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EUROPEAN STANDARD

NORME EUROPENNE
EUROPISCHE NORM
DRAFT
prEN 14227-5
March 2002
ICS
English version
Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures - Specifications -
Part 5: Granular materials bound with hydraulic road binders -
Definitions, composition, classification
This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 227.
If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which
stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.
This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language
made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same
status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and
shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMI T EUROPEN DE NORMALI SATI ON
EUROPI SCHES KOMI TEE FR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels
2002 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved
worldwide for CEN national Members.
Ref. No. prEN 14227-5:2002 E
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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Contents
1 Scope ..............................................................................................................................................................3
2 Normative references ....................................................................................................................................3
3 Terms and definitions....................................................................................................................................4
4 Symbols and abbreviations ..........................................................................................................................4
5 Constituents ...................................................................................................................................................5
6 Types of mixtures ..........................................................................................................................................5
7 Laboratory performance classification .....................................................................................................10
8 Other characteristics...................................................................................................................................12
9 Production control .......................................................................................................................................12
10 Evaluation of conformity.............................................................................................................................13
11 Marking and labelling ..................................................................................................................................13
Annex A (normative) Compacity of HRBGM 2........................................................................................................14
Annex B (informative) Laboratory performance classification byR
t
E..................................................................15
Annex C (informative) Production Control .............................................................................................................16
Annex D (informative) Description of a production plant and appreciation of capability to produce
(included in the Quality Manual) ................................................................................................................27
Annex E (normative) Evaluation of conformity for the production of mixture ...................................................31
Annex F (normative) Conformity criteria for HRBGM............................................................................................33
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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Foreword
This document (prEN 14227-5) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 227, "Road materials", the
secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
This European Standard is one of a series of standards as listed below:
prEN 14227-1, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Specifications Part 1: Cement bound mixtures for
road bases and sub-bases
prEN 14227-2, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Specifications Part 2: Slag bound mixtures
Definitions, composition, classification
prEN 14227-3, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Specifications Part 3: Fly ash bound mixtures
Definitions, composition, classification
prEN 14227-4, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Specifications Part 4: Fly ash for hydraulically
mixtures Definitions, composition, classification
prEN 14227-5, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Specifications Part 5: Granular materials bound
with hydraulic road binders Definitions, composition, classification
1 Scope
The European Standard defines granular materials bound with Hydraulic road binders (HRBGM) for road structures
and similar works and specifies the requirements for their constituents, composition and laboratory performance
classification.
2 Normative references
This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These
normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For
dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European
Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the
publication referred to applies.
EN 1097-6, Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates Part 6: Determination of particle density
and water absorption.
prENV 13282, Hydraulic Road binders Composition, specifications and conformity criteria.
prEN 13242, Aggregates for unbound and hydraulically bound materials for use in civil engineering work and road
construction.
prEN 13286-1, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Part 1: Test methods for laboratory dry density and
moisture content introduction, general requirements and sampling.
prEN 13286-2, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Part 2: Test methods for laboratory dry density and
moisture content Proctor compaction.
prEN 13286-3, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Part 3: Test methods for laboratory dry density and
moisture content Vibrocompression with controlled parameters.
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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prEN 13286-4, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Part 4: Test methods for laboratory dry density and
moisture content Vibrating hammer.
prEN 13286-5, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Part 5: Test methods for laboratory dry density and
moisture content Vibrating table.
prEN 13286-40, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Part 40: Test method for determination of the direct
tensile strength of hydraulically bound mixtures.
prEN 13286-41, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Part 41: Test method for determination of the
compressive strength of hydraulically bound mixtures.
prEN 13286-42, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Part 42: Test method for determination of the
indirect tensile strength of hydraulically bound mixtures.
prEN 13286-43, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Part 43: Test method for determination of the
modulus of elasticity of hydraulically bound mixtures.
prEN 13286-45, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Part 45: Test method for determination of the
workability period of hydraulically bound mixtures.
prEN 13286-47, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Part 47: Test method for the bearing capacity,
California Bearing Ratio (CBR), Immediate Bearing Index (IBI) and linear swelling.
prEN 13286-50, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Methods for making test specimens Part 50:
Making specimens using proctor equipment or vibrating table compaction.
prEN 13286-51, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Methods for making test specimens Part 51:
Making specimens by vibrating hammer compaction.
prEN 13286-52, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Methods for making test specimens Part 52:
Making specimens by vibro-compression.
prEN 13286-53, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures Methods for making test specimens Part 53:
Making specimens by axial compression.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this European Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
granular material bound with hydraulic road binder (HRBGM)
mixture of a hydraulic road binder, granular material and water that sets and hardens by hydraulic reaction
3.2
compacity
ratio of the volume of the solid to the apparent volume of the mixture
4 Symbols and abbreviations
HRBGM granular material bound with hydraulic road binder;
W
t
workability period;
R
c1
compressive strength obtained with cube or cylinder test specimens with a slenderness ratio equal
to 1, in Megapascal (MPa);
R
c2
compressive strength obtained with cylinder test specimens with a slenderness ratio equal to 2, in
Megapascal (MPa);
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
5
R
t
direct tensile strength, in Megapascal (MPa);
R
it
indirect tensile strength, in Megapascal (MPa);
E modulus of elasticity, in Megapascal (MPa);
E
c
modulus of elasticity determined in compression, in Megapascal (MPa);
E
t
modulus of elasticity determined in direct tension, in Megapascal (MPa);
E
it
modulus of elasticity determined in indirect tension, in Megapascal (MPa);
IPI is the immediate bearing index.
5 Constituents
5.1 Hydraulic road binder shall comply with prEN 13282.
5.2 The granular material shall comply with prEN 13242.
5.3 Water shall not contain components which adversely affect the hardening and the performance of the
mixtures.
5.4 Retarders shall be used in accordance with national practice.
NOTE Generally retarders are not necessary.
