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Engine systems

Page
2 The right partner – worldwide
18 Hydraulic valve lash adjustment
18 Example: Tappet
20 Hydraulic valve lash adjustment elements
20 Example: Tappet
22 Mechanical valve lash adjustment elements
22 Example: Tappet
24 Roller finger follower valve train components
24 Hydraulic valve lash adjustment
26 Rocker arm valve train components
26 Hydraulic valve lash adjustment
28 End pivot rocker arm valve train components
28 Hydraulic valve lash adjustment
30 OHV valve train components
30 Hydraulic valve lash adjustment
32 Crosshead valve train components
32 Hydraulic valve lash adjustment
34 Switchable valve lash adjustment elements
34 Example: Switchable tappet
36 Function: Switchable tappet
40 Chain drive systems
40 Chains, chain sprockets
40 Chain blades
40 Chain guides
42 Chain drive tensioners
44 Cam-cam tensioners
46 Belt drive systems
46 Primary drive
50 Accessory drives
56 Belt-driven starter generator drive RSG
58 Tensioning systems for RSG drives
60 Tension and idler pulleys for primary and accessory drives
62 Variable camshaft timing systems
62 System description
64 Solenoid valve MAGV
66 Variable camshaft timing system with helical splines for chain drive NWEK
68 Vane type variable camshaft timing system for chain drive NWFK
70 Vane type variable camshaft timing system for belt drive NWFR
72 REGE Motorenteile
72 Core product: cylinder heads
75 Addresses
75 Automotive Division
Contents
Engine systems
2
The right partner – WORLDWIDE
Engine systems are our business. We are a permanent partner to our customers,
from the planning stage right through to service. In short, we don’t just sell a
product, we offer complete solutions – WORLDWIDE.
More than 30 years ago, we set our focus on the international automotive market.
Today, we manufacture components and systems for valve trains, primary drives,
ancillary drives and variable camshaft timing systems in countries such as Brazil,
France, Britain, Germany, Romania, the USA, the Slovak Republic and the emerging
markets of China and Korea.
Thanks to our worldwide presence, we can assure you of our solid technical
expertise, comprehensive customer support, low logistical costs and reduced
currency risks.
It’s important to have the right partner:
■ A partner who knows your requirements and has a local presence.
■ A partner like Schaeffler KG – WORLDWIDE.
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The best solution
It all started with a vision – a vision from which we developed our components
for engine systems and which, over time, gained an outstanding reputation.
In partnership with vehicle manufacturers on every continent, we ensure that
■ Personal mobility,
■ Technical progress and
■ Ecological responsibility are in harmony:
This is equally true for the very economical 3-cylinder engine
and the high-capacity, high-performance 12-cylinder engine.
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Market – the number ONE
Principles must be proven time after time, solutions must be reviewed
in a critical light and reconsidered. That is our fundamental approach and
it is only in this way that innovations – such as our valve train components –
have been possible.
Our approach has made us a market leader:
■ WORLDWIDE – with a market share of over 30% for valve train components.
■ EUROPE – here we serve more than 50% of the market.
Together with our customers, we are already working on solutions
for the future to maintain that leadership.
We remain faithful to the proven principle:
■ Any result can, must and will be improved.
2004
33%
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World market situation
Competitor A
Competitor B
Others
Sales volume per year in millions
Quantity
Valve actuation elements
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Success requires knowledge
What began more than 30 years ago as a pioneering step with a small
group of people has now developed into a separate, major product line.
Accordingly, the number of employees has grown strongly.
In the areas of development and design in particular, we use our
best experts to develop ever more “intelligent” valvetrain systems.
We will of course continue to do so, in order to meet the increasingly
complex requirements of our customers and find solutions:
■ INA engineering services – with expertise, local to the customer
and always in the lead.
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Number of employees
Total employees Development employees Development employees Total employees
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Simulation model
Formerly, all design and testing work on the supplier’s products was carried
out at the premises of the automotive manufacturer. Nowadays, responsibility
for the component through to the complete control system lies with the supplier.
For this reason, the Schaeffler KG (developer of INA components) has a team
of highly qualified employees in the fields of development and design.
They ensure that products are designed to fulfill customer requirements –
starting with analysis and simulation, through testing to the application itself.
Demands on “intelligent” valve trains include:
■ Reduced noise
■ Reduced friction
■ Reduced exhaust emissions
■ Reduced fuel consumption.
The overall objective is:
■ Valve train systems with reduced mass but increased stiffness.
Our approach:
■ For optimum design of our engine systems, we use state of the art analysis
and simulation methods, including kinematic and kinetic calculations,
finite element analyses, topological optimization and dynamic simulations.
Example:
■ In order to verify the design of a rocker arm valve train, we analyse
the dynamic behavior with the aid of an equivalent Multi-Body-System
(see figure right).
Piston
Housing
Contact pad
Valve
Valve spring
Camshaft
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Test set up for dynamic measurement
Our engine components must fulfill customer requirements in relation
to function and reliability and must thus achieve the highest quality standard.
We therefore subject our products to the most thorough testing regime.
Here too, as in analysis and simulation we use the most advanced technology:
■ Engine test rigs, subassembly test rigs, pulsers and special equipment.
Example:
■ For dynamic measurement of valve trains, we use the most advanced
laser measuring technology (see figure right).
Measurement system
ᕌ Incremental encoder or clock/
measurement trigger
ᕃ Pressure in hydraulic element
ᕄ Valve lift
ᕅ Valve velocity
ᕆ Valve stem force
ᕇ Valve spring tension
Wheatstone full bridge
DC force amplifier
Instrumented load measuring
points
A
B
C
1 2 3 4 5 0
2
1
A B
C
2
A B
A B
F
y
C
C
Rotational angle generator
Data recorder
Laser vibrometer
