You are on page 1of 136


Illustration by Panya Vijinthanasarn
by Bhi$$hu P% A% Payutto
translat&' by Bru(& E)ans
All b&in*s ar& th& o+n&rs o, th&ir $a--a
h&irs o, th&ir $a--a
born o, th&ir $a--a
r&lat&' to th&ir $a--a
su..ort&' by th&ir $a--a /
Oth&r 0or$s o, V&n% P% A% Payuttoi)
A($no+l&'*-&nt )ii
Intro'u(tion )iii
1 n'&rstan'in* th& La+ o, Ka--a 1
Ka--a as a la+ o, natur& 1
Th& la+ o, $a--a an' so(ial .r&,&r&n(& 2
Th& -&anin* o, $a--a 3
a4 Ka--a as int&ntion 3
b4 Ka--a as (on'itionin* ,a(tor 5
(4 Ka--a as .&rsonal r&s.onsibility 5
'4 Ka--a as so(ial a(ti)ity or (ar&&r 16
Kin's o, $a--a 11
7 On Goo' an' E)il 18
Th& .robl&- o, *oo' an' &)il 18
Th& -&anin* o, $usala an' a$usala 19
Kusala an' a$usala as (atalysts ,or &a(h oth&r 77
Gau*in* *oo' an' ba' $a--a 7:
Pri-ary ;a(tors :6
"&(on'ary ;a(tors :1
: Th& ;ruition o, Ka--a <:
=&sults o, $a--a on 'i,,&r&nt l&)&ls <:
;a(tors +hi(h a,,&(t th& ,ruition o, $a--a <9
n'&rstan'in* th& .ro(&ss o, ,ruition 27
;ruits o, $a--a on a lon* t&r- basis >
H&a)&n an' H&ll 22
"u--ary4 )&ri,yin* ,utur& li)&s 28
Ka--a ,ruition in th& #ula Ka--a)ibhan*a "utta 3:
< Ka--a on th& "o(ial L&)&l 39
Th& i-.ortan(& o, 'itthi in th& (r&ation o, $a--a 86
E?t&rnal in,lu&n(&s an' int&rnal r&,l&(tion 8<
P&rsonal r&s.onsibility an' so(ial $a--a 83
=&s.onsibl& so(ial a(tion 88
2 Th& Ka--a that En's Ka--a 91
3 Misun'&rstan'in*s o, th& La+ o, Ka--a 57
0ho (aus&s an' su,,&rin*@ 57
B&li&,s that ar& (ontrary to th& la+ o, $a--a 5:
#an $a--a b& &ras&'@ 58
Do $a--a an' notAs&l, (ontra'i(t &a(h oth&r@ 166
8 In #on(lusion 111
Th& *&n&ral -&anin* 117
Int&lli*&n(& o)&r su.&rstition 11:
A(tion rath&r than .ray&r 11:
NonAa'h&r&n(& to ra(& or (lass 112
"&l, r&lian(& 113
A (aution ,or th& ,utur& 118
En'not&s 119
=&,&r&n(&s 176
As th& translator has .oint&' out in his o+n intro'u(tion, this
+or$ is not a 'ir&(t translation o, th& ori*inal Thai )&rsion, but
has b&&n a'a.t&' to suit a 0&st&rn au'i&n(&% "o-& .arts ha)&
b&&n '&l&t&', so-& tri--&' 'o+n, so-& ha)& b&&n r&arran*&',
an' th&r& ha)& b&&n a nu-b&r o, ,ootnot&s a''&' to &?.lain
(on(&.ts +hi(h -i*ht not b& r&a'ily un'&rstoo' by a 0&st&rn
r&a'&rshi.% E)&n so, th& &ss&ntial -&anin* o, th& ori*inal r&-ains
inta(t, an' in ,a(t th& +or$ has in th& .ro(&ss b&(o-&
-or& suitabl& ,or r&a'&rs +ith a nonABu''hist ba($*roun'% This
translation th&r&,or& is not only th& ,ruit th& translator!s a'-irabl&
ability, but o, a (on(&rt&' &,,ort, bas&' on a '&sir& ,or tru&
I +oul' li$& to &?.r&ss -y a..r&(iation to Mr% E)ans ,or his
*oo' int&ntions an' (o--it-&nt in translatin* this +or$ into
En*lish an' s&ttin* th& -anus(ri.t u. ,or .rintin* on (o-.ut&r%
I +oul' also li$& to &?.r&ss -y a..r&(iation to V&n&rabl& Maha
Insorn #inta.anyo, +ho h&l.&' to ,inaliB& th& s&ttin* u., an'
th& Bu''ha'ha--a ;oun'ation, +ho ha)& ta$&n on th& ,inan(ial
May th& (oll&(t&' +hol&so-& int&ntions o, all (on(&rn&' s&r)&
to &n(oura*& ri*ht un'&rstan'in* an' ri*ht (on'u(t, +hi(h ar&
th& (on'itions +hi(h +ill brin* about .&a(& an' in
th& +orl' to'ay%
P% A% Payutto
O(tob&r 12, 1557 CB%E% 72:2D
Th& +or$ .r&s&nt&' h&r& is bas&' on a sin*l& (ha.t&r ,ro-
Bu''ha'ha--a, by V&n&rabl& P% A% Payutto% Bu''ha'ha--a is
.&rha.s th& author!s -ost ,or-al an' a-bitious boo$ to 'at&, a
)olu-& o, o)&r on& thousan' .a*&s '&alin* +ith th& +hol& o, th&
Bu''ha!s t&a(hin*% Althou*h th& +or$ is s(holarly in a..roa(h, it