6 Types of mixtures
6.1 General
The types of HRBGM are shown in Table 1 and described as specified below.
Table 1 Types of HRBGM
Type General description
HRBGM 1 31,5 mm mixture without compacity requirement
HRBGM 2 20 mm or 14 mm mixture with compacity requirement
HRBGM 3 6,3 mixture with IPI requirement
The content of each constituent is defined as its percentage by dry to the total dry mass of the mixture.
6.1.1 Binder content
The binder content shall be based on the laboratory mixture design and/or practical experiences with mixtures
produced with the same constituents and under the same conditions in a way that the mixture complies with the
requirements of the standard.
NOTE Irrespective of the binder content necessary to fulfil the strength requirements for HRBGM of this standard, for road
bases and sub bases, the binder content should normally not be less than 3 % to insure adequate distribution of the binder
through out the mixture
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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6.1.2 Water content
The water content shall be selected to permit compaction on site by rolling and to optimise the laboratory
performance of the mixture. It shall be determined by Proctor test or other method in accordance with prEN 13286
and limits set to give a range of water content on site compatible with the desired mechanical performance of the
mixture.
6.1.3 Laboratory performance characterisation and classification
The laboratory performance characterisation and classification shall be selected from section 7.
6.2 HRBGM 1
The particle size distribution of the mixture shall comply with the figure 1.
The characteristics of the granular material, resistance to fragmentation, fines, harmful constituents and percentage
of crushed particles, shall be specified according to the use of the mixture.
Note: this mixture is prone to segregation, care should be taken to minimise this.
6.3 HRBGM 2
The particle size distribution shall comply with either figure 2 for 20 mm mixture or figure 3 for 14 mm mixture.
According to the application, zone A or B of the particle size envelope shall be specified.
The characteristics of the granular material, resistance to fragmentation, fines, harmful constituents and percentage
of crushed particles, shall be specified according to the use of the mixture.
The mixture shall have a compacity determined in accordance with Annex A greater than 0,80 at Optimum modified
Proctor density.
6.4 HRBGM 3
The particle size of the mixture shall comply with Table 2.
Table 2 Particle size of HRBGM 3
Sieve mm 12,5 6,3 0,063
passing 100 % >85 % <35 %
The aggregate shall be non plastic (non measurable).
Unless stated otherwise, the IPI value of the mixture determined in accordance with prEN 13286-47 shall be not
less than 40.
NOTE Mixtures with an IPI-value between 25 and 40 may be used with care since they may give problem of compaction
and trafficking. The addition of another aggregate may be necessary to achieve the IPI value.
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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Passing (%) Sieve
mm
minimum maximum
zone A
maximum
zone B
40
100
31,5 86 100 100
25 75 93 100
20 65 86 94
10 44 66 78
4 26 48 61
2 18 38 50
0,5 8 24 30
0,2 5 16 21
0,08 3 9 12
Figure 1 Grading curve for HRBGM 1
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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Passing (%) Sieve
mm
minimum maximum
zone A
maximum
zone B
31,5 100
20 85 100 100
10
55 80 88
6,3
42 66 94
4
32 56 66
2 23 43 54
0,5 11 26 31
0,2 7 17 21
0,08 4 10 12
Figure 2 Grading curve for HRBGM 2, 0/20 mm
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prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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Passing (%) Sieve
mm
minimum maximum
zone A
maximum
zone B
25
100
14 85 100 100
10
68 90 97
6,3
50 72 84
4
38 60 71
2 26 46 56
0,5 13 27 32
0,2 9 19 21
0,08 5 11 12
Figure 3 Grading curve for HRBGM 2, 0/14 mm
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prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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7 Laboratory performance classification
There are two methods of characterising and classifying the laboratory performance of HRGBM:
by compressive strength Rc
by the combination R
t
,E of tensile strength R
t
and modulus of elasticity E.
No correlation is intended nor shall be assumed between the 2 methods of characterisation. The pavement
designer shall select the method.
NOTE The choice of method depends on design philosophy, utilisation and experience. The Rt,E method is particularly
applicable when pavement design is formulated using analytical methods.
7.1 Classification by R
C
HRBGM is classified by compressive strength R
C
determined in accordance with prEN 13286-41 carried out on
specimens manufactured in accordance with prEN 13286-50 to 54 (Proctor, vibrating hammer, vibrocompression,
vibrating table or axial compression) and cured at 20 C without evaporation resulting in a loss of bulk density of
more than 2 % (deemed normal curing).
Ten classes of R
C
are covered and are shown below and in Table 2:
C 2/1,5; C 4/3; C 8/6; C 12/9; C 16/12; C 20/15; C 24/18; C 28/21; C 32/24 C 36/27
C designates compressive strength and the first number after C designates the minimum standard strength in MPa
of the class determined on cylinders with a slenderness ratio of 1 or cubes, and the second number relating to
strength determined on cylinders with a slenderness ratio of 2.
The age of classification shall be 360 days or earlier.
NOTE The 360 days value may be established from early age results: 7, 28 or 90 days, employing normal curing at 20C
or curing at 40 C. In these cases, the producer shall provide evidence of the strength development over 360 days and report in
the labelling.
Table 3 R
C
classification
R
C
class R
C1
MPa
R
C2
MPa
C 2/1,5 2 1,5
C 4/3 4 3
C 8/6 8 6
C 12/9 12 9
C 16/12 16 12
C 20/15 20 15
C 24/18 24 19
C 28/21 28 21
C 32/24 32 24
C 36/27 36 27
NOTE If cylinders with slenderness ratios other than 1 and 2 are used, the correlation with cylinders of either slenderness
ratio 1 and 2 shall be established before use.
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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For characterisation or mix design testing in the laboratory, R
C
shall be the average of the results from three
specimens. If one value varies by more than 20 % of the average, it shall be discarded and R
C
be taken as the
average of the two other values.