Sensors
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Valve timing drives – the 1911 patent
The father of the hydraulic valve lash adjustment element, Walter Speil
1)
,
recalls aspects of the history of the internal combustion engine:
It was shortly after the invention of the internal combustion engine itself that
imaginative inventors focused their attention on gas exchange valve drives
controlled by cams. The Frenchman Amédée Bollee applied in 1911
for a patent for a valve timing drive that he had already designed as
a low-friction, maintenance-free system:
■ Cam tracking by roller bearing
■ Automatic, hydraulic valve lash compensation
■ Direct valve actuation
■ Camshaft driven direct via gear ratio reduction or short chain.
The grave disadvantage of this valve train arrangement was the so-called “L”
head engine design. The combustion chamber could not be arranged directly over
the piston but extended to the valve inlets located to the sides of the cylinders.
It was quickly recognized that irregularly shaped compression and combustion
chamber arrangements of this type allowed only moderate levels of combustion
efficiency. The combustion chambers had to be made more compact and arranged
so that they were only above the piston. This was how the “standing valves”
previously guided in the cylinder block came to be located in a “suspended”
arrangement in the cylinder head. The camshaft remained at its
original position in the cylinder block.
Next followed the OHV pushrod valve trains ... for the further development
of valve timing drives, see page 16.
Schaeffler KG
The engineers at Schaeffler KG (developer of INA products) were pioneers in the
market niche for low-maintenance valve trains in high-speed internal combustion
engines – with direct valve actuation by means of hydraulic tappets.
Our new concept passed its first test in 1974 when it was adopted by
Mercedes Benz for volume usage in the 8 cylinder engines for its luxury class
vehicles – principally because of the significantly lower exhaust emissions from
the lash-free valve train. At the same time, Porsche proved in preproduction tests
in a race car (917) that very high speeds could be achieved with our valve trains.
1) Active for many years as head of development for Schaeffler engine systems.
KLASSE 47g.
KAISERLICHES PATENTAMT.
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PATENTSCHRIFT
GRUPPE 43.
256641
AMÉDÉE BOLLEE FILS IN LE MANS. FRANKR.
Nockensteuerung für Ventile mit hydraulischer Kraftübertragung.
Patentiert im Deutschen Reiche vom 20. April 1911 ab.
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16
Valve timing drives – development
OHV pushrod drive
The picture section ᕃ shows this so-called OHV pushrod drive with the camshaft
located underneath. Many linking parts were required in order to transmit the cam
stroke to the valve – tappet, pushrod, rocker arm and rocker arm bearing support.
Further development involved ever-increasing speeds, but the engines were also
required to give higher performance within a lighter, more compact design.
Due to its only moderate overall rigidity, the OHV pushrod drive soon reached
the limits of its speed range. It was therefore necessary to reduce the number
of moving parts in the valve train.
Picture section ᕄ: The camshaft was relocated to the cylinder head,
thus eliminating the need for pushrods.
OHC valve train
Then came OHC (overhead camshaft) valve trains – these are valve trains
in which the camshaft is located overhead in the cylinder head.
Picture section ᕅ: In this OHC valve train, there is no tappet, the camshaft is
positioned higher up and the valve stroke can be transmitted
direct via roller/rocker arms.
Picture section ᕆ: This finger follower valve train is the most rigid design
of lever-based valve train.
Picture section ᕇ: OHC valve trains in which the valves are directly actuated
by means of tappets are suitable for very high speeds.
There is no need for rocker arms or finger followers
in this design.
All types of primary valve trains (picture sections ᕃ to ᕇ) are widely used in
engines manufactured in high volumes. The engineers must consider the main
focus of the design – power, torque, displacement, packaging, manufacturing
costs, etc. – and weigh the advantages and disadvantages before deciding on
a design. All valve trains from the pushrod drive to the compact OHC valve train
with directly actuated valves coexist for good reasons.
Hydraulic valve lash adjustment
Formerly, it was necessary to adjust the valve lash when the valve train was first
installed and subsequently at defined maintenance intervals by mechanical
means using adjustment screws or shims. Today, automatic hydraulic valve lash
adjustment has become well established. This means little variation in overlap of
valve lift curves over all operating cycles during the whole life of the engine,
resulting in uniformly low exhaust emissions.
It was not until the early 1930s that the idea of Frenchman Amédée Bollee
(the 1911 patent, page 14) reached volume production – and interestingly
this was not in the homeland of its inventor, but at Pierce Arrow in the USA.
By the end of the 1950s, 80% of car engines there were already fitted
with hydraulic valve lash adjustment. In Europe, economic reasons dictated
that engine design at the time tended to smaller-displacement,
high-speed engines. As a result, volume production of hydraulic valve lash
adjusters in Europe began some 20 years later.
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Hydraulic
valve lash adjustment
Example: Tappet
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Function
Leak down phase (cam lift)
■ The tappet is loaded
– by the engine valve spring force and inertia forces
■ The distance between the piston and inner housing is
reduced
– a small quantity of oil is forced out of the high pressure
chamber through the leakage gap
– it is then returned to the oil reservoir
■ At the end of the leak down phase, there is a small
quantity of valve lash
■ A small quantity of oil and air are forced out through the
inlet hole and/or the guidance gap .
Components:
a
b
c
ᕃ Outer housing
ᕄ Piston
ᕅ Inner housing
ᕆ Valve ball
ᕇ Valve spring
ᕈ Valve cover
ᕉ Return spring
b
a
c
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7
Oil at engine
feed pressure
Oil at
high pressure
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a
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Function
Adjustment phase (base circle)
■ The return spring pushes the piston and the inner
housing apart until the valve lash is eliminated
■ The ball check valve opens due to the pressure
differential between the high pressure chamber
and the oil reservoir (piston)
■ Oil flows from the oil reservoir ᕍᕠ through the oil transfer