r&n'&rs th& Bu''hist th&-&s so o,t&n -isun'&rstoo' or (onsi'&r&'
b&yon' th& s(o.& o, th& or'inary lay-an -or& a..roa(habl&
in .ra(ti(al t&r-s%
Th& )&n&rabl& author is on& o, th& ,or&-ost Bu''hist s(holars
in Thailan' to'ay% His )ast out.ut o, -at&rial ran*&s ,ro-
si-.l& &?.lanations o, basi( Bu''hist th&-&s to -or& substantial
Dha--a t&a(hin*s o, a (o--&ntarial natur& Csu(h as
Bu''ha'ha--aD an' so(ial analys&s ,ro- a Bu''hist .&rs.&(ti)&
Csu(h as Bu''hist E(ono-i(sD% V&n&rabl& Payutto is unusually
*i,t&' in this r&*ar', ha)in* ha' &?.&ri&n(& o, both East&rn
an' 0&st&rn (ultur&s in th& (ours& o, his s(holasti( an' t&a(hin*
(ar&&rs% This, (o-bin&' +ith an inEuirin* -in', &?hausti)& r&s&ar(h,
an' an intuiti)& un'&rstan'in* o, rar& s(o.&, *i)&s th&
)&n&rabl& author an outstan'in* .osition ,ro- +hi(h to .r&s&nt
th& Bu''ha!s t&a(hin*%
;or th& -o'&rn 0&st&rn&r, th& t&a(hin* o, $a--a o,,&rs a .ath
o, .ra(ti(& bas&' not on ,&ar o, a hi*h&r authority, nor 'o*-a,
but ,oun'&' on a (l&ar un'&rstan'in* o, th& natural la+ o, (aus&
an' &,,&(t as it r&lat&s to hu-an b&ha)ior% It is a t&a(hin* to b&
not so -u(h b&li&)&' in as un'&rstoo' an' s&&n in o.&ration%
Bu''his- is a r&li*ion that .uts +is'o- to th& ,or& rath&r than
,aith% Int&lli*&nt an' hon&st inEuiry ar& not only +&l(o-&', but
&n(oura*&'% Part o, this inEuiry r&Euir&s a *oo' ba($*roun' un'&rstan'in*
o, th& +ay (aus& an' &,,&(t ,un(tion on th& .&rsonal
l&)&l% This is th& 'o-ain o, &thi(s or -orality, an' th& s.&(i,i(
'o-ain o, $a--a% 0hat (rit&ria ar& th&r& ,or ri*ht an' +ron*
b&ha)ior@ As (on(&.ts, th&s& +or's ar& o.&n to a +i'& ran*&
o, int&r.r&tations, but in th& stu'y o, $a--a +& ar& (on(&rn&'
+ith ,in'in* '&,initions that ar& +or$abl& an' soun'% "u(h '&,initions
-ust not only .oint out a (l&ar 'ir&(tion ,or -oral (on'u(t,
but also .ro)i'& th& r&asons an' in(&nti)&s ,or -aintainin*
it% Th& t&a(hin* o, $a--a satis,i&s th&s& r&Euir&-&nts%
0&st&rn so(i&ty to'ay la($s (larity or a (oh&r&nt 'ir&(tion in
-oral issu&s% 0ith th& +anin* o, ,aith in a "u.r&-& B&in* that
,ollo+&' th& a')an(&s o, s(i&n(&, all that s&&-s to r&-ain as a
.r&s(ri.tion ,or li,& ar& .oliti(al syst&-s an' so(ial i'&als% 0h&n
authoritarian rul& is r&j&(t&', it o,t&n -&ans a r&j&(tion o, any
(oh&r&nt b&ha)ioral stan'ar'% Th&r& s&&-s to b& no roo- in
-o'&rn thin$in* ,or -orality, &?(&.t .&rha.s on th& l&)&l o, i'&als
su(h as hu-an ri*hts%
In th& a*& o, .&rsonal ,r&&'o- an' th& ri*ht to s&l,A&?.r&ssion,
&thi(s s&&- to ha)& b&&n r&'u(&' to a -att&r o, .&rsonal o.inion,
so(ial '&(r&& or (ultural .r&,&r&n(&% #on(&.ts su(h as Fri*htG
an' F+ron*,G an' F*oo'G an' F&)il,G no lon*&r stan' on soli'
*roun', an' +& ,in' ours&l)&s -or& an' -or& ,loun'&rin* +h&n
as$&' to '&,in& th&-% Ar& th&s& Eualiti&s a -att&r o, o.inion,
or 'o th&y ha)& so-& r&ality bas&' on natural la+@ Ho+ 'o
th&y r&lat& to th& s(i&nti,i( +orl' o, i-.&rsonal (aus& an' &,,&(t
r&lationshi.s@ In th& &y&s o, -any, th& (on(&.ts o, *oo' an' &)il
ha)& b&&n r&'u(&' to tools ,or ri*ht&ous bi*otry or .oliti(al o..ortunis-%
This is +hy it is ir$so-& ,or so -any .&o.l& to s&& or
h&ar th& +or' F-oralityGH th& subj&(t is a '&(i'&'ly borin* on&
,or -ost% In an a*& +h&n li,& s&&-s to b& o,,&rin* an &n'l&ss su((&ssion
o, F(h&a. thrills,G +ho!s int&r&st&' in r&straint@
E)&n so, +ithout any (l&ar 'ir&(tion in li,& +& ar& ,a(&' +ith
.robl&-s on -any l&)&ls% 0ith no (l&ar 'ir&(tion, no *ui'&lin&s
