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INTRODUCTION FOR AIRPORT TERMINAL DESIGN



PREFACE
Airports considered the Gateway of every country is one of the most
neglected Infrastructure developments in the Philippines.
Airports measured as the reflection of the countrys economic and
cultural background should have been part of the priority of our
Government in the Modernization program. I believed that
Modernization as an Investment equals to our Countries growth and
will achieve our aims in the campaign for tourism.
Having tag as having the most Worst Airport in the world mirrors the
kind of people we are presenting to the other Nations.
Being humiliated by outsider during my studies abroad on the
conditions of our airports post a challenge to me in my interest in
learning more about Airports Design & its Services.
To All my future colleague, I am glad that We share the same interest
of the Airport design through your thesis.
Ar. Willie Y. Chua aci,aia,usgbc,uap
AIRPORT DESIGN DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUNDS
Airport Terminal Design is a very complex in terms of the design
procedures. Architects Skills and long field of experience in design
are not the passport of being able to Design an Airport terminal.
Basic Principle and long list of studies and requirements needed shall
be considered from outside the Terminal ( Ground or Air ).

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This Lecture will teach you basic principles of the major issues in the
Airport Terminal design process.
THREE ELEMENTS OR PARTS OF AN AIRPORT
Three important considerations that may affect the design process
of a Terminal. These three elements are inter-connected to each
other and will dictate the design limitation of the project.
AIRSPACE
The portion of the Atmosphere controlled by a country above its
territory, including territorial waters.
What are this Airspace?
Air Navigation path
Identify the Meteorology / Weather conditions of the Area.
Air Traffic - also identify as Flight path by the Pilots. This is the
line, course or tract along which an aircraft is flying
or is intended to be flown.
Military airspace (Military zone / Military Operating area ) This is
a segregated air space use by the Military which are
are commonly known as the Danger zone for the
Pilots.
This airspace are intended for Military Pilot training
flight , Combat training , Testing for Explosive
weapons.
AIRSIDE
The most secured part of an Airport and most
highly regulated . It is an area for aircraft
movement and operation.
Occupied 80% of the total land area of an Airport

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AIRSIDE Design consideration:
Topography verify the Landscape and the community zoning
of the area.
o Mountains and Volcano
o Existing roads and River
o Farm
o Environmentally / ECO protected area
Existing Infrastructure-
o Industrial Factories, Power plant, High
Tension Tower cable, Pipeline , Drainage &
Sewage system
o Community Hospital, School, Residence,
Military camp, Commercial building
Airside are composed of the ff:
Runway
o The most important part of an Airport
o Must be oriented in the direction of a
prevailing wind.
Taxiway
o This is the Connection between the Runway
and Apron, serves as the Taxi route /
Aircraft rolling for the departing and arriving
aircraft to and from the Apron & Runway
Apron
o Parking and staging area of Aircraft.
Located adjacent to the Terminal building or
Hangars
o serves for loading and un-loading for
passenger and cargo

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o circulation space for service vehicles and
equipment
- cargo
- catering services
- fuel tank truck
Other Infrastucture
o This are the structures and Facilities that
has a direct access to the Runway.
o Control Tower
o Hangar
o Airline catering building
o Rescue & Fire fighting building
o Maintenance building
o Cargo / Freight companies building
o General aviation Companies
o Flying schools
o Military camp
LANDSIDE
o The part of an Airport farthest from the
Runway and Aircraft movement
o The boundary of which the security check
and customs, passport control and other
service facilities.
Landside may composed of the ff:
a. Airport Terminal
b. Airline Company Office buildings
c. Hotels
d. Convention Center
e. Bus or Transportation Terminal
f. Train Station

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g. Parks and Re-creational facilities
h. Government Building ( Aviation agency )
i. Shopping mall
j. Others
AIRPORT TERMINAL
WHAT IS AN AIRPORT TERMINAL?
Is a building where passengers transfer between ground and
the facilities that allow them to board a disembark from Aircraft.

DIFFERENT CLASSIFICATION OF AN AIRPORT

HUB
Serves as a transfer point of different airlines to get passenger to
their intended destination.
Serves as stop-over of a long haul flight of Different Airline for
check-up, re-fueling and aircraft maintenance.
Shopping Center and a Life style airpor
POINT TO POINT
Airport that serves to a direct flight travel. This Airport are usually
use as a Home base for an airlines companies.
LOW COST
Is it also known as the secondary or alternative airport, This type
of airport is also known as the airport for the masses.
Airport serves the Budget Airline companies.

MAIN GATEWAY

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An Airport that serves as the main entry point to a country by
being the primary arrival and Departure point.
CHARTERED
This is a Mini Airport owned by private chartered companies for
private chartered flight.
This type of Airport for Executive ( As we call it ) offers a VIP
service enables a travelers to bypass the hassle of a public
airport and airline services.
LEISURE
A Small Airport that primary users are Tourist and vacationers .
CARGO
Airport that is intended only for Cargo activities and movement
FULL SERVICE
Practically the combination of all the other Airports
DESIGN AND AGENCIES INVOLVES IN DESIGN PROCESS
National,Regional,Local Authorities that has jurisdiction in the
Project
Ex. DOTC,CAAP,Dept of Finance(if it is finance by the
Government),Mayor,Congressman,Senator,Secretaries and the
President.

