de

Catalogue
of CeYlon
Btrdo,
FAM: COLYMBIDE.
fODICXPIN.IE.
PodicePs
mil'o4 Latham'
The little Grebe.
FAM: LASIDE.
a. I/]\BlN-tE,
Xena
bruneicephalus,
,lerilon. The Inilian hooded GulL
Larus
icthyii.et :us, PaUas,
b. srrnxIN.e,
Sylochelidon
Caspia,
PaLl.
The Caspian Teru'
Sylochelidon
seena'
Syftes.
The orange-billecl Tem.
Ilyclrocheliclon
Indica' S tePh.
Gelocbelidon
Anglica,
Brown. The gull-billed Tern.
Onychoprion
anasthetus, ScoP.
Sterna
melano'gaste4
Temm' The black'bellietl Tern
Sterna Javani ca' Horsf.
Sterna minuta, Zinn-.
$1s1na
-
|
Thalasseus cristatusr SlePI.
Thalasseus Bengalensis, tressan
Tacbepetes aquila?
FAM: PELICANID.ZE.
&. PIOTIN.IE.
Plotus melano gaster, Gmel, The black-bellied Darter.
b. rurcexrxa.
Pelicanus Philippensis,
Grnrl The Inclian Peliuau.
Graculus Sinensisr,Sicro.
Graculus pygmeus, Pailc.r'
Natiac Formt
of Salutation, d7
Notes on some ojf the .Forms of Salutation and, Address
known
among the Singhatese. By the lfon. Mr. Jusrrcn Sr-mx.n.
Tun Singhalese
have a great variety of forms of expressiou
in address, to inclicate the respect or otherwise, which they
wish to shew to the indiviclual
I
as, in their language itself,
there are worcls ancl phrases appropriatecl to particular classes
of the people.
For a consiclerable proportion of those various forms of
expression, the fundamental terms of acldress are,
aal (to)and cs'roc (tam6.)
(from
the olcl root or fa, thou,*)
terms, however, which by themselves, without any honoriffc
as it is callecl, or affix of respect, are considered properly
given to inferiors only; anil the term oo:I (ro) is now so
associated. rvith such inferiority, that if ailtlressed to others it
expresses the greatest contempt. Chater says that
('in
book"s
it conveys no idea of disrespect," Gram. p. 39; ancl in the
Sitlath Sangarawa it is given with the examples of verbs in
the seconal person: but so early as Ruell's time, the term was
not used except to slaves and low caste people.
tloc (tam6.) is thou ! or you ! but aol (to) is you fellow I
sirrah ! you creature ! or something lower and meaner, for
which we have riot in English a proper equivalent. Its force
on the native minil probably depends on their tenaciousness
of birth ancl conclition, as connected with their peculiar notious
of merit ancl demerit in a previous state of existence : sin or
demerit, according to Budha, determining the course of a
person's existenoe, as a bullock drarvs along the carriage to
which it is yoked.
'\Ife
have something of an illustration of this in the anecdoto
of the countryman
ancl the king in disguise, when they met
together in the
jungle, how the countryman resented the
king's refusal to take foocl with him, thinking the king
supposed.
he was a low caste man;t and the same sentiment
See the Si<lath Sangarawa
by Mr. Alwis, p. 22' antl hie observations
st pag€.
xlii., xlvii., 100' 154.
t
See the Attanagalu v*nee, Siclath Sangarava,
p. chxxv.
68
I'orms
qf Salutation
and Addrer
io exnressed in a more shookiug
form' when a native in his
;;":;;;;;;s
wishes
he mav be a low cast: man or a demon
i",i"
""",
birth, if he is not to be believecl'
'*
*tt"r"
a higher feeling is to be conveyecl' some honorific
or other ir tr"J, which hJnorifics
ar:e variously'forrnecl'
ancl
unite with each other and with the noun or pronoun
ln
various waYs.
orQod
(tan,u'6)p"$' pron' You' may be ailclressecl
to an
"quJ__it
is a term of civility, Chater'
p' 40' ancl is even re-
Eardecl as
"
rather respectful,"
Bridgnell's
Dictionary'
It is
ir"o, *""tdl"g
t" fvf"' Alwis, (Sidath Sangarawa'
p' 158')
..
by husbancls torvarals their wives and' aice uersd' ;
ancl also
by some low caste people 'to
the inferior classes of the Yel-
lole, ;
by Upo.otop"il' !'riests
towards- their pupils or Sd'ma'-
o*rn, t
ooa lo"o by serlants of a higher gracle towards the
young members
of their master's families"'
'
-fr.{.."
aa (tamunneh'e)
is acltlressecl to an equal or to a
superior,
but it is
"
the leasi of a'll the acknol'leclgments
of
uop.rioty."
Lambrick,
Gram'
p' 25' note'
--Iget-rert
sd (tamunnansd),
pets' pron' Yott' is higher;
it is aiklressed
to one pei'fectty
equul ancl for whom we woulcl
express
.o*" t.rp""i
Bridgnell'
after Clough'
says it is
il;; respectful."
