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Rural area

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"The country" redirects here. For other uses, see Country (disambiguation).
The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the
subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (December 2010)
The Barossa Valley in South Australia is an area noted for vineyards
In general, a rural area is a geographic area that is located outside cities and towns
$ealth %esources and Services Administration of the &S 'epartment of $ealth and $uman
Services defines the word (rural( as encompassing (all population, housing, and territory
not included within an ur)an area Whatever is not ur)an is considered rural(
Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements Agricultural areas
are commonly rural, though so are others such as forests 'ifferent countries have varying
definitions of (rural( for statistical and administrative purposes
" +orth America
o "" &nited States
""" %ural schools
""* %ural health
* ,urope
o *" -ermany
o ** Ireland
o *. &nited /ingdom
*." %ural health
o *0 India
. See also
0 %eferences
1 Further reading
2 ,3ternal links
North America[edit]
In 4anada, the 5rganisation for ,conomic 4o6operation and 'evelopment defines a
(predominantly rural region( as having more than 178 of the population living in rural
communities where a (rural community( has a population density less than "17 people per
s9uare kilometre In 4anada, the census division has )een used to represent (regions( and
census consolidated su)6divisions have )een used to represent (communities( Intermediate
regions have "1 to 0: percent of their population living in a rural community
;redominantly ur)an regions have less than "1 percent of their population living in a rural
community ;redominantly rural regions are classified as rural metro6ad<acent, rural non6
metro6ad<acent and rural northern, following ,hrensaft and Beeman ="::*> %ural metro6
ad<acent regions are predominantly rural census divisions which are ad<acent to metropolitan
centres while rural non6metro6ad<acent regions are those predominantly rural census
divisions which are not ad<acent to metropolitan centres %ural northern regions are
predominantly rural census divisions that are found either entirely or mostly a)ove the
following lines of parallel in each province? +ewfoundland and @a)rador,
17thABue)ec 10,5ntario, 10thA Canito)a, 1.rdA Saskatchewan, Al)erta and British 4olum)ia,
10th As well, rural northern regions encompass all of the Dukon, +orthwest
Territoriesand +unavut
Statistics 4anada defines rural for their population counts This definition has changed over
time =see Appendi3 A in du ;lessis et al, *77*> Typically, it has referred to the population
living outside settlements of ",777 or less inha)itants The current definition states that
census rural is the population outside settlements with fewer than ",777 inha)itants and a
population density )elow 077 people per s9uare kilometre =Statistics 4anada, *77E>
United States[edit]
F0 percent of the &nited StatesG inha)itants live in su)ur)an and ur)an areas,
)ut cities
occupy only "7 percent of the country %ural areas occupy the remaining :7 percent
The &S 4ensus Bureau, the &S'AGs ,conomic %esearch Service, and the 5ffice of
Canagement and Budget =5CB> have come together to help define rural areas &nited
States 4ensus Bureau? The 4ensus Bureau definitions =new to the *777 census>, which are
)ased on population density, defines rural areas as all territory outside of 4ensus Bureau6
defined ur)aniHed areas and ur)an clusters IAn ur)aniHed area consists of a central
surrounding areas whose population =(ur)an nucleus(> is greater than 17,777 They may or
may not contain individual cities with 17,777 or moreA rather, they must have a core with a
population density generally e3ceeding ",777 persons per s9uare mileA and may contain
ad<oining territory with at least 177 persons per s9uare mile =other towns outside of an
ur)aniHed area whose population e3ceeds *,177> IThus, rural areas comprise open country
and settlements with fewer than *,177 residentsA areas designated as rural can have
population densities as high as ::: per s9uare mile or as low as " person per s9uare mile
&S'A?I The &S'AGs 5ffice of %ural 'evelopment may define rural )y various population
thresholds The *77* farm )ill =;@ "7E6"E", Sec 27*7> defined rural and rural area as any
area other than ="> a city or town that has a population of greater than 17,777 inha)itants,
and =*> the ur)aniHed areas contiguous and ad<acent to such a city or town I The rural6
ur)an continuum codes, ur)an influence code, and rural county typology codes developed
)y &S'AJs ,conomic %esearch Service =,%S> allow researchers to )reak out the standard
metropolitan and non6metropolitan areas into smaller residential groups
For e3ample, a
metropolitan county is one that contains an ur)aniHed area, or one that has a twenty6five
percent commuter rate to an ur)aniHed area regardless of population 5CB? &nder the 4ore
Based Statistical Areas used )y the 5CB =commonly referred to as G4BSA 4odesG>,
I a
metropolitan county, or Cetropolitan Statistical Area, consists of ="> central counties with one
or more ur)aniHed areas =as defined )y the 4ensus Bureau> and =*> outlying counties that
are economically tied to the core counties as measured )y worker commuting data =ie if
*18 of workers living there commute to the core counties, or if *18 of the employment in
the county consists of workers coming from the central counties> I +on6metro counties are
outside the )oundaries of metro areas and are further su)divided into Cicropolitan Statistical
Areas centered on ur)an clusters of "7,777K17,777 residents, and all remaining non6core
It is e3pected that the &S'A will )e updating their rural L non6rural area definitions )ased on
