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GENERAL ENGINEERING & APPLIED SCIENCES
ENGINEERING MATERIALS CHAPTER5
PROPERTIES OF
MATERIALS

I. CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS

Materials are classified as:

+ Metallic

- Ferrous
Example: Steel, cast iron, wrought iron, malleable cast iron

- Nonferrous
Example: Copper, tin, zinc, aluminum, magnesium, and titanium

+ Nonmetallic

Example: Wood, stone, brick, cement, concrete, resins
(plastics), rubber, leather, and ceramics

II. PROPERTES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

+ CHEMICAL PROPERTIES are properties of a material that relate to its
behavior in chemical reactions.

Some common chemical properties of materials are:

O Corrosion is the partial or complete wearing away, dissolving, or
softening of any substance by chemical or electrochemical reaction
with its environment.

O Alloying - is the process of mixing one metal to another or mixing a
metal with nonmetallic material

O Composition means the percentage of the various elements that
make up the metal

O Compound formation

O Crystal Structure is the definite, repeating arrangement of atoms
and molecules in a material

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+ PHYSICAL PROPERTIES are those distinguishing qualities or
characteristics that are used to describe a substance in the absence of
external forces.
Some common physical properties of a material are:

O Specific Heat is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature
of one gram of a substance by one degree, usually measured in
joules per kilogram per Kelvin.

O Thermal Conductivity is the rate at which heat flows through a
material between points at different temperatures, measured in
watts per meter per degree.

O Thermal Expansion Coefficient is a thermodynamic property of a
substance, which relates the change in temperature to the change in
materials linear dimensions.

O Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance.

O Refractive Index - is the ratio, which relates the speed of light c
o
in
vacuum to the speed of light c
m
in the medium.
O Electrical Resistivity is defined as the resistance

O Specific Gravity - is the ratio of the density of the substance to the
density of some standard substance. The standard is usually water
(@ 4
o
C) for liquids and solids, while for gasses, it is usually air.
O Poissons Ratio is the ratio of the lateral strain to the axial strain of
the material.

+ Mechanical properties are those properties which describe the behavior
of materials under the application of force.
Some common mechanical properties of materials are:

O Strength- is the ability of the material to withstand force, pressure, or
stress.
O Hardness is usually defined as resistance to scratching or
penetration.
O Ductility is the property of a material by virtue of which it may be
plastically elongated.
O Elasticity is the property of a material to regain its original shape
upon the removal of the external load.
O Plasticity is the property of the material by virtue of which
permanent deformation can occur.

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III. STRESS AND STRAIN

STRESS
Stress is the measure of the strength of the agent that is causing a
deformation.
=
F
A

2
2
stress, (N/m )
force, (N)
area, (m )
=
=
=
Where
F
A

STRAIN
Strain is the unit deformation resulting from a stress

=
L
L

strain (unitless)
change in length
original length
=
=
=
Where
L
L

HOOKES LAW
The Hookes law states that, within the elastic range of materials, stress is
proportional to strain.

STRESS STRAIN DIAGRAM
Proportional limit is the point on the stress-strain curve below which, the
stress is proportional to strain.

The elastic limit of a body is the smallest
stress that will produce a permanent
deformation of the body.

Yield point is a point at which there is an
appreciable elongation or yielding of the
material without any corresponding

The ultimate strength is the highest ordinate on the stress-strain curve.

Rapture strength is the stress at failure.

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IV. FACTOR OF SAFETY

The Factor of Safety of a material is the ratio of allowable stress to working
stress.

=
allowable stress
Factor of safety
working stress

Allowable stress is that stress below which it is known that failure will not take
place.

Working stress is the actual stress under which the material is expected to
operate.

+ Factors to be considered in choosing the factor of safety to be employed
Variation of material properties
Quality of the manufacturing operations
The uncertainties of computations of stress, magnitude, and stress
distribution on the basis of assumption that have been necessary in
the theory employed.
Dangers of personal injury from failure of the part of undue financial
loss
The influence of uncertainties such as may be experienced in
Extent of inspection

V. SELECTION OF MATERIALS

+ Factors to be considered :

O Strength requirement

O Ease of fabrication

O Cost of the material

O Availability of the material

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ELASTICITY
Elasticity is the property of the material to regain its original shape upon the

YOUNGS MODULUS OR TENSILE MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
The Youngs Modulus or tensile modulus describes the length elasticity of the
material. It is the ratio of the stress to strain within the limit of proportionality.