I{r' Alwis s ills'
"
it is used torvards each
otfr", ty p'"r.o,t.
of an equal station in life amongst the
ttigft*.t""fu*
of thc Singltaiese'
and aruongst the priesthood'"
Ii-uy be like our '6
Leatneil Sir'"
---g-:Ut
a*ad
(tamttn walmnse)
is still higher; it is ad-
dr"rrid to a superior,
and is expressive
of thehighest
respect'
It may be like our "
Worthy Si*'"
Similar
to this last is tloe-*i"*
(obawahanse) which
was the term useil in the Lorcl's playel;
as @a)io<rlodas5
6 r/zr o d oc ob a u' ahan s e g e r aj y ay a 6w d" (Thy l(ingtlom come'
)
But now the term e*pl"oy"diu 60
Oov'iod
(nubawahanse)'
a supposetl derivative
of the for"rner'
Antl here it may be observecl,
that generally'
in all com'
munications
from au inferior, as in communications
to one
hnown cnnong the Singhalese'
69
through a third person, leave to speak qOard er'oOenOr
(o',uoloro tabenaui) to receive permission, must be expressed'
bhu,.r, p. 134. Arr,I so, in like manner, in apploaching
ancl
withilraiving,
there must be leave to come ancl leave to go'
OogSoei
(walutnse) is ailded as an affix to the term
for
Gorl, and to all the oo*"t of Gotl; as also in some relative
expressions,
as to Futher in the Lord's prayer'
qcrosl3ccc ened
eur€tlco
aPage
PiYd'nan
uahanse'
But uncler the woril'aq E o
g1 Oo erlo I ( D ewiy an zo ahans|
)
Clough
points out the difference in its use' Innulnerable
instances,
he says, occur of the honorific being usecl in tbe
vocative,
in which case it may be addressetl
not only to one
of these beings (the gocls of Swarga), but also to a king' or
ury p..*oo of ,u"tfbot toht" usecl in lhe nominatiue'il
*"rf., at oncs the clifference between a hea'then gocl and the
Supreme
being.
-
\Yhor"u.t
otuy be in this, it is certain
that the continual
t""*;;;;"
;f the honorifics in the Singhalese
tran$tion-of
IIoly Scripttlre,
soon offends us; antl in so-nre caseb' as
'Je-
hoouh *uhuose,
the af&x almost shocks, coming upon the ear
lilie some cliscorilance
in an otherwise
heavenly
melocly'
;;;;; to i" *i.u"a, therefore,
that Christianity
could be
here attireil in a garb more accordant
'with the simplicity
anil
sincerity
of its sPirit'
The flatterers
of king Dutugemini
callecl him a gotl'-
genA8
Bcldt"cOddo<rioenl
€go:uCIzfr
ddoOoOad
Ikbeeti Pin
kiriya Lvat kiyanno Dutugemini
rajahatamese
;;;-Lqa".sller'<sleo
gqqdoo
qoocr'<ladES.erl
tityn
-
Dewiyanwahanta
ailailakwa
nubawahanse
wisin
*irtOg
6u:cA €"t"cd eodQoocsr
t9€odg
BordO€{tl
ekak acln wihara
siyayak karawuseka
ekerarvu
'wiharawalin
Odc'teLE86?docO
Mirisawetiwiharayala'
ot'
tttnu*uose, ap' siclath
sangarawa' p' clxxv'
Then tltose
uhose d'uty it
,roas
to d'eclare
the 'meritorious acts
(of Bud'hism)
done by King Dutugemini'
said' Dewiyan
70 Forms oif Salutation and Address
uahansa,* many temples to Budha haae been erected by thee, and
the cost o1f them erceeds computation,
$c.
And the name of another king is placeil in the centre of
grandiloquence-
8
O"l
S
6ce Sosr Orcr dcodldoOocened Oeglod
Sree mat sree raja singha maha rajotta mayanan wahanse
His
Ttrosperous
lighness the proslterous hrng Singha, uorthy,
great, right regal !
IMe find also in the extract from an old inscription, ap.
Siilath Sangarawa, p. cxcix., the afrx wahanse is given
to a deceased lady, the queen-mother as she is called.-
e€.E te8g Og 6esQ<l OordordO
Swarga stawu mawu-bisawun wahanseta
and Clough gives 6aQe*er:cedad (bisawunnd,nse), as one of
the renderings for
Queen.
The same affix is given to His
Excellency the Governor, who is stflecl
6olc
Oolen<dOcrr<l
ad ( uttamayd.nan zoahanse) or
6
gOren e€oglod ( utumdnan
walmnse), rvhichlatter is the title given by the translators on
one occasion to the governor of Judrea.t The terms are
derivecl from worcls signifying chief, excellent, or high
;
anil
Clough supposes thatthe term Oor:jOat (mahatmayd)
which
is norv in its customary use equivalent only to our Mr-., hail
the same cornmon origin, being composed of.the words Oto
(maha)
great anil
eol6,0
(uttarna) excellence : so that the
same term is in fact appliecl to the trvo extremes of the social
scale; they are both excellent in their place.
