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AP Chemistry Name____________________________

Bell __ Date ___/___/___
AP Exam
S T U D Y G U I D E
The AP Chemistry Exam is divided into 5 major parts with an approximate percentage of the test
questions pertaining to each area. Beow is a genera idea of how they are divided! as per
Barron"s #tudy $uide. The ist is extensive and may seem overwheming so we wi approach it as
chec%ist. &t is wise to write equations! definitions! and hints that wi hep you that may have not
provided for you.
S T R U C T U R E O F M A T T E R – 2 0 %
I. Atomic Theory & the Structure of the Atom
a. Evidence supporting the atomic theory' Dalton’s Atomic theory; J.J. Thomson’s plum
pudding model showing electrons; Rutherford’s gold foil experiment to find protons;
Chadwick’s radiation experiment to find neutrons; almer ! Ryd"erg finding the
electromagnetic spectra; ohr showing or"itals; deroglie ! #chrodinger’s wa$e
mechanical model; %eisen"erg’s uncertainty principle
". Atomic masses! atomic num(ers! mass num(ers! isotopes' atomic mass is the a$erage of
all isotopes of an element and is on the periodic ta"le; atomic num"er & protons; mass
num"er & protons ' neutrons and (# )*T on the periodic ta"le; isotopes are the same
element "ut with different mass num"ers due to different amount of neutrons
c. Eectronic structure of the atom
i.
Energy eves! atomic spectra' know electron configuration and the exceptions to the
Diagonal Rule +Cr, Mo, Cu, Ag, Au, -, .d, .t/; know the e0uations for calculating
wa$elength, fre0uency, etc.; wa$elengths from strongest to longest +gamma ray,
12ray, ultra$iolet, $isi"le, infrared, microwa$e, radio/
ii.
)uantum num(ers! atomic or(itas' principal le$el +n & 3,4,56/, or"ital shape7su"le$el
+l & 8,3,4,5 if s,p,d,f/, magnetic +m
l
& 2l to 'l and depends on the line/, and spin +m
s
& '
9 or : 9 /
d. Periodic trends and reationships
i.
&oni*ation energies +energy to remo$e outermost electron,! eectron affinities
+attraction "etween an atom and a gained electron,! Eectronegativity +a"ility to get
electrons while in a "ond,' these all increase up and to the right; ; is the highest; '3
metals and 23 nonmetals ions are most reacti$e
ii.
Atomic and ionic radii! oxidation states' atomic radius increases down and left; cations
are smaller than their original atoms while anions are larger than the original atom;
$alence electrons cane "e determined "y the group num"er and most transition
metals ha$e 4; metals’ oxidation states are the positi$e $alence electron < and
nonmetals tend to ha$e $alence electron : = & oxidation num"ers; oxidation num"ers
should e0ual the charge of the compound7ion
II. Chemical Bonding
a. &nter- and intramoecuar forces +&./,
i.
&onic +typically metal ! nonmetals; electrons are donated and accepted, and covaent
(onding +typically all nonmetals; electrons are shared,' ionic ha$e stronger pull than
co$alent "onding and tend to ha$e higher melting7"oiling points and more rigid
structures
ii.
van der 0aas forces +incuding 1ondon dispersion forces + temp,! dipoe-dipoe
forces! and hydrogen (onding2 isted a(ove in order of strength2
iii.
/orces reated to states! properties! and structure of matter' if (>; ? @inetic Anergy
then gas +total molecular disorder/, if (>; B@.A. then li0uid +little molecular disorder/, if
(>; C @.A. then solid +no disorder/; pressure changes states "ecause it pushes
molecules closer together which changes the (>;’s; temp. changes states "ecause it
changes the kinetic energy
i$.
Bond poarity and eectronegativity difference' if the difference in electronegati$ity is
? 8.D then nonpolar, from 8.D to ? 4.3 then polar, and if E 4.3 then ionic
". .odes of moecues
i.
1ewis structures and their resonance structures' know how to tally electrons and draw
them; include "rackets and charges for ions; resonance structures need F "etween
them and simply show the same atoms and "onds "ut in different positions; real
molecules are a sum of their resonance structures
ii.
3#EP4 Theory' lone pairs of electrons repel more and ha$e larger electron domains
than "onded pairs which change the "ond angles and shapes of molecules
iii.
