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General Ventilation of buildings is required to supply fresh air for respiration of

occupants, products of combustion or other contaminants in air and to provide such

thermal environments as will assist in the maintenance of heat, balance of the body in
order to prevent discomfort and injury to health of the occupants.
AI !"A#G$% %!"$&'($
%pace to be ventilated Air !hanges per hour
) Assembly "alls * Auditoria + ,
) -ed ooms * (iving ooms + ,
-ath ooms * .oilets , /0
) !afes * estaurants /0 /1

!inemas * .heatres2#on3smo4ing5 , 6
!lass ooms + ,
!ontrol of "eat Although it is Isolation %ometimes it is portion to locate heat
producing equipment, Insulation A considerable portion of heat in many factories is
due to the solar radiation falling on the roof surfaces,
%ubstitution %ometimes, it is possible to substitute a hot process by a method that
involves application of locali7ed or more efficiently controlled method of heating.
$8amples include induction hardening instead of conventional heat treatment.
adiant %hielding "ot surfaces, such as layers of molten metal emanate radiant
Ventilation is also e8pressed as m+*h per m0 of floor area. .his relationship fails to
evaluate the actual heat relief provided by a ventilation system.
#atural Ventilation .he rate of ventilation by natural means through windows o
other openings depends on 9
a5 direction and velocity of wind cutside and si7e and disposition of openings
2 wind action5, and
b5 !onvection effects arising from temperature of vapur pressure difference
between inside and outside the room and the difference of height between the
outlet and inlet openings. 2%tac4 effect5.
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-y <ind Action
a5 Inlet openings in the building should be well distributed and should be located on
the windward side at a low level and outlet openings should be located on the leeward
side near the top.
=a8imum air movement at a particular plane is achieved by 4eeping height at >1
percent of the height of the plane.
/5 :or sitting on !hair ? @.A1m,
05 :or sitting on bed ? @.,6m,
+5 :or sitting on floor ?@.B@m.
b5Inlet opening should not, as far as possible, be obstructed by adjoining
buildings, trees signboards or other obstructions or by partitions inside the path of
air flow.
c5 Greatest flow per unit area of openings is obtained by using inlet and outlet
openings of nearly equal areas.
:or a total area of openings 2inlet and outlet5 of 0@ to +@ percent of floor area,
the average indoor wind velocity is around +@ percent of outdoor velocity.
d5 <here the stream of wind is quite constant and dependable, the openings may
be readily arranged to ta4e full advantage of the wind. .he openings shall be
so arranged that as far as possible there is appro8imately equal areas on all
sides and the openings shall be located at the same levels.
=echanical Ventilation
:ans and other equipment $8haust of Air , Cositive Ventilation, 'nit ventilators may
be provided for both central system and unit , $vaporative !ooling , Air
!onditioning, ventilation for !ontaminants !ontrol.
:igure a shows the outline of air flow at 6@ degrees and :igure b at B1 degrees , to a
building square in plan. In the second case a greater velocity is created along the
windward faces, therefore the wind shadow will be much broader, the negative
pressure 2 the suction effect5 will be increased and an increased indoor air flow will
result. .he si7e of outlet opening was not varied in his e8periments. It was fi8ed at the
ma8imum possible so that the suction forces had full effect. It is justified to postulate
that with smaller outlet openings this effect would be reduced, if not reversed.
$ffect of direction on the width of wind shadow
!ross Ventilation D :igure shows that in the absence of an outlet opening or with a
full partition there can be no effective air movement through a building E,BF even in
case of strong winds. <ith a windward opening and no oulet, a pressure similar to that
in front of the building will be built up indoors, which can ma4e conditions even
worse, increasing discomfort.
(ac4 of !ross Ventilation
%everal right3angle bends, such as internal walls or furniture within a room can
effectively stoop a low velocity air flow.