As a fonnal title of office, nfahatmeya denotes a principal
Ileadnran; and aRatte mahatmeya, from ratte 60 (rata)
country,
in the sense of a large district of country, is the
principal
heaclman of the clistrict. The only higher territo-
rial
officer
was the Dissave, rvhose dissavony, from
Qa
(disa)
or
QcocO (Sisaaua) a part or portion, was in the nature of a
--"
ThesametermOgScceTOA:<5lce
lDewiyan wahansa) is employed by
Mr. Alvis
in his Singhalese version of the Hitopatlesa a$ the corresponding phraro
for Please
you
Majesty! Sidath'sangarawa, p. 206,
t
Matth. .rxYii. 2. IIe is afterwards caltetf
cf$U6ec? (adhipatiyl).
hnown among the Singhalese.
7l
province or Satrapy; and the two or three principal Satrapr
or Dissaves
were Adigars, a term which siguifies placed over.
They were the king's highest officers, like the prefects of
Darius, Dan. vi. l, 2
;
and the first Acligar was, as it were,
his Prime Minister.
In the books we find frequent mention made of the King,e
council, and of his counsellors-the Or,EqO (metitzma),lhe
metiya), all, no doubt, from the sane common origin with the
Greek Mnrrs, wisdom or ability in council. But what this
high council was, and who was the arch-counsellor
or the
second. counsellor, does not clearly appear.*
Nor, except in the low couutry, is there now. any officer in
waiting aB we say, or Modliar of the Gate, viz. of the Oc$cnrO
(Maligawe) or royal palace, where the king's court or au_
fience chamber commonly was. ,B:urt Mudianse and, wdsale or
wdhale Mudianse (the Si?ghalese synonyme), is not unfrequent
as an agnomen, among the Kandyan BasnaikeNillEnes
and
Rattemahatmeyas.t
Such may constitute what Mr. Arrnour
(Kanily Law) calls
,(
the Mudeli peroowa or titled class.,'
For r fi1d nqfhing in the nature of our nobility among the
Singhalese, either of the higher or lower ranks: only whln a
person got office under the Government and more especially
€q orencrd (situ tanatara) au eminent place, from otctqd
(tanatura)
.6
office, service, appointment,
employmentr,'
(Clough), his clescendants commouly assumed the tiile as an
agnomen or pattabendigey name
,
the patta tahad,oo or ofrce
frontlets
becoming likewise heir looms in the familn and
'
The royal poet Rajailhi Raja Singha speaks of the priest Moratotte inthjr
way-
oOden
gr,E
o@oocO ccE OencOgi
pawsrana m€ti Moratotte yati manawarr
but perhape this onJy means, Moratottq no less excelleut as a frienct, than dir.
tinguishecl as a priest.
t
Amoug the former there iB at prese[t Errawwawele
'Senanayeke
Bowareke bahoo Narayene Raje goroo rvshare Mudianse, Basnaike Nilreme of
Lsnka tilleke and Gadsla donia dewaloc.
72
Fonns
oJ Saltttation
and Addrest
h'nown among the Singhalese'
13
an associated or collective
capacity'
as in the Introiluction
to
the above book, where
it is said' Budha preached
the sutra
Damsak to many;
anil among others' and especially'
to the
five worthY
sorts of
Priests-
ed Oo Ooeged
Oo<slad
Pas
waga mahanun
wahans6
The Maha tera of whom
\Ye sometimes
read' is also called
toahanse ;
and
(Ipd'li maha situan
important
person' but whe-
ther the-sam" *ith the
(Ipaliltywhom the Winiya
pitaka was
arrangeil,
tloes not clearly
appear'
Th"" .u*e affix is given to Seriyut maha himiya' the great
proprietor, so callecl apparently
from. h1 being a great aucl
dirtiogoi.h"
d' author of his time' Antl to Swaminy Nagase'
noyolohis colloquy with the king,* wherein
he shewed the
kiig, with g".ui ua"oitness
an'l felicity' the rapitlity of a
*'"*"*ril#T#Hl"-',*J:'-r"'ffi:llxl'Hillll;
th" c.leity Jith which our thoughts
pass from oue object to
another.
In these personages,
atd'
(Ipali maha situ' we may see
the
^:espect
aotl honours anciently
in use to be given to
literatuie anil philosophy;
using these high terms of coutse'
in the very limitecl ancl peculiar seuse in which they must
here be iuk"o.
lMe have a further
illustration
of the extent of literary
fame in the wonilerful
Ed.hula of Tottegamuwe,
another clis-
tinguisheil
literary character to whom the afrr is given'-
I
cottroAla
I
Edo OctS trSo6er:r6o6
g8Oesr
Sree sanghabodhi
sree wijaya bahu
pa'riwenidhipati
tripitaka
ec6 e€dcOcac& I
-
"*u
e&6d orqogl
Ooerlod
Tvagee swarachayarya
"ee
Ruholo stawira paitayan
wahanse
![e seetns, like another Eahu, to have eclipsed
all others
;
ancl his birthplace
passecl into a proverb'
but a proverb
*
Milinrlapprasne,
ap'
'Sidath'
Sangara'
p' ccrxvii
VOL. II.