The pavement designer shall select the required R
C
class from table 2 and the method of specimen manufacture
from prEN 13286-50 to 53. HRBGM shall comply with the minimum strength of that class.
NOTE The pavement designer should be aware that the permitted methods of specimen manufacture realise different
specimen shapes and density, and thus for the same mixture different strengths. It is important that the pavement designer, on
the basis of experience and utilisation, specifies both the strength class and the method of specimen manufacture.
7.2 Classification by R
t
E
HRBGM is classified by tensile strength R
t
and modulus of elasticity E, designated R
t
E, determined on specimens
cured at 20 C without evaporation resulting in a loss of bulk density of more than 2 % (deemed normal curing).
HRBGM shall be classified in six classes according to the position of the couple R
t
and E on Figure 4. The classes
are designated as follows:
T > 47; T 34/47; T 25/34; T 20/25; T 15/20; T < 15
T designates classification by tensile testing and the numbers after T represent the theoretical range of thickness of
layer required by a HRBGM falling in this class when analysed in accordance with Annex B.
R
t
and E shall be established using one of the following methods.
7.2.1 By direct tensile testing
R
t
determined in accordance with EN 13286-40 and E determined in direct tensile test (E
t
) in accordance with
EN 13286-43.
7.2.2 By indirect tensile testing
R
t
derived from R
it
determined in accordance with EN 13286-42 using the relationship R
t
= 0,8R
it
, and E determined
in indirect tension E
it
in accordance with EN 13286-43.
R
it
and E
it
shall be determined on specimens manufactured using one of the method in accordance with
EN 13286-50 to 54.
7.2.3 Method R
t
E
C
by indirect tensile and compression testing
R
t
derived from R
it
in accordance with prEN 13286-42 using the relationship R
t
= 0,8R
it
, and E determined in
compression (E
C
) in accordance with prEN 13286-43.
R
it
and E
C
shall be determined on specimens manufactured using one of the method in accordance with
prEN 13286-50 to 54.
The age of the classification shall be 360 days.
NOTE The 360 days value may be estimated from early age results; e. g. 3, 7, 28, or 90 days, employing normal curing at
20 C or curing at 40 C. In this case, the producer shall provide evidence of the strength development over 360 days, and it
shall be reported in the labelling.
For characterisation or mix design testing in the laboratory, R
t
and E shall be the average result from three
specimens. If one value varies by more than 20 % of the average, it shall be discarded and R
t
or E taken as the
average of the other values.
The pavement designer shall select the method of specimen manufacture from prEN 13286-50 to 54 and the class
from figure 4. The HRBGM shall comply with the lower boundary of the class selected.
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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NOTE The pavement designer should be aware that the permitted methods of specimen manufacture realise different
specimen shapes and density, and thus for the same mixture different strengths. It is important that the pavement designer, on
the basis of experience and utilisation, specifies both the strength class and method of specimen manufacture.
Figure 4 Classification by R
t
E
8 Other characteristics
Particular properties relevant to the intended use of HRGBM are not included in this standard, they can be declared
in the designation, description and labelling and if required may need laboratory verification (e. g. workability time
according determined in accordance with prEN 13286-45).
9 Production control
The producer should have in place a system of Production Control in accordance with annex C.
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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10 Evaluation of conformity
The evaluation of conformity shall comply with annex E and annex F.
11 Marking and labelling
The product shall be identified by:
the type of HRBGM;
the type of hydraulic road binder;
the constituents, their characteristics and their properties;
the method of manufacture of the laboratory specimens for performance test;
the density and water content of specimens;
the type of laboratory performance characterisation and its class;
the others characteristics of the mixture;
name of producer/supplier.
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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AnnexA
(normative)
Compacity of HRBGM 2
The compacity before setting of a HRGBM 2 is defined as the value of the ratio:
absolute volume of solid/apparent volume of the mixture
This can be calculated by the following formula:
|
|
.
|

'

+ + = ....
d b a
C
D B A
m

100
where
C is the compacity;

m
is the apparent volumetric mass of the dry mixture, in Megagrams per cubic metre (MG/m);

A
is the particle density mass of the constituent A, in Megagrams per cubic metre (MG/m);

B
is the particle density mass of the constituent B, in Megagrams per cubic metre (MG/m);

D
is the particle density mass of the constituent D, in Megagrams per cubic metre (MG/m);
a is the constituent A content in mass related to the mixture, in percent (%);
b is the constituent B content in mass related to the mixture, in percent (%);
d is the constituent D content in mass related to the mixture, in percent (%).
The particle density of each constituent is determined according to EN 1097-6.
solid
Air +
water
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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AnnexB
(informative)
Laboratory performance classification byR
t
E
A pavement layer works in flexion. Under a specified condition, the stress of the layer depends on the modulus of
elasticity E of the materials and the layer fails when the flexural stress o at the bottom of the layer exceeds the
flexural strength of the material. The essential mechanical characteristic of the materials are then the modulus of
elasticity E and the flexural strength that can be estimated by means of its direct tensile strength R
t
.
In order to facilitate the comparison of the mechanical performance between two materials, it is necessary to put
together the two values E and R
t
, into one value that is realised by the following method.
On the basis of Figure B.1 let's consider a one layer pavement made with a material with a modulus of elasticity E
and a tensile strength R
t
. That layer lays on a subgrade with a modulus of elasticity of 100 MPa and is submitted to
a load represented by two circular surfaces with a radius of 12,5 cm and a pressure q
0
of 0,65 MPa.
Figure B.1
According to the value of E and R
t
of the material a theoretical calculation gives the thickness of the layer. The lines
that limit the classifications shown in Figure 4 give the equithicknesses of the layers according to the material used.