the *7"7 4ensus counts
Rural schools[edit]
+ational 4enter for ,ducation Statistics =+4,S> revised its definition of rural schools in *772
after working with the 4ensus Bureau to create a new locale classification system to
capitaliHe on improved geocoding technology
Rural health[edit]
%ural health definitions can )e different for esta)lishing under6served areas or health care
accessi)ility in rural areas of the &nited States According to the hand)ook, 'efinitions of
%ural? A $and)ook for $ealth ;olicy Cakers and %esearchers, (%esidents of metropolitan
counties are generally thought to have easy access to the relatively concentrated health
services of the countyGs central areas $owever, some metropolitan counties are so large
that they contain small towns and rural, sparsely populated areas that are isolated from
these central clusters and their corresponding health services )y physical )arriers( To
address this type of rural area, ($arold -oldsmith, 'ena ;uskin, and 'ianne Stiles ="::*>
descri)ed a methodology to identify small towns and rural areas within large metropolitan
counties =@C4s> that were isolated from central areas )y distance or other physical
features( This )ecame the -oldsmith Codification definition of rural (Bhoomeet rural
education The -oldsmith Codification has )een useful for e3panding the eligi)ility for federal
programs that assist rural populationsMto include the isolated rural populations of large
metropolitan counties(
The country is divided into 07* administrative districtsA these consist of *:1 rural districts,
and "7E ur)an districts -ermany is among the largest agricultural producers in the,uropean
&nion Core than half of -ermanyGs territory K almost ": million hectares K is used for
farming, and are located in the rural areas -erman farmers and their work constitute a
distinctive feature of its landscapes, so are considered to )e an integral part of life in rural
areas They are important )ecause there is hardly any other economic sector in which
tradition and progress are so closely linked Almost every tenth gainfully employed person in
-ermany has work linked directly or indirectly with the agricultural, forest and fisheries
sectorsA appro3imately a fifth of them are employed in primary production This is why rural
areas are considered to )e important as ur)an areas, and all efforts are made to develop
them e9ually The implication is that, unlike in some other ,uropean countries, where rural
areas are known for )eing )ackward when compared to ur)an areas, in -ermany, the trend
is changing 'ue to the countryGs policy of e9ual living conditions, this is not the case in
-ermany %ural areas receive nearly e9uivalent attention as the ur)an areas do Also,
through a special approach to rural development, usually referred to as Village %enewal, the
challenges of rural -ermany are taken care of
Ireland is traditionally seen as a very rural country, despite its many vi)rant and ur)an
centres Cost of the work that occurs is agricultural work,
!citation needed#
with a varying landscape
ranging from )ogland to emerald meadows to green hills to rugged mountains
United Kingdom[edit]
A typical countryside scene in ruralDorkshire 'ales, ,ngland
In Britain, (rural( is defined
)y the government 'epartment for ,nvironment, Food and
%ural Affairs =',F%A>, using population data from the latest census, such as the &nited
/ingdom 4ensus *77" These definitions have various grades, )ut the upper point is any
local government area with less than *28 of its population living in a market town =(market
town( )eing defined as any settlement which has permission to hold a street market> A
num)er of measures are in place to protect the British countryside, including green )elts
Rural health[edit]
In ,ngland an +$S patient is defined as rural if they live more than "2 km =7:: mi> from
either a doctor or a dispensing chemist In Scotland a different definition of rural is used This
is important for defining whether the patient is e3pected to collect their own medicines While
doctorsG surgeries in towns will not have a medicines dispensary instead e3pecting patients
to use a high6street chemist to purchase their prescription medicines, in rural village
an +$S medicines dispensary will )e )uilt into the same )uilding
%ural areas are also known as GcountrysideG or a GvillageG in India It has a very low density of
population In rural areas, agriculture is the chief source of livelihood along with fishing,
cottage industries, pottery etc The 9uest to discover the real rural India still continues in
great earnest Almost every economic agency today has a definition of rural India $ere are a
few definitions? According to the ;lanning 4ommission, a town with a ma3imum population of
"1,777 is considered rural in nature In these areas the panchayat takes all the decisions
There are five people in the panchayat The +ational Sample Survey 5rganisation =+SS5>
defines NruralJ as follows?

An area with a population density of up to 077 per s9uare kilometer,

Villages with clear surveyed )oundaries )ut no municipal )oard,

A minimum of E18 of male working population involved in agriculture and allied

%BI defines rural areas as those areas with a population of less than 0:,777 =tier 6. to tier62
It is generally said that the rural areas house up to E78 of IndiaJs population %ural
India contri)utes a )ig chunk to IndiaJs -'; )y way of agriculture, self6employment,
services, construction etc As per a strict measure used )y the +ational Sample Survey in its
2.rd round, called monthly per capita e3penditure, rural e3penditure accounts for 118 of
total national monthly e3penditure The rural population currently accounts for one 6third of
the total Indian FC4- sales

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