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**ActivPhysics can help with these Problems:
**

Activities 7.1–7.6

Section 14-1: Conditions for Equilibrium

Problem

1. Five forces act on a rod, as shown in Fig. 14-25.

Write the torque equations that must be satisﬁed

for the rod to be in static equilibrium taking the

torques (a) about the top of the rod and (b) about

the center of the rod.

figure 14-25 Problem 1.

Solution

All of the forces lie in the plane of Fig. 14-25, so all of

the torques about any point on the rod are into or out

of the page. Suppose the latter direction, out of the

page or counterclockwise, is positive. Moreover, all of

the forces are perpendicular to the rod, so their lever

arms about any point on the rod (recall that the

magnitude of the torque is force times lever arm) can

easily be read-oﬀ from Fig. 14-25. (a) About the top

of the rod, F

4

and F

5

contribute zero torque, and

Equation 14-2 becomes 0 =

1

3

ℓF

3

−

2

3

ℓF

2

+ℓF

1

.

(b) About the center of the rod, the perpendicular

distances to F

2

and F

3

are

1

6

ℓ, and to F

1

, F

4

and F

5

are

1

2

ℓ, so 0 =

1

2

ℓ(F

1

+F

4

−F

5

) −

1

6

ℓ(F

2

+F

3

).

Problem

2. A body is subject to three forces: F

1

= 2ˆı + 2ˆ N,

applied at the point x = 2 m, y = 0 m; F

2

= −2ˆı −

3ˆ N, applied at x = −1 m, y = 0; and F

3

= 1ˆ N,

applied at x = −7 m, y = 1 m. (a) Show explicitly

that the net force on the body is zero. (b) Show

explicitly that the net torque about the origin is

zero. (c) To conﬁrm the assertion following

Equation 14-4 that the net torque must be zero

about any other point, evaluate the net torque

about the point (3 m, 2 m), the point (−7 m, 1 m),

and about any other point of your choosing.

Solution

(a)

F

i

= (2ˆı + 2ˆ −2ˆı −3ˆ +ˆ)N = 0. (b) (

τ

i

)

0

=

[2ˆı ×(2ˆı + 2ˆ) + (−ˆı) ×(−2ˆı −3ˆ) + (−7ˆı +ˆ) ×

ˆ]N·m = (4 + 3 −7)

ˆ

kN·m = 0. (c) For any point

r

0

= (x

0

ˆı +y

0

ˆ)m,

(r

i

−r

0

) ×F

ˆı

= {[(2 −x

0

)ˆı −

y

0

ˆ] ×(2ˆı + 2ˆ) + [(−1 −x

0

)ˆı −y

0

ˆ] ×(−2ˆı −3ˆ) +

[(−7 −x

0

)ˆı + (1 −y

0

)ˆ] ×ˆ} N·m = [(4 + 3 −7) +

x

0

(−2 + 3 −1) +y

0

(2 −2 + 0)]

ˆ

k N·m = 0.

Problem

3. Suppose the force F

3

in the preceding problem is

doubled so the forces no longer balance and the

body is therefore accelerating. Show that (a) the

torque about the point (−7 m, 1 m) is still zero, but

that (b) the torque about the origin is no longer

zero. What is the torque about the origin?

Solution

(a) Since r

3

= (−7ˆı +ˆ) m is the point of application

of F

3

, the total torque about r

3

is just due to F

1

and

F

2

: (

τ

i

)

3

= (r

1

−r

3

) ×F

1

+ (r

2

−r

3

) ×F

2

=

[(2ˆı + 7ˆı −ˆ) ×(2ˆı + 2ˆ) + (−ˆı + 7ˆı −ˆ) ×(−2ˆı −

3ˆ)]N·m = [(9×2)

ˆ

k −(1×2)(−

ˆ

k) + 6 ×(−3)

ˆ

k +

(1×2)(−

ˆ

k)] N·m = 0. (b) (

τ

i

)

0

=

(r

i

×F

i

) =

[2ˆı ×(2ˆı + 2ˆ) + (−ˆı) ×(2ˆı −3ˆ) + (−7ˆı +ˆ) ×

(2ˆ)] N·m = [4

ˆ

k + 3

ˆ

k −14

ˆ

k] N·m = −7

ˆ

k N·m.

Problem

4. A rod of mass m and length ℓ is falling freely in a

horizontal orientation, with no torque about its

center of mass. Find the magnitude of the torque

about either end. Why does your answer not

violate the point made in Problem 8?

208 CHAPTER 14

Solution

The magnitude of the torque on a body of mass M in

a constant gravity ﬁeld is |τ

grav

| = |r

cm

×Mg| =

r

cm

Mg sin θ. With origin at either end, r

cm

=

1

2

ℓ, and

sinθ = 1 for horizontal orientation, hence τ

grav

=

1

2

Mgℓ. With origin at the CM (r

cm

= 0) the torque is

zero, but this does not contradict the result of

Problem 8 since

F = Mg = 0 in free fall.

Problem

5. In Fig. 14-26 the forces shown all have the same

magnitude F. For each of the cases shown, is it

possible to place a third force so the three forces

meet both conditions for static equilibrium? If so,

specify the force and a suitable application point; if

not, why not?

figure 14-26 Problem 5.

Solution

The conditions for static equilibrium, under the action

of three forces, can be written as: F

3

= −(F

1

+F

2

)

and r

3

×F

3

= −(r

1

×F

1

+r

2

×F

2

). (a) In this case,

F

1

= Fˆ, r

1

= (2 m)ˆ, F

2

= Fˆı, and r

2

= (1 m)ˆ.

Thus, F

3

= −F(ˆı +ˆ), which is a force of magnitude

√

2F, 45

◦

down into the third quadrant (θ

x

= 225

◦

or

−135

◦

CCW from the x axis). The point of

application, r

3

, can be found from the second

condition, r

3

×F

3

= (x

3

ˆı +y

3

ˆ) ×(−Fˆı − Fˆ) =

(−x

3

+y

3

)F

ˆ

k = −r

1

× F

1

−r

2

×F

2

= 0 −(1 m)ˆ×

Fˆı = (1 m)F

ˆ

k. Thus, −x

3

+y

3

= 1 m, or the line of

action of F

3

passes through the point of application of

F

2

(the point (0, 1 m)). Any point on this line is a

suitable point of application for F

3

(e.g. the point

(0, 1 m)). (b) In this case, F

1

= −F

2

so F

3

= 0, but

r

1

× F

1

+r

2

×F

2

= (r

2

−r

1

) ×F

2

= 0 so r

3

×

F

3

= 0. Thus there is no single force that can be

added to produce static equilibrium.

Problem

6. Are there any other application points for the force

F

3

in Problem 2 that will ensure that both static

equilibrium conditions are met?

Solution

Equation 14-1 does not involve the points of

application of the forces. Equation 14-2 can be

satisﬁed for any point of application r

′

3

, for F

3

,

provided r

′

3

×F

3

= r

3

×F

3

, or (x

′

3

ˆı +y

′

3

ˆ) ×ˆ =

(−7ˆı +ˆ) ×ˆ, which implies x

′

3

= −7. Thus, any point

along the line x = −7 is a possible point of application

for F

3

, satisfying the equilibrium conditions.

Problem

7. Four forces act on a body, as shown in Fig. 14-27.

Write the set of scalar equations that must hold for

the body to be in equilibrium, evaluating the

torques (a) about point O and (b) about point P.

φ

φ

F

3

F

2

F

1

F

4

P

O

1

2

figure 14-27 Problem 7.

Solution

All of the forces lie in the same plane, which includes

the points O and P, so there are two independent

components of the force condition (Equation 14-1)

and one component of the torque condition

(Equation 14-2). Taking the x axis to the right, the y

axis up and the z axis out of the page in Figure 14-27,

we have:

F

x

= 0 = −F

1

+F

2

sin φ+F

3

,

F

y

= 0 =

−F

2

cos φ +F

4

, (

τ

z

)

0

= 0 = −ℓ

1

F

2

−ℓ

2

F

3

sin φ +

ℓ

2

F

4

cos φ, and (

τ

z

)

P

= −ℓ

2

F

1

sin φ + (ℓ

2

−ℓ

1

)×

F

2

= 0. (The lever arms of all the forces about either

O or P should be evident from Fig. 14-27).

CHAPTER 14 209

Problem

8. In this problem you prove the statement in Sec-

tion 14-1 that the choice of pivot point does not

matter when applying the conditions for static

equilibrium. Figure 14-28 shows an object on which

the net force is assumed to be zero. Also, the net

torque about the point O shown is zero. You’re to

show that the net torque about any other point P is

also zero. To do so, write the net torque about P as

τ

P

=

r

Pi

×F

i

, where the vectors r

P

are from P

to the force application points, and the index i

labels the diﬀerent forces. Note in Fig. 14-28 that

r

Pi

= r

Oi

+R, where R is a vector from P to O.

Use this result in your expression for τ

P

and apply

the distributive law to get two separate sums. Use

the assumptions that F

net

= 0 and τ

O

= 0 to argue

that both terms are zero. This completes the proof.

figure 14-28 Problem 8.

Solution

With reference to Fig. 14-28, we can write τ

p

=

r

Pi

×F

i

=

(r

Oi

+R) ×F

i

=

r

Oi

×F

i

+

R×

F

i

= τ

O

+R×F

net

= τ

O

. If F

net

= 0, the

total torque about any two points is the same.