L
according
to Mr' Armour'
in his l{andy Larv' descenfing
with
the
ParvenY
lancls'
]\Ir.
Alwis
however,
says," Situ' equivalent
to an English
B-;.;,
was a rank whicir was conferretl by the Sovereign
on account
ofthe
great wealth
ofa person'
It may be consi-
il;;t
a gracle Jf thu puu'une
of our forefathers'
A person
who hacl this rank
"oof"""ti
on him had access to the royal
household,
and was altogether
one (as w-e gather
from books)
rvho controllu,lthu
coo""ils
of the State"'
Siclath Sangararva'
;ff;.;;is,
p, clviii'
But there is some misconception
here,
as to the grounds
on which the comparison
is macle;
;;,, t; is not unlik"ty
that office anil wealth'
the latter the
foundation
of the for*"",
were the greatelements
of consi-
;;;;
among
the Singhalese'
To
-thisday
they are teua-
;t"* ;" ,, ,lugi"
of their
parveny
or hereditary
lantl'
;*:"1T"'Tff"ti?Tililffi"J*T:i!:*r;:*:;
ment so- very
differeii
ot
""'p""ts
the distribution
of official
;;;t
;"t .ioty
u' the Englih
a''d Singhalese;
ancl it onlv
tends
to perpetuate
misapf,rehension
to use the names in-
discriminatelY.
The above,
namely,
the Acligars'
Dissaves'
ancl Ratte-
-*;;;*;;"r,
rrere the p'iocipul
officers
under the Singhalese
oovernment;
and in tire Convention
of 1815' entered
into
i;^;;;;"tti
"r
Kandv
bv the English'for
the cessation
of hostilities
anil the settlement
of the country
by a- formal
declaration
of the power
ancl principles
of the nerv Govern-
ment,
they are mentionecl
or illudetl
to as the principal
chiefs
of the Kanclyan
provinces'
antl the Mohottales'
Coralles'
iiia*i"r,
uo,l
oth"rr,
the suborclinate
heaclmen
from the
p"ooiot"..
'
Budha
is toahans|
of course;
and the stories of his births
""
;;";i;".
states
of existence'
Jdt aha p ot to ahans 6' the worthy
books Jataka, a oomposition
so highly reganleil
by Bud'-
histo, that, uuy, CioogU, '6
they witl oier to it and worship
it." The term it ;d applie&to
the Buithist
priesthooil
iu
lmown
&mong the Singhalese'
75
74
Forms
of Salutation
and Address
€DO€r,
enr,d8cc 6\ctdcil6r6rn
q€€odd oolO oc6er{6
A
Nuwana
nrttiya
peratto
akuslf
kota yakinni
'wa'
""J"-'A
6 e.*l
oo'"8
enoo<rrd
q€eod and<rla<n
E
upaune hi weedan
wanihee
n€ws'tat
akusal karanne
hee
8q q€Oerr
<slsgrsed6o
6csc
weeda arrowana
taneettiYa
kiYa
O unman of unrelflecting
mind! ft is because o1f demerit in a
former
ti\, you rorrc born a yakinni' yl
do you still go on merit-
'1"r"
! in uire
Person
that you are ! Ther- repeating to her the
commandments
as u h.ip to her, he let her away, and she
vanishetl
in the air.
'
i- g"o"ri"
name for a Budhist
priest is saiil by Bridgnell
to be Lgo,enc<slod
(ganinnd'nse)'
probably
from some root
.igoifyirrg
learning
o"'-*i'do*'
whence we
have Ganesa tlrc
iiiraoo g"od of wi",Io-,go'
ayaa poet'tcalmeasure'
and' ganita-
;;;h"
;""ce
or arithJgtici
But Clough
derives the rvord'
'lif"r."tfy,
ancl thinks*is
an i:r'ferior term applicable
to the
lowest order of
Priests'
Thesameaffix.isgiventothec2dt,(guru)orpfeceptor,
who is accordingly
termecl a gurunnanse't
The secretary
of the District
Court subscribes
himself
secretary swamiha,
which
is a derivative
from swamy
or
.*u*uy-u, a loril or uaster'
This appears singularly
inap-
propriate: his proper appellation
as clerk of court is certainly
unnanse.
Among the clifferent members of afamily orhousehold'
there
are severa,l wortls and phrases in common
use, and appliecl in
what is calleil a familiur way ;
but they appear geuerally to
be of a common character,
ancl not words
of affection or
eudearment.
tFor "
a religious teacherwho isnotaBudhist"'the
term ;s
S$cncoc
(teertthahaya) rvhich inports ir Budhist estimation' and also it seems etFnologi-
cally, au unbeliever. See Sidath Sangarawa by Mr' Alwis' p' 38' Q)'
whelher
this term is connectetl with the appellation giveu to ttre prophet untier the namo
Tirshatha? See Ezra ii' 63; Neh' Yii' 65, Yiii' I'
hiEhlv
characteristic
of a Buclhist people' with whom litera:
t,r"."
i, good, but Budhism
is better:-
oorOorQoO 6trerrarrcO
or0cesrq Ogl 6'8en<sl
Tottegamuwe
upannita mokacla bana berinan'
Wnat
sigttifies ba:rtg
born at Tottegamuwe
if you don't know bana?
