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Section 14. Who may apply. The following persons may file in the proper Court of First Instance an
application for registration of title to land, whether personally or through their duly authorized
(! Those who "y themselves or through their predecessors#in#interest have "een in open,
continuous, e$clusive and notorious possession and occupation of aliena"le and disposa"le
lands of the pu"lic domain under a "ona fide claim of ownership since %une &, '(), or earlier.
(&! Those who have ac*uired ownership of private lands "y prescription under the provision of
e$isting laws.
(+! Those who have ac*uired ownership of private lands or a"andoned river "eds "y right of
accession or accretion under the e$isting laws.
((! Those who have ac*uired ownership of land in any other manner provided for "y law.
Where the land is owned in common, all the co#owners shall file the application ,ointly.
Where the land has "een sold under pacto de retro, the vendor a retro may file an application for the
original registration of the land, provided, however, that should the period for redemption e$pire during
the pendency of the registration proceedings and ownership to the property consolidated in the vendee
a retro, the latter shall "e su"stituted for the applicant and may continue the proceedings.
- trustee on "ehalf of his principal may apply for original registration of any land held in trust "y him,
unless prohi"ited "y the instrument creating the trust.
Section 15. Form and contents. The application for land registration shall "e in writing, signed "y the
application or the person duly authorized in his "ehalf, and sworn to "efore any officer authorized to
administer oaths for the province or city where the application was actually signed. If there is more
than one applicant, the application shall "e signed and sworn to "y and in "ehalf of each. The
application shall contain a description of the land and shall state the citizenship and civil status of the
applicant, whether single or married, and, if married, the name of the wife or hus"and, and, if the
marriage has "een legally dissolved, when and how the marriage relation terminated. It shall also state
the full names and addresses of all occupants of the land and those of the ad,oining owners, if .nown,
and, if not .nown, it shall state the e$tent of the search made to find them.
The application, shall, in form, "e su"stantially as follows:
/epu"lic of the 0hilippines
Court of First Instance of 11111111111111111
The undersigned, 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111here"y
applies (or apply! to have the land hereinafter descri"ed "rought under the operation of the 0roperty
/egistration 2ecree, and to have the title thereto registered and confirmed:
-32 24C5-/4 . . . . .
. That the applicants6s is6are the owners of the land ("y virtue of inheritance or deed of sale or
conveyance and6or possession in accordance with 7ection ( of said 2ecree!, together with the
"uilding and improvements thereon, with the e$ception of the
which is6are the property of 1111111111111111111111111 residing at
1111111111111111111111111 The said land, consisting of 11111111111111111111 parcel6s
is6are situated, "ounded and descri"ed as shown on the plan and technical descriptions attached
hereto and made a part hereof, with the following
&. That said land at the last assessment for ta$ation was assessed at 0 1111, 0hilippine currency,
and the "uildings and other improvements at 0 11111111111, 0hilippine currency.
+. That to the "est of my6our .nowledge and "elief, there is no mortgage or encum"rance of any
.ind whatsoever affecting said land, nor any other person having any interest therein, legal or
e*uita"le, or in possession, other than as follows:
(. That the applicant6s has6have ac*uired said land in the following manner:
(3ote: /efer to 7ec. ( of said 2ecree. 7tate also whether the property is con,ugal, paraphernal
or e$clusive property of the applicant6s!
). That said land is occupied "y the following person: 11111111111111111111111111111
8. That the names in full and addresses, as far as .nown to the undersigned, of the owners of all
ad,oining properties, of the persons mentioned in paragraphs + and ), and of the persons shown
on the plan as claimants, are as follows:
9. That the applicant6s is6are single or married to 11111111111111111111 (3ote: if marriage
has "een legally dissolved, state when and how the marriage relation
:. That the applicant;s6s; full name, age, citizenship, residence, and postal address6es is6are as
follows: 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
'. That (3ote: If the land included in the application is "ounded "y a pu"lic or private way or
road, there should "e stated in this paragraph whether or not the applicant claims any and what
land within the limits of the way or road and whether the applicant desires to have the line of
the way or road determined.! 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111
<. That the following documents are attached hereto and made a part hereof:
11111111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111
7igned at 1111111111111111111 this 111111111111111111111 day of
11111111111111111111, in the year nineteen hundred and 1111111111111111111111.