The classification is made according to six classes which is limited by the thickness of 15 cm, 20 cm, 25 cm, 34 cm,
47 cm. The class T 20/25 for example corresponds to a theoretical thickness less than 25 cm but higher than
20 cm. The class T < 15 means that the thickness is less than 15 cm and the class T > 47 means that the thickness
must be greater than 47 cm.
h
E,R
t
v = 0,25
E
2
= 100 MPa
o
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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AnnexC
(informative)
Production Control
C.1 General
This Production Control has been written to meet the particular needs of the Construction Products Directive
regarding systems for attestation of conformity of hydraulically treated mixtures. This annex is based on standard of
EN 29000 series but stands alone and does not require reference to EN 29000 for its application.
This annex specifies production control requirements for use by the manufacturers of hydraulically treated mixtures
(e. g. slag bound mixtures, fly ash bound mixtures, pozzolana bound mixtures, lime treated mixtures, hydraulic road
binder bound mixtures).
The production control has the quality aim to give adequate assurance that the hydraulically treated mixtures
conform with the relevant technical specifications.
The production control is required to be applied to all European Standards and European Technical Approvals for
hydraulically treated mixtures.
The document can be applied to the control of hydraulically treated mixtures where the constituents and
composition are known, having been derived from a prescriptive specification.
The production control requirements should be considered taking account of the size of the production or of the
work and of the particular equipment, constituents, mixture, procedures and rules in use at the site of production
mixture. Additional requirements may be necessary depending on the special situation of the production place and
the specific requirements for certain constructions or structural elements which are defined at the contract.
Production control should be carried out in all cases by all producers.
This annex applies both to situations where the producer is responsible for delivery by vehicle to a contractor's site
and to those where the contractor collects from the producer's plant in his own vehicle. The producer's Quality
Manual should make clear the point to which his responsibility for handling storage and delivery extends.
C.2 Definitions
C.2.1 Plant
Equipment for the production of hydraulically bound mixture.
Where appropriate, it consists of :
hoppers, silos, tanks to store each constituent just before feeding dispensers;
dispensers to control flow of constituents (continuous system) or weigh each of them in a batch (discontinuous
system);
mixer to provide suitable mixture homogeneity;
delivery devices to the storage or the transport equipment;
monitoring system to manage and control either manually, or semi-automatically or automatically, the proces-
sing equipment, in association, if relevant, with automatic controllers and automated surveillance and data
collection system.
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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C.2.2 Production Control
Production control is the permanent system of control of production which comprises the operational procedures
and practices that are adopted to regulate the quality of a mixture. It includes the inspections and tests used to
monitor the equipment, constituents, manufacturing process and the mixture as produced or delivered if
appropriate, the control of non conforming mixture and the traceability of production.
C.2.3 Technical specifications
Technical Specifications are based on European Standards and European Technical Approvals for hydraulically
treated mixtures.
Where none of them exist they will be based on a relevant national standard or provisions valid in the place of use
C.2.4 Organoleptic check
An organoleptic check is an evaluation made with the senses: sight, touch, smell, hearing, etc. It is a broader
concept than the more commonly used term of a visual inspection.
For example, a check on hydraulic binder or constituent delivery might involve visual (colour and texture), smell
(odour) and touch. This would detect whether the constituent conformed with the expectations of the tester and
would be the quickest way to detect a defective load.
C.2.5 Records
Evidence of production and production control.
C.2.6 Contract with client
A document established between producer and client to identify the contracting parties, the objectives of the
contract, contract period, the point of delivery (contract boundary), guarantee and annulment clauses, technical
specifications and costs.
C.2.7 Contract review
Systematic procedure carried out by the producer before acceptance of the contract to ensure the quality
requirements are defined clearly in the contract.
C.2.8 Lot
A quantity of constituents or mixtures, produced or delivered in a uniform way which is identifiable and can be used
for purpose of inspection, sampling and testing.
C.3 Recommendations
The producer should operate a production control system complying with the requirements of this standard, the
appropriate mixture standard and the term of the contract with the client.
C.3.1 Quality Manual
The producer should establish and maintain his policy and procedures for production control in a Quality Manual.
The Quality Manual should particularly include means for identifying and detailing the specific processes, which
directly affect mixture quality.
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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The Quality Manual should particularly include:
the producer's organisational structure relating to quality;
control procedures for constituents and mixtures;
process control, calibration and maintenance;
requirements for the handling and storage of the mixture when appropriate;
requirements for inspection, calibration and control of the measuring equipment in the process, and laboratory
testing equipment for the mixture;
procedures for handling non-conforming mixture.
The Quality manual should also include frequencies of inspection and testing, according to Chapter 5 and annexes.
NOTE The detail of the Quality manual and of the production control procedures will be plant and process dependent.
C.3.2 Organisation
C.3.2.1 Responsibility and authority
The responsibility, authority and inter-relation of all personnel who manage, perform and verify work affecting
quality should be defined in the Quality Manual, particularly for personnel who have authority to :
initiate action to prevent the occurrence of product non-conformity;
identify and record any mixture quality problems.
C.3.2.2 Management representative
The producer should appoint a person with appropriate authority, knowledge and experience of Production Control
and to ensure that the requirements of the Quality Manual are implemented and maintained.
C.3.2.3 Internal audits
The producer should carry out internal quality audits to verify compliance with the planned arrangements and the
effectiveness of the quality system. Audits should be scheduled on the basis of the status and importance of the
activity. The audits and follow up action should be carried out in accordance with documented procedures. The
results of the audits should be documented and brought to the attention of the personnel having responsibility in
the area audited. The management personnel responsible for the area should take timely corrective action on the
deficiencies found by the audit and should keep a record of the action taken.
C.3.2.3 Management review
The production control system should be reviewed at appropriate intervals by management to ensure its continuing
suitability and effectiveness. Records of such reviews should be maintained.
C.3.2.4 Sub-contract services
Where any sub-contracted services are supplied from outside the producer's resources, means of control should be
established.