recess, the oil reservoir ᕋ and the ball check valve into
the high pressure chamber
■ The ball check valve closes and the force transmission in
the valve train is restored.
Components:
d
ᕊ Oil transfer recess
ᕋ Oil reservoir (piston)
ᕍᕠ Oil reservoir (outer housing)
ᕍᕗ Leakage gap
ᕍᕘ Guidance gap
ᕍᕙ High pressure chamber
ᕍᕚ Oil feed groove
ᕍᕛ Inlet hole
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d
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Hydraulic
valve lash adjustment
elements
Example: Tappet
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Features
Hydraulic tappet
■ The valve is driven by the cam through the tappet
■ Very high valve train rigidity
■ Highly cost-effective
■ Valve lash is automatically compensated
– maintenance-free throughout its operating life
– very quiet valve train
– consistently low exhaust emissions throughout the
operating life.
Anti-drain tappet ᕃ
■ While the engine is switched off, oil cannot flow out of
the outer reservoir – this gives improved repeat start
behavior.
Bottom suction tappet ᕄ
■ The oil reservoir volume can be better utilized – this
gives improved repeat start behavior.
Labyrinth tappet ᕅ
■ Combination of anti-drain and bottom suction
mechanisms
■ Significantly improved repeat start behavior.
3CF tappet ᕆ
■ With cylindrical cam contact face – anti-rotation
mechanism
■ Simple oil supply
■ Accelerated opening and closing
■ 80% reduction in oil consumption
■ Low cam contact pressures
■ More effective valve lift characteristics possible with
identical tappet diameter
■ Identical valve lift characteristics possible with smaller
tappet diameter
– very low tappet mass
– very high rigidity
– reduced frictional power.
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Oil at engine
feed pressure
Oil at high pressure
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1
7
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Mechanical
valve lash adjustment
elements
Example: Tappet
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Features
Mechanical tappet
■ Steel body
■ The valve is driven by the cam through the tappet
■ Valve lash is mechanically adjusted.
Components:
Mechanical tappet with top shim
■ Shim
– loosely inserted in tappet body
– supplied in various thicknesses
– material and heat treatment can be selected as
required
■ Valve lash is adjusted by means
of the shim thickness .
Mechanical tappet with bottom shim
■ Defined valve lash between the cam base circle
and the outer tappet base
– due to the shim thickness
■ Very low tappet mass
– valve spring forces and thus the frictional power are
reduced
■ Large contact area for cam.
Mechanical tappet with graded base thickness
■ Valve lash is adjusted by means of the tappet bottom
thickness
■ Very low tappet mass
– valve spring forces and thus the frictional power are
reduced
■ Large contact area for cam
■ Very economical to manufacture.
ᕃ Removal slot
ᕄ Shim
ᕅ ᕇ ᕉ Tappet body
ᕆ Tappet body contact surface
ᕈ Shim
A
a
B
b
a
C
a
A
B
C
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b
a
a
a
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Roller finger
follower valve train
components
Hydraulic valve lash adjustment
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Features
Roller finger
follower valve train with hydraulic pivot element
■ Contact between the finger follower and cam is
preferably given by means of a needle bearing cam roller
■ Very low valve train friction
■ Very simple assembly of cylinder head
■ Oil can be easily fed from the cylinder head
■ Very little space required.
Sheet metal finger follower
Pivot element
Sheet metal finger follower
with cam roller and pivot element
■ Formed from sheet steel
■ Height of valve flange ᕆ on valve is freely selectable
■ Optionally with oil spray bore ᕄ
■ Optionally with retaining clip ᕅ
– simplified cylinder head assembly
■ Very large load-bearing surfaces in the half-sphere area
and valve contact face
■ Highly cost-effective.
Cast finger follower
with cam roller and pivot element
■ Complex lever geometries possible
■ High load carrying capacity
■ High rigidity dependent on design
■ Low mass moment of inertia dependent on design.
Hydraulic pivot element
■ Held together by means of polygon ring ᕉ
■ Reliable support of high transverse forces.
Sheet metal finger follower and pivot element
Cast finger follower and pivot element
a
ᕃ Cam roller
ᕄ Oil spray bore
ᕅ Retaining clip
ᕆ Valve flange
c
ᕇ Piston
ᕈ Housing
ᕉ Retaining ring (polygon ring)
ᕊ Venting hole/pressure relief hole
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a c
B
b c
c
a
c
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c
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Oil at engine
feed pressure
Oil at high pressure
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Rocker arm
valve train components
Hydraulic valve lash adjustment
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Features
Roller type rocker arm with insert element
The main body of the roller type rocker arm is preferably
made from aluminum; it is fitted with
■ A needle bearing cam roller ᕃ and
■ A hydraulic insert element with or without a contact
pad
– the valve lash is automatically compensated
– maintenance-free
– very quiet running
– consistently low exhaust emissions throughout the
operating life
■ Very low valve train friction
■ Very little space required, since
– all the valves can be actuated by a single camshaft.
Components:
Hydraulic insert elements with contact pad
■ Are supported on the insert element by means
of a ball/socket joint
■ Have a contact pad made from hardened steel
■ Have very low contact pressures in the valve contact
area.
Hydraulic insert elements without contact pad
■ Require only a short mounting space
■ Have low mass (low moving mass)
■ Are highly cost-effective.
Roller type rocker arm with hydraulic insert element
Hydraulic insert elements with or without contact pad
A
a
b c
ᕃ Cam roller
ᕄ Oil duct
ᕅ Support plate
ᕆ Piston
ᕇ Housing
ᕈ Retaining cup (sheet steel or plastic)
ᕉ Contact pad
b
c
a
b
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A
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b c
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a
1
2
b
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7
Oil at engine
feed pressure
Oil at high pressure
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0
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3
a
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End pivot rocker arm
valve train components
Hydraulic valve lash adjustment
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4
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b
Features
Hydraulic double or
triple end pivot rocker arm with insert elements
The main body of the rocker arm is preferably made from
aluminum; it is fitted with