Control authorities
Ex. Customs, Immigration, Police, Security agencies, Fire brigade

Engineering group/ Consultants
Ex. Structural / Civil Engr/, Electrical Engr./ Sanitary Engineer Engr./
Waste management Engr./ Transportor Road Engr./Air traffic

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management Engr./ Communication and Electronic Engr./
Economist / Finance specialist / lawyers /Geologies and geodetic.

Airport Operator ( The one will manage the Terminal )
Airline Companies
Pilot Community ( thru the Pilot association )
Concessionaire ( Commercial tenants )
Local Business group
Local Community group
Tourism group
People with Disability group
Ground Transportation group
Conservative and Environmental group
INVESTOR
LEGISLATION AND CODES CONSIDERATION
Airport terminal design are bound with laws, guidelines and coed
which are important reference during design stage.
IATA International Aviation
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
CAAP Civil Aviation Association of the Philippines
Local -Building code
Fire Code
All Engineering code
Regional and Local regulation law ( ex. Zoning & Land use )
Environmental legislation ( In many Countries )
Constitution
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE AN AIRPORT TERMINAL DESIGN:
There is no Ideal Shape, Design, Size, Character , Architecture that
are require when designing an Airport terminal. Although there are

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laws and guideline to be follows concerning security, passenger
traffic flows and etc.
Airport terminal design are influence by many factors depending the country we
are in:
1. Climate
2. Soil Characteristic / Location/ Geography
3. Intended Function( Type of terminal )
4. Type of Aircraft to be serve
5. Culture
6. Politics
7. Fund
8. Business program/ target revenue
9. Availability of Construction Materials

PASSENGER TERMINAL CONFIGURATION

SIMPLE TERMINAL
Ideal for Low-cost Terminal
Single level
Easy to build
Easy to expand
Short walking distance
Enough room for expansion
Simple aircraft parking
No Bridge
Ex. Provincial Domestic Airport
LINEAR TERMINAL
Fits on a thin sites
Usually- multi level
Easy to build

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Easy to expand
Need Walkalator for walking/ Good Passenger traffic flow
Enough room for Aircraft parking
With Bridge














TERMINAL WITH PIERS/FINGERS
Needs big space for site
Usually- multi level
Complicated to build
No room for Expansion
Need Walkalator for walking
Limit Aircraft parking & Circulation
With AirBridge






Sample Linear Terminal
Finger Type
Need Walkalator for walking/ Good Passenger traffic flow
Enough room for Aircraft parking
TERMINAL WITH PIERS/FINGERS
Needs big space for site
multi level
Complicated to build
No room for Expansion
Need Walkalator for walking
Limit Aircraft parking & Circulation
Finger Type Terminal
Curvillinear Terminal
Need Walkalator for walking/ Good Passenger traffic flow
Terminal

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TERMINAL WITH SATELLITES
Needs big space for site
Usually- multi level
Complicated to build
No room for Expansion
Need Walkalator for walking / confusing passenger traffic flow
Need Transportation to move to the other satellite
Underground / Sky train
Service bus
Limit Aircraft parking & Circulation
With AirBridge










TERMINAL WITH REMOTE PIERS & SATELLITE

Needs big space for site
Usually- multi level
Complicated to build
No room for Expansion
Need Walkalator for walking / confusing passenger traffic flow
Need Transportation to move to the other satellite
Underground / Sky train
Service bus
Terminal with Satellite
WITH SATELLITES
Needs big space for site
multi level
Complicated to build
No room for Expansion
Need Walkalator for walking / confusing passenger traffic flow
Need Transportation to move to the other satellite
Underground / Sky train
Limit Aircraft parking & Circulation
TERMINAL WITH REMOTE PIERS & SATELLITE
Needs big space for site
multi level
Complicated to build
No room for Expansion
Need Walkalator for walking / confusing passenger traffic flow
Need Transportation to move to the other satellite
Underground / Sky train
Satellite
Need Walkalator for walking / confusing passenger traffic flow
Need Walkalator for walking / confusing passenger traffic flow

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Limit Aircraft parking & Circulation
With AirBridge


















4 TYPES OF PROCESSING LEVEL DESIGN

SINGLE LEVEL
Side by side arrival and Departure on a single level
Suitable for smaller Airport
Air bridge are not needed






Limit Aircraft parking & Circulation
TYPES OF PROCESSING LEVEL DESIGN
Side by side arrival and Departure on a single level
for smaller Airport
Air bridge are not needed
Remote Piers & Satellite

