the Secretar$"?eneral an( transmitte( to the parties to the (isp&te. The report of
the Commission3 incl&(ing an$ concl&sions state( therein regar(ing the facts or ,&estions of
law3 shall not +e +in(ing &pon the parties an( it shall have no other character than that of
recommen(ations s&+mitte( for the consi(eration of the parties in or(er to facilitate an amica+le
settlement of the (isp&te.
. The Secretar$"?eneral shall provi(e the Commission with s&ch assistance an( facilities as it
ma$ re,&ire. The e.penses of the Commission shall +e +orne +$ the Unite( Nations.
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