$ffect of opening positions
Cosition of ;penings
.he air movement must be directed at the body surface. $nsured through the space
mostly used by the occupants 9 G(iving HoneI :igure shows if the opening at the inlet
side is at a high level, regardless of the outlet opening position, the air flow will ta4e
place near the ceiling and not in the living 7one.
Cressure build3up at inlet
:igure shows that a larger solid surface creates a larger pressure build3up and this
pushes the air stream in an opposite direction, both in plan and in section. As a result
of this, in a two storey building the air flow on the ground floor may be satisfactory
but on the upper floor it may be directed against the ceiling. ;ne possible remedy is
an increased roof parapet wall.
Air flow in a .wo %torey -uilding
%i7e of ;penings
A given total wind force 2 pressure 8 area5 the largest air velocity will be obtained
through a small inlet opening with a large outlet.
.he best arrangement is full wall openings on both sides with adjustable sashes or
closing devices which can assist in channelling the air flow in the required direction,
following the change of wind.
!ontrols of ;penings
%ashes, canopies, louvers and other elements controlling the opening the openings,
also influence the indoor air flow pattern.
%ashes can divert the air flow upwards. ;nly a casement or reversible pivot sash will
channel it downwards into the living 7one.
$ffect of sashes
!anopies can eliminate the effect of pressure build up above the windows, below
the window will direct the air flow upwards.
$ffect of canopies
(ouvres and shading .he position of blades in a slightly upward position would still
channel the flow into the living 7one.
$ffect of louvers
:ly screens or mosquito nets are an absolute necessity not only in malaria infested
areas, 4ind of lamp.
Air :low around -uildings
:igure shows how the air stream separates on the face of a tall bloc4, part of it moving
up and over the roof part of it down, to form a large vorte8 leading to a very high
pressure build3up. An increased velocity is found at ground level At the sides of the
tall bloc4 is not fully closed serve a useful purpose in hot climates, although if the tall
bloc4 is not fully closed but is permeable to wind, these effects may be reduced.
Air %tream separation at the face of buildings
esult that if a low building is located in the wind shadow of a tall bloc4, the increase
in height of the obstructing bloc4 will increase the air flow through the low building
in a direction opposite to that of the wind. <ing of a large vorte8 would pass through
the building.
everse flow behind a tall bloc4
a5 If in a rural setting in open country, single storey buildings are placed
in rows in a grid3iron pattern, stagnant air 7ones leeward from the first
row will overlap the second row . A spacing of si8 times the building
height is necessary to ensure adequate air movement for the second
row. .hus the five times height rule for spacing is not quite
b5 In a similar setting , if the buildings are staggered in a chec4er3board
pattern, the flow field is much more uniform, stagnant air 7ones are
almost eliminated illustrates an e8ample of this. .he large inta4e
opening captures air movement above the roofs in densely built up
areas. .he water seeping through the porous pottery jars evaporates,
some drips down onto the charcoal placed on a grating, through which
the air is filtered. .he cooled air assists the downward movement a
reversed stac4 effect.
.his device is very useful for ventilation be e8pected to create an air
movement strong enough for physiological cooling.
Crinciple of (ighting
Good lighting is necessary for all buildings and has three primary aims. .he first aim
is to promote wor4 and other activities carried out within the building9 the second aim
is to promote the safety of the people using the building9 third aim is to create in
conjunction with the structure and decoration.
eali7ation of these aims involves9
!areful planning of the brightness and colour pattern within both the wor4ing areas
and the surroundings. 'sing directional lighting controlling direct and reflected glare
from light sources to eliminate visual discomfort9 in artificial lighting installations,
correlating emergency lighting systems.
!;=C;#$#.% ;: &AJ(IG". :A!.;
&aylight factor is the sum of all the daylight factor is the sum of all the daylight
reaching on an indoor reference point from the following sources9
a5 .he direct s4y visible from the point
b5 $8ternal surfaces reflecting light directly) to the point, and
c5 Internal surfaces reflecting and inter3 reflecting light to the point.