on +hi(h to bas& li,&, it b&(o-&s a shabby (oll&(tion o, blun'&rs,
as +& *o (lu-sily ** ,ro- on& &?.&ri&n(& to th& n&?t > &)&n
-or& so +h&n th& -&anin* o, li,& is r&'u(&' to a (o-.ulsi)& ra(&
to a-ass F&?.&ri&n(&sG ,or th&ir o+n sa$&% Th& r&sult is a so(i&ty
'ri)&n by h&'onis-, ,u&l&' by (ra)in*, an' .la*u&' +ith .robl&-s4
on th& .&rsonal l&)&l, '&.r&ssion, lon&lin&ss, an' n&r)ous
'isor'&rsH on th& (o--unal l&)&l, irrational b&ha)ior, (ri-& an'
so(ial unr&st% An' at th& -ost subtl& l&)&l, th& l&*a(y o, th& .r&s&nt
a*& is a li,& out o, st&. +ith natur&, .ro'u(in* th& s.iritual
Fan*stG +hi(h has l&' to th& -o'&rn s&ar(h ,or &nli*ht&n-&nt
,ro- East&rn sour(&s%
It is in th& li*ht o, .r&(is&ly this situation that th& la+ o, $a--a
is so r&l&)ant% Althou*h th& +or's F$a--aG or F$ar-aG a ar&
so-&ti-&s h&ar' in th& .r&s&nt 'ay, th& (on(&.t rar&ly &-&r*&s
,ro- th& (lou' o, -yst&ry that has &nshrou'&' it ,ro- its ,irst
intro'u(tion to th& 0&st% "tran*&ly so, b&(aus& in ,a(t th& la+ o,
$a--a is a sin*ularly 'yna-i( an' lu(i' t&a(hin*, on& +hi(h is
.arti(ularly .&rtin&nt to th& -o'&rn a*&% In th& la+ o, $a--a
+& ar& abl& to ,in' -&anin*,ul an' r&l&)ant '&,initions o, F*oo'G
an' F&)il,G an un'&rstan'in* o, +hi(h not only (lari,i&s th& .ath
o, &thi(al .ra(ti(&, but also ,a(ilitat&s .&rsonal +&llAb&in* an'
,ul,ill-&nt% Not only in'i)i'ual n&&'s, but .robl&-s an' 'ir&(tions
on a so(ial l&)&l (an b& -or& r&a'ily un'&rstoo' +ith
th& h&l. o, this t&a(hin*% It is no +on'&r, th&n, that th& La+ o,
Ka--a is on& o, th& (orn&rston&s o, Bu''his-%
It is -y b&li&, that th& .r&s&nt boo$ is an in)aluabl& r&,&r&n(&
,or both th& (asual stu'&nt an' th& -or& (o--itt&' .ra(ti(&r
o, Bu''his-% Th& la+ o, $a--a, as on& o, Bu''his-!s (&ntral
th&-&s, r&Euir&s not only a -o'i(u- o, l&arnin*, but also a *oo'
'&al o, inn&r r&,l&(tion% Th& boo$ shoul' th&r&,or& not b& r&a'
as a (oll&(tion o, i'&as to b& (o--itt&' to -&-ory, but
as F,oo' ,or thou*ht,G to b& -ull&' o)&r, r&,l&(t&' on an''
to .ra(ti(al r&ality% "o-& o, th& (on(&.ts .r&s&nt&' -ay at ,irst
s&&- stran*&, but ti-& s.&nt (ont&-.latin* th&- +ill r&)&al
that th&s& (on(&.ts, ,ar ,ro- stran*&, ar& r&ally Euit& or'inary%
Th&y ar&, in ,a(t, so or'inary that th&y so-&ho+ &lu'& our ('
I ori*inally s&t out to -a$& a ,airly lit&ral translation o, this boo$,
but ha)in* (o-.l&t&' th& ,irst 'ra,t I +as ,a(&' +ith a nu-b&r o,
.robl&-s% ;irstly, so-& o, th& .oints rais&' in th& boo$'
s.&(i,i(ally to Thai (ultur& an' +oul' only b& -&anin*,ul in
su(h a (ont&?t% On& s&(tion, ,or instan(&, (o)&r&' th& 'i,,&r&n(&
b&t+&&n $usala Cs$ill,ulD an' a$usala Cuns$ill,ulD on on& han',
an' .uIIa C-&ritD an' .a.a C'&-&rit or sinD on th& oth&r, th&s&
+or's b&in* &?t&nsi)&ly us&' in Thailan'% But th&y ar& ,airly
untranslatabl& in En*lish an' not .arti(ularly r&l&)ant to nonA
Bu''hist (ultur&s% ;or this r&ason I as$&' th& )&n&rabl& author
,or .&r-ission to '&l&t& this s&(tion% "o-& s&(tions, su(h as that
on int&ntion, +&r& -o)&' ,ro- on& (ha.t&r to anoth&r% On all o,
th&s& o((asions I ha)& sou*ht out th& )&n&rabl& author!s a')i(&
an' .&r-ission%
On& o, th& -ajor (han*&s to th& boo$ is th& a''ition o, #ha.t&r <,
'&alin* +ith $a--a on th& so(ial l&)&l, +hi(h +as .ut to*&th&r
,ro- a ta.& r&(or'in* o, an in,or-al s&ri&s o, Eu&stions an' ans+&rs
on th& subj&(t b&t+&&n -ys&l, an' th& author% Th& subj&(t