(0ost =ffice -ddress!
/40>?5IC =F T@4 0@I5I00I347
0/=AI3C4 (=/ CITB! =F 111111111111111
=n this 111111111111111 day of 1111111111111111111111111,' 11111111 personally
appeared "efore me the a"ove# named
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 .nown to me to "e the person6s
who e$ecuted the foregoing application and made oath that the statements therein are true of
his6their .nowledge, information and "elief.
The /esidence Certificate6s 1111111111111111111111 of the applicant6s 11111111111111
was6were e$hi"ited to me "eing 3o. 11111111111111111 issued at 1111111111111111111
dated 111111111111, ' 1111111111.

(3otary 0u"lic, or other
authorized to administer
0T/ 3=.
Section 16. Non-resident applicant. If the applicant is not a resident of the 0hilippines, he shall file
with his application an instrument in due form appointing an agent or representative residing in the
0hilippines, giving his full name and postal address, and shall therein agree that the service of any legal
process in the proceedings under or growing out of the application made upon his agent or
representative shall "e of the same legal effect as if made upon the applicant within the 0hilippines. If
the agent or representative dies, or leaves the 0hilippines, the applicant shall forthwith ma.e another
appointment for the su"stitute, and, if he fails to do so the court may dismiss the application.
Section 17. What and where to file. The application for land registration shall "e filed with the Court of
First Instance of the province or city where the land is situated. The applicant shall file together with
the application all original muniments of titles or copies thereof and a survey plan of the land approved
"y the ?ureau of 5ands.
The cler. of court shall not accept any application unless it is shown that the applicant has furnished
the 2irector of 5ands with a copy of the application and all anne$es.
Section 18. Application covering two or more parcels. -n application may include two or more parcels
of land "elonging to the applicant6s provided they are situated within the same province or city. The
court may at any time order an application to "e amended "y out one or more of the parcels or
"y a severance of the application.
Section 19. Amendments. -mendments to the application including ,oinder, su"stitution, or
discontinuance as to parties may "e allowed "y the court at any stage of the proceedings upon ,ust and
reasona"le terms.
-mendments which shall consist in a su"stantial change in the "oundaries or an increase in area of the
land applied for or which involve the inclusion of an additional land shall "e su",ect to the same
re*uirements of pu"lication and notice as in an original application.
Section 2. When land applied for borders on road. If the application descri"es the land as "ounded "y
a pu"lic or private way or road, it shall state whether or not the applicant claims any and what portion
of the land within the limits of the way or road, and whether the applicant desires to have the line of the
way or road determined.
Section 21. Requirement of additional facts and papers; ocular inspection. The court may re*uire facts
to "e stated in the application in addition to those prescri"ed "y this 2ecree not inconsistent therewith
and may re*uire the filing of any additional paper. It may also conduct an ocular inspection, if
Section 22. Dealings with land pending original registration. -fter the filing of the application and
"efore the issuance of the decree of registration, the land therein descri"ed may still "e the su",ect of
dealings in whole or in part, in which case the interested party shall present to the court the pertinent
instruments together with a su"division plan approved "y the 2irector of 5ands in case of transfer of
portions thereof and the court, after notice to the parties, shall order such land registered su",ect to the
conveyance or encum"rance created "y said instruments, or order that the decree of registration "e
issued in the name of the person to whom the property has "een conveyed "y said instruments.
Section 2%. 3otice of initial hearing, pu"lication, etc. The court shall, within five days from filing of
the application, issue an order setting the date and hour of the initial hearing which shall not "e earlier
than forty#five days nor later than ninety days from the date of the order.
The pu"lic shall "e given notice of the initial hearing of the application for land registration "y means
of (! pu"licationC (&! mailingC and (+! posting.
. ?y pu"lication.