= =

FL
E
A L

tension modulus of elasticity (Young's Modulus)
stress
strain
=
=
=
Where E

SHEAR MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
The shear modulus describes the shape elasticity of the material.

( ) 2 1
=
+
E
G

shear modulus of elasticity
tension modulus of elasticity (Young's Modulus)
poisson's ratio
=
=
=
Where G
E

BULK MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
The bulk modulus describes the volume elasticity of the material.

( )
( ) 3 1 2

= =

V p E
V

bulk modulus of elasticity
change in pressure
change in volume
original volume
tensile modulus of elasticity (Young's Modulus)
poisson's ratio
=
=
=
=
=
=
Where
P
V
V
E

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PLASTICITY

Plasticity is the property of a material by virtue of which permanent
deformation can occur.

+ MEASURES OF PLASTICITY

+ Ductility is that quality of a material by virtue of which it may be
plastically elongated.

=
ultimate failure strain
Ductility
yielding strain

Measures of Ductility:

Percent Elongation:

100%

=

f o
o
L L
percent elongation
L

Reduction in area:

100%

=

o f
o
A A
reduction in area
A

+ Malleability is the quality of a material by virtue of which it may be
plastically compressed.

+ ORDER OF PROPERTIES FOR THE SIX MOST COMMONLY USED METALS WHEN IN THE
PURE STATE

Order of Malleability Order of Ductility
1. Copper 1. Copper
2. Aluminum 2. Iron
3. Tin 3. Aluminum
5. Iron 5. Tin

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ENGINEERING
MATERIALS
O POLYMERS

A Polymer is a substance consisting of large molecules that are made of many
small, repeating units called monomers, or mers.

A copolymer or interpolymer is a large molecule with two alternating mers.

Homopolymers are polymers consisting of only one kind of repeating unit.

Elastomers are polymers with plastic properties similar to rubber.

+ Some Common Polymeric Materials
Elastomers
Plastics
Fibers
Asphalt
Natural rubber

DEGREE OF POLYMERIZATION
The Degree of Polymerization (DP), is the number of repeating units in one
large molecule, typically several hundred to several thousand.

=
polymer
mer
MW
DP
MW

degree of polymerization
molecular weight
=
=
where DP
mw

High Polymers are materials with a very high degree of polymerization.
Telenomers or oligomers are polymers with degree of polymerization of less
than 10

THERMOPLASTICS AND THERMOSETTING PLASTICS

Thermoplastics are polymers, which can be repeatedly softened by heating
and hardened by cooling.
Thermosetting plastics, on the other hand, harden permanently after being
heated once.

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Some Common thermosetting thermoplastics:

Thermosetting Thermoplastics
Epoxy Acetal
Melamine Acrylic
Natural rubber (polyisoprene) Polyamide (Nylon)
Phenolic Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Polyester (DAP) Polyester (PBT and PET)
Silicone Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon)

O GLASS

Glass is defined as supercooled liquids, because they do not crystallize when
cooled below their melting points. The basic ingredient of glass compositions
is silica, derived from sand, flint, or quartz

Properties of silica:

- At room temperature, silica is in the form of quartz.
- At 875
O
C (1607
O
F), the structure changes to tridymite.
- At 1470
O
C (2678
O
F), the structure changes to cristobalite.

Vitrification is the process a liquid glass solidifies without molecular change
when cooled below the melting point.

Some common glasses:

Type of glass Characteristics Use
Fused silica Thermal shock resistant Laboratory equipment
Borosilicate (pyrex) Thermal shock resistant Cooking utensils
Aluminasilicate Thermal shock resistant Thermometers
Soda-lime silica Easy to form Plate, bulbs

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O CERAMICS

Ceramics are compounds of metallic and non-metallic elements.
Some common examples of ceramics are:
- Glass
- Brick
- Portland cement
- Refractories
- Abrasives

Properties of Typical Ceramics:

- High melting point
- High hardness
- High compressive strength
- High tensile strength (perfect crystals)
- Low ductility (brittleness)
- High shear resistance (low slip)
- Low electrical conductivity
- Low thermal conductivity
- High corrosion (acid) resistance
- Low coefficient of thermal expansion

O WOOD

A wood is a hard, tough substance that forms the trunks of trees, and that has
been used for thousands of years as a fuel and as a material of construction.