Section 14-2: Center of Gravity

Problem

9. Figure 14-29a shows a thin, uniform square plate of

mass m and side ℓ. The plate is in a vertical plane.

Find the magnitude of the gravitational torque on

the plate about each of the three points shown.

Solution

The center of gravity is at the center of a uniform

plate. In calculating the gravitational torque, one may

consider the entire weight as acting at the center of

gravity. (a) r

A

=

√

2ℓ/2 at 135

◦

from the weight of the

plate, so τ

A

= (

√

2ℓ/2)mg sin 135

◦

=

1

2

mg ℓ. (b) r

B

is

figure 14-29(a) Problem 9 Solution.

colinear with the weight, so τ

B

= 0. (c) τ

C

=

1

2

ℓ mg sin 90

◦

=

1

2

mg ℓ (but note that τ

C

= −τ

A

).

(We also assumed that B and C are at the centers of

their respective sides. Alternatively, the torques can

be found from the lever arms shown.)

Problem

10. Figure 14-29b shows a thin, uniform plate of

mass m in the shape of an equilateral triangle of

side ℓ. The plate is in a vertical plane. Find the

magnitude of the gravitational torque on the plate

about each of the three points shown.

Solution

The center of gravity is at the center of the triangle, a

perpendicular distance of ℓ/2

√

3 from any side.

(a) The lever arm of the weight about point A is ℓ/2

so τ

A

=

1

2

mgℓ. (b) The lever arm about point B is

zero, and τ

B

= 0. (c) The lever arm about point C is

ℓ/4 (C is halfway up from the base) so τ

C

=

1

4

mgℓ.

(Of course, τ

A

and τ

C

are in opposite directions. The

torque could also be found from Equation 12-12.)

Problem

11. Three identical books of length L are stacked over

the edge of a table as shown in Fig. 14-30. The

top book overhangs the middle one by

1

2

L, so it

just barely avoids falling. The middle book

overhangs the bottom one by

1

4

L. How much of

the bottom book can be allowed to overhang the

edge of the table without the books falling?

210 CHAPTER 14

figure 14-29(b) Problem 10 Solution.

Solution

In equilibrium, the farthest right the center of mass of

the combination of three books can lie is directly above

the edge of the table. (This is unstable equilibrium,

since the slightest disturbance to the right would cause

the books to fall.) The center of mass of each book is

at its center, so if we take the origin at the edge with

positive to the right, this condition becomes

0 = x

cm

=

1

3m

_

mx

1

+m(x

1

+

1

4

L) +m(x

1

+

1

4

L +

1

2

L)

_

,

where x

1

is the horizontal position of the center of the

bottom book, and the centers of the other books are

displaced as given. Therefore, 3x

1

+L = 0, or

x

1

= −

1

3

L. If the center of the bottom book is

1

3

L to

the left of the edge, then only

1

2

L −

1

3

L =

1

6

L can

overhang on the right. (An argument based on torques

is equivalent, since at the farthest right position, the

normal contact force on the books acts essentially just

at the table’s edge.)

figure 14-30 Problem 11 Solution.

Problem

12. A 60-kg uniform tabletop 2.4 m long is supported

by a pivot 80 cm from the left end, and by a scale

at the right end (Fig. 14-31). How far from the

left end should a 40-kg child sit if the scale is to

read zero?

Solution

See the solution to the next problem, when F

s

= 0.

figure 14-31 Problem 12 Solution.

Section 14-3: Examples of Static Equilibrium

Problem

13. Where should the child in Fig. 14-31 sit if the

scale is to read (a) 100 N and (b) 300 N?

Solution

If we consider torques about the pivot point (so that

the force exerted by the pivot does not contribute)

then Equation 14-2 is suﬃcient to determine the

position of the child. As shown on Fig. 14-31, the

weight of the tabletop (acting at its center of gravity),

the weight of the child (acting a distance x from the

left end), and the scale force, F

s

, produce zero torque

about the pivot:

(1/g) (

τ)

P

= 0 =

(F

s

/g)(160 cm) −(60 kg)(40 cm) + (40 kg)(80 cm−x).

Therefore, x = 20 cm + (F

s

/9.8 N)4 cm. If (a) F

s

=

100 N, then x = 20 cm + (400/9.8) cm = 60.8 cm, and

if (b) F

s

= 300 N, x = 142 cm. (Note that the child is

on opposite sides of the pivot in parts (a) and (b),

since without the child, F

s

= 147 N.)

Problem

14. A 4.2-m-long beam is supported by a cable at its

center. A 65-kg steelworker stands at one end of

the beam. Where should a 190-kg bucket of

concrete be suspended if the beam is to be in

static equilibrium?

Solution

The sum of the torques on the beam (taken about its

center, C, so that the cable’s tension and beam’s

CHAPTER 14 211

Problem 14 Solution.

weight do not enter the equation) is equal to zero.

Therefore, (190 kg)g(x) = (65 kg)g(2.1 m), or

x = 71.8 cm, on the opposite side of C from the

worker. (Note: Since sinθ = sin(π −θ) will cancel from

the torque equation, the beam need not be horizontal

to be in equilibrium; the steelworker’s mental

equilibrium is greatest when the beam is horizontal.)

Problem

15. Two pulleys are mounted on a horizontal axle, as

shown in Fig. 14-32. The inner pulley has a

diameter of 6.0 cm, the outer a diameter of 20 cm.

Cords are wrapped around both pulleys so they

don’t slip. In the conﬁguration shown, with what

force must you pull on the outer rope in order to

support the 40-kg mass?

Solution

Since each cord is tangent to its respective pulley, the

lever arms are just the radii, as shown on the ﬁgure.

The two torques are equal in magnitude, R

1

F

1

=

R

2

F

2

, so that

F

1

= (40 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(6 cm) = (20 cm) = 118 N.

figure 14-32 Problem 15 Solution.

Problem

16. A 23-m-long log of irregular cross section is lying

horizontally, supported by a wall at one end and a

cable attached 4.0 m from the other end, as shown

in Fig. 14-33. The log weighs 7.5×10

3

N, and the

tension in the cable is 6.2×10

3

N. Where is the

log’s center of gravity?

Solution

The log is in equilibrium under the torques exerted by

the cable, gravity, and the wall. Calculating the

torques about the point of contact with the wall

(because the other two forces are given), we ﬁnd

(6.2 kN)(23 −4) m = (7.5 kN)x

CG,

or x

CG

= 15.7 m,

from the end on the wall.

figure 14-33 Problem 16 Solution.

Problem

17. Figure 14-34 shows a traﬃc signal, with masses

and positions of its various members indicated.

The structure is mounted with two bolts, located

symmetrically about the vertical member’s

centerline, as indicated. What tension force must

the left-hand bolt be capable of withstanding?

figure 14-34 Problem 17 Solution.

Solution

The forces on the traﬃc signal structure, and their

lever arms about point 0 (on the vertical member’s

212 CHAPTER 14

centerline between the bolts) are shown on Fig. 14-34.

The normal forces exerted by the bolts and the ground

on the vertical member are designated by N

ℓ

and N

r

,

measured positive upward. (Of course, the ground can

only make a positive contribution, and the bolts only a

negative contribution, to these normal forces.) The

two conditions of static equilibrium needed to

determine N

ℓ

and N

r

are:

F

y

= 0 = N

ℓ

+N

r

−

(9.8)(320 + 170 + 65) N (the vertical component of

Equation 14-1, positive up) and (

τ

z

)

0

= 0 =

(N

r

−N

ℓ

)(0.38 m) −(170 ×3.5 + 65 ×8)(9.8 N·m) (the

out-of-the-page-component of Equation 14-2, positive

CCW). These can be written as N

r

+N

ℓ

= 5.44 kN,

and N

r

−N

ℓ

= 28.8 kN. Thus N

ℓ

= −11.7 kN, which

is downward and must be exerted by the bolt. The

reaction force on the bolt is upward and is a tensile

force. (Really, N

ℓ

is the diﬀerence between the

downward force exerted by the bolt and the upward

force exerted by the ground. Tightening the bolt

increases the tensile force it must withstand beyond

the minimum value calculated above, under the

assumption that the ground exerts no force.)

Problem

18. Figure 14-35 shows how a scale with a capacity of

only 250 N can be used to weigh a heavier person.

The board is 3.0 m long, has a mass of 3.4 kg, and

is of uniform density. It is free to pivot about the

end farthest from the scale. What is the weight of

a person standing 1.2 m from the pivot end, if the

scale reads 210 N? Assume that the beam remains

nearly horizontal.

Solution

Since the board is at rest, the sum of the torques

(positive CCW in Fig. 14-35) is zero about the pivot

(due to the weight of the person, the weight of the

board acting at its CG, and the scale force, as shown).

Thus, (

τ

z

)

P

= 0 = (210 N)(3 m) −(3.4×9.8 N)×

(1.5 m) −W(1.2 m), or W = 483 N.

figure 14-35 Problem 18 Solution.

Problem

19. Figure 14-36a shows an outstretched arm with a

mass of 4.2 kg The arm is 56 cm long, and its

center of gravity is 21 cm from the shoulder. The

hand at the end of the arm holds a 6.0-kg mass.