Il-efindtheafrxalsowithocO6dr'6iOl(hdmudure'wo)'
a compounil
term,
ancl applied ns a domestic appellation
to
the heacl of a house or famiiy, in a combinecl
sense of master
and instructor-
And in a deetl written by Karangocldle
unnanse of Potgul
wiharein Sa{I'ragam,
n- o. i8s5, that priest describes himself
thus:
oorC€C
Socdc6Ocd
€cdooc:lA
coos da*Eo
6'e€tnedod
Potgoi wihdrlyiwas
Karangodde
s11Sa raklhita unwahanse'
The dcscription
here given sigoifi#:'preservecl
or defendecl
by the prielthood;
and the Rev' Mr' Gogerly'
who gives me
iii.
""ptoo,rtion,
ailtls, that priests when orilained take
names of that kinrl'
In rega d lo
(htnans6,
that wortl is employetl
not only as
,n uffi*"of respect,
but also substantively
or as a pronoun of
ine tHra p"rr-oo.
In this way, it is given to every Budhist
priest ;
uod the
c1o,6 (tera) or old priest of a wihare' who has
attained. his degree,
is a Terunnanse'
The worcl
is not used, however, to any other than such
priest:-it
is not given to the kapuwa or god's priest' nor to
ii" y"Ua"ta
or cl-evil's priest,
nor to the ba-likariya
or planet
pri"rt. For
the poo' Sioghulese
are by their fears' fostereil
[t ti"ft o"ty
",""d,
beset
on every side with malignant iu-
fl"o"o."r, whi"h
like the reil untwinklingeyes
of their witohes
ourr"" ,..t in their baneful
operation' AncI it is observable'
that even Buclln,
when
he found a clemon prowling
about
for an opportunity
to catch hoicl of an infant chiltl in orclerto
eat it, (so says the Jataka)
tlid not attempt
to clo more
than
chiile her, aud repeat to her the commanclments
as a help to
her. His reproof was in these \Yor'ls:-
7 6
-Fornts
oJ Salutation
and Address
Ancl what
we call an infant in arms' they more loosely call
*-*"rt
(ata-lamaya),
a child in the hantl' So' what we call
*" fu*ify,
or inmates of the house, they appear to call qsl
oorl derr (anto-jana)t
the people insicle'
As respects an inferior servant, a cooly, a slave, or a person
of low
"orte,
he is oOcE (bola),clross
anil rubbish-one whose
demerit has sunk him low,
tr'or the weaker sex in general, ancl 6d" (bheere) or lhe
timicl one, seems a favourite epithet, the Singhalese
havemany
names expressive
of desirable female qualities'
But these
u"" *ortti of a sensible kincl; ancl when a woril of affection
is usetl, it seems to have more of passion than an English
phrase in the like case' Their sorrows seem to partake of
ih" ,r*" character.
For when they are bereavecl of abeloved
object, or suffer any ill, they but say,
36oc
(iniya)Hech
-"
t it is my misfortune-the
consequence
of
gome
ilemerit
of mine in a former life ! unless it f,e the cleath of a person,
for then it will probably be imputeil to his own sin!
*
fn the Kandyan
Districts, or amongthe Singhalese strictly
so calleclt there are terms by which they clesignate their
children
as to size. What a big heavy boy ! This is 6\ec€
1fonu1,
lMhat a little tiny thing! This is 665ec (tihiriya)'
Sl*iiu"
to this, and no less descriptive,
is the appellation
given to the attencling sewant of a Builhist priest, qr'Boleicrc
(aebittaya), a bit boy ! which incleetl, in point of fact' he
.o**ohy
is. The termmay be connectecl with the )Dltlr ancl
dbetihos of the Greek,
youthful, a stripltng'
Ancl here it may be observe'I, that the tlistinguishing
terms
characteristic
of the priest ancl the layman are godol (grra-
*
see tbe.poetess Gaja,man's elegy on the tleath of her father, ap. sitlath
Sangarawa, p' ccxvi.
f
Tho
Kattlyan or hill country is ttistinguished ftom the lower or moritimc
'ilistricts
by tbe ns.mo Singhalese; antl the town of Kandy is Maha nuvera' tho
M"gol6-poiis,or great city, the metropolis. Thege nameg are easily accouatecl for'
but they are eceotdetl as given'
hnown among the Singhalese'
77
hasta)
and gOErn
(Ttrawrajita),* householder
antl wanderer'-
the one living in a cya (graha) house ancl family' the other
dwelling in a ooes6 (pansate) a leaf-hut or bower'
The Wihare neeil not however, I presume'
be of this tem-
porary clescription;
ancl the image roomis eventermeil 9'8Oc
q- {grot;*"-graha)
in the Cotta inscription a2' Sidath San-
garawa,
p. cxcrx.
o
Th* plesthooil,
or ministers as they appear
more properly
to be, aie a distinct orcler, of fifferent degrees:
nalTely' the
grO"of
a
l
(srdmanera),the
clevotee
1
pupil priest' someyhat
iossibty,
fike the eons of the prophets: and the
6oco@oq
(uoasampad.a), one grailuatetl or atlvancecl: the senior or olcl
)ol;; in. *in"*"leing
the &E6 (stawira) ot ao,d (teta)
terunnanse.