3aence (ond theory! hy(ridi*ation! sigma and pi (onds' single "ond & 3 sigma,
dou"le & 3 sigma ! 3 pi, triple & 3 sigma ! 4 pi; pi "onds ha$e more or"itals
o$erlapping than sigma "onds
Main Shape (derivations as lone pairs replace atoms) Hybridiation
linear sp
Trigonal planar +"ent/ sp
4
Tetrahedral +trigonal pyramidal ! "ent// sp
5
trigonal "ipyramidal +distorted tetrahedral, T2shape, linear/ sp
5
d
*ctahedral +s0uare pyramid, s0uare planar/ sp
5
d
4
c. .oecuar geometry! structura isomerism
i.
$eometry of simpe moecues +(oth organic and inorganic,' know the D "asic shapes
and their deri$ed shapes when lone pairs come in; an isomer occurs on organics and
is the same chemical formula "ut has the group attached to a different car"on
ii.
Coordination compexes' ha$e a metal as the central atom and are surrounded "y
polyatomic ions or molecules
iii.
5ipoe moments! moecuar poarity' find the dipole of each "ond and the net direction
of these shows the molecules dipole moment and if they cancel out then it will "e a
nonpolar molecule; if lone pairs are in$ol$ed it will automatically "e a polar molecule
i$.
4eationship of properties to structure' like dissol$es like; molecules will arrange them
sel$es according to their polarity; G#ee (( a ( for more info on ionics $s. co$alentH
III. !uclear Chemistry
a. 6ucear equations! radioactivity' tops must "e e0ual and "ottoms must "e e0ual; know all
particles +alpha, "eta, neutron, proton, electron, positron/
". 7af-ives and appications' su"stances decay at a steady rate; used in dating su"stances
+car"on dating/, medications ! treatment, power supply +nuclear reactors/, 12rays and
illness detection, smoke detectors/
S T A T E S O F M A T T E R – 2 0 %
IV. "ases
a. 1aws of &dea $ases
i.
&dea $as 1aw' .I & nRT +this can also "e changed to .I> & mRT, where J>K is the
molar mass and JmK is the grams of the su"stance/; the hea$ier the gas the less ideal
it is
ii.
5aton"s 1aw of Partia Pressures' .
Total
& .
3
' .
4
' .
5
; this can also "e calculated
using percents "ut remem"er that the pressures are additi$e
". 8inetic 9 moecuar theory' gases are in constant, random motion and act ideal
i.
&nterpretations of gas aws' oyles’ Law +.I & @/; Charles’ Law I7T & @/; May2
Lussac’s Law +.7T & constant/ Gall of these laws can "e changed to ha$e the final
e0ual the initial instead of a constant, @H; Mraham’s Law +N>
3
7>
4
& $
4
7$
3,
this means
that lighter the molecular mass, the faster the gas/
ii.
Avogadro"s hypothesis' as the moles of gas increase, the $olume must also increase
+n7I & @/; there are O.84 x 3845 particles in a mole of any su"stance; 3 mole of any
gas & 44.P L
iii.
4eationship (etween %inetic energy and temperature' the higher the temperature, the
more kinetic energy of molecules : they are directly proportional
i$.
5eviations from idea gases +rea gases,' Mases are ideal at high temps. and low
pressures +%oT Li./, ha$e no $olume, and ha$e no attracti$e or repulsi$e forces.
%owe$er, as gases in real life are cooled and contained their particles get closer
together and ha$e forces "etween them. Ian der -aals made a real gas e0uation
that accounted for this.
c. 1iquids and #oids
i.
8inetic moecuar theory appied to iquids and soids' their molecules do not tend to
"e in random motion
ii.
Phase diagrams of a pure su(stance! tripe point! critica point' go from gases, li0uids,
solids; triple point +3/ is where all phase meet; critical point +4/ is the highest temp !
pressure that li0uid ! gas can "e at e0uili"rium
iii.
Changes of state' Axothermics +a,d,f/ ! Andothermics +",c,e/
i$.
#tructure of soids' crystalline solids are ionic compounds and ha$e an organiQed
structure +i.e. salt/ while amorphous solids are co$alent and mo$e around +i.e. ru""er/
d. #outions
i.
Types of soutions and sou(iity' Alectrolytes +ionic/ and )onelectrolytes +co$alent/,
can solid +alloy/, li0uid, or gas; #%ACAA) +#olu"ility/ Rules
ii.
Concentration units' molarity +> & mol7L/, molality +m & mol7kg/, mole fraction
+mol
solute
7mol
solution
/, mass percent +g
solute
7g
solution
/
iii.
4aout"s 1aw' $apor pressure of a solution is less than that of the pure sol$ent
i$.