(a) What is the torque about the shoulder due to

the weights of the arm and the 6.0-kg mass? (b) If

the arm is held in equilibrium by the deltoid

muscle, whose force on the arm acts 5.0

◦

below

the horizontal at a point 18 cm from the shoulder

joint (Fig. 14-36b), what is the force exerted by

the muscle?

Solution

(a) The magnitude of the (external) torque on the

arm is τ

0

= [(4.2 kg)(0.21 m) + (6 kg)(0.56 m)] ×

(9.8 m/s

2

) sin 105

◦

= 40.2 N·m. The direction is

clockwise (into the page) about the shoulder joint.

(b) The deltoid muscle exerts a counterclockwise

torque of magnitude Fr sin θ = F(0.18 m) sin170

◦

,

which, under equilibrium conditions, equals the

magnitude of the torque in part (a). Thus, F =

40.2 N·m/(0.18 m) sin 170

◦

= 1.28 kN, underscoring

the comment at the end of Example 14-5. The

skeleto-muscular structure of the human extremities

evolved for speed and range of motion, not mechanical

advantage.

figure 14-36 Problem 19 Solution.

Problem

20. Figure 14-37 shows a portable infant seat that is

supported by the edge of a table. The mass of the

seat is 1.5 kg, and its center of mass is located

16 cm from the table edge. A 12-kg baby is sitting

in the seat with her center of mass over the seat’s

CHAPTER 14 213

center of mass. Find the forces F

A

and F

B

that

the seat exerts on the table.

Solution

The infant seat is in equilibrium under the reaction

forces to F

A

and F

B

, and the weight of the seat and

infant. Thus,

F

y

= 0

= F

B

−F

A

−(1.5 kg + 12 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)

(positive up)

(

τ)

A

= 0

= (22 cm)F

B

−(16 + 22) cm(13.5)(9.8) N

(positive CCW)

Solving for F

B

from the torque equation and F

A

from the force equation, we ﬁnd F

B

= 229 N and

F

A

= 96.2 N, in the directions shown in the ﬁgure.

940

figure 14-37 Problem 20 Solution.

Problem

21. A 15.0-kg door measures 2.00 m high by 75.0 cm

wide. It hangs from hinges mounted 18.0 cm from

top and bottom. Assuming that each hinge carries

half the door’s weight, determine the horizontal

and vertical forces that the door exerts on each

hinge.

Solution

If the door is properly hung, all the forces on the door

are coplanar. We assume that the CM is at the

geometrical center of the door. The conditions for

equilibrium are:

F

x

= 0 = F

Ax

+F

Bx

,

F

y

= 0 = F

Ay

+F

By

−Mg,

(

τ)

B

= 0 = r

A

×F

A

+r

cm

×Mg

= (164 cmˆ) ×(F

Ax

ˆı +F

Ay

ˆ)

+(37.5 cmˆı + 82 cmˆ) ×(−Mgˆ),

where we chose to calculate torques about the lower

hinge at B. Expanding the cross products, 0 =

164F

Ax

(−

ˆ

k) −37.5Mg(

ˆ

k), we ﬁnd F

Ax

= −(37.5)×

(15 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)/(164) = −33.6 N. From the

x equation, F

Bx

= −F

Ax

= 33.6 N, and by assumption,

F

Ay

= F

By

=

1

2

Mg = 73.5 N. Of course, the forces

exerted by the door on the hinges (by Newton’s third

law) are the reactions to the forces, F

A

and F

B

, just

calculated.

Problem 21 Solution.

Problem

22. Figure 14-38 shows a popular system for mounting

bookshelves. An aluminum bracket is mounted on

a vertical aluminum support by small tabs inserted

into vertical slots. If each bracket in a shelf system

supports 32 kg of books, with the center of gravity

12 cm out from the vertical support, what is the

horizontal component of the force exerted on the

upper of the two bracket tabs? Assume contact

between the bracket and support occurs only at

the upper tab and at the bottom of the bracket,

4.5 cm below the upper tab.

Solution

The forces on the bracket are shown superposed on

Fig. 14-38, assuming only a normal force on the

bottom. Equilibrium implies

F

x

= 0 = F

Ax

+F

B

,

214 CHAPTER 14

and (

τ

z

)

A

= 0 = (4.5 cm)F

B

−(12 cm)W. (We

chose to evaluate the z component (out of the page) of

the torques about the upper tab, at A, and note that

F

y

= 0 is not needed.) The solution for F

Ax

is

immediate: F

Ax

= −F

B

= −(12/4.5)W = −(2.67)×

(32 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

) = −836 N. The negative

x component means that a tensile force is exerted on

the upper tab, as expected. (Note that the upper tab

must also support the weight of the books.)

figure 14-38 Problem 22 Solution.

Problem

23. Figure 14-39 shows a house designed to have high

“cathedral” ceilings. Following a heavy snow, the

total mass supported by each diagonal roof rafter

is 170 kg, including building materials as well as

snow. Under these conditions, what is the force in

the horizontal tie beam near the roof peak? Is this

force a compression or a tension? Neglect any

horizontal component of force due to the vertical

walls below the roof. Ignore the widths of the

various structural components, treating contact

forces as though they were concentrated at the

roof peak and at the outside edge of the

rafter/wall junction.

Solution

The forces on one of the diagonal rafters are drawn on

Fig. 14-39. If the rafters are symmetrical (without

internal stress), and we neglect the weight of the tie

beam, F

B

and F

C

will be horizontal. W and F

A

are

vertical, the latter by assumption, and we suppose W

acts at the center of the rafter. The equilibrium

conditions needed to ﬁnd F

B

are:

F

x

= 0 = F

B

−

F

C

, and (

τ

z

)

A

= 0, or 0 = (4 m)F

C

−(3.2 m)F

B

−

(2.4 m)W. (Point A was chosen to eliminate F

A

from

the equation.) The solution is F

B

= 2.4W/(4 −3.2) =

5.00 kN. The force on the tie beam (the reaction to

F

B

is a tension. (The function of the tie beam is

precisely to relieve any horizontal force that the roof

may exert on the walls.)

figure 14-39 Problem 23 Solution.

Problem

24. Repeat Example 14-4, now assuming that the

coeﬃcient of friction at the ﬂoor is µ

1

and that at

the wall µ

2

. Show that the minimum angle at

which the board will not slip is now given by

φ = tan

−1

_

1 −µ

1

µ

2

2µ

1

_

.

figure 14-11(b) Problem 24 Solution.

Solution

The addition of a frictional force on the board where it

contacts the wall is shown in the sketch (see

Fig. 14-11b). We assume that f

2

= µ

2

N

2

is the

maximum frictional force and that it acts to oppose

the fall of the board. (If f

2

is not proportional to N

2

,

there is insuﬃcient data to solve this Problem.) The

equations of static equilibrium in Example 14-4

CHAPTER 14 215

become: f

1

−N

2

= 0 (horizontal), N

1

+µ

2

N

2

−mg = 0

(vertical), and N

2

Lsinφ +µ

2

N

2

Lcos φ −

1

2

mgLcos φ = 0 (torque about bottom of board). The

minimum angle φ can be found from the horizontal

equation and the requirement that N

2

= f

1

≤

µ

1

N

1

. N

1

can be eliminated from the vertical

equation, N

2

≤ µ

1

(mg −µ

2

N

2

) or (1 +µ

1

µ

2

)×

N

2

≤ µ

1

mg. N

2

can be eliminated from the torque

equation, N

2

(tanφ +µ

2

) =

1

2

mg, so this condition

becomes

1

2

mg(1 +µ

1

µ

2

)/(µ

2

+ tanφ) ≤ µ

1

mg, or

tanφ ≥ (1 −µ

1

µ

2

)/2µ

1

.

Problem

25. A uniform sphere of radius R is supported by a

rope attached to a vertical wall, as shown in

Fig. 14-40. The point where the rope is attached

to the sphere is located so a continuation of the

rope would intersect a horizontal line through the

sphere’s center a distance R/2 beyond the center,

as shown. What is the smallest possible value for

the coeﬃcient of friction between wall and sphere?

Solution

In equilibrium, the sum of the torques about the

center of the sphere must be zero, so the frictional

force is up, as shown. The lever arm of the tension in

the rope is

1

2

Rcos 30

◦

=

√

3R = 4, and the weight and

normal force exert no torque about the center. Thus,

fR = T

√

3R/4. The sum of the horizontal components

of the forces is zero also, so 0 = N −T sin30

◦

, or

T = 2N. Therefore f =

1

2

√

3 N. Since f ≤ µ

s

N, this

implies µ

s

≥ f/N =

1

2

√

3 = 0.87.

figure 14-40 Problem 25 Solution.

Problem

26. Show that if the wall in the previous problem is

frictionless, then a continuation of the rope line

must pass through the center of the sphere.

Solution

From the preceding solution, it is clear that, in the

absence of friction, the condition that the sum of the

torques about the center of the sphere is zero implies

that the lever arm of the tension is zero, or that the

rope must be in line with the center.

Problem

27. A garden cart loaded with ﬁrewood is being

pushed horizontally when it encounters a step 8.0

cm high, as shown in Fig. 14-41. The mass of the

cart and its load is 55 kg, and the cart is balanced

so that its center of mass is directly over the axle.

The wheel diameter is 60 cm. What is the

minimum horizontal force that will get the cart up

the step?

8.0 cm

60 cm

F

figure 14-41 Problem 27.

figure 14-41 Problem 27 Solution.