Softwoods contains tube-like fibers (tracheids) oriented with the longitudinal
axis (grain) and cemented together with lignin.

Hardwoods contains more complex structures in addition to longitudinal fibers

Moisture Content:

=
wet oven dry
oven dry
W W
MC
W

moisture content
wet weight
oven dry weight
=
=
=
wet
oven dry
Where MC
W
W

Note:

Wood is considered green if its moisture content is above 19%.
Wood is considered dry if its moisture content is between (12-15)%
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O ABRASIVES

An abrasive is a hard material that can cut other materials.

Abrasives are classified into two:

+ Natural abrasives
Natural abrasives include emery (50-60% Al
2
O
3
, rest iron oxide),
corundum, quartz, garnets, and diamonds.

+ Artificial abrasives.

Artificial abrasives include carbides and man-made aluminum oxide
(Al
2
O
3
).

Familiar abrasives include sandpaper, steel wool, emery boards, and whetstones,
but abrasives are also used in the forms of powders, grains, chips, and blocks.

Common uses for abrasives include grinding, polishing, buffing, honing,
cutting, drilling, sharpening, and sanding.

O CONCRETE

Concrete is a mixture of mineral aggregates locked in a solid structure by a
binding mineral (that is, cement).

Aggregates refer to the sand and rock particles that have been added to
increase mass and volume of concrete.

Sand that will pass through #4 sieve (openings less than 0.25 in or 0.6 cm) is
known as fine aggregates. Any particles that are larger than this are known as
course aggregate.

Proportions of Concrete Mixture:

1:2:3
This means that,

1 part of cement
2 parts of fine aggregate
3 part of courses aggregate

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CEMENT

Cement is any material that hardens and becomes strongly adhesive after
application in plastic form. The term cement is often used interchangeably
with glue and adhesive . The most common cement is the Portland Cement,
manufactured from lime, silica, and alumina.

The Five Common Types of Portland Cement:

+ Normal Portland Cement
This is general-purpose cement typically used in sidewalks,
pavements, beams, columns, and culverts.

+ Modified Portland Cement
This cement has a moderate sulfate resistance and is generally
used in hot weather in the construction of large concrete structures.

+ High-Early-Strength Portland Cement
This cement develops its strength quickly and is suitable for
structures that must be put to early use or when long term protection
against cold temperature is not feasible.

+ Low Heat Portland Cement
For used in massive concrete structures such as gravity dams. This
cement is required to minimize the curing heat.

+ Sulfate-Resistant Portland Cement
This type of cement is used when exposure to sulfates is expected.

METALLURGY

Metallurgy is the science and technology of metals, including the extraction
of metals from ores, the preparation of metals for use, and the study of the
relationship between structures and properties of metals

Extractive metallurgy is the subject, which covers the refinement of pure
metals from their ores.

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CLASSIFICATION OF METALLURGICAL PROCESSES

O Chemical metallurgy is the branch of metallurgy which deals with the
reduction of metals from their minerals and the refining and alloying of
those metals.

O Physical metallurgy is the branch of metallurgy which deals with the
nature, structure, and physical properties of metals and alloys.

O Mechanical metallurgy is the branch of metallurgy which deals with the
working and shaping of metals and alloys, such as casting, forging,
rolling, and drawing.

ORES

An ore is a combination of minerals, which can be profitably mined. Those
ores which contain a predominance of silica or silicate in the gangue are
considered as acid ores, while those with a predominance of limestone and
magnesia are considered as basic ores.

A gangue is a secondary minerals consisting of impurities of an earthy nature
such as rock, sand, and clay.

Primary metals are metals produced directly from ore.
Secondary metals are metals that are reclaimed from scrap.

Properties of Some Metals and Alloys:

- High thermal conductivity
- High electrical conductivity
- High chemical reactivity
- High strength
- High ductility
- h density
- Highly magnetic

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MATERIAL TESTING

+ HARDNESS TESTING
O BRINELL TEST
This hardness test is used primarily with iron and steel casting. In Brinell
test a Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) is determine by pressing a
hardened steel ball (10 mm in diameter) into the surface of a specimen
with a force of 500 kg and 3000 kg for soft and hard materials,
respectively.