■ Needle bearing cam rollers ᕃ and
■ Separate hydraulic insert elements
– for each valve
– the valve lash is automatically compensated
– maintenance-free
– very quiet running
– consistently low exhaust emissions throughout the
operating life
■ Suitable for very high speeds
■ Low frictional energy.
Triple end pivot rocker arm
with insert elements
Double end pivot rocker arm with insert elements
Triple end pivot rocker arm
Double end pivot rocker arm
a
b
A
b
ᕃ Cam roller
ᕄ Oil duct
ᕅ Piston
ᕆ Housing
ᕇ Contact pad
B
A
b
a
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B
b
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1 1
a
4 4
b
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a
3
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5
b
A
Cam lift phase
Base circle phase
Front view
Oil at engine
feed pressure
Oil at high pressure
Side view
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OHV valve train components
Hydraulic valve lash adjustment
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Features
OHV valve train with hydraulic roller tappet,
pushrod and rocker arm
Hydraulic roller tappet
■ Has a special internal oil feed system (labyrinth design)
■ Gives improved emergency running characteristics even
with less than optimum pressurized oil supply
■ The valve lash is automatically compensated
– maintenance-free
– very quiet running
– consistently low exhaust emissions throughout the
operating life.
Rocker arm mounted on a pedestal
■ Is supplied as a ready-to-fit unit comprising rocker arm,
needle bearing, trunion, pedestal and screw
■ Has a rocker arm
– supported by a needle bearing ᕈ mounted on a
trunion fitted on top of a pedestal
– low-friction motion.
Components:
Hydraulic roller tappet
Rocker arm with pedestal
a
b c
c
ᕃ Cam roller
ᕄ Housing
ᕅ Piston
ᕆ Anti-rotation pin
ᕇ Pushrod
ᕈ Needle roller bearing
Hydraulic roller tappet
Rocker arm
Rocker arm pedestal
a
b
c
a
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1
6
3
b
c
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a
a
b
5
c
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a
1
2
3
4
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3
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Crosshead
valve train components
Hydraulic valve lash adjustment
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6
5
Features
Roller crosshead with hydraulic insert elements
Roller crosshead :
■ Two valves are directly actuated at the same time
– each by means of one hydraulic insert element
■ The guide pin ᕈ gives linear guidance of the roller
crosshead
■ An anti-rotation locking pin ᕉ secures the roller
crosshead against rotation
■ There is a direct force transmission between the cam and
valve, giving very high valve train rigidity
■ Favorable guidance behavior, giving very smooth
running
■ Low frictional power
■ Simple oil supply.
Components:
a
b
ᕃ Cam roller
ᕄ Oil duct
ᕅ Support plate
ᕆ Piston
ᕇ Housing
ᕈ Guidance pin
ᕉ Anti-rotation locking pin
a
b
b
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a
a
1
2
4
5
b
3
6
2
7
Oil at engine
feed pressure
Oil at high pressure
Cam lift phase Base circle phase
Front view Side view
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Switchable
valve lash adjustment
elements
Example: Switchable tappet
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Features
Switchable tappet, hydraulic
■ Switching capability between two different valve lift
curves:
– valve or cylinder deactivation
– valve lift switching
■ In valve or cylinder deactivation
– the valve remains closed or
– is opened to its full valve lift
■ In valve lift switching, there is
– small to moderate valve lift or
– high valve lift
■ Advantages of valve or cylinder deactivation:
– improved emission behavior
– reduced fuel consumption
■ Advantages of valve lift switching:
– significantly improved torque curve
– significantly increased engine power.
Valve lash adjustment – two design variants:
■ Hydraulic valve lash adjustment
– The adjustment element is loaded during lift.
A small quantity of oil is forced from the high
pressure chamber through the leakage gap and
drawn back at the start of the base circle phase.
■ Mechanical valve lash adjustment
– The valve lash is adjusted by the use of graded caps or
shims in the inner housing.
Special designs
■ Two different lift curves and zero lift are possible
■ With a combination of two switchable tappets with
different lift curves per cylinder actuated separately,
the valve train can approach a high variability
(with relatively low system costs).
Other switchable valve lash adjustment elements
Switchable roller tappet
Switchable pivot element
Switchable tappet, mechanical
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Switchable
valve lash adjustment
elements
Function: Switchable tappet
Function
Switchable tappet, hydraulic
Base circle phase (switching process)
■ The lost motion spring ᕉ pushes the outer housing ᕈ
against the stop on the inner housing ᕇ
■ The inner housing ᕇ is in contact with the inner camᕄ,
there is a slight clearance between the outer camᕃ
and the outer housing ᕈ
■ With the engine oil under reduced oil pressure, the
locking pin ᕆ connects the outer housing ᕈ to the inner
housing ᕇ
– the locking pin ᕆ is spring-loaded
■ When the engine oil pressure exceeds the switching oil
pressure, the inner pin ᕅ presses the locking pin ᕆ
back into the outer housing ᕈ
– this disconnects the outer housing ᕈ
from the inner housing ᕇ
■ The hydraulic lash adjuster ᕊ in the inner housing ᕇ
compensates the valve lash.
Cam lift phase unlocked (zero or low lift)
■ The outer pair of cams ᕃ moves the outer housing ᕈ
downwards against the lost motion spring ᕉ
■ The engine valve follows the profile of the inner camᕄ
– with a cylindrical inner cam, the valve remains closed
■ If all engine valves of one cylinder are deactivated
(outer housing ᕈ unlocked), the cylinder is switched off
– this significantly reduces the fuel consumption.
Locked (high lift)
■ The outer pair of cams ᕃ moves the outer housing ᕈ
and inner housing ᕇ together downwards and opens
the engine valve
■ The hydraulic adjustment element ᕊ is loaded
– a small quantity of oil is forced out of the high pressure
chamber through the leakage gap
– when the base circle phase is reached, the valve lash
is set to zero.
Switchable hydraulic tappet, pressureless locked:
A
B a
b
ᕃ Outer cam
ᕄ Inner cam
ᕅ Inner pin
ᕆ Locking pin
ᕇ Inner housing
ᕈ Outer housing
ᕉ Lost motion spring
ᕊ Hydraulic lash adjuster
ᕋ Lost motion spring retainer
ᕍᕠ Anti-rotation slot
ᕍᕗ Anti-rotation lock
37
1
2
3 4 5 6
7
8
9
11
10
A B
a b
Base circle phase (switching process) Cam lift phase
Unlocked Locked
(zero or low lift) (high lift)
Engine oil pressure,
reduced
Engine oil pressure
Oil at high
pressure
1
3
8