>pon receipt of the order of the court setting the time for initial hearing, the Commissioner of
5and /egistration shall cause notice of initial hearing to "e pu"lished once in the =fficial
Dazette and once in a newspaper of general circulation in the 0hilippines: 0rovided, however,
that the pu"lication in the =fficial Dazette shall "e sufficient to confer ,urisdiction upon the
court. 7aid notice shall "e addressed to all persons appearing to have an interest in the land
involved including the ad,oining owners so far as .nown, and Eto all whom it may concernE.
7aid notice shall also re*uire all persons concerned to appear in court at a certain date and time
to show cause why the prayer of said application shall not "e granted.
&. ?y mailing.
(a! Failing of notice to persons named in the application. The Commissioner of 5and
/egistration shall also, within seven days after pu"lication of said notice in the =fficial
Dazette, as herein"efore provided, cause a copy of the notice of initial hearing to "e
mailed to every person named in the notice whose address is .nown.
("! Failing of notice to the 7ecretary of 0u"lic @ighways, the 0rovincial Dovernor and
the Fayor. If the applicant re*uests to have the line of a pu"lic way or road determined,
the Commissioner of 5and /egistration shall cause a copy of said notice of initial
hearing to "e mailed to the 7ecretary of 0u"lic @ighways, to the 0rovincial Dovernor,
and to the Fayor of the municipality or city, as the case may "e, in which the land lies.
(c! Failing of notice to the 7ecretary of -grarian /eform, the 7olicitor Deneral, the
2irector of 5ands, the 2irector of 0u"lic Wor.s, the 2irector of Forest 2evelopment, the
2irector of Fines and the 2irector of Fisheries and -*uatic /esources. If the land
"orders on a river, naviga"le stream or shore, or on an arm of the sea where a river or
har"or line has "een esta"lished, or on a la.e, or if it otherwise appears from the
application or the proceedings that a tenant#farmer or the national government may have
a claim adverse to that of the applicant, notice of the initial hearing shall "e given in the
same manner to the 7ecretary of -grarian /eform, the 7olicitor Deneral, the 2irector of
5ands, the 2irector of Fines and6or the 2irector of Fisheries and -*uatic /esources, as
may "e appropriate.
+. ?y posting.
The Commissioner of 5and /egistration shall also cause a duly attested copy of the notice of
initial hearing to "e posted "y the sheriff of the province or city, as the case may "e, or "y his
deputy, in a conspicuous place on each parcel of land included in the application and also in a
conspicuous place on the "ulletin "oard of the municipal "uilding of the municipality or city in
which the land or portion thereof is situated, fourteen days at least "efore the date of initial
The court may also cause notice to "e served to such other persons and in such manner as it may
deem proper.
The notice of initial hearing shall, in form, "e su"stantially as follows:
(Caption and Title!
3=TIC4 =F I3ITI-5 @4-/I3D
To (here insert the names of all persons appearing to have an interest and the ad,oining owners so far as
.nown, and to all whom it may concern!:
-n application (or petition! having "een filed in the a"ove#entitled case "y (full name and address!
praying for the registration and confirmation (or for the settlement and ad,udication, in case of petition
in cadastral proceedings! of title to the following descri"ed lands:
(Insert description!
Bou are here"y served this notice to appear "efore this Court at its session to "e held at
11111111111111111 on the 11111111111111 day of 111111111111111, ' 111111, at
1111111111111 o;cloc. in the 111111111 then and there to present such claims as you may have to
said lands or any portion thereof, and to su"mit evidence in support of such claimC and unless you
appear at said Court at the time and place aforesaid, your default will "e recorded and the title to the
lands will "e ad,udicated and determined in accordance with law and the evidence "efore the Court,
and thereafter you will forever "e "arred from contesting said application (or petition! or any decree
entered thereon.
Witness, the @on. 111111111111111111111111 %udge of the Court of First Instance of 1111111 this
1111111 day of 11111111111111111, in the year '111111.
Commissioner of 5and /egistration
Section 24. roof of publication and notice. The certification of the Commissioner of 5and
/egistration and of the sheriff concerned to the effect that the notice of initial hearing, as re*uired "y
law, has "een complied with shall "e filed in the case "efore the date of initial hearing, and shall "e
conclusive proof of such fact.