Solution

We assume that a horizontal push on the cart results

in a horizontal force exerted on the wheels by the axle,

as shown. (We also suppose both wheels share the

forces equally, so they can be treated together.) Also

shown are the weight of the cart and the normal force

of the ground, both acting through the center of the

wheels, and the force of the step, F

s

. If we consider

the sum of the torques (positive CCW) about the step,

216 CHAPTER 14

the latter does not contribute, and the wheels (and

cart) will remain stationary as long as (

τ)

step

=

MgRsin θ −NRsin θ −FRcos θ = 0. When N = 0,

however, the wheels begin to lose contact with the

ground and go over the step. This occurs when

F = Mg tanθ. From the geometry of the situation,

R(1 − cos θ) = h, the height of the step, so θ =

cos

−1

(1 −h/R) = cos

−1

(1 −8/30). Then F = (55×

9.8 N) tan(cos

−1

(11/15)) = 500 N is the minimum

force.

Problem

28. Figure 14-42 shows the foot and lower leg of a

person standing on the ball of one foot. Three

forces act on the foot to maintain this equilibrium:

the tension force T in the Achilles tendon, contact

force F

C

at the ankle joint, and the normal force

N of the ground that supports the person’s

weight. The person’s mass is 70 kg, and the force

application points are as indicated in Fig. 14-42.

Find the magnitude of (a) the tension in the

Achilles tendon and (b) the contact force at the

ankle joint.

figure 14-42 Problem 28 Solution.

Solution

If we approximate the bones in the foot as a massless,

planar, rigid body, the equilibrium conditions for the

situation depicted in Fig. 14-42 are:

F

x

=

T sin 25

◦

−F

C,x

= 0,

F

y

= T cos 25

◦

+N −F

C,y

= 0,

and (

τ)

ankle joint

= N(12 cm) −T(7 cm) sin 115

◦

=

0. Then with N = 70 ×9.8 N, one ﬁnds (a) T =

N(12 cm)/(7 cm) sin 115

◦

= 1.30 kN, and (b) F

C,x

=

T sin 25

◦

= 0.548 kN, F

C,y

= T cos 25

◦

+N = 1.86 kN,

and F

C

=

_

F

2

C,x

+F

2

C,y

= 1.94 kN.

Problem

29. The leaning Tower of Pisa (Fig. 14-43) currently

leans at a 4.7

◦

angle to the vertical. Treating the

tower as a solid cylinder, what is the maximum

angle at which it can lean before falling over?

Treat the tower as a uniform cylinder 7.0 m in

diameter and 55 m high, and assume the ground

supports the tower’s weight but does not provide

any torque.

Solution

The center of mass of the tower must be somewhere

over its footprint on the ground, or it will topple. This

will be so, for a uniform cylindrical model of the

tower, if the angle of tilt φ is less than the angle α

that a diagonal makes with the length, as indicated on

Fig. 14-43. Therefore φ ≤ α = tan

−1

(7m/55m) =

7.25

◦

.

figure 14-43 Problem 29 Solution.

Problem

30. A uniform 5.0-kg ladder is leaning against a

frictionless vertical wall, with which it makes a

15

◦

angle. The coeﬃcient of friction between

ladder and ground is 0.26. Can a 65-kg person

climb to the top of the ladder without it slipping?

If not, how high can the person climb? If so, how

massive a person would make the ladder slip?

Solution

It is shown in the solution to Problem 45, that the

condition for a person of mass m to climb up a

fraction of length of ladder without the ladder slipping

is α ≤ µ

s

cot θ + (m

ℓ

/m)(µ

s

cot θ −

1

2

), where µ

s

is the

coeﬃcient of friction with the ﬂoor, θ the angle with

the vertical frictionless wall, and m

ℓ

the mass of the

ladder. For the situation in this problem, µ

s

cot θ =

0.26 cot 15

◦

= 0.970 and α ≤ 0.970 + (5/65)(0.470) =

1.01. Therefore (since α ≤ 1, by deﬁnition) a 65-kg

person can climb all the way to the top. However, the

right-hand side of the condition is less than 1 for m >

m

ℓ

(µ

s

cot θ−

1

2

)/(1−µ

s

cot θ) = 5 kg(0.470)/(0.0297) =

79.3 kg, so a person with mass greater than 79.3 kg

causes the ladder to slip before reaching the top.

CHAPTER 14 217

Problem

31. The boom in the crane of Fig. 14-44 is free to

pivot about point P and is supported by the cable

that joins halfway along its 18-m total length. The

cable passes over a pulley and is anchored at the

back of the crane. The boom has mass 1700 kg,

distributed uniformly along its length, and the

mass hanging from the end of the boom is

2200 kg. The boom makes a 50

◦

angle with the

horizontal. What is the tension in the cable that

supports the boom?

figure 14-44 Problem 31 Solution.

Solution

The forces on the boom are shown superposed on the

ﬁgure. By assumption, T is horizontal and acts at the

CM of the boom. To ﬁnd T, we compute the torques

about P, (

τ)

P

= 0, obtaining:

T

1

2

ℓ sin50

◦

−m

b

g

1

2

ℓ cos 50

◦

−mgℓ cos 50

◦

= 0,

or

T = (2m+m

b

)g cot 50

◦

= (4400 + 1700)(9.8 N) cot 50

◦

= 50.2 kN.

Problem

32. A uniform board of length ℓ and weight W is

suspended between two vertical walls by ropes of

length ℓ/2 each. When a weight w is placed on the

left end of the board, it assumes the conﬁguration

shown in Fig. 14-45. Find the weight w in terms

of the board weight W.

Solution

The conditions for equilibrium (about the origin

drawn on the ﬁgure) are:

F

x

= 0 = T

2

sin 60

◦

−T

1

sin 35

◦

,

F

y

= 0 = T

2

cos 60

◦

+T

1

cos 35

◦

−w −W,

(

τ

z

)

0

= 0 = T

2

ℓ sin20.8

◦

−W

1

2

ℓ sin99.2

◦

.

Therefore:

T

2

= 0.5W sin 99.2

◦

/ sin 20.8

◦

= 1.39W,

T

1

= T

2

sin60

◦

/ sin35

◦

= 2.10W,

and w = T

1

cos 35

◦

+T

2

cos 60

◦

−W = 1.41W.

figure 14-45 Problem 32 Solution.

Problem

33. Figure 14-46 shows a 1250-kg car that has slipped

over the edge of an embankment. A group of

people are trying to hold the car in place by

pulling on a horizontal rope, as shown. The car’s

bottom is pivoted on the edge of the embankment,

and its center of mass lies further back, as shown.

If the car makes a 34

◦

angle with the horizontal,

what force must the group apply to hold it in

place?

Solution

Three forces act on the car, as shown added to

Fig. 14-46. The unknown force, F

P

, exerted by the

edge of the embankment, does not contribute to

Equation 14-2 (positive torques CCW) if evaluated

about point P, so the tension necessary to keep the car

in equilibrium can be found directly. (

τ)

P

= 0 =

Mg(2.4 m−1.8 m) cos 34

◦

−T(1.8 m) sin 34

◦

, or

T = (1250×9.8 N)/3 tan34

◦

= 6.05 kN.

figure 14-46 Problem 33 Solution.

Problem

34. A uniform board of length ℓ is dangling over a

frictionless edge, secured by a horizontal rope, as

218 CHAPTER 14

shown in Fig. 14-47. Show that the angle it makes

with the horizontal must be θ = sin

−1

_

2d/ℓ,

where d is the distance from the edge to the center

of the board.

Solution

See the solution to the next Problem.

Problem

35. Figure 14-47 shows a uniform board dangling over

a frictionless edge, secured by a horizontal rope. If

the angle θ in Fig. 14-47 were 30

◦

, what fraction

would the distance d shown in the ﬁgure be of the

board length ℓ?

figure 14-47 Problems 34, 35.

Solution

The three forces acting on the board are in the same

conﬁguration as those in Problem 33, so Equation 14-2

about the edge gives Mgd cos θ = T(

1

2

ℓ −d) sinθ. If

the edge is frictionless, then F

P

is perpendicular to

the board, so Equation 14-1 requires T = F

P

sin θ and

Mg = F

P

cos θ. Substituting above, we ﬁnd

F

P

d cos

2

θ = F

P

(

1

2

ℓ −d) sin

2

θ, or d(cos

2

θ + sin

2

θ) =

1

2

ℓ sin

2

θ and θ = sin

−1

_

2d/ℓ. For θ = 30

◦

, d/ℓ =

1

2

sin

2

30

◦

=

1

8

.

Section 14-4: Stability of Equilibria

Problem

36. A portion of a roller coaster track is described by

h = 0.94x −0.010x

2

, where h and x are the height

and horizontal position in meters. (a) Find a point

where the roller coaster car could be in static

equilibrium on this track. (b) Is the equilibrium

stable or unstable? (c) What is the height of the

track at the equilibrium point?

Solution

The potential energy of the roller coaster car, in the

equivalent one-dimensional problem, is U(x) = mgh =

mg(0.94x −0.01x

2

). (a) Equation 14-3, the condition

for equilibrium, gives dU/dx = 0 = mg(0.94 −0.02x),

or x = 47 m (b) Since d

2

U/dx

2

= −0.02mg < 0,

Equation 14-5 implies this is an unstable equilibrium.