C.3.2.5 Records
The production control system should contain adequately documented procedures and instructions. The intended
frequencies of tests and inspections by the producer should be documented. The results of tests and inspections
will be recorded. (Table C.1).
prEN 14227-5:2002 (E)
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Sampling location, date and time, as well as details of the mixture or constituents tested, should be recorded
together with any other relevant information.
Where the constituent or mixture examined does not satisfy the requirements of the appropriate specification and
this standard, records should be kept of corrective actions taken to ensure the quality of the mixture is maintained.
Records should be kept in such a way that they are retrievable and be retained for the period stated in the Quality
Manual, usually a minimum of 3 years or longer if legally required.
C.3.2.6 Training
The producer should establish and maintain procedures for the training of all personnel involved in activities
affecting quality. Personnel performing specific assigned tasks should be suitably qualified on the basis of
appropriate education, training or experience, as required. Training records should be kept.
C.4 Composition of the mixture
The composition of the mixtures will be established from a mixture design procedure intended to confirm the
mixture has properties conforming to relevant standard and the contract.
The composition of regularly produced mixtures will be included in a catalogue of mixtures compositions and
considered as mixture base line or target composition.
The compositions should be re-established in case of significant change in constituents.
The composition should be reviewed periodically to ensure design is conforming to actual requirement taking
account of the change in properties of materials.
C.5 Control procedures
C.5.1 Production management (see Table C.2)
The factory production control system should contain the following:
a) The composition of the mixture to be produced;
b) procedures to adjust mixture composition to take account of variation in raw materials;
c) procedures to ensure that constituents comply with requirements;
d) procedures to ensure the production equipment maintains the composition, homogeneity, and consistency of
the mixture;
e) Procedures for
calibrating, maintaining and adjusting equipment,
sampling material,
data recording during processing,
adjusting the process according to weather conditions;
f) procedures to identify the type of mixture and to control the consistency and, if required, the conformity of each
mixture being produced during a fixed period of production (i. e. sampling frequency and relation of the sample
to either production quantity or production period);
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g) procedures to ensure that each mixture is put to storage (if relevant) in a controlled manner, and that storage
locations and their contents are identified;
h) procedures to ensure that mixture taken from storage should not have deteriorated in such a way that confor-
mity is compromised;
i) instruction that the mixture should be identifiable up to the point of delivery as regards source and type.
C.5.2 Constituents (see Table C.3)
Documentation should detail the source and type of each constituent of the mixture for use at the production
location.
Adequate supplies of constituent should be available to ensure that the planned rates of production and delivery
can be maintained.
The specifications for incoming constituents should be established and communicated to suppliers by means of
written orders.
The control procedures should check that constituents are capable of providing the required quality.
Constituents should be transported and stored in such a manner as to avoid intermingling, contamination or
deterioration which may affect the quality of the product.
This clause also applies to constituents supplied by the client.
NOTE The general requirements may need to be translated into more detailed specific requirements which may include
control requirements for additives or admixtures or reclaimed material as well as special instruction from the suppliers.
C.5.3 Process Control
The Quality Manual should include the following items of process control:
a description of equipment and installation;
a description of the flow of constituents and the processes carried out on them. This should incorporate a flow
diagram;
a statement of conformity with standard. This should include the procedures for control of mixing;
a schedule for monitoring the performance of the process, (manual or automatic system) including a record of
equipment performance against the stated tolerances especially with a permanent automated surveillance and
data collection system.
NOTE Different process control elements will apply to different production processes so it is not possible to give a
comprehensive list for all applications.
Guidance on an inspection schedule is given in Table C.4.
C.5.4 Inspection, calibration and control of equipment
The Quality Manual should identify those items of measuring devices which require calibration and the frequency of
such calibration which should comply with the requirements of Table C.4 and Annex D.
Calibration procedures should be provided, including the permitted tolerances for the devices to remain in service.
The Quality Manual should state the required accuracy of all calibrations.
The equipment should be adequately maintained to ensure that it continues to be capable of producing mixture to
the required specifications and tolerances.
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C.5.5 Inspection and testing of finished mixtures
The Quality Manual should specify the frequency and nature of inspections, and the frequency and type of
sampling and tests which should be carried out. The producer should prepare a schedule of test frequencies. It
should comply with the table C.5 and annex E
The following items should be considered:
specified properties of mixtures and relevant tests;
test frequencies in relation to periods of actual production of each mixture;
test frequency where automated surveillance and monitoring of the production process exist;
statistical approach for testing.
Reasons for changing the test frequencies should be stated in the Quality Manual.
NOTE Long term experience of the consistency of a particular property as well as mixtures with an established record for
conformity should be taken into account.
C.5.6 Handling and delivery
The Quality Manual should contain procedures to ensure that the mixture is handled and (where appropriate)
delivered with the minimum of segregation or degradation and within the permitted water content and time limit (see
Table C.6).
At the point of delivery, the mixture should be identifiable and traceable with regard to its production data. The
producer should maintain records of relevant data of production, which can be referenced from information when
appropriate on the delivery ticket.
NOTE The producer's Quality Manual should describe the characteristics of any mixture storage system and define its
mode of operation. The producer should ensure through checks, inspections and records that such systems are used correctly
and that mixtures maintain their suitability for use.
C.6 Inspection measuring and testing equipment
C.6.1 General
All necessary facilities, equipment and personnel should be available to carry out the required inspections and
tests.
Normally the testing has to be performed according to the specified test methods given in the relevant standard.
Other test methods may be used, if correlations or safe relationships between the results of these test methods and
the reference methods have been established. The correctness of the relationship or correlation should be
examined at appropriate intervals. The examination has to be carried out separately for each place of production
which operates under different conditions.
Inspection and testing should be carried out at least as frequently as indicated in Tables C.3 and C.5.
C.6.2 Measuring and testing equipment
The producer should be responsible for the control, calibration and maintenance of his inspection, measuring and
testing equipment.
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C.6.2.1 Measuring and testing equipment in the process
The points in the process where measuring equipment needs to be deployed should be stated in the Quality
Manual.