Section 25. !pposition to application in ordinar" proceedings. -ny person claiming an interest,
whether named in the notice or not, may appear and file an opposition on or "efore the date of initial
hearing, or within such further time as may "e allowed "y the court. The opposition shall state all the
o",ections to the application and shall set forth the interest claimed "y the party filing the same and
apply for the remedy desired, and shall "e signed and sworn to "y him or "y some other duly
authorized person.
If the opposition or the adverse claim of any person covers only a portion of the lot and said portion is
not properly delimited on the plan attached to the application, or in case of undivided co#ownership,
conflicting claims of ownership or possession, or overlapping of "oundaries, the court may re*uire the
parties to su"mit a su"division plan duly approved "y the 2irector of 5ands.
Section 26. !rder of default; effect. If no person appears and answers within the time allowed, the
court shall, upon motion of the applicant, no reason to the contrary appearing, order a default to "e
recorded and re*uire the applicant to present evidence. ?y the description in the notice ETo all Whom It
Fay ConcernE, all the world are made parties defendant and shall "e concluded "y the default order.
Where an appearance has "een entered and an answer filed, a default order shall "e entered against
persons who did not appear and answer.
Section 27. #peed" hearing; reference to a referee. The trial court shall see to it that all registration#
proceedings are disposed or within ninety days from the date the case is su"mitted for decision,
The Court, if it deems necessary, may refer the case or any part thereof to a referee who shall hear the
parties and their evidence, and the referee shall su"mit his report thereon to the Court within fifteen
days after the termination of such hearing. @earing "efore a referee may "e held at any convenient
place within the province or city as may "e fi$ed "y him and after reasona"le notice thereof shall have
"een served the parties concerned. The court may render ,udgment in accordance with the report as
though the facts have "een found "y the ,udge himself: 0rovided, however, that the court may in its
discretion accept the report, or set it aside in whole or in part, or order the case to "e recommitted for
further proceedings:
Section 28. artial $udgment. In a case where only a portion of the land su",ect of registration is
contested, the court may render partial ,udgment provided that a su"division plan showing the
contested and uncontested portions approved "y the 2irector of 5ands is previously su"mitted to said
Section 29. %udgment confirming title. -ll conflicting claims of ownership and interest in the land
su",ect of the application shall "e determined "y the court. If the court, after considering the evidence
and the reports of the Commissioner of 5and /egistration and the 2irector of 5ands, finds that the
applicant or the oppositor has sufficient title proper for registration, ,udgment shall "e rendered
confirming the title of the applicant, or the oppositor, to the land or portions thereof.
Section %. When $udgment becomes final; dut" to cause issuance of decree. The ,udgment rendered in
a land registration proceedings "ecomes final upon the e$piration of thirty days to "e counted from the
data of receipt of notice of the ,udgment. -n appeal may "e ta.en from the ,udgment of the court as in
ordinary civil cases.
-fter ,udgment has "ecome final and e$ecutory, it shall devolve upon the court to forthwith issue an
order in accordance with 7ection +' of this 2ecree to the Commissioner for the issuance of the decree
of registration and the corresponding certificate of title in favor of the person ad,udged entitled to
Section %1. Decree of registration. 4very decree of registration issued "y the Commissioner shall "ear
the date, hour and minute of its entry, and shall "e signed "y him. It shall state whether the owner is
married or unmarried, and if married, the name of the hus"and or wife: 0rovided, however, that if the
land ad,udicated "y the court is con,ugal property, the decree shall "e issued in the name of "oth
spouses. If the owner is under disa"ility, it shall state the nature of disa"ility, and if a minor, his age. It
shall contain a description of the land as finally determined "y the court, and shall set forth the estate of
the owner, and also, in such manner as to show their relative priorities, all particular estates, mortgages,
easements, liens, attachments, and other encum"rances, including rights of tenant#farmers, if any, to
which the land or owner;s estate is su",ect, as well as any other matters properly to "e determined in
pursuance of this 2ecree.