1
2
8
38
Switchable
valve lash adjustment
elements
a
1
3
8

2
1
1
Features
Switchable valve lash adjustment elements
Switchable tappet, mechanical
Cam lift phases:
Switchable pivot element
Switchable roller tappet
ᕃ Piston
ᕄ Cam roller
ᕅ Return spring
ᕆ Locking pin
ᕇ Inner housing
ᕈ Outer housing
ᕉ Lost motion spring
A
Base circle phase
a
Unlocked (zero or low lift)
Locked (full lift)
b
c
B
Locked (full lift)
Unlocked (zero lift)
a
b
C
Locked (full lift)
Unlocked (zero lift)
a
b
4
5
6
7
A
b
3
1
3
8

2
1
6
6
4
7
5
c
3
1
3
8

2
1
7
39
a b
1
5
4
C
a b
1
5
3
4
7
6
B
7
Switchable pivot element
Switchable roller lifter
3
3
6
2
3
1
3
8

1
8
6
40
Chain drive systems
Chains, sprockets
Chain blades
Chain guides
1
3
4

3
4
2
Features
Chain drive systems
■ Connect the crankshaft and/or camshafts of an internal
combustion engine
■ Perform various tasks
– tensioning of the chain
– damping of the chain drive system
– increasing or reducing the transmission ratio
– transmission of the torque
– setting of the rotational direction
■ Are used as
– primary (crank-cam) drives connecting the crankshaft
and the camshaft
– secondary (cam-cam) drives connecting the
camshafts of a DOHC eingine
– accessory drives, for example oil pump drives,
connecting an accessory unit with the crankshaft
■ Can be subdivided into two or more individual drives
depending on the available space.
Crank-cam drives:
Chain blades and chain guides
■ Completely plastic component
– low mass
– economical due to single component design
■ Aluminum plastic composite part
– steel thrust pin ᕉ required for contact reinforcement
– advantageous due to rigid design
■ Sheet metal/plastic composite part
– advantageous due to design optimized for space.
■ Two piece plastic composite part
– higher rigidity than one piece plastic
– more economical when compared to aluminum/
plastic or sheet metal/plastic composite parts
ᕃ Tensioner ᕄ Chain blade
ᕅ Camshaft sprocket ᕆ Chain guide on tight chain side
ᕇ Crankshaft sprocket ᕈ Chain
a
b
c
a
b
c
1
3
4

3
4
8
a
41
1
3
3
2
2
4
55
5 6
57
3
1
1
6
1
3
4

3
3
8
42
Chain drive systems
Chain drive tensioners
1
3
4

3
4
3
Features
Chain tensioners (crank-cam)
■ One-way dampers with tensioning function
■ Hydraulic damping, dependent on speed
■ Function as follows when the piston is loaded
– oil is pressed out through the leakage gap and causes
movement, depending on the leakage gap size and
the viscosity of the oil
■ Function as follows when the load on the piston is
relieved
– the return spring ᕆ presses the piston ᕄ against the
chain blade ᕍᕗ
– the valve unit ᕅ draws oil from the reservoir ᕈ into
the high pressure chamber ᕇ
■ The working position of the piston is determined by the
length of the chain
■ Advantages
– all changes in the length of the chain drive system
during the operating life (wear, thermal expansion)
are compensated
– damping can be adjusted precisely
– designed according to installation conditions
– preload as small as possible
(by means of return spring)
– stroke up to 29 mm
– wear resistant throughout the whole operating life
(alloy steel components).
Ratchet system (back-stop device)
■ Mechanical anti-leak down feature
– restricts the back stroke of the tensioning element
while engine is shut down
– prevents tooth skip or chain noise on engine start up.
Piston position with new chain
Piston position after extended operation
a
b
1
3
8

1
6
2
Chain tensioner (crank-cam drive):
ᕃ Housing
ᕄ Piston
ᕅ Valve unit
ᕆ Return spring
ᕇ High pressure chamber
Depending on design:
ᕈ Reservoir
ᕉ Screw plug/support housing
Ratchet system:
ᕊ Ratchet ring (snap ring: open, preloaded outwards)
ᕋ Piston groove with assembly and function groove
ᕍᕠ Housing groove system
ᕍᕗ Chain blade
43
8
9
10
2
11
1
5
6
4
3
7
a
b
8
Chain tensioner (crank-cam)
Working position
Minimal return stroke
Leak down position
Oil at engine feed pressure
Oil at high pressure
Primary drive
1
3
8

2
1
8
44
Chain drive systems
Cam-cam tensioners
1
3
4

3
4
3
Features
Cam-cam tensioners (secondary drive)
■ One-way dampers with tensioning function
■ Hydraulic damping, dependent on speed
■ Function as follows when the piston is loaded
– oil is pressed out through the leakage gap and causes
movement, depending on the leakage gap size and
the viscosity of the oil
■ Function as follows when the load on the piston is
relieved
– the return spring ᕆ presses the piston ᕄ against the
tensioning pad ᕍᕗ
– the valve unit ᕅ draws oil from the reservoir ᕈ into
the high pressure chamber ᕇ
■ Advantages
– all changes in the length of the chain drive system
during the operating life (wear, thermal expansion
are compensated
– designed according to installation conditions
– preload as small as necessary
(by means of return spring).
Oil spray bore ᕋ
■ Integrated in the tensioning element; it cools and
lubricates the chain and gives damping of chain noise.
Cam-cam tensioner (accessory drive):
ᕃ Housing
ᕄ Piston
ᕅ Valve unit
ᕆ Return spring
ᕇ High pressure chamber
ᕈ With or without reservoir depending on installation
ᕉ Integrated sliding pad
ᕊ Tensioning pad integrated and supported by the piston
ᕋ Oil spray bore
1
3
4

0
7
7
a
45
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Cam-cam tensioner (secondary drive)
Oil feed bore
Oil at engine feed pressure Oil at high pressure
1
3
8

2
1
9
46
Belt drive systems
Primary drive
1
3
1

0
2
0
Features
Primary drive systems
■ Connect the crankshaft and/or camshafts of an internal
combustion engine with each other
■ Can also transmit drive power to the injection and/or
water pump
■ Drive balancer shafts
■ Can be subdivided into one, two or more individual
drives.
Components:
Advantages/benefits:
■ High timing accuracy throughout the operating life
■ Long life
■ Low-noise operation
■ Simple and economical service and mounting
■ Dry running, no oil supply required
■ Compact construction
■ Low friction
■ High efficiency.
Primary drive tensioner
ᕃ Crankshaft sprocket
ᕄ Belt tensioner
ᕅ Timing belt
ᕆ Camshaft sprockets
ᕇ Idler pulleys (optional)
ᕈ Water pump (optional)
2
1
3
1