%4y !omponent 2%!5 %4y !omponent at a distance of + to +.A1m from the window
along the central line perpendicular to the window, at the centre of the room if more
appropriate, at fi8ed locations, such as school des4s, blac43boards and office tables.
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Generally , while taller openings give greater penetrations, broader openings give
greater penetrations, broader openings give better distribution of light. It is preferable
that some area of the s4y at an altitude of 0@ to 01 degrees should light up the wor4ing
-roader openings may also be equally or more efficient, provided their sills are raised
by +@ to ,@ cm above the wor4ing plane.
:or a given penetration, a number of small openings property positioned along the
same, adjacent or opposite walls will give better distribution of illumination than a
single large opening.
'nilateral lighting from side openings will. In general, be unsatisfactory if the
effective width of the room is more than 0 to 0.1 times the distance from the floor to
the top of the opening.
;penings on two opposite sides will give greater uniformity of internal daylight
illumination, especially when the room is Am or more across, .hey also minimi7e
glare by illuminating the wall surrounding each of the opposing openings.
!ross3lighting with openings on adjacent walls tends to increase the diffused lighting
within a room.
;penings in deep reveals tend to minimi7e glare effects.
;penings shall be provided with chajjahs , louvers , baffles or other shading devices
to e8clude, as far as possible, direct sunlight entering the room.
(ight control media, such as translucent glass panes 2opal or matt5 surfaced by
grinding, etching or sandblasting, configurated or corrugated glass, certain types of
prismatic glass and glass blasts are often used.
Artificial (ighting
Artificial lighting may have to be provided.
a5 <here the recommended illumination levels have to be obtained by artificial
lighting only.
b5 .o supplement daylighting when the level of illumination falls below the
recommended value, and
c5 <here visual tas4 may demand a higher level of illumination.
.he proposal for Videsh -havan, within the civic node of (utyensI original plan for
!entral Vista demands a challenging yet sensitive response. <hile the government
comple8 symboli7ed imperial power in classical style, a structure in todayIs conte8t
would have to represent the prevalent ethos as a result of democratic governance,
advancement in technology and greater environment concerns. "ence the attempt is to
achieve a cohesive and harmonious development with the immediate surrounds of
#ational =useum, #ational Archives and Indira Gandhi #ational !entre for Arts
along the !entral Vista.
.he comple8 is conceived as an aggregation of modules in varying heights around a
series of interlin4ed open spaces the resultant built form encompassing east and
west bloc4s connected together at the ground floor by a pla7a * double storey stilted
areas and by a series of bridges at higher levels.
.he east and west bloc4s have their individual semi enclosed arrival courts
distinguished by double height porticos, signifying the point of arrival. .hrough the
bloc4s are lin4ed through a series of courtyards, the access points are restricted for
security reasons.
.he four and si8 storey stepped bloc4s are configured in a G%I shaped formation to
create recessed courts which are used as drop3off points on the e8ternal face and
introvert pla7as on the internal face, which, with the help of water bodies and
vegetation, helps in mitigating the effect of the climate.
!onsidering the requirement of par4ing and services, two basements have been
provided. .he structural grid system adopted facilitates efficient par4ing at the
basement and fle8ible office grid at the upper levels. .he short3term par4ing is on the
surface. .he hierarchy of the officers and their supporting staff is translate into an
open office layout. =eeting spaces are provided closer to the vertical cores, reception
and security for greater surveillance of visitor movement.
!ompleting the composition of the built form of the two bloc4s is a solid base or
podium respecting the line of the basement below. It is punctuated by a series of
chatris respecting the rhythm of the superstructure behind and serving as mar4ing
along the peripheral road.
.he open space networ4 is envisaged as a progression of spaces from south to north
and is hierarchical in nature. .he e8pansive, pla7a li4e paved space of the entrance
court at the south leading to the enclosed spaces of the central court, which then open
into e8tensive and relatively informal gardens merging visually in the wider spaces of
ajpath, at the north. .here is an attempt to recall and reinterpret the urban landscape
elements of the secretariat comple8. %imple water elements such as channels and
pools serve an environmental as well as visual function they highlight the
architectural a8is, which is the focus of the whole arrangement.