The decree of registration shall "ind the land and *uiet title thereto, su",ect only to such e$ceptions or
liens as may "e provided "y law. It shall "e conclusive upon and against all persons, including the
3ational Dovernment and all "ranches thereof, whether mentioned "y name in the application or
notice, the same "eing included in the general description ETo all whom it may concernE.
Section %2. Review of decree of registration; &nnocent purchaser for value. The decree of registration
shall not "e reopened or revised "y reason of a"sence, minority, or other disa"ility of any person
adversely affected there"y, nor "y any proceeding in any court for reversing ,udgments, su",ect,
however, to the right of any person, including the government and the "ranches thereof, deprived of
land or of any estate or interest therein "y such ad,udication or confirmation of title o"tained "y actual
fraud, to file in the proper Court of First Instance a petition for reopening and review of the decree of
registration not later than one year from and after the date of the entry of such decree of registration,
"ut in no case shall such petition "e entertained "y the court where an innocent purchaser for value has
ac*uired the land or an interest therein, whose rights may "e pre,udiced. Whenever the phrase
Einnocent purchaser for valueE or an e*uivalent phrase occurs in this 2ecree, it shall "e deemed to
include an innocent lessee, mortgagee, or other encum"rancer for value.
>pon the e$piration of said period of one year, the decree of registration and the certificate of title
issued shall "ecome incontroverti"le. -ny person aggrieved "y such decree of registration in any case
may pursue his remedy "y action for damages against the applicant or any other persons responsi"le for
the fraud.
Section %%. -ppeal from ,udgment, etc. The ,udgment and orders of the court hearing the land
registration case are appeala"le to the Court of -ppeals or to the 7upreme Court in the same manner as
in ordinary actions:
Section %4. Rules of procedure. The /ules of Court shall, insofar as not inconsistent with the provision
of this 2ecree, "e applica"le to land registration and cadastral cases "y analogy or in a suppletory
character and whenever practica"le and convenient.
Section %5. 'adastral #urve" preparator" to filing of petition.
(a! When in the opinion of the 0resident of the 0hilippines pu"lic interest so re*uires that title to
any unregistered lands "e settled and ad,udicated, he may to this end direct and order the
2irector of 5ands to cause to "e made a cadastral survey of the lands involved and the plans and
technical description thereof prepared in due form.
("! Thereupon, the 2irector of 5ands shall give notice to persons claiming any interest in the
lands as well as to the general pu"lic, of the day on which such survey will "egin, giving as
fully and accurately as possi"le the description of the lands to "e surveyed. 7uch notice shall "e
punished once in the =fficial Dazette, and a copy of the notice in 4nglish or the national
language shall "e posted in a conspicuous place on the "ulletin "oard of the municipal "uilding
of the municipality in which the lands or any portion thereof is situated. - copy of the notice
shall also "e sent to the mayor of such municipality as well as to the "arangay captain and
li.ewise to the 7angguniang 0anlalawigan and the 7angguniang ?ayan concerned.
(c! The Deodetic 4ngineers or other employees of the ?ureau of 5ands in charge of the survey
shall give notice reasona"ly in advance of the date on which the survey of any portion of such
lands is to "egin, which notice shall "e posted in the "ulletin "oard of the municipal "uilding of
the municipality or "arrio in which the lands are situated, and shall mar. the "oundaries of the
lands "y monuments set up in proper places thereon. It shall "e lawful for such Deodetic
4ngineers and other employees to enter upon the lands whenever necessary for the purposes of
such survey or the placing of monuments.
(d! It shall "e the duty of every person claiming an interest in the lands to "e surveyed, or in any
parcel thereof, to communicate with the Deodetic 4ngineer upon his re*uest therefor all
information possessed "y such person concerning the "oundary lines of any lands to which he
claims title or in which he claims any interest.
(e! -ny person who shall willfully o"struct the of any survey underta.en "y the ?ureau
of 5ands or "y a licensed Deodetic 4ngineer duly authorized to conduct the survey under this
7ection, or shall maliciously interfere with the placing of any monument or remove such
monument, or shall destroy or remove any notice of survey posted on the land pursuant to law,
shall "e punished "y a fine of not more than one thousand pesos or "y imprisonment for not
more than one year, or "oth.