Coigative properties! osmosis' "oiling point ele$ation and freeQing point depression
depend on the concentration of the solution; solutions always mo$e through
mem"ranes from low concentrations to high concentrations
$.
6onidea (ehavior of soutions' (deal solutions o"ey Raoult’s Law; they are not ideal
when the (>; "etween sol$ent and solute is weaker than the (>; "etween the
particles of the sol$ent
a. deposition
(. su(imation
c. meting
d. free*ing
e. (oiing:vapori*ing
f. condensing
Sufates +$roup ;! Ag! P(! 7g,
Haides +Ag! P(! 7g,
Acetate +Ag,
Chorates
A%ai .etas
Ammonium
!itrates
R E A C T I O N S – 2 0 %
V. #eaction Types
a. Acid- (ase reactions' Arrhenius +Acids form hydronium ! ases form hydroxide/, ronsted2
Lowry +Acids are proton donors ! ases are proton acceptors/, and Lewis +Acids are
electron pair acceptors ! ases are electron pair donors/
". Coordination compexes and amphoterism +the a"ility to "e "oth a "ase and an acid,' i.e.
%
4
* can "ecome *%
2
or %
5
*
'
and so can polyprotic acids; complexes are compounds that
contain an ion that has a metal in the middle of its structure surrounded "y other molecules
or ions : "asically a polyatomic ion that contains a metal
c. Precipitation reactions' an insolu"le product is formed
d. <xidation 9 reduction reactions
i.
<xidation num(er' "alancing "y keeping track of the oxidation num"ers
ii.
Eectron transfer' knowing who was oxidiQed +loss electrons/ or reduced +gained
electrons/
iii.
Eectrochemistry' electrolytic cells and ;araday’s laws, gal$anic cells and standard
reduction potentials, )ernst e0uation to predict the direction of a reaction
VI. Stoichiometry
a. 6et ionic equations' remem"er the solu"ility rules to find the precipitate +insolu"le
compound/; cancel out the spectator ions +those not part of the precipitate/; keep it
"alanced
". Baancing redox equations' "alancing "y using the %
4
* and %
'
method and *%
2
if in a "ase
c. .ass and voume reationships using the moe concept
i.
Empirica and moecuar formuas' empirical is the reduced form of the actual
molecule, which is shown "y the molecular; get moles of each element and di$ide "y
the smallest mole to get the ratio of the elements, which happens to "e the su"script
of the empirical formula
ii.
1imiting reactants' you must ha$e "oth reactants’ amount to sol$e for one of the
products and whoe$er makes the smallest amount of product is the limiting reactant
VII. $%uilibrium
a. 1e Chatier"s Principe and equii(rium constant' if a system at e0uili"rium is distur"ed, it
will adRust to go "ack to e0uili"rium; @e0 & Gproduct concentrationH 7 Greactant concentrationH
". )uantitative use of equii(rium
i.
=sing an &CE Box' find concentrations at e0uili"rium
ii.
Equii(rium constants for gas phase reactions' @
p
iii.
Equii(rium constants for reactions in soutions +aqueous,' @
c
3.
Acid-(ase equii(rium +@
a
> @
"
, and p7:p<7 cacuations' p% & 2log G%
5
*
'
H and
p*% & 2log G*%
2
H; p% ' p*% & 3P; @w & @
a
x @
"
& 3 x 38
23P

4.
#ou(ity product +@
sp
, cacuations incuding common ions
Titration Curve
Endpoint p7?@ if strong (ase
Endpoint p7 A @if wea% acid >
strong (ase
Endpoint p7 B@ if strong acid >
wea% (ase
Buffer wor%s (est haf way to
equivaence point.
5.
Buffer and hydroysis equii(ria +@
w
,' A weak acid and some strong "ase can form
a "uffer. A weak "ase and some strong acid can also form a "uffer; hydrolysis has
water acting as an acid or "ase +amphoteric/
VIII. &inetics
a. 4ates of reactions and factors' reaction rate is the change in concentration of the reactant
di$ided "y the time +∆GreactantsH7∆time and has the units > s
23
*R mol L
23
s
23
/; rate constant
+k/ is specific for each reaction +units are L mol
23
s
23
/; factors that affect reaction rate are
concentration, temperature, surface area7touching, catalyst present : if these increase then
the rate increases
". 5etermination of rates! rate aws! reaction order! and rate constants from experimenta
data! incuding graphs' indi$idual reactants ha$e the rate order of their exponents "ut the
entire reaction is a sum of the exponents; make sure you pay attention to units when
sol$ing for k; make sure to cancel intermediates, which are the compounds that appear on
"othe sides of the arrow during your mechanism +elementary steps/; slow step determines
rate
4ate 1aw
4ate 5etermining #tep
in the mechanism
order
straight'line
plot
Slope
4ate ? % CADCBD A E B → F +sow, G
C4eactantDt
vs. t
-%
4ate ? % CAD
;
A E A → F +sow, H
nC4eactantDt
vs. t
-%
4ate ? % CAD
;
CBD
A E A → F +fast,
B E F → I +sow,
Each step is usuay
(imoecuar. A third order
overa reaction often comes
from a fast equii(rium
(efore a sow step.