!(I=A.I! H;#$%
.he interaction of solar radiation with the atmosphere and the gravitational forces,
together with the distribution of land and sea masses, produces an almost infinite
variety of climates. "owever, certain 7ones and belts of appro8imately uniform
climates can be distinguished. It is essential for the designer to be familiar with the
character and location of these 7ones, as they are indicative of the climatic probles he
is li4ely to encounter.
-oundaries of climatic 7ones cannot be accurately mapped. ;ne 7one merges
gradually and almost imperceptibly into the ne8t. It is, nevertheless, easy to identify
the 7one, or the transition area between two 7ones, to which a particular settlement
.he present wor4 concerns itself with tropical climatic 7ones only, as defined in the
subdivision of tropical climates into climatic 7ones should be loo4ed upon as a useful
tool of communication. It is a code that conveys a great deal of information for those
who are familiar with it. Its usefulness increases with the increase of the number of
people familiar with it, who accept and use it.
.he classification given below was suggested by G.A.Athinson in /61+. it has since
been widely accepted and proven useful. .he basis of this classification is given by
the two atmospheric factors which dominantly influence human comfort9 air
temperature and humidity. .he main criterion is 9 what e8tremes of these two factors
are li4ely to cause discomfort. Accordingly the tropical regions of earth are divided
into three major climatic 7ones and three sub3groups9
/ <arm3humid equatorial climate subgroup9 warm island or trade3 wind climate.
0 "ot dry desert, or semi3desert climate subgroup9 hot3dry maritime desert climate.
+ !omposite or monsoon climate 2 combination of / and 05 subgroup9 tropical
upland climate.
.hese groups are referred to throughout the te8t. &etailed description of each 7one is
given below 2 many of the values ta4en from At4inson s publication5.
<arm3humid climates are found in a belt near the $quator e8tending to about /1I#.
and %.$8amples of cities in this 7one9 (agos, dar3es3%alam, =ombasa, !olombo,
%ingapore, Ka4arta, Luito and Cernambuco. A climate graph for =ombasa.
.here is very little seasonal variation throughout the year, the only punctuation being
that of periods with more or less rain and the occurrence of gusty winds and electric
Air temperature, i.e &-., in the shade reaches a mean ma8imum during the day of
between 0A and +09!, but occasionally it may e8ceed the latter value. At night the
mean minimum varies between 0/ and 0AI!. -oth the diurnal and annual ranges of
temperature are quite narrow.
"umidity, i.e. ", remains high, at about A1M for most of the time, but it may vary
from 11 to almost /@@M. Vapour pressure is steady in the region of 01@@ to +@@@
Crecipitation is high throughout the year, generally becoming more intense for several
consecutive months. Annual rainfall can vary from 0@@@ to 1@@@ mm and may e8ceed
1@@mm in one month, the wettest month. &uring severe storms rain may fall at the
rate of /@@mm*h for short periods.
%4y conditions are fairly cloudy throughout the year. !loud cover varies between ,@
and 6@M. %4ies can be bright, a luminance of A@@@ cd*m0 or even more when it is
thinly overcast, or when the sun illuminates white cumulus clouds without itself being
obscured. <hen heavily overcast, the s4y is dull, >1@ cd*m0 or less.
%olar radiation is partly reflected and partly scattered by the cloud blan4et or the high
vapour content of the atmosphere, therefore the radiation reaching the groud is
diffuse, but strong, and can cause painful s4y glare. !loud and vapour content also
prevents or reduces outgoing radiation from the earth and sea to the night s4y, thus the
accumulated heat is not readily dissipated.
<ind velocities are typically low, calm periods are frequent, but strong winds can
occur during rain squalls. Gusts of +@m*s have been reported. .here are usually one or
two dominant directions.