is in ,a(t a )&ry broa' on&, +orthy o, a boo$ in its o+n ri*ht% It is
also on& as.&(t o, $a--a +hi(h is .arti(ularly r&l&)ant to -o'&rn
0&st&rn int&r&sts%
In *&n&ral, th& natur&s o, th& t+o lan*ua*&s, Thai an' En*lish,
ar& )astly 'i,,&r&nt% 0hat is (onsi'&r&' *oo' Thai, i, r&n'&r&' 'ir&(tly
into En*lish, so-&ti-&s turns into ba' En*lish% A((or'in*ly
I ha)& ha' to 'o so-& &'itin* in th& .ro(&ss o, th& translation,
-ainly by (uttin* out r&.&titious .assa*&s% Th&r& ar& a nu-b&r
o, Pali +or's +hi(h it +as ,&lt +&r& b&tt&r l&,t untranslat&' in
th& bo'y o, th& t&?t, in th& ho.& that so-& o, th&s& +or's -ay,
in ti-&, ,in' th&ir +ay into th& En*lish lan*ua*& in on& ,or- or
anoth&r% Th&y ar& +or's ,or +hi(h th& En*lish lan*ua*& has no
'ir&(t translations, an' as su(h th&y r&.r&s&nt an un,ortunat&
la($ ,or th& 0&st&rn +orl' as a +hol&%
All in all, th& boo$ is not stri(tly a lit&ral translation, as anyon&
,a-iliar +ith th& t+o lan*ua*&s +ill ,in' out% ;or any short(o-in*s
r&*ar'in* both th& lan*ua*&, th& Euality o, translation, an'
th& a-ount o, &'itin* that has *on& into this +or$, I as$ th&
r&a'&r!s ,or*i)&n&ss, an' (an only ho.& that th& short(o-in*s
ar& sur-ountabl& to an &arn&st stu'&nt on th& Eu&st ,or truth%
;inally, I shoul' -&ntion that th& -anus(ri.t has b&&n r&a' o)&r
by so -any .&o.l& as to b& too nu-&rous to -&ntion h&r&% I ha)&
r&li&' on th& su**&stions an' ,&&'ba($ o, all o, th&- to *ui'&
-y tr&at-&nt o, th& translation,* to .r&s&nt th& boo$ in as
Funi)&rsalG a +ay as .ossibl&, an' +ithout this h&l. I a- sur& th&
boo$ +oul' b& -u(h l&ss .olish&' than it no+ stan's%
May any -&rits a((ruin* ,ro- th& .ro'u(tion o, this boo$ s&r)&
to illu-inat& th& subj&(t o, $a--a, an' th&r&by l&a' to a san&r
+orl' ,or all%
nl&ss oth&r+is& in'i(at&', all &n'not&s ar& -in&%
Bru(& E)ans
Ban*$o$, 155:
1 n'&rstan'in* th& La+ o, Ka--a
Ka--a as a la+ o, natur&
Bu''his- t&a(h&s that all thin*s, both -at&rial an' i--at&rial,
ar& &ntir&ly subj&(t to th& 'ir&(tion o, (aus&s an' ar& int&r'&.&n'&nt%
This natural (ours& o, thin*s is (all&' in (o--on t&r-s
Fth& la+ o, natur&,G an' in th& Pali lan*ua*& niya-a, lit&rally
-&anin* F(&rtaintyG or F,i?&' +ay,G r&,&rrin* to th& ,a(t that
s.&(i,i( '&t&r-inants in&)itably l&a' to (orr&s.on'in* r&sults%
Th& la+s o, natur&, althou*h uni,or-ly bas&' on th& .rin(i.l&
o, (ausal '&.&n'&n(&, (an n&)&rth&l&ss b& sort&' into 'i,,&r&nt
-o'&s o, r&lationshi.% Th& Bu''hist (o--&ntari&s '&s(rib& ,i)&
(at&*ori&s o, natural la+, or niya-a% Th&y ar&4
1% tuniya-a4 th& natural la+ .&rtainin* to .hysi(al obj&(ts
an' (han*&s in th& natural &n)iron-&nt, su(h as th& +&ath&rH
th& +ay ,lo+&rs bloo- in th& 'ay an' ,ol' u. at ni*htH
th& +ay soil, +at&r an' nutri&nts h&l. a tr&& to *ro+H an'
th& +ay thin*s 'isint&*rat& an' '&(o-.os&% This .&rs.&(ti)&
&-.hasiB&s th& (han*&s brou*ht about by h&at or t&-.&ratur&%
7% Bijaniya-a4 th& natural la+ .&rtainin* to h&r&'ity, +hi(h is
b&st '&s(rib&' in th& a'a*&, Fas th& s&&', so th& ,ruit%G
:% #ittaniya-a4 th& natural la+ .&rtainin* to th& +or$in*s o,
th& -in', th& .ro(&ss o, (o*nition o, s&ns& obj&(ts an' th&
-&ntal r&a(tions to th&-%
<% Ka--aniya-a4 th& natural la+ .&rtainin* to hu-an b&ha)ior,
th& .ro(&ss o, th& *&n&ration o, a(tion an' its r&sults%
In &ss&n(&, this is su--ariB&' in th& +or's, F*oo' '&&'s
brin* *oo' r&sults, ba' '&&'s brin* ba' r&sults%G
2% Dha--aniya-a4 th& natural la+ *o)&rnin* th& r&lationshi.