(c) h(47) = 0.94(47) −0.01(47)

2

= 22.1 m.

(a) (b)

figure 14-48 Problem 37.

Problem

37. A roly-poly toy clown is made from part of a

sphere topped by a cone. The sphere is truncated

at just the right point so that there is no

discontinuity in angle as the surface changes from

sphere to cone (Fig. 14-48a). If the clown always

returns to an upright position, what is the

maximum possible height for its center of mass?

Would your answer change if the continuity-of-

angle condition were not met, as in Fig. 14-48b?

Solution

Suppose the roly-poly rests on a ﬂat horizontal

surface. Its spherical surface is always tangent to the

horizontal if the continuity-of-angle condition holds, as

in sketch (a) (except when upside-down on the point

of the cone). Gravity will always exert a restoring

torque if the CM lies to the left of the vertical through

the left-most point of contact, B, as shown. Since this

vertical passes through O, the center of the sphere, the

CM should lie “below” O, as measured from the

bottom point, A, on the axis.

If the continuity-of-angle condition is not met, the

cone, in general, intersects the sphere in one of two

circles (through BB

′

or CC

′

, as in sketch (b)). If CC

′

is the actual boundary, the reasoning in the ﬁrst

paragraph still applies. However, if BB

′

is the

boundary, the maximum distance of the CM from

point A should be < AQ (considerably “lower”

than O).

CHAPTER 14 219

Problem 37 Solution.

Problem

38. A uniform rectangular block is twice as long as it

is wide. Letting θ be the angle that the long

dimension makes with the horizontal, determine

the angular positions of any static equilibria, and

comment on their stability.

Solution

Consideration of the block, tilted in a plane

perpendicular to its thickness (the unspeciﬁed

dimension in this question) reveals that θ = 0

◦

is a

stable equilibrium position, θ = 90

◦

a metastable one,

and θ +α = 90

◦

an unstable one (α is the angle a

diagonal makes with the longer side, as shown). Since

tanα = ℓ/2ℓ =

1

2

, the unstable equilibrium is at

θ = 90

◦

−tan

−1

(

1

2

) = 63.4

◦

.

Problem 38 Solution.

Problem

39. The potential energy as a function of position for

a certain particle is given by

U(x) = U

0

_

x

3

x

3

0

+a

x

2

x

2

0

+ 4

x

x

0

_

,

where U

0

, x

0

, and a are constants. For what values

of a will there be two static equilibria? Comment

on the stability of these equilibria.

Solution

The equilibrium condition, dU/dx = 0 (Equa-

tion 14-3), requires 3(x/x

0

)

2

+ 2a(x/x

0

) + 4 = 0. This

quadratic has two real roots if the discriminant is

positive, i.e., a

2

−12 > 0, or |a| > 2

√

3. The roots are

(x/x

0

)

±

=

1

3

(−a ±

√

a

2

−12). The second derivative of

the potential energy, evaluated at these roots, is

_

d

2

U

dx

2

_

±

=

U

0

x

2

0

_

6

_

x

x

0

_

±

+ 2a

_

= ±2

_

a

2

−12

_

U

0

x

2

0

_

.

Thus, the “plus” root is a position of metastable

equilibrium (Equation 14-4), while the “minus” root

represents unstable equilibrium, (Equation 14-5). A

plot of the potential energy, which is a cubic, will

clarify these remarks. For |a| ≤ 2

√

3, U(x)has no

wiggles, as shown. (U passes through the origin, but

its position depends on the value of “a”, and is not

shown.)

750

Problem 39 Solution.

Problem

40. A cubical block rests on an inclined board with

two sides parallel to the direction of the incline.

The coeﬃcient of static friction between block and

board is 0.95. If the inclination angle of the board

is increased, will the block ﬁrst slide or ﬁrst tip

over?

Solution

Reference to the solution of Problem 57 shows that

the cube will tip over when θ > tan

−1

(w/h) = 45

◦

, but

220 CHAPTER 14

will slide when θ > tan

−1

0.95 = 43.5

◦

. It thus slides

before tipping.

Paired Problems

Problem

41. Figure 14-49 shows a 66-kg sign hung centered

from a uniform rod of mass 8.2 kg and length

2.3 m. At one end the rod is attached to the wall

by a pivot; at the other end it’s supported by a

cable that can withstand a maximum tension of

800 N. What is the minimum height h above the

pivot for anchoring the cable to the wall?

Solution

Suppose that the sign is centered on the rod, so that

its CM lies under the center of the rod. Then the total

weight may be considered to act through the center of

the rod, as shown. In equilibrium, Equation 14-2

calculated about the pivot (which does not contain the

unknown pivot force) yields 0 = Tℓ sinθ −Mg

1

2

ℓ, or

T = Mg/2 sinθ. But, tanθ = h/ℓ, so T =

1

2

Mg×

_

1 +ℓ

2

/h

2

(use the identity 1 + cot

2

θ = csc

2

θ).

Therefore, the condition T ≤ T

max

implies 1 +ℓ

2

÷

h

2

≤ (2T

max

/Mg)

2

, or h ≥ ℓ/

_

(2T

max

/Mg)

2

−1 =

2.3 m/

_

(1600/74.2×9.8)

2

−1 = 1.17 m.

figure 14-49 Problem 41 Solution.

Problem

42. A crane in a marble quarry is mounted on the

rock walls of the quarry and is supporting a

2500-kg slab of marble as shown in Fig. 14-50.

The center of mass of the 830-kg boom is located

one-third of the way from the pivot end of its

15 m length, as shown. Find the tension in the

horizontal cable that supports the boom.

Solution

As in the previous problem, the equilibrium condition

for torques about the pivot does not contain the

unknown pivot force, and thus allows the tension to be

directly determined without use of the force equations.

Thus, Tℓ sin50

◦

= Mgℓ cos 50

◦

+mg

1

3

ℓ cos 50

◦

, or

T = (M +

1

3

m)g cot 50

◦

= (2500 +

1

3

×830)(9.8 N)×

cot 50

◦

= 22.8 kN.

figure 14-50 Problem 42 Solution.

Problem

43. A 4.2-kg plant hangs from the bracket shown in

Fig. 14-51. The bracket has a mass of 0.85 kg, and

its center of mass lies 9.0 cm from the wall. A

single screw holds the bracket to the wall, as

shown. Find the horizontal tension force in the

screw. Hint: Imagine that the bracket is slightly

loose and pivoting about its bottom end. Assume

the wall is frictionless.

Solution

We assume that the screw provides the total support

for the bracket, exerting a force with horizontal

component F

x

(the reaction to which is a tensile force

on the screw) and vertical component F

y

(the reaction

to which is a shearing force on the screw equal to the

total weight) as shown. A normal contact force

exerted by the wall could be distributed along the

bracket (e.g., by tightening the screw), but if we only

wish to estimate the minimum F

x

, we may consider all

the normal force to act at the lowest point of contact

of the bracket, point O. Then Equation 14-2 about O

gives F

x

(7.2 cm) = [(4.2 kg)(28 cm) + (0.85 kg)×

(9.0 cm)](9.8 m/s

2

) or F

x

= 170 N.

CHAPTER 14 221

figure 14-51 Problem 43 Solution.

Problem

44. A 160-kg highway sign of uniform density is 2.3 m

wide and 1.4 m high. At one side it is secured to a

pole with a single bolt, mounted a distance d from

the top of the sign. The only other place where

the sign contacts the pole is at its bottom corner.

If the bolt can sustain a horizontal tension of

2100 N, what is the maximum permissible value

for the distance d?

Solution

The forces on the sign are in a similar conﬁguration to

those in the preceding problem, as shown. (The weight

of the sign is shown acting at its center and the force

at the bottom corner could have a vertical

component.) To apply the limit on the tensile force

F

x

, we need only consider Equation 14-2 about point

O: F

x

(1.4 m−d) = (160×9.8 N)(1.15 m). Then

F

x

= (1.80 kN·m)/(1.4 m−d) < 2.1 kN implies that

d < 1.4 m−1.80 kN·m/2.1 kN = 54.1 cm.

Problem 44 Solution.

Problem

45. A 5.0-m-long ladder has mass 9.5 kg and is leaning

against a frictionless wall, making a 66

◦

angle with

the horizontal. If the coeﬃcient of friction between

the ladder and ground is 0.42, what is the mass

of the heaviest person who can safely ascend to

the top of the ladder? (The center of mass of the

ladder is at its center.)

Solution

The forces on the uniform ladder are shown in the

sketch, with the force exerted by the (frictionless) wall

horizontal. The person is up the ladder a fraction α of

its length. Equilibrium conditions require:

F

x

= 0 = f −F

wall

,

F

y

= 0 = N −(m

ℓ

+m)g,

(

τ)

A

= 0 = F

wall

ℓ cos θ −m

ℓ

g

1

2

ℓ sinθ −mgαℓ sinθ.

The ladder will not slip if f ≤ µ

s

N, which can be

written as

f = F

wall

= (

1

2

m

ℓ

+αm)g tanθ ≤ µ

s

N = µ

s

(m

ℓ

+m)g,

or

α ≤ [µ

s

(m

ℓ

+m) cot θ −

1

2

m

ℓ

]/m =

µ

s

cot θ + (m

ℓ

/m)(µ

s

cot θ −

1

2

).

