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GEOLOGY FACTORS

LAND RECLAMATION BY HYDRAULIC FILLING
Land reclamation is defined as a process of creating new land by raising the elevation of the
seabed, riverbed or other low-lying bed or pumping out water from a watery area that are
enclosed. Land reclamation by filling may be undertaken by dry earth movement, and also by
hydraulic filling. Hydraulic filling is also defined as the creation of the new land by the
following activities :
 Dredging of fill material in a borrow area.
 Transport of a material from the borrow area to do the reclamation area site by dredger,
barge or pipeline.
 Placement of fill material as a mixture of fill material and water in a reclamation area.




SUBSOIL
This section deals with the soil investigation required to map the existing subsoil in the
reclamation area. However the soil property of the interest will be different. Consolidation
properties of the subsoil for example can be of great importance for the fill area, but are less
importance for the borrow area. There for, the geotechnical laboratory test programme of area
will be different from the test programme of the borrow area.








HYDRAULIC, METEOROLOGICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL AND
ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
All of this relevant for reclamation area. The horizontal circular patterns will develop. Current
measurements are one or multiple locations in the area in the area of interest will give insight in
these conditions and will provide data for use in numerical model or to monitor the hydraulic
conditions. Defining the type, number, location and duration of current measurements as well as
deploying current measurements is not straight forward and requires specialist services.
Geological and geotechnical applications takes a significant place in designing and constructing.





WAVES
Wave data are not only important for the design of surrounding structures of the land
reclamation, but also need to use on planning and monitoring reclamation works. Extreme
estimates of wave heights and associate parameters such as wave periods, direction, and water
level are used in design for formula to excess :
 Wave loadings for design of the amount type of structure
 Wave-overtopping and run-up to determine the slope and crest height of the structure


The reclamation works and offshore construction works can affect the wave climate. 3D
modeling may be required to study and predict the effect of such work. This may include the
numeric and physical modeling. Important aspects with the respect to the wave climate are :
 The significant wave height
 The wave period
 The seasonal vibration of wave climate


SEEDING TRANSPORT
Reclamation work can trigger erosion or sedimentation of certain areas. To study these
phenomena, a combination of hydraulic information is required. Since the impact zone can
potentially be much longer then the actual reclamation work, the event of the area for which the
data is collected can also be longer. These data may also require a physical or numerical model
of vicinity fill area and a borrow area in order to determine the impact of the future project on the
present morphological regime.





TUBIDITY
Turbidity of water is defined as the degree of water contains particle that causes cloudiness or
back scattering and the extinction of light. High turbidity level generally occurs in the vicinity of
reclamation projects caused by the release of organic and inorganic solids into the water column
as a results of the activity. One of the main environmental concern is the effect of the elevated
levels of suspension sediment on the natural environmental. Suspended sediment introduce in the
environment limit the transparency of the water and prevent light from shining through. As the
result of the presence of suspended particles, water will lost its transparency. Background
turbidity data will relate to the measurements of the concentration levels of suspended material in
the water column prior to reclamation work.








DISSOLVED OXYGEN
Organic matter released or stripped of during reclamation work will reduce the level of dissolved
oxygen in a water body as a result of aerobic oxidation. Because of its important of life forms a
shortage of oxygen may have a serious implication for the natural environment.



ADDITIONAL PARAMETERS
The complexity with the respect of water is reflected in many types of physical, chemical and
biological indicator. These for depending, on specific requirements information of the wide
variation of additional parameters may be required in order to describe the state of and the effect
of water quality. More complex measurements such as toxic contaminants and the presence of
micro organism may require water sampling forward by an analysis of laboratory.



SEABED OBSTRUCUION
Wreaks and other obstacles may hamper dredging operations and can cause significant damage.
Apart from damage, it can sometime be archeological importance and may not be disturb. Large
wreaks with high archeological can be a reason for reclamation area work starts. Obstruction can
be detected either by side scan or by magnetometer. This can only detect metal object which
cause magnetic anomaly. There for, one can be sure whether the surface is free from obstacles or
not. Shallow geophysical methods are helpful for this.






INTRODUCTION
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused
with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or, lake. The land
reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill.
As human overcrowding of developed areas intensified during the 20th century, it has become
important to develop land re-use strategies for completed landfills. Some of the most common
usages are for parks, golf courses and other sports fields. Increasingly, however, office buildings
and industrial uses are made on a completed landfill. In these latter uses, methane capture is
customarily carried out to minimize explosive hazard within the building.
Reclaimed land is highly susceptible to soil liquefaction during earthquakes, which can amplify
the amount of damage that occurs to buildings and infrastructure. Subsidence is another issue,
both from soil compaction on filled land, and also when wetlands are enclosed by levees and
drained to create Polders. Drained marshes will eventually sink below the surrounding water
level, increasing the danger from flooding.