Vegetation grows quic4ly due to frequent rains and high temperatures and it is
difficult to control. .he red or brown laterite soils are generally poor for agriculture.
Clant3supporting organic substances and mineral salts are dissolved and washed away
by rain water. .he subsoil water table is usually high and the ground may be
waterlogged. (ittle light is reflected from the ground.
%pecial characteristics9 high humidity accelerates mould and algal growth, rusting and
rotting. ;rganic building materials tend to decay rapidly. =osquitoes and other insects
abound. .he thunder3storms are accompanied by frequent air3to3air electrical
Islands within the equatorial belt and in the trade3winds 7one belong to this climate
type . .ypical e8amples are the !aribbeans, the Chilippines and other island groups in
the Cacific ;cean.
%easonal variations are negligible.
Air temperature, i.e. &-., in the shade reaches a day time mean ma8imum between
06 and +09! and rarely rises above s4in temperature. #ight3time mean minima can be
as low as />9!, but it is normally between this figure and 0BI!. .he diurnal range is
rarely more than > deg! and the annual range is only about /B deg!.
"umidity, i.e. the ", varies between 11 and almost /@@M , the vapour pressure being
between /A1@ and 01@@ #*m0.
Crecipitation is high, /01@ to />@@ mm per annum, and 0@@ to 01@ mm in the wettest
month. 'p to 01@ mm may fall in a single storm of a few hoursI duration. %pray is
driven nearly hori7ontally on windward coasts.
%4y conditions are normally clear or filled with white bro4en clouds of high
brightness, e8cept during storms, when the s4ies are dar4 and dull. !lear blue s4ies
are of low luminance, between /A@@ and 01@@cd*m0.
%olar radiation is strong and mainly direct, with a very small diffuse component when
the s4y is clear, but varies with the cloud cover.
<inds9 the predominant trade3wind blows at a steady , to A m*s and provides relief
from heat and humidity. =uch higher velocities occur during cyclones2see bellows5
Vegetation is less lu8uriant and of a lighter green colour than in the warm3humid
7ones. It varies with the rainfall. %unlight reflected from light coloured coral, sand and
roc4 can be very bright. .he soil is often dry with a fairly low water3table.

%pecial characteristics are the tropical cyclones or hurricanes ha7ard. .he high salt
content of the atmosphere encourages corrosion in coastal areas.
;f the si8 gateways on the ascent road, two were built during =an %inghIs reginD the
second and the last, the "indola Col and the hathi Col. -oth have the round, cupola3
crowned towers of the man mandir, but they are otherwise mar4edly different from
each other. .he various parts of the "indola Col are not well intergreated9 in particular
the empty space above the archway, between the flan4ing towers, wea4ens the
composition 2A,5. .he "athi Col is a part of the man =andir, being attached to its
south3east corner, and is stylistically complementary2AA5. It is not a true, radiating
arch, but a typical "indu corbelled arch. "owever, it combines the corbel structure
with the shape of a true arch, for superimposed over the corbels is an arc of beading9
and the two establish powerful contradictory rthythms.
%tanding at the north3west corner of Vi4ramadityaIs palace is the so called 4aran
=andir. .hrough much earlier than man %inghIs palaces, this too was built during the
rule of the .omar ajputs, for it is property called the Nirtti =andir and was built by
aja Nirtti %ingh 2/B1B3A65 who was erroneously called 4aran by =uslim unli4e the
later Gwalior palaces. <ith its plain stepped walls, open projecting balconies and
small squre windows 2,i, I05, it is much more a4in to the palace of ana 4umbha of
!hitor, with which it is contemporary. .his shows that the architects of Gwalior were
not ignorant of the style that was prevalent in western India, and so we may assume
that the stylistic differences between the palaces of =an %ingh on the one hand the
palaces at !hitor on the other were a matter of choice.