( )
2
2
= = =
contact
s s S d
P P P
BHN
A Dt
D d D d

area in contact
diameter of the steel ball, (mm)
depression diameter, (mm)
depth, (mm)
=
=
=
=
=
b
d
Where P
A
D
D
T

O ROCKWELL TEST
A Rockwell test is a penetration test in which a diamond cone is used for
hard materials and a hardened steel ball (1/16 inches in diameter) for
soft materials. The Rockwell hardness is determined from the depth of
penetration and is read directly from a dial.

1 2
= R C C t

1 2
&
Rockness hardness
thickness or depth of penetration
constants which depend on the scale
=
=
=
Where R
T
C C

O VICKERS TEST
Also a type of penetration test using a square pyramid as penetrator.

( )
2
1.854
=
m
P
Vhn
d

Vickers hardness number
mean diagonal
=
=
=
m
Where vhn
P
D

D
B
P
t
DD
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O MEYER TEST
A Meyer Test is a form of penetration hardness test using a hardened
steel ball as penetrator.

2
4
=
P
mhn
d

Meyer hardness number
depression diameter
=
=
=
Where mhn
P
D

O KNOOP TEST
A Knoop Test is a form of penetration hardness test using asymmetrical
pyramid as penetrator.

2
14.2
=
P
K
L

Knoop hardness number
long diagonal
=
=
=
Where K
P
L

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TEST - 5

1. The property of metals that allows them to be drawn into thin wires
beyond their elastic limit without being ruptured is called

A. ductility
B. malleability*
C. elasticity
D. hardness

2. Interaction between the surfaces of two closely adjacent bodies which
causes them to cling together is known as

A. friction
B. cohesion
D. viscosity

3. Solids which break above the elastic limit are called

A. brittle*
B. ductile
C. plastic
D. malleable

4. The property of some elementary particles that causes them to exert
force on one another is known as

A. potential difference
B. charge*
C. specific change
D. nucleon interaction

5. The property which permits the flow of current under the action of a
potential difference is called

A. resistance
B. permeance
C. impedence
D. conductance*

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6. When a body is resistant to heat, it is called

A. thermoscopic
B. thermotropic
C. thermoduric*
D. thermoplastic

7. The property of fluids by virtue of which they offer resistance to flow is
known as

A. gummosity
B. glutinosity
C. viscidity
D. viscosity*

8. The tendency of a body to return to its original size or shape after having
been deformed is called

A. elastance
B. elasticity*
C. elastivity
D. anelastivity

9. The emission of light by a material because of its high temperature is
known as

A. incandescence*
B. luminescence
C. scintillation
D. phosphorescence

10. Which of the following statements is correct concerning the passage of
white light into a glass prism?

A. The violet color travels faster than the red color
B. The violet color travels slower than the red color*
C. All the colors of white light travel with the same speed
D. Greater the wavelength, slower the speed of color

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11. The property by virtue of which a body resists any attempt to change its
state of rest or motion is called

A. torpidity
B. passivity
C. inactivity
D. inertia*

12. The property of an isolated conductor to store electric charge is

A. capacitance*
B. conductance
C. permeability
D. accumulation

13. If the properties of a body are the same in all directions, it is called

A. isodynamic
B. isotropic*
C. isogonic
D. isotopic

14. The property of an object that determines the direction of heat flow when
in contact with another object is called

A. calidity
B. pyrexia
C. caloric
D. temperature*

15. The rate of flow of thermal energy through a material in the presence of a

A. thermal capacity
B. thermal conductivity*
D. thermal convection

16. The property of some crystals of absorbing light to different extents,
thereby giving to the crystals different colors according to the direction of
the incident light is known as

A. dichroism*
B. dichromatism
C. diastrophism
D. chromaticity

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of higher frequency is called

A. illuminance
B. fluorescence*
D. incandescence

18. If a material is feebly repelled by a magnet it is

A. diamagnetic*
B. paramagnetic
C. ferromagnetic
D. ferromagnetic

19. The progressive decrease of a property as a result of repeated stress is
called

A. debility
B. rigidity
C. elastic deformation
C. fatigue*

20. Property of some pure metals and their alloys at extremely low
temperatures of having negligible resistance to the flow of an electric
current is called

A. supercharging
B. supercooling
C. superfluidity
D. superconductivity*