an' int&r'&.&n'&n(& o, all thin*s4 th& +ay all thin*s
aris&, &?ist an' th&n (&as&% All (on'itions ar& subj&(t to
(han*&, ar& in a stat& o, a,,li(tion an' ar& not s&l,4 this is th&
Th& ,irst ,our niya-a ar& (ontain&' +ithin, or bas&' on, th&
,i,th on&, Dha--aniya-a, th& La+ o, Dha--a, or th& La+ o,
Natur&% It -ay b& Eu&stion&' +hy Dha--aniya-a, b&in* as it
+&r& th& totality, is also in(lu'&' +ithin th& sub'i)isions% This
is b&(aus& this ,our,ol' (at&*oriBation 'o&s not (o)&r th& &ntir&
&?t&nt o, Dha--aniya-a%
To illustrat&4 th& .o.ulation o, Thailan' (an b& sort&' into 'i,,&r&nt
(at&*ori&s, su(h as th& royalty, th& *o)&rn-&nt, .ubli(
s&r)ants, -&r(hants an' th& .o.ula(&H or it -ay b& (at&*oriB&'
as th& .oli(&, -ilitary, .ubli( s&r)ants, stu'&nts an' th& .o.ula(&H
or it (an b& 'i)i'&' u. in a nu-b&r o, oth&r +ays% A(tually,
th& +or's Fth& .o.ula(&G in(lu'& all th& oth&r **s in th&
(ountry% Publi( s&r)ants, hous&hol'&rs, .oli(&, th& -ilitary, -&r(hants
an' stu'&nts ar& all &Eually -&-b&rs o, th& .o.ula(&,
but th&y ar& sin*l&' out b&(aus& &a(h o, thos& *rou.s has its
o+n uniEu& (hara(t&risti(s% Thos& .&o.l& +ithout any r&l&)ant
,&atur& .arti(ular to th&- ar& *rou.&' un'&r th& *&n&ral h&a'in*,
Fth& .o.ula(&%G Mor&o)&r, althou*h thos& **s -ay
(han*& a((or'in* to th&ir .arti(ular '&si*n, th&y +ill al+ays
in(lu'& th& +or' Fth& .o.ula(&,G or Fth& .&o.l&,G or a si-ilar *&n&ri(
t&r-% Th& in(lusion o, Dha--aniya-a in th& ,i)& niya-a
shoul' b& un'&rstoo' in this +ay%
0h&th&r or not th&s& ,i)& natural la+s ar& (o-.l&t& an' allAin(lusi)&
is not i-.ortant% Th& (o--&ntators ha)& '&tail&' th&
,i)& **s r&l&)ant to th&ir n&&'s, an' any oth&r **s
(an b& in(lu'&' un'&r th& ,i,th on&, Dha--aniya-a, in th&
sa-& +ay as in th& &?a-.l& abo)&% Th& i-.ortant .oint to b&ar
in -in' is th& (o--&ntators! '&si*n in .ointin* out th&s& ,i)&
niya-a% In this (onn&(tion thr&& .oints -ay b& -&ntion&'4
;irstly, this t&a(hin* hi*hli*hts th& Bu''hist .&rs.&(ti)&, +hi(h
s&&s th& (ours& o, thin*s as subj&(t to (aus&s an' (on'itions% No
-att&r ho+ -inut&ly this la+ is analyB&', +& s&& only th& +or$in*s
o, th& Nor-, or th& stat& o, int&r'&.&n'&n(&% A $no+l&'*&
o, this truth allo+s us to l&arn, li)& an' .ra(ti(& +ith a (l&ar an'
,ir- un'&rstan'in* o, th& +ay thin*s ar&% It (on(lusi)&ly &li-inat&s
th& .robl&- o, tryin* to ans+&r Eu&stions o, a #r&ator
Go' +ith th& .o+&r to 'i)&rt th& ,lo+ o, th& Nor- Cunl&ss that
Go' b&(o-&s on& o, th& '&t&r-inin* ,a(tors +ithin th& ,lo+D%
0h&n (hall&n*&' +ith su(h -isl&a'in* Eu&stions as, F0ithout a
b&in* to (r&at& th&s& la+s, ho+ (an th&y (o-& to b&@G +& n&&'
only r&,l&(t that i, l&,t to th&-s&l)&s, all thin*s -ust ,un(tion
in so-& +ay or oth&r, an' this is th& +ay th&y ,un(tion% It is
i-.ossibl& ,or th&- to ,un(tion any oth&r +ay% Hu-an b&in*s,
obs&r)in* an' stu'yin* this stat& o, thin*s, th&n .ro(&&' to (all
it a Fla+%G But +h&th&r it is (all&' a la+ or not 'o&s not (han*&
its a(tual o.&ration%
"&(on'ly, +h&n +& analyB& &)&nts, +& -ust not r&'u(& th&-
&ntir&ly to sin*l& la+s% In a(tual ,a(t, on& an' th& sa-& &)&nt
in natur& -ay aris& ,ro- any on& o, th&s& la+s, or a (o-bination
o, th&-% ;or &?a-.l&, th& bloo-in* o, th& lotus in th& 'ay
ti-& an' its ,ol'in* u. at ni*ht ar& not th& &,,&(ts o, utuniya-a
C.hysi(al la+sD alon&, but ar& also subj&(t to bijaniya-a Ch&r&'ityD%
0h&n a .&rson sh&'s t&ars it -ay b& 'u& lar*&ly to th&
&,,&(ts o, (ittaniya-a, as +ith ha..y or sa' -&ntal stat&s, or it
(oul' b& th& +or$in*s o, utuniya-a, su(h as +h&n s-o$& *&ts
in th& &y&s%
Thir'ly, an' -ost i-.ortantly, h&r& th& (o--&ntators ar& sho+in*
us that th& la+ o, $a--a is just on& o, a nu-b&r o, natural
la+s% Th& ,a(t that it is *i)&n as only on& a-on* ,i)& 'i,,&r&nt
la+s r&-in's us that not all &)&nts ar& th& +or$in*s o, $a--a%
0& -i*ht say that $a--a is that ,or(& +hi(h 'ir&(ts hu-an
so(i&ty, or '&(i'&s th& )alu&s +ithin it% Althou*h it is on&
ty.& o, natural la+, it is th& -ost i-.ortant on& ,or us as hu-an
b&in*s, b&(aus& it is our .arti(ular r&s.onsibility% 0& ar&