.he architectural style of man %inghI buildings the man mandir, the Gujari mahal,
Vi4ramadityaIs palace and the two gates is superficially unique to Gwalior9 there are
no other buildings in India with a very pronounced family resemblance to them. .he
Gwalior style is une8pected and seems to be a side3 issue to the main development of
Indian architecture. A more careful analysis, however, discovers firm through and
influences e8erted by it. !hief among the former is the influence of the fifteenth3
century buildings at !haneri, and possibly also, through to a leser e8tent, those at
mandu. .hese towns were the two capitals of the =uslim state of malwa, adjacent to
Gwalior to the south.
.his influence which, despite the supposed Indo Islamic origin of the ajput style,
is not generally noticed is most obvious in the gla7ed tiles which from such an
important element of the facades of the =an =andir. Although by I1@@ the use of tiles
for decoration was fairly widespread in India 2 having been introduced by the earliest
=uslim invaders5, the particular blue used at Gwalior originated in malwa. Cercy
-rown remar4s9
OOit is evident that there was a very flourishing industry in gla7ed earthenware at
=andu during the fifteenth centuryO .hey possessed the secret formula, now
apparently lost, for the preparation of a turquoise blue which for brilliancy has never
been surpassed.
.hese blue tiles can be seen at mandu on, for e8ample, the qibla wall of Kami =asjid
2IBB@5, and at !handeri on the %hah7adi 4a au7a 2 c.IBA@5. .he precise similarity in
colour of the Gwalior tiles suggests that the Psecret formulaI was passed on. %ince
!handeri is only IIo miles south of gwalior and mandu is +01 miles from it, it is more
li4ely that it reached gwalior from !handeri.
;n the other hand, one of th frie7es of blue tiles on the =an =andir imitates a
particular and distinctive frie7e pattern which, though found at !handeri, is not there
combined with the blue tiles9 whereas it is so combined at =andu . It appears,for
e8ample, in monochrome stucco in the mausoleum of #i7am u3 din .
And is in visible from both those places a circumstance which enhances its
splendour through it must also advertise the position of the royal residence to any
.he paln of the palace is a rectangle of +@@ by feet 9 this divides into two unequal
parts, the northern part 20@@ by I,@ feet5 being a courtyard for the accommodation of
servants, and the southern part 2/@@ by I,@5 being the royal residence proper. .he
main body of the palace has two storeys and the outer wall is si8ty feet high9 on the
eastern side however, where the palace is at the edge of the hil, there are also two
lower storeys and the eastern faQade e8tends an additional forty feet down the roc4
face. .he northern wall merges with Vi4ramadityaIs palace and the western wall is
now ruined, and so only the eastern and southern facades may be analysed.
.he walls are essentially flat and unpierced. .hey are punctuated at regular intervals
by massive round towers, and the s4yline is relieved by the cupolas of these towers
and by the bo83li4e balconies and a delicate parapet. .he main relief, however, from
the large e8panses of masonry is supplied by decoration applied to the surface in the
forms of sculpture and coloured tiles. .he sculptural ornamentation consists of the
heavy and rhythmic carved string courses and a frie7e depicting an arcade =ostly
the designs are geometric, through some represent duc4s, crocodiles with their tails
tied together 2not candelabra as ousselet though5 and, on the solid part of the
parapet, elephants, peacoc4s, tigers and plantain trees. .he predominant colour is a
brigh turquoise blue9 there is also some green and yellow. .he tiles have survived on
the southern wall better is also some green and yellow. .he tiles gavethe palace its
alternative name, !hit mandir, or Gpainted palceI.
-abur asserts that the castern face was Gwhitened with plasterI and !unningham
confirms that traces of plaster survived in the last century9 presumably this stucco was
added as a foil to the bright colours of the tile wor4 . -abur also states that the
cupolas were gilded with copper, this gilding has since been removed but originally it
would have served the purpose of preventing the cupolas from being dominated
visually by the coloured walls.