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SPLIT LEVEL
Side by side arrival and Departure with two level
same floor level for inbound &
No need for elevated road since Kerbside ( Departure & Arrival
) activity take place at Ground level.
Escalator and Elevator should be provided
Air bridge are needed
Possible of Traffic congestion of inbound and outbound
passenger during peak hour











TWO LEVEL
Side by side Arrival and Departure
the floor level for the Inbound Outbound Concourse.
Suitable for Big Airport
Air bridge are needed
Less Passenger traffic flow of both inbound and outbound
passenger at Concourse & Arrival hall, How
traffic at the Airside Interface



Side by side arrival and Departure with two level Terminal
inbound & Outbound Concourse.
No need for elevated road since Kerbside ( Departure & Arrival
activity take place at Ground level.
Escalator and Elevator should be provided
Air bridge are needed
Possible of Traffic congestion of inbound and outbound
passenger during peak hours at Concourse and Arrival hall.
Arrival and Departure with two level terminal. Separate
the floor level for the Inbound Outbound Concourse.
Suitable for Big Airport
Air bridge are needed
Less Passenger traffic flow of both inbound and outbound
at Concourse & Arrival hall, However may create
traffic at the Airside Interface
erminal. Share the
No need for elevated road since Kerbside ( Departure & Arrival
Possible of Traffic congestion of inbound and outbound
at Concourse and Arrival hall.
terminal. Separate
Less Passenger traffic flow of both inbound and outbound
ever may create

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SEVERAL LEVEL
Multi level floors with full segregation of all
the arrival and departure
Suitable for High Volume passengers and Se
Aircraft
The most ideal design in terms of passengers movement inside
the Terminal
Expensive Design
Air bridge are needed







THREE COMPONENTS OF PASSENGER TERMINAL

DEPARTURE AREA

Kerbside
Loading and un-loading area for passengers
CARS,TAXI,BUS,RAIL NETWORK and other transport service
Public parking, Service parking, tourist bus parking & ets
level floors with full segregation of all passenger traffic
arrival and departure as well as in the concourse.
Suitable for High Volume passengers and Serving wide body
The most ideal design in terms of passengers movement inside

Air bridge are needed
COMPONENTS OF PASSENGER TERMINAL
loading area for passengers using
CARS,TAXI,BUS,RAIL NETWORK and other transport service
Public parking, Service parking, tourist bus parking & ets
passenger traffic flow in
ving wide body
The most ideal design in terms of passengers movement inside
COMPONENTS OF PASSENGER TERMINAL
CARS,TAXI,BUS,RAIL NETWORK and other transport service
Public parking, Service parking, tourist bus parking & ets

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Pedestrian lane ( roads,Sidewalk & Ramp )
Service road and emergency access for Airport facilities
Processing / Holding areas
Concourse / Service
o Flight information monitor
o Information and Security desk
o Waiting area ( Seating and Lounge )
o Service facilities ( Elevator, Escalator, Hallway ,
Stairs & etc )
o Queuing area
o Toilets
o Prayer room
o Travel agencies counter
o Other services
Airline ticketing
o Check-in counter
o Self check-in counter
o Drop bag
Offices / Lounge
o Airport Administration Offices ( Airport
Operator,Custom,Security,Immigration,Airline
offices,Tourism offices, Pilot and staff lounge
Retail
o Restaurant/ Coffee shops
o Shop
o Duty free tax store
Security
o Security control doors & queuing area
o Outbound Immigration ( For International flight )
o Outbound Customs ( a separate Customs
monitoring group are assigned for outbound
baggages )

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Airside Interface
Departure waiting lounge
o Seating area
o Kids play area
Airport Lounge
Departure gate
Retail store
Duty free tax store



















ARRIVAL AREA

Kerbside
Loading and un-loading area for passengers using
CARS,TAXI,BUS,RAIL NETWORK and other transport service
DEPARTURE AREA

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Public parking, Service parking, tourist bus parking & ets
o Carpark building should be separated to the
terminal for security purpose )
Pedestrian lane ( roads,Sidewalk & Ramp )
Service road and emergency access for Airport facilitie
Arrival hall
Concourse / Service
o Meeting and greeters area
o Flight information monitor
o Information and Security desk
o Service facilities ( Elevator, Escalator, Hallway ,
Stairs & etc
o Transportation Service counter
o Tourism area
o Hotels service desk
o Money changer
o Toilets
Retail
o Restaurant/ Coffee shops
o Shop
Inbound baggage Sorting and Reclaim area
o Baggage reclaim area
o Inbound Customs control
Airside interface
Passenger Gates ( Airbridge / Stairs or Buses from remote stand
)
Inbound Immigration
Retail store
Queuing space




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GENERAL FEATURES
1. Baggage handling
2. Engineering ( Mechanical, Water & Plumbing ,
Electrical )
3. Control Tower
4. Apron Control building
5. Deliveries and Cargo Storage ( with Security system )
ARRIVAL AREA

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6. Maintenance area
7. Emergency and Medical facilities













GENERAL FEATURE