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P Pr ro oc ce es ss s M Mo od de el ll li in ng g & & S Si im mu ul la at ti io on n 3 31 14 4

ASSIGNMENT 2

Key information

Due date: Wednesday 8 May 2013 by 12 noon

Grouping: The assignment should be done in groups of three. You’ll be randomly allocated to a

group, different from that for Assignment 1. You can see your group partners and

make contact with them via Blackboard (Bentley) or Moodle (Miri).

Submission: Bentley students, please submit your assignment through the Assignments Office

using the Assignment 2 coversheet. Miri students, please refer to instructions on

Moodle. Typing many symbols and drawing complex diagrams in software can be

time consuming, so neatly handwritten text and neatly hand-drawn diagrams are

acceptable. Please keep a copy of your report.

Assessment: Your assignment will be given a group mark that is modified by peer assessment;

that is, your other group members will be asked to rate your relative contribution to

the assignment and it will affect the individual mark you receive. Instructions for

conducting the peer assessment will be given on Blackboard (Bentley) and Moodle

(Miri).

Weighting: This assignment is worth 10% of the overall mark for the unit.

Format: A formal report format, with Summary, Table of Contents, etc., is not needed for this

assignment, and won’t be given extra marks. Please just present the answers to the

questions. Marks won’t be allocated to any work that is illegible or cannot be readily

understood.

Overview

This assignment focuses on step 5 of the systematic modelling procedure: solving the model

equations. The procedure was outlined in Lecture 2, and is discussed more extensively in Chapter 2

of the unit’s textbook, Hangos and Cameron (2001). The assignment contains two questions that

follow on from Assignment 1 and all group members are asked to be involved with both questions.

Reference

Hangos, K.M. and I.T. Cameron. 2001. Process Modelling and Model Analysis. London: Academic

Press.

Page 2

Question 1: Analysis of the buffer tank model for solution purposes

One interpretation of the model for the buffer tank problem in Question 1 of Assignment 1 is given

in Appendix A, along with its variable definitions.

Deliverables

For your assignment, please include the following:

(a) Classify the model variables into states, constants, parameters and algebraics. [5 marks]

(b) Perform a degrees of freedom analysis. Determine the number of variables that need to be

specified. Choose a suitable specification. [5 marks]

(c) Draw an incidence matrix for the algebraic equations and unknown algebraic variables.

Perform an assignment. Assess whether the specification has lead to a high index problem. If

it has, revise your specification from part (b) and redo part (c). Briefly indicate how you

checked the assignment and how you assessed the index. [15 marks]

(d) Apply the Sargent-Westerberg algorithm to deduce the equation partitions and precedence

order for a structured approach to the model solution (DAE method 3 from Lecture 6 and

Tutorial 6). Clearly show the steps involved as you apply the algorithm and write a very brief

explanation of each step, as demonstrated in Lecture 6 and Worksheet 6. [15 marks]

(e) Clearly interpret the outcome of the Sargent-Westerberg algorithm in terms of the order in

which the equations are to be solved and the variables to be calculated from each equation

or set of equations. Clearly indicate if simultaneous solution of any equations is needed.

[5 marks]

TOTAL for Question 1 is 45 marks.

Page 3

Question 2: Numerical solution of steriliser model

This question involves implementing a numerical solution for one version of the model of the

steriliser described in Question 2 of Assignment 1. The model is given in Appendix B and the values

of the model’s constants, parameters, specified variables and initial conditions are given below. The

water mass flowrate and supply temperature are given as functions of time in the m-file

watercontrol.m on Blackboard, and can be evaluated by [ mdot w, Twi ] = wat er cont r ol ( t ) .

Variable Value Variable Value

D

s

1.2 m E 78000 J/gmol

H

s

1.4 m R 8.314 J/(gmol.K)

D

c

0.015 m U 350 W/(m

2

.°C)

L

c

300 m ṁ

w

Given in kg/s as a function of time (s) in watercontrol.m

ρ

s

1100 kg/m

3

T

wi

Given in °C as a function of time (s) in watercontrol.m

ρ

w

990 kg/m

3

t

f

4×3600 s = 4 h (final simulation time)

c

ps

1400 J/(kg.°C) n

init

1×10

7

no./m

3

c

pw

4270 J/(kg.°C) T

s init

35°C

k

0

3×10

8

s

–1

T

w init

35°C

It is suggested that you implement the solution using DAE method 3, which involves rearranging and

ordering the algebraic equations so that they can be solved sequentially; however, you can use DAE

method 4 if you wish. If you choose method 3, you can order the equations intuitively – you do not

have to use the Sargent-Westerberg algorithm and do not need to show any working.

Deliverables

For your assignment, please include the following:

(a) A printout

1

of each m-file with the filename clearly shown. Marks will be given for:

• Correctness of the programming [20 marks]

• Use of good programming practices [10 marks]

• Program clarity, including the use of comments [5 marks]

(b) Well-presented Matlab plots of the number of live microorganisms per unit volume (n) and

the temperature (T

s

) of the steriliser as functions of time in hours. Please also report the

final values of n and T

s

. [10 marks]

(c) Use appropriate verification practices to check that your results are a correct solution for the

equations and variable values provided, as outlined in Step 6 of the modelling procedure

from Lecture 2. Briefly describe each verification check performed and show evidence of it,

such as summary tables, sections of Matlab code, graphs and so on. [10 marks]

TOTAL for Question 2 is 55 marks.

Ver 1.1 (24/4/2013)

1

If you are presenting your m-files in a Word document, please copy the code directly from the Matlab Editor

Window, paste it into Word, and if needed change the font to 10 point Courier New.

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