0
1
9
47
1
6
2
4 4
3
5
1
3
1

0
1
4
48
Belt drive systems
Primary drive
Features
Timing belt tensioners
■ Automatic tensioning systems with integrated
mechanical damping
– tension the toothed belt during mounting
– compensate for manufacturing tolerances
(diameter, positions, belt length)
– maintain constant belt force
(through temperature, load and life)
– provide damping of belt drive dynamics largely
irrespective of the running conditions
– prevent belt jumping
■ The belt force can be set as low as possible in order to
optimize the noise level.
Double eccentric
■ This separates the dynamic tensioning function from the
compensation of tolerances and can be precisely
matched to the dynamic requirements of the timing
belt drive
■ It comprises:
Single eccentric
■ This gives simplified mounting of the tensioning system
on the engine assembly line and prevents setting errors
■ It comprises:
Double eccentric
Single eccentric
A
ᕃ Spiral spring
ᕄ Adjustment eccentric
ᕅ Backplate
ᕆ Plain bearing
ᕇ Shim
ᕈ Operating eccentric
ᕉ Tension pulley
B
ᕃ Spiral spring
ᕄ Plain bearing
ᕅ Central shaft
ᕆ Backplate
ᕇ Operating eccentric
ᕈ Front washer
ᕉ Tension pulley
A
2
0
0

2
0
7
a
B
1
3
4

4
0
1
a
49
A
B
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
1
3
1

0
2
6
50
Belt drive systems
Accessory drives
1
3
1

0
4
1
Features
Accessory drive systems
■ Connect accessory equipment to the crankshaft :
■ Can be subdivided into one, two or more individual
drives (normally, however, only one serpentine drive)
■ Driven by means of multi-ribbed belts (PK profile)
■ Equipped with a belt tensioning system
■ Freqently equipped with idler pulleys that ensure the
necessary wrap conditions on the accessories and
prevent oscillation of the strands (leading to collisions).
Advantages/benefits:
■ Maintenance-free power transmission to accessories
■ Long life (160000 km or more)
■ Low-noise operation
■ Compact construction
■ Simple servicing.
Belt tensioning systems
Accessory drive systems can be equipped with:
■ Mechanically damped belt tensioning systems
■ Hydraulically damped belt tensioning systems, page 51
Mechanically damped belt tensioners
Function
■ Belt preload force
– the torque of the spiral spring generates the required
belt preload force via the lever arm
■ Damping
– the damping assembly
(spring and friction disc/friction cone)
is preloaded by the axial force of the spring
– movement of the lever arm causes a relative
movement in the damping assembly and thereby
generates friction and thus damping.
The belt preload force and damping are matched
independently of each other to the application.
Advantages/benefits
■ The belt tensioner compensates for:
– tolerances of the drive components
– thermal expansion of the drive components
– belt stretch and belt wear
■ The belt force is set automatically at mounting and service
and remain almost constant
– throughout the operating life
– over the whole temperature range of the engine
■ Load peaks in the belt dynamics are smoothed out
■ Slippage, noise and belt wear are reduced.
a
Generator (Alternator)
Power steering pump
Water pump
A/C compressor
Other accessories such as fans, mechanical
chargers
b
c
d
e
f
g
51
d
g
c e f b
a
1
3
1

0
4
0
52
Belt drive systems
Accessory drives
1
3
1

0
3
1
Features
Mechanically damped belt tensioners
■ Apply belt preload by means of a spiral or torsion spring
■ Provide damping by means of mechanical friction
– with a flat friction disc as the damping element
long arm tensioner
short arm tensioner
– with a friction cone as the damping element
cone type tensioner
The type of mechanical tensioner selected is principally
dependent on the available design envelope.
Long arm tensioner or
Short arm tensioner
Components:
Cone type tensioner
Components:
a
b
c
a
b
ᕃ Friction disc and friction lining
ᕄ Plain bearing
ᕅ Lever
ᕆ Spiral spring
ᕇ Backplate
ᕈ Tension pulley
c
ᕃ Friction cone with seals
ᕄ Lever
ᕅ Tension pulley
ᕆ Inner cone
ᕇ Spiral spring
ᕈ Backplate
a
b
c
1
3
1

0
4
3
53
a
6
1
2
5
4 3
b
6
1
2
4
5
3
c
2
5
6
4
3
1
1
3
1

0
2
3
a
54
Belt drive systems
Accessory drives
Features
Hydraulically damped belt tensioners
■ Equipped with a hydraulic unit
– with a bellows seal
– with a piston rod seal
■ Tension the belt by means of the compression spring in
the hydraulic unit via the lever and the tension pulley
■ Provide directional, speed-proportional damping by
means of the hydraulic unit (leakage gap damping).
The type of hydraulic belt tensioner selected is dependent
on the design envelope and application conditions.
Components:
Function
■ The hydraulic unit is pressed together so that oil is
squeezed out of the high pressure chamber ᕄ though
the leakage gap – this gives damping
■ The check valve ᕇ separates the high pressure
chamber ᕄ and the reservoir ᕅ, so that the direction of
oil flow is clearly defined (directional damping)
■ When the hydraulic unit is extended, oil is drawn out of
the reservoir ᕅ into the high pressure chamber ᕄ
■ The tensioning and damping force are transmitted via
the lever and the tension pulley to the belt drive
■ The tensioning force can be matched to the application
by the selection of compression spring ᕆ and the lever
ratio
■ The damping is adjusted by means of the leakage gap
– the smaller the leakage gap, the higher the damping
force.
Hydraulic belt tensioner with bellows seal
Hydraulic belt tensioner with piston rod seal
a
b
ᕃ Piston
ᕄ High pressure chamber/oil
ᕅ Reservoir/oil
ᕆ Compression spring
ᕇ Check valve
ᕈ Lower fixing eye
ᕉ Upper fixing eye
only with bellows seal design :
ᕊ Seal bellows
only with piston rod seal design :
ᕋ Protective bellows
ᕍᕠ Piston rod seal
ᕍᕗ Piston rod guide
a
b
a
1
3
8

2
4
0
b
2
0
0

2
0
9
55
Belt tensioner with bellows seal
Belt tensioner with piston rod seal
9
10
1
3
4
5
6
7
2
8
11
1
3
8

2
3
1
56
Belt drive systems
Belt-driven starter generator drive (RSG)
1
3
1

0
1
8
Features
Belt-driven starter generator drive (RSG)
■ The generator also operates as a starter
■ A belt drive with two conventional tensioning systems
independent of each other
■ Tight side and slack side are no longer clearly
defined – the load is reciprocating
■ Provides the necessary belt tension in both starting
and in generation
– in order to avoid slippage and ensure correct starting.
Components of RSG:
Advantages
■ Reduced fuel consumption
■ Reduced emissions
■ The use of two tensioning systems allows optimum
matching to the specific operating condition
■ Regenerative deceleration is possible (optional)
■ Boost support during starting-off is possible (optional).
Belt-driven starter generator drive tensioner
a b
A
B
ᕃ Starter generator
ᕄ Belt
ᕅ A/C compressor
ᕆ Crankshaft
ᕇ RSG drive tensioner (starting)
ᕈ RSG drive tensioner (generation)
1
2 3 4
5
a
b
A
1
3
1

