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A. Mohammed Mian and Divyabharathi.

R 22

International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE) Vol. 1, Issue. 3, March-2013.
Design and Simulation of ZIGBEE Transmitter
Using Verilog

A. Mohammed Mian and Divyabharathi. R


Abstract: The past several years have witnessed a rapid
development in the wireless network area. So far wireless
networking has been focused on high-speed and long range
applications. Zigbee technology was developed for a Wireless
Personal Area Networks (WPAN), aimed at control and
military applications with low data rate and low power
consumption. Zigbee is a standard defines the set of
communication protocols for low-data-rate short-range
wireless networking. Zigbee-based wireless devices operate in
868 MHz, 915 MHz, and 2.4 GHz frequency bands. The
maximum data rate is 250K bits per second. Zigbee is mainly
for battery-powered applications where low data rate, low cost,
and long battery life are main requirements. This paper
explores Verilog design for various blocks in Zigbee
Transmitter architecture for an acknowledgement frame. The
word digital has made a dramatic impact on our society.
Developments of digital solutions have been possible due to
good digital system design and modeling techniques. Further
developments have been made and introduced VLSI in order
to reduce size of the architecture, to improve speed of
operation, improvements in predictability of the circuit
behavior. Digital Zigbee Transmitter comprises of Cyclic
Redundancy Check, Bit-to-Symbol block, Symbol-to-chip
block, Modulator and Pulse shaping block. The work here is to
show how we can design Zigbee transmitter with its
specifications by using Verilog with less number of slices and
Look up tables (LUTs).

Keywords: Zigbee, CRC, LUTs, occupied slices.
I. INTRODUCTION
Zigbee is a specification for a suite of high level
communication protocols using small, low-power digital
radios based on an IEEE 802 standard for personal area
networks. Zigbee devices are often used in mesh network
form to transmit data over longer distances, passing data
through intermediate devices to reach more distant ones.
This allows Zigbee networks to be formed ad-hoc, with no
centralized control or high-power transmitter/receiver able
to reach all of the devices. Any Zigbee device can be tasked
with running the network.








A.Mohammed Mian and Divyabharathi.R are with Dept. ECE, C.Abdul
Hakeem College of Engineering & Technology, Melvisharam,
Emails: divyabarathi.r@rediffmail.com, ammian79@gmail.com