(Here, we used the horizontal force equation to ﬁnd f,

the torque equation to ﬁnd F

wall

, and the vertical

222 CHAPTER 14

force equation to ﬁnd N.) For a person at the top of

the ladder, α = 1 and the condition for no slipping

becomes m ≤ m

ℓ

(µ

s

cot θ −

1

2

)/(1 −µ

s

cot θ). With the

data given for the ladder (note that cot θ = tan66

◦

)m

≤ (9.5 kg)(0.42 tan66

◦

−0.5)/(1 −0.42 tan 66

◦

) =

74.3 kg.

Problem 45 Solution.

Problem

46. To what vertical height on the ladder in the

preceding problem could a 95-kg person reach

before the ladder starts to slip?

Solution

For a 95-kg person, the condition that the ladder not

slip gives α ≤ 0.42 tan 66

◦

+ (9/95)(0.42 tan66

◦

−

0.5) = 98.8% as the maximum fraction up along the

length of the ladder. (See previous problem.) The

maximum height above the ground is just αℓ cos θ =

(0.988)(5 m) sin 66

◦

= 4.51 m.

Problem

47. A uniform, solid cube of mass m and side s is in

stable equilibrium when sitting on a level tabletop.

How much energy is required to bring it to an

unstable equilibrium where it’s resting on its

corner?

Solution

When balancing on a corner, the CM of a

uniform cube (i.e., its center) is a distance

_

(s/2)

2

+ (s/2)

2

+ (s/2)

2

=

√

3s/2 above the corner

resting on the tabletop. When in stable equilibrium,

the CM is s/2 above the tabletop. Thus, the potential

energy diﬀerence is ∆U = mg ∆y

cm

= mgs(

√

3 −1)/2.

Problem

48. An isosceles triangular block of mass m and height

h is in stable equilibrium, resting on its base on a

horizontal surface. How much energy does it take

to bring it to unstable equilibrium, resting on its

apex? Hint: Consult Example 10-3.

Solution

Example 10-3 shows that the CM of an isosceles

triangle is

1

3

the height from the base, or

2

3

the height

from the apex. The diﬀerence in energy between the

unstable and stable equilibrium mentioned is ∆U =

mg ∆y

cm

= mg(

2

3

h −

1

3

h) =

1

3

mgh.

Supplementary Problems

Problem

49. A uniform pole of mass M is at rest on an incline

of angle θ, secured by a horizontal rope as shown

in Fig. 14-52. What is the minimum coeﬃcient of

friction that will keep the pole from slipping?

figure 14-52 Problem 49 Solution.

Solution

The forces acting on the pole are the tension in the

rope, gravity (acting at the CM at its center) and the

contact force of the incline (perpendicular component

N and parallel component f ) as shown. Consideration

of Equation 14-2 about the CM shows that a frictional

force f must be acting up the plane if the rod is to

remain in static equilibrium. (Since the weight of the

rod, mg, and the normal force, N, contribute no

torques about the CM, there must be a force to

oppose the torque of the tension, T.) The equations

for static equilibrium (parallel and perpendicular

components of Equation 14-1, and CCW-positive

component of Equation 14-2) are:

F

||

= 0 =

f +T cos θ −mg sin θ,

F

⊥

= 0 = N −T sin θ −

mg cos θ, and (

τ)

cm

= 0 = T

1

2

ℓ cos θ −f

1

2

ℓ.

The solutions for the forces are f =

1

2

mg sinθ, T =

1

2

mg tanθ, and N =

1

2

mg(2 cos θ + sin

2

θ/ cos θ),

subject to the condition that f ≤ µN. Therefore

sin θ ≤ µ(2 cos θ + sin

2

θ/ cos θ) or µ ≥ tanθ ÷

(2 + tan

2

θ). (By use of the identities sin 2θ =

CHAPTER 14 223

2 sinθ cos θ, cos 2θ = cos

2

θ −sin

2

θ, and sin

2

θ =

1 −cos

2

θ, this may be rewritten as µ ≥ sin 2θ ÷

(3 + cos 2θ).)

Problem

50. For what angle does the situation of Problem 49

require the greatest coeﬃcient of friction?

Solution

The minimum coeﬃcient of friction found in the

previous problem, µ

min

(θ) = tanθ/(2 + tan

2

θ), is a

positive function which is zero at θ = 0

◦

and 90

◦

(the

limits of its domain). Therefore it has a maximum

when dµ

min

/dθ = 0, or 2 + tan

2

θ −2 tan

2

θ = 0, or

θ = tan

−1

√

2 = 54.7

◦

.

Problem

51. One end of a board of negligible mass is attached

to a spring of spring constant k, while its other

end rests on a frictionless surface, as shown in

Fig. 14-53. If a mass m is placed on the middle of

the board, by how much will the spring compress?

Solution

If the frictionless surface is horizontal, the three forces

acting on the board are vertical, as shown. For

equilibrium, N +F

s

= mg and (

τ)

cm

= 0. The

latter implies N = F

s

, so F

s

=

1

2

mg = k ∆x, and the

compression of the spring is ∆x = mg/2k.

figure 14-53 Problem 51 Solution.

Problem

52. A uniform ladder of mass m is leaning against a

frictionless vertical wall with which it makes an

angle θ. The coeﬃcient of static friction at the

ﬂoor is µ. Find an expression for the maximum

mass for a person who is able to climb to the top

of the ladder without its slipping. Use your result

to show that anyone can climb to the top if

µ ≥ tanθ, but that no one can if µ <

1

2

tanθ.

Solution

The condition for a person of mass m to be able to

reach the top of the ladder, which was found in the

solution to Problem 45, can be written as m ≤

m

ℓ

(2µ

s

−tanθ)/2(tanθ −µ

s

). Since m is positive, this

condition cannot be fulﬁlled if µ

s

≤

1

2

tanθ, i.e., no

one can climb to the top without causing the ladder to

slip, whereas if µ

s

= tanθ, the limit is ∞, so anyone

can climb to the top. (Note: the original expression,

α ≤ µ

s

cot θ + (m

ℓ

/m)(µ

s

cos θ −

1

2

), shows that α = 1

is allowed for any m, provided µ

s

cot θ > 1.)

Problem

53. Figure 14-54 shows a wheel on a slope with

inclination angle θ = 20

◦

, where the coeﬃcient of

friction is adequate to prevent the wheel from

slipping; however, it might still roll. The wheel is

a uniform disk of mass 1.5 kg, and it is weighted

at one point on the rim with an additional 0.95-kg

mass m. Find the angle φ shown in the ﬁgure such

that the wheel will be in static equilibrium.

Solution

The wheel doesn’t slide if

F

||

= 0 and it doesn’t roll

if (

τ)

center

= 0. (“||” means parallel to the incline,

and “center” is the center and CM of the wheel. These

are the only equilibrium conditions needed for the

solution of this problem.) With reference to the forces

shown added to Fig. 14-52, these conditions are

f = (M +m)g sinθ and fR = mgRcos φ. Together,

they imply f = mg cos φ = (M +m)g sin θ or φ =

cos

−1

[(1 +M/m) sinθ] = cos

−1

[(1 + 1.5/0.95)×

sin 20

◦

] = 28.1

◦

.

figure 14-54 Problem 53 Solution.

Problem

54. The wheel in Fig. 14-54 has mass M and is

weighted with an additional mass m. The slope

angle is θ. Show that static equilibrium is possible

only if m > M sin θ/(1 −sin θ).

224 CHAPTER 14

Solution

Static equilibrium is possible only if the CM of the

weighted wheel lies to the left of the point of contact

with the incline (or the y axis in the sketch). The

smallest additional mass would have to be placed

horizontally to the left of the center, as shown. Then

(M +m)x

cm

= MRsin θ −m(R −Rsin θ) < 0, implies

m > M sinθ/(1 −sin θ).

Problem 54 Solution.

Problem

55. A 2.0-m-long rod has a density described by λ =

a + bx, where λ is the density in kilograms per

meter of length, a = 1.0 kg/m, b = 1.0 kg/m

2

, and

x is the distance in meters from the left end of the

rod. The rod rests horizontally with its ends each

supported by a scale. What do the two scales

read?

Problem 55 Solution.

Solution

The rod is in static equilibrium under the three

vertical forces shown in the sketch, so

F

y

= 0

implies F

sr

+F

sr

= Mg, and (

τ)

cm

= 0 implies

F

sℓ

x

cm

= F

sr

(ℓ −x

cm

). The solution for the left and

right scale forces is F

sℓ

= Mg −F

sr

= Mg×

(1 −x

cm

/ℓ). Equation 10-5 gives

x

cm

=

_

ℓ

0

λxdx ÷

_

ℓ

0

λ dx

=

_

ℓ

0

(ax +bx

2

) dx ÷

_

ℓ

0

(a +bx) dx

= (a

1

2

ℓ

2

+b

1

3

ℓ

3

)/(aℓ +b

1

2

ℓ

2

)

= ℓ(3a + 2bℓ)/(6a + 3bℓ).

For the values given, x

cm

/ℓ =

7

12

and note that

M = aℓ +

1

2

bℓ

2

= 4 kg. Thus, F

sr

= Mgx

cm

/ℓ =

22.9 N and F

sℓ

= 16.3 N.

Problem

56. What horizontal force applied at its highest point

is necessary to keep a wheel of mass M from rolling

down a slope inclined at angle θ to the horizontal?