The Quality Manual should indicate when control is carried out automatically or manually. There must be a
description of how equipment is maintained and calibrated. A calibration schedule should be available. (i. e.
elements included in the permanent automated surveillance and data collection system).
C.6.2.2 Measuring and testing equipment in laboratory
In order to ensure that the testing of constituents and mixtures in the laboratory conform to the relevant
specifications, the testing equipment is required to be in a known state of calibration and accuracy, consistent with
the required measurement capability.
The following points should be addressed:
accuracy and frequency of calibration, which should be in accordance with the relevant tests standard;
equipment to be used in accordance with documented procedures;
equipment to be uniquely identified and calibration records should be retained;
keeping of calibration record.
C.7 Non-conformity
C.7.1 General
Non-conformity can arise at the following stages:
incoming constituent;
constituent in storage;
mixing;
handling, storage and delivery of the mixture when appropriate.
In the event that a non-conforming constituent, process or mixture is identified, investigations should be initiated to
determine the reasons for non-conformity and effective corrective action should be implemented to prevent
recurrence in accordance with procedures documented in the quality Manual.
C.7.2 Non-conformity of constituents
In the case of non-conforming constituents, corrective action may involve:
reclassifying the constituent;
reprocessing;
adjusting process control to allow for constituent non-conformity;
rejection and disposal of the non-conforming constituent.
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C.7.3 Non-conformity of the mixture
Non-conforming mixture should be evaluated and procedures for taking action should be followed.
The Quality Manual should identify the action to be taken when a non-conforming product is identified and should
state the circumstances under which the customer will be notified of non-conforming results.
NOTE Such action may involve:
corrective action (for example modification of the mixture and or adjustment of equipment);
acceptance of the mixture following the agreement of the customer to accept a non-conforming mixture;
if the mixture produced is incorrect it can be redirect to an alternative customer if appropriate;
rejection of the mixture.
Table C.1 Records
No Subject Recorded data and other documents
1 Specified requirements
contract review
Contract specifications or summary of
requirements
2 Binder, aggregates, retarders - name of producers and sources
- numbers and dates of delivery tickets
- date and place of sampling
- test results
3 Mixing water - date and place of sampling
- test results
4 Composition of hydraulically treated
mixture
- designed or prescribed
5 Production control
(if applicable)
- volume of produced mixture
- production records
- automated data collection system records
(if applicable)
6 Fresh hydraulically treated mixture control
(if relevant)
- date and place of sampling
- date and tests results
(e. g.) water content
grading
binder content
retarder content
7 Hardened mixture
(if relevant)
- number and reference of specimens
- date and test results
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Table C.2 Production management schedule
No Production stage Control
1 Mixture design Regular production
Specific production
Catalogue of standard
mixture conforming with
relevant standards
Specific mixture design
conforming with the contract
requirements
2 Delivery of constituents Attestation of conformity or
relevant documentation, with
delivery ticket
3 Storage of constituents on ground
in silos
in tanks
Maintain regularity and
uniformity against the
necessary requirements
4 Final adjustment of composition After inspection of constituents, and their
water content
Composition of the mixture to
produce: target composition
5 Mixing plant
Equipment design
Processing
- feeders and dispensers of constituents:
volumetric system
weighing system
liquid metering system
- mixing system :
continuous
or batching
- storage of mixture
Equipment design,
calibration measuring,
maintenance, inspection and
testing
Automated or manual
monitoring
Automated surveillance and
data collection
and/or
Mixture inspection and
testing
6 Mixture
(if appropriate)
Delivery ticket
Table C.3 Inspection of the constituents
No Type of inspection Purpose Frequency
1 Source approval To confirm characteristics and homoge-
neity of constituent and check compliance
with EN Standard specifications
Before initial use
2 Inspection of delivery ticket
where appropriate
To check consignment is as ordered and
from correct source
Each delivery
3 Sampling and testing at delivery
where appropriate
To verify conformity In accordance with Quality
Manual
4 Organoleptic check during
storage
For comparison with normal appearance
with respect to source grading, shape and
impurities
Daily
5 Water content of constituents To determine the moisture content in order
to determine the water addition
Daily
or
in accordance with Quality
Manual
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Table C.4 Inspection, calibration and control of equipment
No Equipment Inspection test Minimum Frequency
1 Means of storage for
constituents and mixture
Organoleptic inspection daily
Feeders
and dispensers
Organoleptic inspection at the start of each mixture
production and daily
2 for constituents and
admixtures
Test for accuracy on installation
a

for a new mixture,
b

periodically,
in case of doubt
3
Weighing equipment
associated to dispensers,
proportioning or batching
system
Organoleptic inspection daily
if existing Test for accuracy on installation
a
for a new mixture,
b
periodically,
in case of doubt
4 Moisture measuring
if existing
on installation
a
for a new mixture,
b
5 Water metering
if existing
Test of accuracy
periodically,
in case of doubt
6 Batching system
(on batch plant)
Comparison of actual mass of
each constituent in the batch
with the intended mass using
the method prescribed in the
quality manual
on installation *
for a new mixture,
b
periodically,
in case of doubt
7 Proportioning system
(on continuous plant)
Comparison of actual mass of
each constituent in a
measured period of time with
the intended mass using the
method prescribed in the
quality manual
on installation
a
for a new mixture,
b
periodically,
in case of doubt
8 Mixer Visual inspection to check the
wear, the cleanliness and the
operating conditions of the
mixer
every week
in case of doubt
9 Monitoring of the process Manual or automatic
Test of accuracy
on installation
a
for a new mixture
b
periodically,
in case of doubt
10 Automated surveillance
and data collection system
if existing
Calibration measuring with
actual mass of each
constituent, in the batch or in
a measured period of time for
proportioning system
on installation
a
for a new mixture,
b
periodically,
in case of doubt
a
or after comprehensive repair or following a shut down of one month
b
if relevant
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Table C.5 Inspection of the mixture by the producer
a
No Type of Inspection Purpose Frequency
1 Organoleptic check of the mixture For comparison with normal
appearance with respect to
grading, water content and
eveness of mixing
Continuously
2 Appropriate checks to determine relevant
characteristics and properties
2.1 Tests or inspections on the fresh mixture
e. g
grading
b

water content
b
constituent proportioning
b
compactibility
density
2.2 Tests on the hardened mixtures e. g
density
CBR
stiffness strength
To ensure the conformity of
delivered mixture
As required by the
Quality Manual and the
contract
Annex E
if relevant
if relevant
when appropriate
a
Inspections should be performed during production or at the point of delivery as stated in the contract.