(r&ators o, $a--a, an' $a--a in r&turn sha.&s th& ,ortun&s
an' (on'itions o, our li)&s%
Most .&o.l& t&n' to .&r(&i)& th& +orl' as .artly in th& (ontrol
o, natur&, .artly in th& (ontrol o, hu-an b&in*s% In this -o'&l,
$a--aniya-a is th& hu-an r&s.onsibility, +hil& th& oth&r niya-a
ar& &ntir&ly natur&!s 'o-ain%
0ithin th& +or$in*s o, $a--aniya-a, th& ,a(tor o, int&ntion or
)olition is (ru(ial% Thus, th& la+ o, $a--a is th& la+ +hi(h *o)&rns
th& +or$in*s o, )olition, or th& +orl' o, int&ntional hu-an
thou*ht an' a(tion% 0h&th&r or not +& '&al +ith oth&r niya-a,
+& -ust '&al +ith th& la+ o, $a--a, an' our '&alin*s +ith
oth&r niya-a ar& in&)itably in,lu&n(&' by it% Th& la+ o, $a--a
is thus o, .ri-& i-.ortan(& in r&*ulatin* th& &?t&nt to +hi(h +&
ar& abl& to (r&at& an' (ontrol th& thin*s aroun' us%
#orr&(tly s.&a$in*, +& (oul' say that th& hu-an (a.a(ity to
&nt&r into an' b&(o-& a ,a(tor +ithin th& natural (aus& an' &,,&(t
.ro(&ss, +hi(h in turn *i)&s ris& to th& i-.r&ssion that +&
ar& abl& to (ontrol an' -ani.ulat& natur&, is all 'u& to this la+
o, $a--a% In s(i&nti,i( an' t&(hnolo*i(al ar&as, ,or &?a-.l&,
+& int&ra(t +ith th& oth&r niya-a, or natural la+s, by stu'y
in* th&ir truths an' a(tin* u.on th&- in (on,or-ity +ith th&ir
natur&, (r&atin* th& i-.r&ssion that +& ar& abl& to -ani.ulat&
an' (ontrol th& natural +orl'%
In a''ition to this, our )olition or int&ntion sha.&s our so(ial
an' .&rsonal r&lationshi.s, as +&ll as our int&ra(tions +ith
oth&r thin*s in th& &n)iron-&nt aroun' us% Throu*h )olition,
+& sha.& our o+n .&rsonaliti&s an' our li,&Astyl&s, so(ial .ositions
an' ,ortun&s% It is b&(aus& th& la+ o, $a--a *o)&rns our
&ntir& )olitional an' (r&ati)& +orl' that th& Bu''ha!s t&a(hin*
*r&atly str&ss&s its i-.ortan(& in th& .hras&4 Ka--una )attati
lo$o4 Th& +orl' is 'ir&(t&' by $a--a%1
Th& la+ o, $a--a an' so(ial .r&,&r&n(& ,ro- th& ,i)& $in's o, natural la+ -&ntion&' abo)&, th&r&
is anoth&r $in' o, la+ +hi(h is s.&(i,i(ally -anA-a'& an' is
not 'ir&(tly (on(&rn&' +ith natur&% Th&s& ar& th& (o'&s o, la+
,i?&' an' a*r&&' u.on by so(i&ty, (onsistin* o, so(ial '&(r&&s,
(usto-s, an' la+s% Th&y (oul' b& .la(&' at th& &n' o, th& abo)&
list as a si?th $in' o, la+, but th&y 'o not ha)& a Pali na-&%
L&t!s (all th&- "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&%b Th&s& (o'&s o, so(ial la+ ar&
.ro'u(ts o, hu-an thou*ht, an' as su(h ar& r&lat&' to th& la+
o, $a--a% Th&y ar& not, ho+&)&r, th& la+ o, $a--a as su(h%
Th&y ar& -&r&ly a su..l&-&nt to it, an' 'o not ha)& th& sa-&
r&lationshi. +ith natural truth as 'o&s th& la+ o, $a--a, as
+ill .r&s&ntly b& sho+n% Ho+&)&r, b&(aus& th&y ar& r&lat&' to
th& la+ o, $a--a th&y t&n' to b&(o-& (on,us&' +ith it, an'
-isun'&rstan'in*s ,r&Eu&ntly aris& as a r&sult%
B&(aus& both $a--aniya-a an' "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(& ar& hu-an
(on(&rns an' ar& inti-at&ly r&lat&' to hu-an li,&, it is )&ry
i-.ortant that th& 'i,,&r&n(&s b&t+&&n th&- ar& (l&arly un'&rstoo'%
In *&n&ral +& -i*ht stat& that th& la+ o, $a--a is th& natural
la+ +hi(h '&als +ith hu-an a(tions, +h&r&as "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&,
or so(ial la+s, ar& an &ntir&ly hu-an (r&ation, r&lat&' to natur&
only inso,ar as th&y ar& a .ro'u(t o, th& natural hu-an thou*ht
.ro(&ss% In &ss&n(&, +ith th& la+ o, $a--a, hu-an b&in*s
r&(&i)& th& ,ruits o, th&ir a(tions a((or'in* to th& natural .ro(&ss&s,
+h&r&as in so(ial la+, hu-an b&in*s ta$& r&s.onsibility
,or th&ir a(tions )ia a .ro(&ss &stablish&' by th&-s&l)&s%
Th& -&anin* o, $a--a
Ety-olo*i(ally, $a--a -&ans F+or$G or Fa(tion%G But in th&
(ont&?t o, th& Bu''ha!s t&a(hin* it is '&,in&' -or& s.&(i,i(ally
as Fa(tion bas&' on int&ntionG or F'&&'s +ill,ully 'on&%G A(tions
that ar& +ithout int&ntion ar& not (onsi'&r&' to b& $a--a in
th& Bu''ha!s t&a(hin*%
This '&,inition is, ho+&)&r, a )&ry *&n&ral on&% I, +& +ish to
(lari,y th& +hol& ran*& o, -&anin* ,or $a--a, +& -ust analyB&
it -or& thorou*hly, 'i)i'in* it u. into 'i,,&r&nt .&rs.&(ti)&s,