0
1
6
1
2 3
a
b
B
6
4
1
3
1

0
1
7
57
4 2 6 3 1 5
1
3
1

0
1
5
58
Belt drive systems
Tensioning systems for RSG drives
1
3
1

0
3
9
Features
RSG drive using hydraulic generator tensioner
■ The generator also operates as a starter
■ The starter generator has a bearing arrangement
allowing rotation
■ The tight side and slack side are no longer clearly
defined – the load is reciprocating
■ The hydraulic generator tensioner provides the
necessary belt tension in both starting
and in generation
– when the reaction torque acts in this direction,
the preload force is increased and thus supports
the transmission of torque
– when the reaction torque acts in this direction,
the preload force is reduced and thus increases
the life of the belt.
■ Allows regenerative deceleration and a boost function
during acceleration.
Components of RSG:
Advantages
■ Preload force is increased during starting
■ Belt life is optimized.
Hydraulic generator tensioner
a b
A
B
c
d
ᕃ Modified starter generator with retainer
and integrated plain bearing arrangement
ᕄ Hydraulic generator tensioner with retainer
ᕅ Belt
ᕆ Crankshaft
ᕇ A/C compressor
A
a
b
c
2
1
1
3
1

0
3
8
B
a
b
d
2
1
1
3
1

0
3
7
59
3
1
5 2 4
1
3
1

0
3
6
60
Belt drive systems
Tension pulleys and idler pulleys
for primary and accessory drives
1
3
1

0
3
2
Features
Belt tension pulleys and idler pulleys
■ Used in primary and accessory drives as
– tension pulleys that transmit force from the tensioner
to the belt
– idler pulleys that change the belt track
■ Comprise a steel or plastic pulley in which a single or
double row deep groove ball bearing is fitted
■ Smooth or profiled contact surfaces
■ A plastic end cap is snapped into place once the pulley
is fitted (optional).
ECO III single row deep groove ball bearings
■ Modified bearings of type 6203 with quieter running
■ Extended design giving a greater grease volume
■ Higher basic load ratings than comparable catalog
bearings
■ Characterized by a knurl on the outer ring
■ Cost-effective.
Double row deep groove ball bearings
■ High load carrying capacity
■ Extended design giving a greater grease volume
■ Characterized by a knurl on the outer ring
■ Fulfill high requirements in relation to misalignment.
Advantages/benefits
■ Precise belt guidance
■ Lightweight, robust designs possible
■ Matched to the application
■ Quiet running
■ Resistant to thermal and environmental influences
■ Suitable for recycling (plastics marking)
■ High functional reliability due to the specific service life
■ Secure geometrical locking between the outer ring and
plastic pulley due to the knurl on the outer ring.
a
b
a
1
3
1

0
3
3
b
1
3
1

0
3
4
61

Tension pulley/idler pulley
Tension pulley/idler
pulley with toothed belt profile
Double row
tension pulley/idler pulley
Application examples
Tension pulley with arm
supported by plain bearing
Automatic belt tensioner
with tension pulley
Idler pulley,
assembled
Designs a b
1
3
1

0
2
7
62
Variable camshaft timing
systems
System description
1
3
8

2
0
8
Function
Variable camshaft timing systems
■ Adjustment of inlet and exhaust characteristics possible
– with typical ranges of 30° and 60° angle crankshaft
■ Reduced exhaust emissions
■ Reduced fuel consumption.
■ Increased power and torque
Components of a variable camshaft timing system:
Variable camshaft timing system – control loop
The camshaft is continuously adjusted by a closed loop
control. The actuation is operated by engine oil pressure:
■ In the engine management system, the nominal angle for
the control phase is read off a map,
– dependent on engine load (torque) and speed
■ The actual angle is calculated from signals supplied by
the sensors on the crankshaft and camshaft and is
compared and evaluated in relation to the nominal angle
– the current supplied to the solenoid is modified
accordingly and thereby the oil flow controlled
■ Oil flows in the required adjustment direction
– into the appropriate oil chamber B and A of the
adjustment unit, while at the same time
– oil can flow out of the other oil chamber
■ The angular position of the camshaft to the drive
(crankshaft) is modified
– depending on how the oil chambers of the adjustment
unit are filled
■ The actual angle is measured again
– sensors ᕄ and ᕆ interrogate the trigger wheels on
the camshaft ᕃ and crankshaft ᕅ
■ This control process is performed regularly at high
frequency
■ Advantages
– steps in nominal angle are compensated
– the nominal angle is held to a high accuracy.
Hydraulic adjustment unit
Solenoid valve
Engine management system
ᕃ Trigger wheel and ᕄcamshaft sensor
ᕅ Trigger wheel and ᕆcrankshaft sensor
A
B
C
1
3
8

2
0
5
a
1
3
8

2
0
6
63
0
10
20
30
40
EMS
A
B
C
1
2
3 4
A B
Variable camshaft timing principle
Variable camshaft timing system
Solenoid
Engine
management
system
Chamber linked to engine oil pressure
Chamber relieved/oil return
1
3
8

1
7
2
64
Variable camshaft timing
systems
Solenoid valve MAGV
1
3
8

2
5
0
Function
Solenoid valve MAGV for variable camshaft timing
Main functional parts:
The solenoid valve is a proportional valve with 4 oil ports
with one oil port each to:
■ Oil pump “P”
■ Return feed “T”
■ Working chamber “A” of the variable camshaft timing
system
■ Working chamber “B” of the variable camshaft timing
system.
When current is applied to the electromagnet ᕃ, this
moves the internal control slider ᕄ in the valve and thus
switches the oil pressure between the working chambers.
The working chamber ᕅ not subjected to oil pressure at a
particular time is connected to the return ᕆ.
In order to hold a timing position, the valve is held in the
so-called centre position, in which case the lines are
separated from all the connectors.
The valve is compact but of a modular design and permits
modification to match the particular application.
The position and type of the tab as well as the type of oil
feed (lateral or end feed) and the position of the seal
between the “wet” hydraulic part and “dry” electric
connector area are flexible.
1
3
8