Zigbee operates in the industrial, scientific and medical
(ISM) radio bands; 868 MHz in Europe, 915 MHz in the
USA and Australia, and 2.4 GHz in most jurisdictions
worldwide. Data transmission rates vary from 20 to
900Kbits/second. Zigbee builds upon the physical layer and
medium access control defined in IEEE standard 802.15.4
(2003 version) for low-rate WPANs. The specification goes
on to complete the standard by adding four main
components: network layer, application layer, Zigbee device
objects (ZDOs) and manufacturer-defined application
objects which allow for customization and favor total
integration.
Zigbee is not intended to support power line networking
but to interface with it at least for smart metering and smart
appliance purposes. Because Zigbee nodes can go from
sleep to active mode in 30 ms or less, the latency can be low
and devices can be responsive, particularly compared to
Bluetooth wake-up delays, which are typically around three
seconds. Because Zigbee nodes can sleep most of the time,
average power consumption can be low, resulting in long
battery life.
II. OBJECTIVE OF THE WORK
Zigbee Transmitter can be designed with analog
components. Designing an analog transmitter is easier than
digital. But in analog design, data transmission will be poor
and the components also bigger and more. This will not
allow accurate data transmission. In designing with digital,
accurate data transmission will be obtained and power
supply voltage range will be smaller. One way of designing
digital Zigbee transmitter is with the help of Verilog HDL
and VHDL through Xilinx.
The objective is to design and to synthesis the Zigbee
transmitter using Verilog which will result in lesser numbers
of slices and Look-up-Tables (LUTs) utilized and lossless
data transmission. With lesser number of components the
power utilized shall be reduced.
III. ZIGBEE TRANSMITTER
A. Specifications
Zigbee digital transmitter in 2.4GHz band is designed
using Verilog for acknowledgement frame. The PHY layer
supports three frequency bands: a 2.45 GHz band with 16
channels, a 915 MHz band with 10 channels and an 868
MHz band with 1 channel. This paper focuses only on 2.45
GHz band which is used worldwide, with the data rate of
250 Kbps. The MAC layer defines two types of nodes:
Reduced Function Devices (RFDs) and Full Function
Devices (FFDs). RFDs can only act as end-devices and are
equipped with sensors or actuators like transducers, light
switches and lamps. They may only interact with a single
FFD. FFDs are equipped with a full set of MAC layer
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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE) Vol. 1, Issue. 3, March-2013.
functions, which enables them to act as a network
coordinator or a network end-device.
Table. 1 Specifications
PARAMETER SPECIFICATION
Data rate 250 Kbps
No. of channels 16
Operating frequency 2.4 GHz
Channel spacing 5 MHz
Spread spectrum
Direct Sequence Spread
Spectrum
Chip rate 2 Mega chips per second
Modulation
OQPSK with Half sine Pulse
shaping
The IEEE 802.15.4 defines four MAC frame structures:
beacon, data, acknowledgement and MAC command
frames. The beacon frame is used by a coordinator to
transmit beacons. The function of beacons is to synchronize
the clock of all the devices within the same network. The
data frame is used to transmit data. Meanwhile, the
acknowledgment frame is used to confirm successful frame
reception. The MAC commands are transmitted using a
MAC command frame.
B. Architecture
The acknowledge frame used contains 11 octets (i.e. 88
bits) of physical protocol data unit (PPDU). The binary data
from the PPDU packet are inserted into the cyclic
redundancy check block to detect errors during
transmission. Every four bits of PPDU octet are mapped
onto one data symbol, which will take place in bit-to-symbol
block. The symbols will be spread into 32-chip PN
sequence by utilizing Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
method in Symbol-to-chip block. Then, the chips will be
modulated using OQPSK technique.
C. Existing system
The Zigbee digital transmitter is designed for an
acknowledgment frame which is shown in Figure based on
IEEE 802.15.4 standard. This is the simplest MAC frame
format and does not carry any MAC payload. This frame is
constructed from MAC header (MHR) and MAC footer
(MFR). The frame control field and direct sequence number
(DSN) form the MHR. The MFR is composed of 16-bit
frame check sequence (FCS). Both MHR and MFR are
known as PHY service data unit (PSDU), which becomes
the PHY payload. The PHY payload is prefixed with the
synchronization header (SHR) comprised of preamble
sequence, start of frame delimiter (SFD), and PHY header
(PHR). Together with the SHR, PHR and PHY payload
form the PHY protocol data unit (PPDU).





Fig. 1 The Acknowledgement frame

In existing work, the resultant signal from the general
architecture was then be amplified and transmitted, which
will undergo inter symbol interference. This will result in
erroneous information transmission.

Fig. 2 Transmitter Architecture
E. Proposed system
A Zigbee transmitter is to be designed for PHY and MAC
layer for an acknowledgement frame. This design is going
to be modeled using Verilog HDL and simulated through
Xilinx. The area and performance of operation of the
proposed design should satisfy the theoretical specifications
and will be verified with the simulation results.

Fig. 3 Proposed Transmitter Architecture
Since the output of the modulator is not assured to be
transmitted without error. So, in order to avoid such
distortions, we need to add Pulse shaping block at the output
of OQPSK modulator. This will avoid Inter symbol
Interference and some transmission noises.
IV. DESIGN METHODOLOGY
A. Cyclic redundancy check
Error detection is the process of monitoring data
transmission and determining when errors have occurred.
Error-detection techniques neither correct errors nor identify
which bits are in error they indicate only when an error
has occurred. The purpose of error detection is not to
prevent errors from occurring but to prevent undetected
errors from occurring.
The most common error-detection techniques are
redundancy checking, which includes vertical redundancy
checking, checksum, longitudinal redundancy checking, and
cyclic redundancy checking.
B. CRC polynomial
The most reliable redundancy checking technique for
error detection is a convolutional coding scheme called
cyclic redundancy checking (CRC). With CRC,
approximately 99.999% of all transmission errors are
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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE) Vol. 1, Issue. 3, March-2013.
detected. In CRC-16, 16 bits are used for the block check
sequence. Here, the entire data stream is treated as a long
continuous binary number. Because the Block Check
Sequence (BCS) is separate from the message but
transported within the same transmission, CRC is
considered a systematic code. Cyclic block codes are often
written as (n, k) cyclic codes where n = bit length of
transmission and k =bit length of message. Therefore, the
length of the Block Check Character (BCC) in bits is
BCC =n k (1)
A CRC-16 BCC is the remainder of a binary division
process. A data message polynomial G(x) is divided by a
unique generator polynomial function P(x), the quotient is
discarded, and the remainder is truncated to 16 bits and
appended to the message as a BCS. The generator
polynomial must be a prime number. With CRC generation,
the division is not accomplished with standard arithmetic
division. Instead, modulo-2 division is used, where the
remainder is derived from an exclusive OR (XOR)
operation. In the receiver, the data stream, including the
CRC code, is divided by the same generating function P(x).
If no transmission errors have occurred, the remainder will
be zero.
Mathematically, CRC can be expressed as