;
H:C4eactantDt
vs. t
%
4ate ? %
This coud (e a mechanism
that depends on a catayst
ony. The concentrations
woud not matter.
Jthis heps you determine rate order (ased
on a grph.
JActivation energy of rxn ? sope
c. Effect of temperature on rates' increases reaction rates "etween solids and li0uids "ut
decreases rates of gases reacting; a catalyst speeds the reaction rate
d. Activation energy and cataysis' a catalyst lowers the acti$ation energy of a reaction
e. 4eationship of rate-determining step to rate aws and reaction mechanisms
IX. Thermodynamics
a. #tate functions' SA, SM +Mi""s free energy is the minimum energy re0uired for a non2
spontaneous rxn and the maximum energy for a spontaneous rxn/ , S# +entropy is the
amount of disorder in a system and increases solid to gas/, S% +enthalpy is heat7energy
and a rxn is exothermic if it’s negati$e and endothermic if it’s positi$e/; all can change
"ased on the state change processes +heating ! cooling/
". /irst aw of thermodynamics +energy is always conser$ed so $aria"les are indirectly
proportionate,! enthapy change +S%,! heats of formation and reaction! 7ess"s 1aw +multiply
the coefficients "y % and add them if su"stances are added,! caorimetry2 0&mCST and
other e0uations from the heat cur$e diagram, %
reactions
& 2%
surroundings
,
c. #econd aw of thermodynamics! concept of entropy +#,! free energies of formation and
reaction +M,! the reationship (etween free energy! enthapy! and entropy'
∆H ∆S (roduct')avored*
+ +
at higher temperatures
,' ,'
at ower temperatures
,' +
at a temperatures
+ ,'
never
+reactant-favored at a temps,
d. 4eationships (etween free energy change +SM,! equii(rium constants! and eectrode
potentias' can "e found using )ernst e0uation
D E S C R I P T I V E C H E M I S T R Y – 1 0 - 1 5 %
X. Chemica reactivity and reactions and a %nowedge of chemica nomencature' know your
ions and "e a"le to name any compound from the formula or gi$e its correct formula from
the name
∆$ ? ∆7 - T∆#
∆$BG! ∆$ K! product-favored reaction
∆$AG! ∆$ E! reactant-favored reaction
∆$?G! reaction is at equii(rium
XI. 4eationships in the periodic ta(e that aow prediction of chemica and physica properties.
These can (e hori*onta! vertica! or diagona reationships' how they "ond, melting7"oiling
points; reacti$ity
XII. <rganic chemistry! structures! functiona groups! nomencature! and chemica properties
a. 6um(er of car(ons te root name +meth2, eth2, prop2, "ut2, pent2, hex2, hept2, oct2, non2,
dec2, and (en*ene rings
". 6um(er of (onds te name ending +2ane Cn%
4n'4
, 2ene C
n
%
4n
, 2yneC
n
%
4n24
,
c. $roups attached to owest num(er car(ons +2ol, 2oic acid, 2ldehyde, flouro2 and other
halides, 2one, 2oate,
L A B O R A T O R Y – 5 - 1 0 %
XIII. .a%ing and recording appropriate o(servations of chemica su(stances and reactions'
looking for precipitates "ased on mixing su"stances and their solu"ility, o"ser$ing color
changes, flame tests since some elements "urn with specific colors
XIV. .a%ing quantitative measurements and recording data appropriatey' masses should "e to
5 places after decimal, use of the proper e0uipment to measure su"stances
XV. Cacuating resuts from quantitative data and ma%ing appropriate interpretations of these
resuts' Can you take the data you found in the experiment and actually sol$e what you
are supposed to "e looking for with the correct unitsT
XVI. Communicating the resuts of the experiments in a(oratory reports' Can you descri"e what
you did and how you manipulated the data so the people reading your A. Axam can
understand exactly what you are trying to sayT
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