Solution

Consider the conditions for static equilibrium of the

wheel, under the action of the forces shown (F

app

is

the applied horizontal force, F

c

is the contact force

of the incline, normal plus friction, and we assumed

that the CM is at the center). The torques about the

point of contact sum to zero, or F

app

R(1 + cos θ) =

MgRsin θ. Therefore F

app

= Mg sin θ/(1 + cos θ) =

Mg tan

1

2

θ.

Problem 56 Solution.

Problem

57. A rectangular block twice as high as it is wide is

resting on a board. The coeﬃcient of static

friction between board and block is 0.63. If the

board is tilted as shown in Fig. 14-55, will the

block ﬁrst tip over or ﬁrst begin sliding?

Solution

We suppose that the block is oriented with two sides

parallel to the direction of the incline, and that its CM

is at the center. The condition for sliding is that

CHAPTER 14 225

mg sin θ > f

max

s

= µ

s

N = µ

s

mg cos θ, or tanθ > µ

s

.

For µ

s

= 0.63, this condition is θ > tan

−1

0.63 = 32.2

◦

.

The condition for tipping over is that the CM lie to

the left of the lower corner of the block (see sketch).

Thus θ > α, where α = tan

−1

(w/h) is the diagonal

angle of the block. For h = 2w, α = tan

−1

0.5 = 26.6

◦

.

Therefore, this block tips over before sliding.

figure 14-55 Problem 57 Solution.

Problem

58. What condition on the coeﬃcient of friction in the

preceding problem will cause the block to slide

before it tips?

Solution

If µ

s

< tanα = 0.5, the block in the previous problem

will slide before tipping.

Problem

59. A uniform solid cone of height h and base

diameter

1

3

h is placed on the board of Fig. 14-55.

The coeﬃcient of static friction between the cone

and incline is 0.63. As the slope of the board is

increased, will the cone ﬁrst tip over or begin

sliding? Hint: Begin with an integration to ﬁnd

the center of mass.

Solution

The analysis for Problem 57 applies to the cone, where

α is the angle between the symmetry axis and a line

from the CM to the edge of the base. The integration

to ﬁnd the CM is fastest when the cone is oriented like

the aircraft wing in Example 10-3, for then, the

equation of the sloping side is simple, as shown in the

sketch. For mass elements, take thin disks parallel to

the base, so dm = ρπy

2

dx = (3M/h

3

)x

2

dx, where

ρ = M/

1

3

πR

2

h is the density (assumed constant) and

M is the mass of the cone. Then x

cm

= M

−1

∫ xdm =

(3/h

3

) ∫

h

0

x

3

dx =

3

4

h, or the CM is

1

4

h above the base.

Since tanα = (

1

6

h)/(

1

4

h) =

2

3

> 0.63 = µ

s

, this cone

will slide before tipping over.

Problem 59 Solution.

Problem

60. In Fig. 14-56 a uniform boom of mass 350 kg is

attached to a vertical wall by a pivot, and its far

end is supported by a cable as shown. If the cable

can withstand a maximum tension of 4.0 kN, what

is the maximum value for the angle φ?

Solution

The situation is like that in Problem 41, but with

diﬀerent angles. In equilibrium, the net torque about

the pivot point is zero, so Mg

ℓ

2

sin 40

◦

=

Tℓ sin(40

◦

−φ). (The exterior angle of a triangle

equals the sum of the two alternate interior angles.)

The condition T < T

max

means that sin(40

◦

−φ) ≥

(Mg/2 T

max

) sin 40

◦

= 0.276, for the data given, so

φ ≤ 40

◦

−sin

−1

(0.276) = 24.0

◦

is required.

figure 14-56 Problem 60 Solution.

Problem

61. An interstellar spacecraft from an advanced

civilization is hovering above Earth, as shown in

226 CHAPTER 14

Fig. 14-57. The ship consists of two pods of mass

m separated by a rigid shaft of negligible mass

that is one Earth radius (R

E

) long. Find (a) the

magnitude and direction of the net gravitational

force on the ship and (b) the net torque about the

center of mass. (c) Show that the ship’s center of

gravity is displaced approximately 0.083R

E

from

its center of mass.

Solution

(a) The force on each pod (pod #1 over the North

pole) can be calculated from the law of universal

gravitation, Equation 9-1 (vectors in the x-y

Earth-centered frame shown on Fig. 14-57):

F

1

=

GM

E

m

(2R

E

)

2

(−ˆ), F

2

=

GM

E

m

(

√

5R

E

)

2

_

−

1

√

5

ˆı −

2

√

5

ˆ

_

.

When we replace GM

E

by gR

2

E

, the net force becomes:

F

1

+F

2

= −mg

_

ˆı

5

√

5

+

_

1

4

+

2

5

√

5

_

ˆ

_

= −mg(0.894ˆı + 4.29ˆ) ×10

−1

.

This has magnitude (4.38×10

−1

)mg and is directed

11.8

◦

clockwise from the negative y axis. (b) The

positions of the pods, relative to their CM midway

between them, are r

′

1

= −

1

2

R

E

ˆı and r

′

2

=

1

2

R

E

ˆı.

Therefore, the net torque about the CM is:

r

′

1

×F

1

+r

′

2

×F

2

=

_

−

1

2

R

E

ˆı

_

×

_

−

mg

4

ˆ

_

+

_

1

2

R

E

ˆı

_

×

mg

5

√

5

(−ˆı −2ˆ)

=

mgR

E

8

ˆ

k −

mgR

E

5

√

5

ˆ

k

= (3.56 ×10

−2

)mgR

E

ˆ

k (out of page).

(c) The CG is positioned between the pods such that

the net gravitational torque about it is zero. If the

positions of the pods relative to the CG are −α

1

R

E

ˆı

and α

2

R

E

ˆı, respectively, where α

1

+α

2

= 1, then

O = (−α

1

R

E

ˆı) ×

_

−

mg

4

ˆ

_

+ (α

2

R

E

ˆı) ×

mg

5

√

5

(−ˆı −2ˆ)

= mgR

E

_

α

1

4

−

2α

2

5

√

5

_

ˆ

k.

Solving for α

1

(or α

2

), we ﬁnd α

1

= 1 −α

2

= 1 −

5

√

5α

1

/8, or α

1

= (1 + 5

√

5/8)

−1

= 0.417 (and α

2

=

0.583). Thus, the CG is (0.5 −α

1

)R

E

= 0.0829R

E

closer to pod #1 than the CM.

olfson

0

2026

1

4

A

rt : 14 − 57.eps figure 14-57 Problem 61 Solution.

PART 1 CUMULATIVE PROBLEMS

These problems combine material from chapters

CHAPTER 14 227

chapters in earlier parts, or they present special

challenges.

Problem

1. A 170-g apple sits atop a 2.8-m-high post. A 45-g

arrow moving horizontally at 130 m/s passes

horizontally through the apple and strikes the

ground 36 m from the base of the post, as shown in

Fig. 1. Where does the apple hit the ground?

Neglect the eﬀect of air resistance on either object

as well as any friction between apple and post.

Solution

We can assume that momentum is conserved during

the inelastic collision (in a brief interval at t = 0)

between the arrow (m

1

) and the apple (m

2

). The

228 CHAPTER 14

2.8 m

v = 130 m/s

figure 1 Cumulative Problem 1.

velocities of the arrow before and after are speciﬁed to

be horizontal (in the x direction), therefore the

velocity of the apple (which was at rest before) is also

horizontal after the collision. Thus, m

1

v

1i,x

=

m

1

v

1f,x

+m

2

v

2f,x

. Since both are moving horizontally

after the collision, the arrow and the apple will each

fall to the ground through the same vertical distance y

(equal to the height of the post), in the same time

t =

_

2y/g. However, they strike the ground at

diﬀerent horizontal positions, which (in the absence of

air resistance) are x

1

= v

1f,x

t and x

2

= v

2f,x

t, relative

to the base of the post. Since x

1

= 36 m, y = 2.8 m,

and v

1i,x

= 130 m/s are given, v

1f,x

and v

2f,x

can be

eliminated and a solution for x

2

obtained: x

2

=

(m

1

/m

2

)(v

1i,x

−v

1f,x

)t = (m

1

/m

2

)(v

1i,x

_

2y/g −

x

1

) = (45/170)[(130 m/s)

_

2(2.8 m)/(9.8 m/s

2

) −

36 m] = 16.5 m. (Alternatively, since external

horizontal forces are neglected, the center of mass of

the arrow/apple system moves horizontally at constant

speed until it reaches ground level, v

cm,x

= constant =

m

1

v

1i,x

/(m

1

+m

2

) (its value before the collision).

Then at ground level, m

2

x

2

= (m

1

+m

2

)x

cm

−m

1

x

1

=

(m

1

+m

2

)v

cm,x

t −m

1

x

1

= m

1

(v

1i,x

t −x

1

), as before.)

Refer to relevant material in Chapters 4, 10, and 11 if

necessary.

Problem

2. A ﬁre department’s tanker truck has a total mass of

21×10

3

kg, including 15×10

3

kg of water. Its

brakes fail at the top of a long 3

◦

slope and it

begins to roll downward, starting from rest. In an

attempt to stop the truck, ﬁreﬁghters direct a

stream of water parallel to the slope, as shown in

Fig. 2, beginning as soon as the truck starts to roll.