2
4
5
65
Chamber linked
to engine oil pressure
Chamber relieved /
oil return
Variable camshaft timing system
in control position
30° corresponding to 60° crank angle
B A
2
Basic position
0
10
20
30
40
EMS
(Sensor on crankshaft)
P
T
1
3
4
B
A
1
3
8

2
4
9
66
Variable camshaft timing
systems
Variable camshaft timing system with helical splines
for chain drive NWEK
1
3
8

1
7
1
d
Features
Variable camshaft timing system with helical splines for
chain drive NWEK
Main functional parts:
■ These are linked with each other in pairs –
by means of helical splines, therefore
– the driven hub rotates relative to the belt sprocket
when the adjusting piston is axially displaced
– the torque is transmitted very robustly
■ The variable camshaft timing system does not need to be
sealed completely against oil leakage
■ The variable camshaft timing system is connected to the
camshaft by means of a central bolt
– when the engine is assembled, the base position of
the camshaft timing can be easily set
– the typical adjustment range is 20° to 30° of camshaft
angle, corresponding to 40° to 60° of crankshaft angle
■ In controlled operation, both chambers are filled with oil
– these are well sealed in relation to each other, giving
high load rigidity
■ On the engine side, step responses are required that are
achieved from engine oil pressures of approx. 1,5 bar
onwards.
Design of variable camshaft timing system with helical
splines for chain drive NWEK (figure right)
■ The camshaft trigger wheel ᕆ can be mounted directly
on the cam phasing unit.
Oil transmission to the camshaft
Depending on the function, available space and costs, the
oil ducts to the chambers in the phasing unit can be sealed
by more or less demanding means:
■ Sealing rings ᕇ on the camshaft are often used
■ Alternatively, the oil can be transferred to the camshaft
by simple grooves in the plain bearing.
ᕃ Chain sprocket
ᕄ Adjusting piston
ᕅ Driven hub
1
3
8

1
9
1
67
Variable camshaft timing system
in control position
1
3
4
2
5
Chamber linked
to engine oil pressure
Chamber relieved /
oil return
30° corresponding to 60° crank angle
Basic position
1
3
8

2
5
2
68
Variable camshaft timing
systems
Vane type variable camshaft timing system
for chain drive NWFK
1
3
8

2
1
0
Features
Vane type variable camshaft timing system
for chain drive NWFK
Main functional parts:
■ These are more compact and economical than variable
camshaft timing systems with helical splines,
since there is no adjusting piston
■ The transverse load from the chain tension force is
supported directly below the loading point
■ The torque is transmitted during operation by the oil
filling of the chambers
■ “Vanes” ᕅ – inserted and spring-loaded – separate the
oil chambers
– allowing 5 chambers for an adjustment angle of 30°
camshaft (60° crankshaft)
■ A locking element ᕆ
– connects the drive and driven parts mechanically with
each other only during engine startup
– is hydraulically unlocked when the adjustment unit is
filled with oil.
Inlet phasing by vane type variable camshaft timing system
for chain drive NWFK (figure right)
■ In the base position
– valve control phase shown is “retarded”
– locking element is engaged
– at the same time, oil pressure applies unilateral load
to the “vanes” and holds these against the end stop
– the solenoid is without current.
■ In controlled operation
– current is applied to the solenoid
– oil is directed into the second chamber
– the locking element is disengaged and the rotor turns
– the camshaft is rotated towards an “advanced”
position.
In order to maintain an intermediate position, the solenoid
is brought to the so-called controlled position, so that all oil
ducts are closed.
ᕃChain sprocket (stator)
ᕄDriven hub (rotor)
1
3
8

1
7
8
69
2
A
B Stator
Rotor
3
A
B
A
B
1
4
1
2
4
Variable camshaft timing system
in controlled position
Base position
Direction of rotation
Chamber linked to engine oil pressure
Chamber relieved/oil return
1
3
8

1
6
4
70
Variable camshaft timing
systems
Vane type variable camshaft timing system
for belt drive NWFR
Features
Vane type variable camshaft timing system
for belt drive NWFR
Main functional parts:
■ It operates in principle in the same way as the vane type
variable camshaft timing system for chain drive NWFK
(page 68)
■ It must, however, be sealed completely against oil
leakage
■ It can be sealed by means of
– gaskets in the phasing unit ᕅ
– a cover ᕆ on the rear side that is designed as a
contact with the rotary shaft seal ᕇ
– a cap ᕈ on the front side that seals the phasing unit
once the cam bolt has been fitted.
Exhaust phasing by vane type variable camshaft timing
system for belt drive (figure right)
■ In the base position
– locking element is engaged
– valve control phase is shown “advanced”
– friction of the camshaft has a braking effect, however,
towards a “retarded” position
■ In all operating conditions of the engine, the “advanced”
position is to be preferred and rapidly achieved;
the variable camshaft timing system therefore has a
spring ᕉ on the drive side
– suspended in a cover ᕊ and connected at its center
with the rotor by means of a support plate ᕋ
– and acting with a defined torque towards the
“advanced” position.
ᕃ Belt pulley (stator)
ᕄ Driven hub (rotor)
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Variable camshaft timing system
in controlled position
Base position
Direction of rotation
Chamber linked to
engine oil pressure
Chamber relieved/
oil return
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REGE Motorenteile
Core product: cylinder heads
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Features
Machining and assembly of cylinder heads
Machining
■ Machining of all features
■ Final machining of valve seats and valve guides
■ Final machining of camshaft bores
■ Final machining of combustion chamber surface.
Preliminary assembly
– Assembly of valve seats and valve guides
– Assembly of camshaft bearing covers or ladder frames
– Assembly of water covers, balls and plugs
– Leakage tests on water chamber and oil chamber.
Complete assembly
■ Dismantling of camshaft bearing covers
■ Assembly of
– valve stem seals
– valves
– valve springs
– disc springs
– valve keys
■ Valve leakage tests
■ Assembly of finger followers, rocker arms or tappets
■ Running-in of valves
■ Assembly of camshafts and camshaft bearing covers
■ Functional testing of valve trains
■ Assembly of primary chain drives.
Delivery of ready-to-fit cylinder heads
with basic and accessory parts
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Addresses
Automotive Division
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