G(x)
------- = Q(x) +R(x) (2)
P(x)

Where,
G(x) =message polynomial
P(x) =generator polynomial
Q(x) =quotient
R(x) =remainder

The generator polynomial for CRC-16 is

P(x) =x
16
+x
15
+x
2
+x
0
(3)


Fig. 4 CRC-16 Generating circuit
A CRC generating circuit requires one shift register for
each bit in the BCC. A review of CRC creation process is
as follows:
Get the raw frame
Left shift the raw frame by n bits and then divide it
by P.
The remainder of the last action is the FCS.
Append the FCS to the raw frame. The result is the
frame to transmit.
CRC-16 detects
Any single-bit errors
All double-bit errors
All odd number of bit errors
All error bursts of 16 bits or less
99.9% of error bursts greater than 16 bits long
C. Bit-to-symbol block
All the 88 bits from the CRC block is inserted into the bit-
to-symbol block. This binary information is mapped into
the data symbol. The 4 LSBs (b0, b1, b2, b3) of each octet is
mapped into one data symbol and the 4 MSBs (b4, b5, b6,
b7) of each octet is mapped into the next data symbol. Each
octet of PPDU is processed through the bit-to-symbol block
sequentially, beginning with the Preamble field and ending
with the last octet of the PSDU. For the final result, 22
symbols will be the output of the bit-to-symbol block.
D. Results and discussion

Fig. 5 CRC Verilog module

Fig. 6 CRC Simulation Waveform
From the Figure 6.3, the output data consists of 16 digits
represented by crc16_o[15:0]. At 510ns, with 25 bits of
input data, output CRC code is obtained.

Fig. 7 BIT-TO-SYMBOL Verilog module

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE) Vol. 1, Issue. 3, March-2013.

Fig. 8 BIT-TO-SYMBOL Simulation Waveform

Fig. 9 Integrated Verilog module

Fig. 10 Simulation Waveform

Fig. 11 CRC VHDL architecture

BIT-TO-SYMBOL BLOCK

Fig. 12 BIT-TO-SYMBOL VHDL architecture

Fig. 13 BIT-TO-SYMBOL Simulation Waveform

Fig. 14 Transmitter VHDL architecture

Fig. 15 Simulation Waveform

Fig. 16 Verilog Device Utilization Summary
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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE) Vol. 1, Issue. 3, March-2013.

Fig.17 VHDL Device Utilization Summary
The digital transmitter was partially designed and
synthesized for Spartan 3E with a speed grade of 5. From
the simulation waveform shown before shows the output
data for the corresponding inputs. From the Synthesis report
shown above, it is obvious that the number of slices utilized
using VHDL is more than Verilog HDL.
V. FUTURE WORK PLAN
The Bit-to-Symbol output has to be verified in order to
feed the next block. Otherwise this block has been
synthesized and number of slices to be utilized has got. To
study and design Symbol-to-Chip Mapper. This part has to
be designed with the help if Direct Sequence Spread
Spectrum Technique. To study and design Offset
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) modulation
technique. This modulation technique alone is suitable for
2.4GHz band of Zigbee transmitter. To study and design
Pulse shaping block for modulated output, which will
reduce the Inter Symbol Interference (ISI).
VI. CONCLUSION
This paper shows the Verilog based design of digital
transmitter for 2.4GHz band Zigbee applications. The
behavior of CRC and Bit-to-symbol were characterized
using Verilog as well as using VHDL. From the discussion,
so far, part of the Zigbee transmitter is alone is characterized
and synthesized. Both the results and synthesis report were
compared and discussion has made for the design
methodology. Thus, using Verilog, Number of occupied
slices required is 8 out of 4656 and using VHDL it is 15 out
of 4656. The remaining part of the transmitter will be
designed and synthesized in future.
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A.Mohammed Mian is Associate Professor of Electronics and
Communication Engineering at C.Abdul Hakeem College of
Engineering and Technology, Melvisharam. Mr.Mian is involved
in research in the field of Very Large Scale Integration and same is
his area of interest.

Divyabharathi.R currently pursuing her Master Degree in Applied
Electronics at C.Abdul Hakeem College of Engineering and
Technology, Melvisharam.