The water leaves the 6.0-cm-diameter hose nozzle

at 50 m/s. Will the truck stop before it runs out of

water? If so, when? If not, what is the minimum

speed reached?

Solution

The ﬁre truck operates like a rocket, with the stream

of water acting as expelled fuel. The rocket equation

(Equation 10-10a) can be modiﬁed, as follows, to

include the additional change in momentum due to the

3°

figure 2 Cumulative Problem 2.

external force of gravity.

In the text’s derivation, we now set ∆P = F

grav

∆t

(instead of ∆P = 0), so M(v + ∆v) + ∆m(v −v

ex

) −

(M + ∆m)v = M∆v −v

ex

∆m = F

grav

∆t, and

Equation 10-10a becomes M(∆v/∆t) = −v

ex

(∆M÷

∆t) +F

grav

. This is a one-dimensional equation with

positive components in the direction of the thrust,

which is up the slope in this problem. The

gravitational force is opposite to the thrust, and in the

limit ∆m →0, is just the downslope component of the

ﬁre truck’s weight, or −Mg sinθ. Therefore, the

equation of motion of the ﬁre truck (which replaces

Equation 10-10b) is M(dv/dt) = −v

ex

(dM/dt) −

Mg sin θ.

This equation can be integrated (after

multiplication by dt/M) to ﬁnd the speed v

f

as a

function of time t

f

,

v

f

−v

i

=

_

v

f

vi

dv = −v

ex

_

M

f

Mi

dM

M

−g sin θ

_

t

f

ti

dt

= v

ex

ln

_

M

i

M

f

_

−g sinθ(t

f

−t

i

)

(this replaces Equation 10-11). For this ﬁre truck,

M

i

= 21×10

3

kg and v

i

= 0, at t

i

= 0, and M

f

≥

(21 −15)×10

3

kg = 6×10

3

kg, which is the truck’s

mass without any water. Since v

ex

is constant, so is

the mass rate of ﬂow of water (see Equation 18-4b),

thus dM/dt = −ρ

w

v

ex

πR

2

= −(10

3

kg/m

3

)×

(50 m/s)π(3 cm)

2

= −45π kg/s, where R = 3 cm is

the radius of the nozzle, and ρ

w

the density of water.

Then the mass of the ﬁre truck (at any time until the

water runs out) is M

f

= M

i

−(45π kg/s)t

f

. At the

start, the thrust, v

ex

|dM/dt| = (50 m/s)×

(45π kg/s) = 7.07 kN, is less than the magnitude of

the downslope component of the weight,

M

i

g sin θ = (21×10

3

kg)(9.8 m/s

2

) sin 3

◦

= 10.8 kN,

so the truck begins to roll downslope. When the water

runs out, at t

f

= (15×10

3

kg)/(45π kg/s) = 106 s,

v

f

= v

ex

ln(21/6) −g sin θ(106 s) = 8.22 m/s, which is

positive, upslope. Therefore, the ﬁreﬁghters succeed in

stopping the truck (only instantaneously, unless they

also stop the water and block the wheels) when v

f

=

0 = v

ex

ln[M

i

/(M

i

−ρ

w

v

ex

πR

2

t)] −(g sin θ)t, or, with

the above numbers, ln[1 −(6.732×10

−3

s

−1

)t] =

−(1.026×10

−2

s

−1

)t. A numerical solution for t,

CHAPTER 14 229

obtained with three iterations of Newton’s method or

widely available PC software, yields t = 88.8 s.

Problem

3. A block of mass m

1

is attached to the axle of a

uniform solid cylinder of mass m

2

and radius R by

massless strings. The two accelerate down a slope

that makes an angle θ with the horizontal, as shown

in Fig. 3. The cylinder rolls without slipping and

the block slides with coeﬃcient of kinetic friction µ

between block and slope. The strings are attached

to the cylinder’s axle with frictionless loops so that

the cylinder can roll freely without any torque from

the string. Find an expression for the acceleration

of the pair, assuming that the string remains taut.

θ

figure 3 Cumulative Problem 3.

Cumulative Problem 3 Solution.

Solution

One must consider the forces on the block and the

cylinder, exerted by gravity, the inclined surface, and

the strings, as sketched (since the strings are assumed

massless and other forces are neglected). If the strings

remain taut, then the downslope acceleration, a

||

, of

the block and the cylinder’s center of mass are the

same. If the string tension is parallel to the slope, the

normal force on the block is N

1

= m

1

g cos θ, and the

parallel component of its equation of motion is

F

net,||

= m

1

g sinθ +T −µm

1

g cos θ = m

1

a

||

. When

rolling without slipping, the point of contact, P, of the

cylinder with the slope, is instantaneously at rest, so

the acceleration of its center of mass is a

||

= αR (this

follows from v = ωR and ω = ω

c

= ω

cm

; see

Section 12-5). Since only the string tension and

gravity exert torques about point P, the equation of

motion of the cylinder is τ

P

= (m

2

g sin θ −T)R =

I

P

α = (

3

2

m

2

R

2

)(a

||

/R), or m

2

g sin θ −T =

3

2

m

2

a

||

(see the parallel-axis theorem in Chapter 12 for I

P

). If

T is eliminated by adding the two equations of motion,

one ﬁnds a

||

= 2g[(m

1

+m

2

) sinθ −µm

1

cos θ]÷

(2m

1

+ 3m

2

).

Problem

4. A missile is launched from point A in Fig. 4,

heading for target C. The launch angle is 45.0, and

the launch speed is 1.90 km/s. An antimissile

defense system is located at point B, 310 km

downrange from the launch site. It ﬁres an

interceptor rocket at a 65.0

◦

launch angle, with the

intention of hitting the attacking missile when the

latter is 270 km downrange of its launch site.

(a) What should be the interceptor’s launch speed?

(b) How long after the launch of the attacking

missile should the interceptor be launched? (c) At

what altitude does the interception take place?

270 km

310 km

A B

C

figure 4 Cumulative Problem 4.

Solution

It is simplest to answer each part of this question

using a diﬀerent coordinate system, so that equations

in the text can be used without modiﬁcation. We are

given enough information to specify the location of the

point of interception; it is 270 km from point A, the

missile launch site, and 310 −270 = 40 km from point

B, the interceptor rocket launch site.

(c) The trajectory of the missile (Equation 4-9

with origin at point A in Fig. 4) gives the altitude of

the point of interception when x = 270 m and other

data for the missile launch are substituted:

y = (270 km) tan 45

◦

−

(0.0098 km/s

2

)(270 km)

2

2(1.90 km/s)

2

cos

2

45

◦

= 72.1 km

The time of ﬂight of the missile to the point of

interception is t = x/v

0x

= (270 km)÷

(190 cos 45

◦

km/s) = 201 s.

(a) With altitude from part (c) above and the

other initial data for the interceptor rocket, its

trajectory equation (Equation 4-9 with origin at point

B and x axis leftward in Fig. 4) can be solved for the

230 CHAPTER 14

launch speed, as in Example 4-4. (The point of

interception has coordinates x = 40 km and

y = 72.1 km relative to point B.) Thus,

v

0

=

_

(0.0098 km/s

2

)

2(40 tan 65

◦

−72.1) km

_

1/2 _

40 km

cos 65

◦

_

= 1.79 km/s.

(b) The time of ﬂight for the interceptor rocket is

t = x/v

0x

= (40 km)/(1.79 cos 65

◦

km/s) = 52.8 s.

Therefore, it should be launched 201 −52.8 = 148 s

after the missile.

Problem

5. A solid ball of radius R is set spinning with angular

speed ω about a horizontal axis. The ball is then

lowered vertically with negligible speed until it just

touches a horizontal surface and is released (Fig. 5).

If the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction between the ball

and the surface is µ, ﬁnd (a) the linear speed of the

ball once it achieves pure rolling motion and (b) the

distance it travels before its motion is pure rolling.

ω

v

figure 5 Cumulative Problem 5.

Solution

(a) While there is relative motion at the point of

contact between the ball and the horizontal surface,

the force of sliding friction (f = µN = µmg) slows the

ball’s rotation and accelerates its center of mass. The

equation for the latter is f = µmg = ma

cm

, or a

cm

=

µg (positive to the right in the sketch and Fig. 5).

The equation for the former is τ = −fR = −µmgR =

Iα = (2mR

2

/5)α, where α = −5µg/2R is the angular

acceleration about the horizontal axis through the

center of the ball (positive clockwise in the sketch and

Fig. 5). The accelerations are constant, so the

velocities are given by Equations 2-17 and 12-9 as

v

cm

= a

cm

t = µgt and ω = ω

0

+αt = ω

0

−5µgt/2R,

where the ball is released at t = 0 and the initial

velocities, v

0

= 0 and ω

0

, are given. The accelerated

motion continues until the point of contact is

instantaneously at rest (no more sliding friction). The

ball rolls without slipping thereafter, at a constant

velocity given by v

cm

= ωR. This occurs at a time t,

when (ω

0

−5µgt/2R)R = µgt, or t = 2ω

0

R/7µg. Thus,

the ﬁnal velocity is v

cm

= µgt = 2ω

0

R/7. (b) The

distance traveled during this time is ∆x =

1

2

a

cm

t

2

=

1

2

(µg)(2ω

0

R/7µg)

2

= 2ω

2

0

R

2

/49µg (or ∆x = v

2

cm

/2a

cm

with the same result).

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