There was also the rr)'ctucrc (t'6'pasay6')'
from <lo (tapa)
mortification
or religious austerity;
but as respects
65
persons
of the silwatclassr,
is Mr. Armourhas
it, or voluntaly'as'
cetics of their own act, they are not priests but laymen'
--
d. clwellings
of the priests are, as we have seen' regulatecl
antl characteristic
of the*' So is their dress' the 8Od (s?-
zooora)ra
terrn connecteil
perhaps with th e sis{trna ot sisiltra of
the Greekr,
*ncl the methocl of their obtaining
it
;-the
manner
in which
they are to get their livelihootl
or subsistence'
even
to their alms cup oti"ggiog
bowl;-their
meal time;-ancl
ii" .*.oo *h.o ihey *u'y ai"o"tinue
travelling'
antl remain
wittrin
iloors.
It is from the manner of ]ife thus prescribetl,
the priest is
termecl
Ao#g (bhikshu),one
living oo
"I*"
an almsman;
antl
the assemblag"
of pduti' oln Oalooco
8@a (mahabik-sangha
himiya).
fU"y ao oot constitute
a fraternity'
nor are the
frl.r*'rrtu"t,
u, h"t been representecl'
They
are not so or'
*
See Armonr's KandY Law'
i
ili, *ra, ule tnat from vhich tt t:-lt:"tu'
ancl many othersinthc
t"Jg*g.,
o""o"t in tliferent
forms; and a good Dctionary
of Synonynes is o great
dffiiderltulr
in Singhalese
literature'
?8
Forms
of Salutation
and Address
ganizecl:
they
belong
to an earlier time' ancl a less poiitical
evstem,
"r-clio".t.a
with
the perioil when the priests discontinue
travelling,
ancl are to remain within doors' is the festival time ;
"#
p"*i"tfarly
the
igreat
ooda6
(Serahara)' or previous
;;;J;1"",
rro* th"
"t*
to the full moon of JuIv' the sight
i""ftg month,
after which Wassdna'
or the rainy season' of
four
"months,
begins'*
These procesoions
occur in history
so early as Fa Hian's time'
As-'respects
colour, the great colour was 66 (nila)the
colour of ihe.ky
and' ocean, andlike these' indeed' susceptible
of
-u.ry
sha,cles
from green to tlark blue; but commonly
tle-
roti"g ihi, lu.t, the colour of Yishnu's g1t*"11'.
It is to
.
this eilour allusion
is so often made in the descriptive writ-
i"St
"f
the Singhalese
poets; as whentheysing
the praises
oif""t, soft anal Leautiful
"
as the fuii blown |slu5"-_
ororO6 588
esd eeQeoc eq oo
komala
supipi sara saclisa pada &c'
So also, when they speak of
"
Iotus hair 1"
and the €6o
ar6 (nilangh6'ra),
ot blue ornament of dark eyes'
In like manner'
perhaps, we may reacl concerning Budha'
that he
"
opened
his lotus mouth "
ancl spoke-
gA 8gO otlcOccc
muwa
PiYuma PobaYa'
his mouth, lotus-like,
he openetl, his lips opening like the
opening lotus ! But by the phrase
"
lotus mouth "
gene-
rutty, {o
a@6 (mtnoa tambara), as an expressionof
beauty'
*"y b" intenclecl
the red lotus, anil lips recl with the betel
leaf, which is so commonly used anil so coveted by the natives
of all classes, that it miglit well give occasion to the name' as
a designation of the islanil <or€@ o&g] ( Tambra parnn'i)'
red. haj,whence the classic
appellation for Ceylon'
Taprobane'
*
Note T]ne Warsana orrainy
seasou of the civil or agricultural year is tlitrerent'
It is a portion of I1asnna, and consists of but two months' the time ofthe early
raing previous
to the sowing for the Maha harvest' so called' there being at tho
other equinox
g"Q<lQen
(medtnd'i,na), another, tue
c3G (yata) ot
faftha
ban-eFt.
hnown
among the Stnghalese'
79
Nila was thus perhaps
what may be calletl
the royal or
government
"olol,t,
uoi *o"lt
of that formation
may be so
derived.Therewasa69o0(nitame)orNil}emeatthe
ffi;f
several
of the departments'
I!