b
Information can be obtained from the permanent data collection system if existing and accepted
Table C.6 Inspection of temporary storage and delivery vehicles
No Type of Inspection Purpose Frequency
1 Temporary storage To provide protection, avoid
contamination and avoid segregation
continuously
2
3
Suitability of delivery transport
equipment if appropriate
Cleanliness of delivery transport
equipment if appropriate
To check adequacy of weather protection
and minimize segregation
To minimize contamination
at the first load
every load prior loading
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AnnexD
(informative)
Description of a production plant and appreciation of capability to produce
(included in the Quality Manual)
Description of a production plant and appreciation of capability to produce (included in the Quality Manual)
D.1 Storage of constituents
The following constituents are stored as described below:
a) Constituents other than dry powder (e. g aggregates, granulated blast furnace slags, wet (conditionned) fly
ashes) are stored in hoppers, bins. Each of them is stored separately to minimize any risk of mixing or
minimize contamination and designed to maintain a regular flow of constituent (e. g. through the use of
vibrator, air inflation,).
b) Dry powder (e. g cement, lime, dry fly ash, dry admixture, activator) are stored in silo. Each of them is stored
without external air contact. Silos are equipped with upper level detectors and devices to maintain regular flow
of the constituent during emptying. In the case of pneumatic filling system it will be necessary to introduce a
rest period before delivering the constituent.
c) Liquid admixture are stored in tanks with permanent stirring if necessary.
d) Water is stored in a pond or a tank without risk of contamination.
D.2 Proportioning the constituents
The production can be either continuous or discontinuous (batch system).
With continuous production the constituents are calibrated by continuous volumetric dispensers in association/or
not with continuous flow weighing system.
With discontinuous production, (batch system), each constituent is weighed on a scale in a cumulative way for
aggregates, and on a separate scale for dry powders (cement, lime, fly ash).
Water and liquid admixture can be dosed either by volume or by mass.
D.3 Mixing the constituents
The mixer gives the appropriate homogeneity and regularity to the mixture either on a continuous or discontinuous
way.
The wearing and direction of paddles, the cleanliness of the mixer, the level of load in the mixer, the flow of
constituents and the mixing time can influence the efficiency of the mixer.
D.4 Operation of the equipment
The operation of the production plant can be manual, semi-automatic or automatic.
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D.5 Automatic surveillance system (when existing)
These can include:
start of production cannot occur without constituent in the dispensers;
system to maintain a steady and consistent flow as indicated (fixed order and tolerances) through each
dispenser;
warning device when the flow of aggregate fluctuates by more than a specified amount, which stops the plant if
default continues for more than a specified time;
warning device when the flow of powder fluctuates by more than a specified amount, which stops the plant if
default continues more than a specified time;
equipment starting and stopping controlled in a sequential way;
system to automatically maintain the recipe when the flow varies (deliberately or otherwise).
D.6 Continuous production information (process records)
In the case of manual or semi-automatic monitoring, information about actual operating parameters necessary to
ensure consistent and accurate production can be visual to help operators control and provide data for recording.
In the case of automatic monitoring all the operating parameters necessary to maintain suitable production can be
permanently recorded and, with appropriate computerization, can be used as an automated surveillance and data
collector system.
At the start of production the automated surveillance and data collector (where existing) should be calibrated in the
same way as the automatic monitoring system of the plant.
The automated surveillance and data collector can be either integrated into the general monitoring panel of the
plant or added into an existing automatic monitoring system after installation of an appropriate connecting plug
assembly.
The continuous automated surveillance and data collection may include:
timetable record of the plant operations;
records of weight or proportion of different constituents;
average composition of the mixture during a set period of time
aggregates
binder content
additive content (if relevant)
water content;
detection of non conforming production;
storage of the data.
D.7 Types of production plants stating minimum requirement
Different types of production plants are given in table D.1.
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Table E.1 Types of production plants
Type 1 Type 2 Type 3
Proportioning of aggregates,
GBS, wet fly ash
Continuous or batch
automatic weighing
volumetric
dispensers
no requirement
Proportioning of powders
(cement, lime, dry fly ash)
.. .. no requirement
Moisture measuring of constituents
or mixture
yes no no requirement
Water and liquid admixture metering automatic manual no requirement
Production information automated
surveillance and data
collector system
manual data
collection
no requirement
Automatic surveillance system
when existing
as described in 5 flow detection no requirement
D.8 Initial inspection, evaluation of plants capability to produce
Initial inspection, evaluation and calibration procedures should assess the ability of the plant to produce a regular
and homogeneous mixture in accordance with relevant requirements.
Initial inspection, evaluation and calibration are carried out at the start up of a new plant or after following a shut
down or every year or at the start of a new mixture production or a mixture production with new components.
In assessing the plant, a satisfactory calibration must be obtained conforming to the requirements of this standard.
The production data should be used to confirm correct proportioning. The results of tests on the mixture may be
used to support the acceptance.
Inspections can consist of several investigations including :
a review and identification of equipment to produce relevant compositions according to production plants type
(refer Table D.1);
calibration and verification of each dispenser accepting a maximum deviation from referenced quantity
(including weighing and data collector system device if appropriate) as follows:
aggregate dispenser + 5 %,
powder dispenser + 3 %,
water meter + 3 %
an evaluation of the regularity and homogeneity of the finished mixture and verification of data collection
system efficiency.