or l&)&ls, thus4
a4 Ka--a as int&ntion
Ess&ntially, $a--a is int&ntion C(&tanaD, an' this +or' in(lu'&s
+ill, (hoi(& an' '&(ision, th& -&ntal i-.&tus +hi(h l&a's to
a(tion% Int&ntion is that +hi(h insti*at&s an' 'ir&(ts all hu-an
a(tions, both (r&ati)& an' '&stru(ti)&, an' is th&r&,or& th& &ss&n(&
o, $a--a, as is *i)&n in th& Bu''ha!s +or's, #&tanaha-
bhi$$ha)& $a--a- )a'a-i4 Mon$sJ Int&ntion, I say, is $a--a%
Ha)in* +ill&', +& (r&at& $a--a, throu*h bo'y, s.&&(h an'
At this .oint +& -i*ht ta$& so-& ti-& to broa'&n our un'&rstan'in*
o, this +or' Fint&ntion%G FInt&ntionG in th& (ont&?t o,
Bu''his- has a -u(h subtl&r -&anin* than it has in (o--on
usa*&% In th& En*lish lan*ua*&, +& t&n' to us& th& +or' +h&n
+& +ant to .ro)i'& a lin$ b&t+&&n int&rnal thou*ht an' its r&sultant
&?t&rnal a(tions% ;or &?a-.l&, +& -i*ht say, FI 'i'n!t
int&n' to 'o it,G FI 'i'n!t -&an to say itG or Fsh& 'i' it int&ntionally%G
But a((or'in* to th& t&a(hin*s o, Bu''his-, all a(tions an'
s.&&(h, all thou*hts, no -att&r ho+ ,l&&tin*, an' th& r&s.ons&s
o, th& -in' to s&nsations r&(&i)&' throu*h &y&, &ar, nos&,
ton*u&, bo'y, an' -in', +ithout &?(&.tion, (ontain &l&-&nts o,
int&ntion% Int&ntion is thus th& -in'!s )olitional (hoosin* o, obj&(ts
o, a+ar&n&ssH it is th& ,a(tor +hi(h l&a's th& -in' to turn
to+ar's, or b& r&.&ll&' ,ro-, )arious obj&(ts o, a+ar&n&ss, or
to .ro(&&' in any .arti(ular 'ir&(tionH it is th& *ui'& or th& *o)&rnor
o, ho+ th& -in' r&s.on's to sti-uliH it is th& ,or(& +hi(h
.lans an' or*aniB&s th& -o)&-&nts o, th& -in', an' ulti-at&ly
it is that +hi(h '&t&r-in&s th& stat&s &?.&ri&n(&' by th& -in'%
On& instan(& o, int&ntion is on& instan(& o, $a--a% 0h&n th&r&
is $a--a th&r& is i--&'iat& r&sult% E)&n just on& littl& thou*ht,
althou*h not .arti(ularly i-.ortant, is n&)&rth&l&ss not )oi' o,
(ons&Eu&n(&% It +ill b& at th& l&ast a Ftiny s.&($G o, $a--a,
a''&' to th& str&a- o, (on'itions +hi(h sha.& -&ntal a(ti)ity%
0ith r&.&at&' .ra(ti(&, throu*h r&.&at&' .roli,&ration by th&
-in', or throu*h &?.r&ssion as &?t&rnal a(ti)ity, th& r&sult b&(o-&s
stron*&r in th& ,or- o, (hara(t&r traits, .hysi(al ,&atur&s
or r&.&r(ussions ,ro- &?t&rnal sour(&s%
A '&stru(ti)& int&ntion 'o&s not ha)& to b& on a *ross l&)&l% It
-ay, ,or &?a-.l&, l&a' to th& '&stru(tion o, only a )&ry s-all
thin*, su(h as +h&n +& an*rily t&ar u. a .i&(& o, .a.&r% E)&n
thou*h that .i&(& o, .a.&r has no i-.ortan(& in its&l,, th& a(tion
still has so-& &,,&(t on th& Euality o, th& -in'% Th& &,,&(t
is )&ry 'i,,&r&nt ,ro- t&arin* u. a .i&(& o, .a.&r +ith a n&utral
stat& o, -in', su(h as +h&n thro+in* a+ay s(ra. .a.&r% I, th&r&
is r&.&at&' i-.l&-&ntation o, su(h an*ry int&ntion, th& &,,&(ts
o, a((u-ulation +ill b&(o-& (l&ar&r an' (l&ar&r, an' -ay '&)&lo.
to -or& si*ni,i(ant l&)&ls%
#onsi'&r th& s.&($s o, 'ust +hi(h (o-& ,loatin* unnoti(&' into
a roo-H th&r& isn!t on& s.&($ +hi(h is )oi' o, (ons&Eu&n(&% It is
th& sa-& ,or th& -in'% But th& +&i*ht o, that (ons&Eu&n(&, in
a''ition to b&in* '&.&n'&nt on th& a-ount o, -&ntal F'ust,G is
also r&lat&' to th& Euality o, th& -in'% ;or instan(&, s.&($s o,
'ust +hi(h ali*ht onto a roa' sur,a(& ha)& to b& o, a )&ry lar*&
Euantity b&,or& th& roa' +ill s&&- to b& 'irty% ".&($s o, 'ust
+hi(h ali*ht onto a ,loor, althou*h o, a -u(h s-all&r Euantity,
-ay -a$& th& ,loor s&&- 'irti&r than th& roa'% A s-all&r
a-ount o, 'ust a((u-ulatin* on a tabl& to. +ill s&&- 'irty
&nou*h to (aus& irritation% An &)&n s-all&r a-ount ali*htin* on
a -irror +ill s&&- 'irty an' +ill int&r,&r& +ith its ,un(tionin*%
A tiny s.&($ o, 'ust on a s.&(ta(l& l&ns is .&r(&.tibl& an' (an
i-.air )ision% In th& sa-& +ay, )olition or int&ntion, no -att&r
ho+ s-all, is not )oi' o, ,ruit% As th& Bu''ha sai'4
FAll $a--a, +h&th&r *oo' or &)il, b&ars ,ruit% Th&r& is no
$a--a, no -att&r ho+ s-all, +hi(h is )oi' o, ,ruit%G:
In any (as&, th& -&ntal r&sults o, th& la+ o, $a--a ar& usually
o)&rloo$&', so anoth&r illustration -i*ht b& h&l.,ul4