1as
the title usually
;;*;"
;"y high officiu], and it is still the title of the great
ifr".,
of government
in the TemPles'
The term
in question
may' I conceiYe' be so ren'lerecl
ac-
""t;l;r.
Thusl
when
the valiant Gaja bahu rajah' whose
"fty
t""i*"
the banquet
house of a great king' as his minis-
t"* igoo"uotly
representecl)
had been entered
by an €n€mlr
;;;
;;
"up,iu"'
taken,
at length resolveil
on an expetlition
;;.-;;
t"Joo""y,
he went oot f'om the council with
66
occlgccc
(neela y6d'ayd),
the gl*t-
1T",""..
of war'
These
words,
however,
ttuo" f,""o
t"ol"'"d
Neela the giant'and'
c'Lhe
great giant
fr{ssla"'--*
as if 69 were a proper name' and
not like Ega
(nitaya)
and
<ffeor
g1n;lototo)'
an office' place'
or situation.
Among
other
terms
of high
;-Pol'
$ $ree)
happy'
pros-
DeIouS,
was a distinguislred
one, ,od .oppou"d
eminently
due
il;;r;;,
*ri"
"r
vttu""'
the goilclest
o1tu" affections
ancl
ilt*..;;ommonly
knowu
!I"-" -bt..*oe
name
of Sree
lt"i*"iu"t'6'wa
(Ciough'
uoce Lakshmi)
or' as \Ye sometimes
find it, Siri l{ata,
thJ hicLy
lass ! The virtuous
queen
Lelavaty,
who
is feigned
by tl".poet
as possessed
of the
situminaf
o' *i'hioglg"*'
u f'bolout
symbol
of grace and
beauty
known
io th"'E"tt
frorn the earliest
times' "
whi-
thersoever
it turneth'
it prosperethilPt:*
xvii' 8-is
repre-
sentecl
as the very
i*;;
a"d
reali'ation
of this
god<Iess'
"Ji,.:;;
; oo"" th"
hea'ts
and minds
of all'
eesd
86 earsr
8e8<vl
pE o-el oen
qles|oo5
pasak
siri kata
'iit"ti"
*lrlrr
lo man&
nurYangat
She
is also called'
Iltijeyasree
(Clough
'
sub aoce) from the
conqueror
of that
o**""'"
th" Ieacler
of the gteat Budhist
r
Seethc
tr'riend for Sept'
1839' and the sidath sangarawa
by 1\[r' Alwis' p' 6vii'
t
otirurris.
vritten
I d
or Oc e51coxoc (chi'nta manihyaya)'
80 Forms
of Salutation and Address
settlemmt which
had the effect of driving into
the jungle,
the
suake and demou tribes inhabiting the island, and proved.
the
foundation of a new aud powerful dynasty, the Singhalese,
so called from the singha or lion-like character
of the con-
queror, or his uythological origin.
The eame term became also the designation
of the lan-
guage: what the name was previously does not appear, any
more than the national name of the subdued tribes.
They
were the Yakhos of Lanka, and their language
wae the
language of the Yakhos. In point of fact, however, it cer-
tainly forrns aconstituentpart
of the Singhalese
;
and,juilging
from analogy, the continued. existence of suchisprobably
due
to some aborigindl element in the population,
which it
wouid
be interesting statistically to i:rvestigate.
,Srz was the afffx of royalty, and
$
(,Sree) the signature
or
sign manual to royal grants and sannases.
See Armour,s
Kandy Law. Ceylon was
$goeoc8occ
(Bn Lanka Dwtpa),
and Adam's Peak
$
ocg.c ( Sri padayal the prosperous footstep,
the prosperous Lauka; ancl sometimes also the epithet wae be-
stowecl both on temples
and inclividuals,
the prosperity
intendeil in all these and the like cases being Budhist pros-
perity, that ig to Bay, the result of what they call
-erit;
u,s
in Budha'e epithet
i88od,
(Sirigan),
fiiled
with prospeity
!
which is the salutation in the Rajawaliya,
enO$aenrco
(nanmsrtghanaya),
and the Scelalihini Sandese,oe
$6doc
(nama sree ghanaya),
or as it is expressed. in the Guttile
.
Jataka, in that extatie way in which Budha
appears always
to be spoken of,
€cc 8<sl 88ed esdu
Siya pin sirin sar&e
prosperous tn prosperity
from
his oun merit !
merit
and prosperity standing with the Budhist, in the rela-
tion
of cause
and effedt.
There
are several
modes of reverence or obeisance among
the Singhalese,
the shoes also off:-placing
the right haml on
hnoton among
the Stnghalese,
8l
the breast,
and.bowing; joining
the hands, raising theql
thus to the forehead and bowing; falling on the knees,
auil
so doing;
and prostration
on the face upon the ground.
-
fn
this last, the g'reat prostration,
when made
to Budha,
the whole body
must in a man,er
touch the ground. This
ex-
treme measure
of subjection
may have been effected by the
pi'iesthood.
But perhaps it
was not difficult to accomplish
among a prefisposed
people;
other circumstances
besides their
books, all tending
to an adoration
of Budha, and,his three
helps
toBadhic
merit :-his relics, his doctrines, andhispriests.