After calibration of each dispenser and during initial inspection, the regularity and homogeneity of the mixture
produced by the plant may be considered according to the production of specified quantity: 50 T for a continuous
plant or 10 batches for batching plant. It will include sampling and analysis of samples, and comparison of the
results (for a Type 1 plant) with the figures registered from the data collector system. The minimum number of
samples analysed will be 15.
Regularity of composition should be evaluated by the tolerances on the flow of each constituent and the tolerance
ratio:
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enveloppe. ion specificat to according 100
average
deviation standard

in accordance with Table D.2


Table E.2 Tolerances ratio (standard deviation 100/average)
Class 1
a
Class 2
a
Class 3
a
Coarse aggregates 5 % 10 % no requirement
Fines (0,063 mm) 3 % 6 % no requirement
Water 3 % 6 % no requirement
a
The class of production plant should be chosen according to the final performances and usage of the mixture
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AnnexE
(normative)
Evaluation of conformity for the production of mixture
E.1 Introduction
This annex applies to the evaluation of conformity for the production of mixtures and does not include conformity of
hardened mixtures. It should be established:
in the case of Type 2 plants in accordance with annex D, by direct sampling and testing of the samples;
or, in the case of Type 1 plants, by the permanent automated surveillance and data collection system in
association with a reduced frequency of sampling and testing.
At the start of the production process, the homogeneity of the mixture should be considered in accordance with the
requirements of the specification, the type and quality of the production plant and the quality and homogeneity of
the constituents. This can be appreciated either from past production experience or by making specific tests to
establish variation in constituent proportioning, grading and water content of the produced mixture.
E.2 Sample frequency
During the regular production of the mixture, the sample frequency should be as follows:
In the case of Type 2 plants, one sample should be taken every 300 tonnes or 150 m
3
, with a minimum of 1
sample per day or 3 per contract.
In the case of Type 1 plants with a validated and accepted automated surveillance and data collection system
giving computerized composition for every truck or every batch, one sample should be taken every
2 000 tonnes or 1 000 m
3
or one par day for lesser quantities.
Alternatively and independent of the type of mixing plant, the frequency of sampling can be on a time related
rather than a quantity related basis such as a minimum of 1 sample per week or 1 sample per day depending
on the characteristic being measured.
In the case of occasional production of a standard mixture, the production should be assessed cumulatively with
previous production with the same or similar criteria. The frequency of sampling can be adjusted on a contract-by-
contract basis according to the overall quantity of production required
E.3 Characteristics requiring conformity assessment during production of mixture
quality of the constituents (before production);
proportioning of the constituents including added water;
grading of the fresh mixture;
water content of the fresh mixture.
The above characteristics should comply with the requirements of the mixture standard.
Note that the characterisitic 'proportioning of the constituents including added water' is only appropriate for plants
equipped with automated surveillance and data collection systems (Type 1 plants).
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E.4 Results analysis
The results should be checked for conformity assessment.
For Type 2 plants or time-related sampling:
for up to 20 samples, all the results should be judged against the specified criteria;
for 20 or more samples, each new result should be considered with the previous 19 results.
The corresponding lot should be considered as conforming or non conforming as follows:
if the conformity assessment is not obtained for a minimum of 95 % of the results, production can continue but
the frequency of sampling should be multiplied by 2;
if non-conformity continues, production should be stopped and the initial inspection, evaluation and calibration
should be carried out again with a re-appreciation of the homogeneity and properties of the constituents.
In the case of Type 1 plants with automated surveillance and data collection, each recorded value should be
considered with the last 19 results and validated against the grading and water content tests on the collected
specimen (individual sample). If conformity assessment is not obtained with the mean of the last 20 results and the
direct sampling analysis, the mixture should be declared non conforming and a new inspection, evaluation and
calibration of the plant should be initiated.
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AnnexF
(normative)
Conformity criteria for HRBGM
F.1 General
This annex specifies tolerances for the assessment of conformity of the production of HRBGM. The tolerances are
given for:
the water content of the mixture;
the grading of the mixture
NOTE There is currently insufficient experience to define test methods for the determination of the hydraulic road binder
content of the mixture and set specified tolerances which can be used in all parts of Europe for any hydraulic road binder. The
requirement may be given in the contract if a suitable test method can be used.
F.2 Water content of the mixture
The determined water content of the mixture shall not deviate more the tolerance in Table F.1 from the target
content specified in the contract.
Table G.1 Water content tolerances of the mixture
HRBGM 1 and 2 HRBGM 3
1 1,5
F.3 Grading of the mixture
The producer shall calculate the typical grading of the mixture from the typical grading of each constituent,
including hydraulic road binder and the target composition.
A minimum of 95 % of the grading results (for type 2 plants) or all the grading results (for type 1 plants) of the
mixture shall be within an envelop defined by the typical grading and the tolerances in table F.2 (for HRBGM 1
and 2) or Table F.3 (for HRBGM3).
Table G.2 Grading tolerances of the mixture (HRBGM 1 and 2)
Sieve size
mm
Grading tolerance
in % by mass
D
a

4
6,3 8
2 8
0,063 2
a
D is the upper sieve size of the HRBGM (31,5, 20 or 14 mm)
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Table G.3 Grading tolerances of the mixture (HRBGM 3)
Sieve size
mm
Grading tolerance
in % by mass
D
a
4
D/4
b
8
0,063 2
a
D is the upper sieve size of the HRBGM (D
b
When the D/4 size sieve calculated in the above is not an exact
sieve size in the ISO 565/R20 series, then the nearest sieve in the
series shall be used.
NOTE The tolerances given in Tables F.1 and F.2 may be restricted to lower values if specified by the contract.