Section %6. etition for registration. When the lands have "een surveyed or plotted, the 2irector of
5ands, represented "y the 7olicitor Deneral, shall institute original registration proceedings "y filing
the necessary petition in the Court of First Instance of the place where the land is situated against the
holders, claimants, possessors, or occupants of such lands or any part thereof, stating in su"stance that
pu"lic interest re*uires that the title to such lands "e settled and ad,udicated and praying that such titles
"e so settled and ad,udicated:
The petition shall contain a description of the lands and shall "e accompanied "y a plan thereof, and
may contain such other data as may serve to furnish full notice to the occupants of the lands and to all
persons who may claim any right or interest therein.
Where the land consists of two or more parcels held or occupied "y different persons, the plan shall
indicate the "oundaries or limits of the various parcels as accurately as possi"le. The parcels shall "e
.nown as ElotsE and shall on the plan filed in the case "e given separate num"ers "y the 2irector of
5ands, which num"ers shall "e .nown as Ecadastral lot num"ersE. The lots situated within each
municipality shall, as far as practica"le, "e num"ered consecutively "eginning with num"er EoneE, and
only one series of num"ers shall "e used for that purpose in each municipality. @owever in cities or
townsites, a designation of the landholdings "y "loc.s and lot num"ers may "e employed instead of the
designation "y cadastral lot num"ers.
The cadastral num"er of a lot shall not "e changed after final decision has "een entered decreasing the
registration thereof, e$cept "y order of court. Future su"divisions of any lot shall "e designated "y a
letter or letters of the alpha"et added to the cadastral num"er of the lot to which the respective
su"divisions pertain. The letter with which a su"division is designated shall "e .nown as its Ecadastral
letterE: 0rovided, however, that the su"divisions of cities or townsites may "e designated "y "loc.s and
lot num"ers.
Section %7. Answer to petition in cadastral proceedings. -ny claimant in cadastral proceedings,
whether named in the notice or not, shall appear "efore the court "y himself or "y some other
authorized person in his "ehalf, and shall file an answer on or "efore the date of initial hearing or
within such further time as may "e allowed "y the court. The answer shall "e signed and sworn to "y
the claimant or "y some other authorized person in his "ehalf, and shall state whether the claimant is
married or unmarried, and if married, the name of the spouse and the date of marriage, his nationality,
residence and postal address, and shall also contain:
(a! The age of the claimantC
("! The cadastral num"er of the lot or lots claimed, as appearing on the plan filed in the case "y
the 2irector of 5ands, or the "loc. and lot num"ers, as the case may "eC
(c! The name of the "arrio and municipality in which the lots are situatedC
(d! The names and addresses of the owners of the ad,oining lots so far as .nown to the claimantC
(e! If the claimant is in possession of the lots claimed and can show no e$press grant of the land
"y the government to him or to his predecessors#in#interest, the answer shall state the length of
time he has held such possession and the manner in which it has "een ac*uired, and shall also
state the length of time, as far as .nown, during which the predecessors, if any, held possessionC
(f! If the claimant is not in possession or occupation of the land, the answer shall fully set forth
the interest claimed "y him and the time and manner of his ac*uisitionC
(g! if the lots have "een assessed for ta$ation, their last assessed valueC and
(h! The encum"rances, if any, affecting the lots and the names of adverse claimants, as far as
Section %8. (earing) %udgment) Decree. The trial of the case may occur at any convenient place within
the province in which the lands are situated and shall "e conducted, and orders for default and
confessions entered, in the same manner as in ordinary land registration proceedings and shall "e
governed "y the same rules. -ll conflicting interests shall "e ad,udicated "y the court and decrees
awarded in favor of the persons entitled to the lands or to parts thereof and such decrees shall "e the
"asis for issuance of original certificates of title in favor of said persons and shall have the same effect
as certificates of title granted on application for registration of land under ordinary land registration