'l
I
Rock
Inscriptions.
By L. O. Bnonru, Esg.
I have
the pleasure
to transmit
copies of two Rock fn-
scriptions
from
this District.
The first
of these is at Koodawewe
of
palligame
in
paria-
rville Pattoo.
It is engraved
on a rock about. fourteen
miles
south-east
of Putlam,
and a few hundred yards north
of the
Kurnegalle
road at Tohneegalle.
,
Lf
a+Xtr\L (,^CfU+NA\16
U[?n'f+
xN6Aa3*3rn^g
1.,5
AFAF
Frir
Af
&Y
Vt*tflA,f
rHq
j-L,oAHq,_Lrt
l+dM,P4q+^t+J
bAV+
F
".t
Qi|, F U+
KlKl,1
f,-trllt tr
g,r,\,flr^\
d
I
fff
l
f
Kooilawerve is about a mile
to the west of Parmakande
(rvhence f procured valious iuscriptio4s
whic\ on a former
occasion, Ihadthehonour
to bring
tothtotice of the
Society),
and. five orsix milestothe so'th
of
Ahtheekoolum,
where
theie
TOL.
II
80 Forms
of Salutation and Address
settlemmt which
had the effect of driving into
the jungle,
the
suake and demou tribes inhabiting the island, and proved.
the
foundation of a new aud powerful dynasty, the Singhalese,
so called from the singha or lion-like character
of the con-
queror, or his uythological origin.
The eame term became also the designation
of the lan-
guage: what the name was previously does not appear, any
more than the national name of the subdued tribes.
They
were the Yakhos of Lanka, and their language
wae the
language of the Yakhos. In point of fact, however, it cer-
tainly forrns aconstituentpart
of the Singhalese
;
and,juilging
from analogy, the continued. existence of suchisprobably
due
to some aborigindl element in the population,
which it
wouid
be interesting statistically to i:rvestigate.
,Srz was the afffx of royalty, and
$
(,Sree) the signature
or
sign manual to royal grants and sannases.
See Armour,s
Kandy Law. Ceylon was
$goeoc8occ
(Bn Lanka Dwtpa),
and Adam's Peak
$
ocg.c ( Sri padayal the prosperous footstep,
the prosperous Lauka; ancl sometimes also the epithet wae be-
stowecl both on temples
and inclividuals,
the prosperity
intendeil in all these and the like cases being Budhist pros-
perity, that ig to Bay, the result of what they call
-erit;
u,s
in Budha'e epithet
i88od,
(Sirigan),
fiiled
with prospeity
!
which is the salutation in the Rajawaliya,
enO$aenrco
(nanmsrtghanaya),
and the Scelalihini Sandese,oe
$6doc
(nama sree ghanaya),
or as it is expressed. in the Guttile
.
Jataka, in that extatie way in which Budha
appears always
to be spoken of,
€cc 8<sl 88ed esdu
Siya pin sirin sar&e
prosperous tn prosperity
from
his oun merit !
merit
and prosperity standing with the Budhist, in the rela-
tion
of cause
and effedt.
There
are several
modes of reverence or obeisance among
the Singhalese,
the shoes also off:-placing
the right haml on
hnoton among
the Stnghalese,
8l
the breast,
and.bowing; joining
the hands, raising theql
thus to the forehead and bowing; falling on the knees,
auil
so doing;
and prostration
on the face upon the ground.
-
fn
this last, the g'reat prostration,
when made
to Budha,
the whole body
must in a man,er
touch the ground. This
ex-
treme measure
of subjection
may have been effected by the
pi'iesthood.
But perhaps it
was not difficult to accomplish
among a prefisposed
people;
other circumstances
besides their
books, all tending
to an adoration
of Budha, and,his three
helps
toBadhic
merit :-his relics, his doctrines, andhispriests.
'l
I
Rock
Inscriptions.
By L. O. Bnonru, Esg.
I have
the pleasure
to transmit
copies of two Rock fn-
scriptions
from
this District.
The first
of these is at Koodawewe
of
palligame
in
paria-
rville Pattoo.
It is engraved
on a rock about. fourteen
miles
south-east
of Putlam,
and a few hundred yards north
of the
Kurnegalle
road at Tohneegalle.
,
Lf
a+Xtr\L (,^CfU+NA\16
U[?n'f+
xN6Aa3*3rn^g
1.,5
AFAF
Frir
Af
&Y
Vt*tflA,f
rHq
j-L,oAHq,_Lrt
l+dM,P4q+^t+J
bAV+
F
".t
Qi|, F U+
KlKl,1
f,-trllt tr
g,r,\,flr^\
d
I
fff
l
f
Kooilawerve is about a mile
to the west of Parmakande
(rvhence f procured valious iuscriptio4s
whic\ on a former
occasion, Ihadthehonour
to bring
tothtotice of the
Society),
and. five orsix milestothe so'th
of
Ahtheekoolum,
where
theie
TOL.
II

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