Th&r& ar& -any $in's o, +at&r4 th& +at&r in a s&+&r, th& +at&r
in a (anal, ta. +at&r, an' 'istill&' +at&r ,or -i?in* a hy.o'&r-i(
inj&(tion% "&+&r +at&r is an a((&.tabl& habitat ,or -any
$in's o, +at&r ani-als, but is not suitabl& ,or bathin*, 'rin$in*
or -&'i(inal us&% 0at&r in a (anal -ay b& us&' to bath& or to
+ash (loth&s but is not 'rin$abl&% Ta. +at&r is 'rin$abl& but
(annot b& us&' ,or -i?in* a hy.o'&r-i( inj&(tion% I, th&r& is no
s.&(ial n&&', th&n ta. +at&r is su,,i(i&nt ,or -ost .ur.os&s, but
on& +oul' b& illAa')is&' to us& it to -i? a hy.o'&r-i( inj&(tion%
In th& sa-& +ay, th& -in' has )aryin* l&)&ls o, r&,in&-&nt or
(larity, '&.&n'in* on a((u-ulat&' $a--a% As lon* as th& -in'
is b&in* us&' on a (oars& l&)&l, no .robl&- -ay b&, but
i, it is n&(&ssary to us& th& -in' on a -or& r&,in&' l&)&l, .r&)ious
uns$ill,ul $a--a, &)&n on a -inor s(al&, -ay b&(o-& an
b4 Ka--a as (on'itionin* ,a(tor
E?.an'in* our .&rs.&(ti)&, +& ,in' $a--a as a (o-.on&nt
+ithin th& +hol& li,& .ro(&ss, b&in* th& a*&nt +hi(h ,ashions
th& 'ir&(tion o, li,&% This is $a--a in its s&ns& o, Fsan$hara,G (
as it a..&ars in th& 0h&&l o, D&.&n'&nt Ori*ination,' +h&r& it
is '&s(rib&' as Fth& a*&nt +hi(h ,ashions th& -in'%G This r&,&rs
to th& ,a(tors or Eualiti&s o, th& -in' +hi(h, +ith int&ntion at
th& l&a', sha.& th& -in' into *oo', &)il or n&utral stat&s, +hi(h
in turn ,ashion th& thou*ht .ro(&ss an' its &,,&(ts throu*h bo'y
an' s.&&(h% In this (ont&?t, $a--a (oul' b& '&,in&' as
)olitional i-.uls&s% E)&n in this '&,inition +& still ta$& int&ntion
as th& &ss&n(&, an' that is +hy +& so-&ti-&s s&& th& +or'
san$hara translat&' as int&ntion%
(4 Ka--a as .&rsonal r&s.onsibility
No+ l&t us loo$ ,urth&r out+ar', to th& l&)&l o, an in'i)i'ual!s
r&lation to th& +orl'% Ka--a in this s&ns& r&,&rs to th& &?.r&ssion
o, thou*hts throu*h s.&&(h an' a(tions% This is b&ha)ior
,ro- an &thi(al .&rs.&(ti)&, &ith&r on a narro+, i--&'iat&
l&)&l, or on a broa'&r l&)&l, in(lu'in* th& .ast an' th& ,utur&%
Ka--a in this s&ns& (orr&s.on's to th& )&ry broa', *&n&ral
-&anin* *i)&n abo)&% This is th& -&anin* o, $a--a +hi(h is
-ost o,t&n &n(ount&r&' in th& s(ri.tur&s, +h&r& it o((urs as an
in'u(&-&nt to &n(oura*& r&s.onsibl& an' *oo' a(tions, as in
th& Bu''ha!s +or's4
FMon$sJ Th&s& t+o thin*s ar& a (aus& o, r&-ors&% 0hat
ar& th& t+o@ "o-& .&o.l& in this +orl' ha)& not -a'&
*oo' $a--a, ha)& not b&&n s$ill,ul, ha)& not -a'& -&rit
as a sa,&*uar' a*ainst ,&ar% Th&y ha)& (o--itt&' only
ba' $a--a, only (oars& $a--a, only har-,ul $a--a /
Th&y &?.&ri&n(& r&-ors& as a r&sult, thin$in*, KI ha)& not
-a'& *oo' $a--a% I ha)& -a'& only ba' $a--a /!G <
It is +orth notin* that th&s& 'ays, not only is $a--a al-ost
&?(lusi)&ly tau*ht ,ro- this .&rs.&(ti)&, but it is also tr&at&'
lar*&ly ,ro- th& .&rs.&(ti)& o, .ast li)&s%
'4 Ka--a as so(ial a(ti)ity or (ar&&r
;ro- an &)&n broa'&r ra'ius, that is, ,ro- th& .&rs.&(ti)& o,
so(ial a(ti)ity, +& ha)& $a--a in its s&ns& o, +or$, labor or
.ro,&ssion% This r&,&rs to th& li,&Astyl&s an' so(ial un'&rta$in*s
r&sultin* ,ro- int&ntion, +hi(h in turn a,,&(t so(i&ty% As is
stat&' in th& Vas&ttha "utta4
FList&n, Vas&ttha, you shoul' un'&rstan' it thus4 On& +ho
'&.&n's on ,ar-in* ,or a li)&lihoo' is a ,ar-&r, not a
Brah-inH on& +ho -a$&s a li)in* +ith th& arts is an artist
/ on& +ho -a$&s a li)in* by s&llin* is a -&r(hant /
on& +ho -a$&s a li)in* +or$in* ,or oth&rs is a s&r)ant /
on& +ho -a$&s a li)in* throu*h st&alin* is a thi&, / on&
+ho -a$&s a li)in* by th& $ni,& an' th& s+or' is a sol'i&r
/ on& +ho -a$&s a li)in* by o,,i(iatin* at r&li*ious
(&r&-oni&s is a .ri&st, not a Brah-in / on& +ho rul&s
th& lan' is a $in*, not a Brah-in / I say that h& +ho has
no '&,il&-&nts stainin* his -in', +ho is ,r&& o, (lin*in*,
is a Brah-in / On& 'o&s not b&(o-& a Brah-in
by birth, but by $a--a is on& a Brah-in, by $a--a is
on& not a Brah-in% By $a--a is on& a ,ar-&r, an artist,
a -&r(hant, a s&r)ant, a thi&,, a sol'i&r, a .ri&st or &)&n a
$in* / it is all b&(aus& o, $a--a% Th& +is& .&rson, s&&in*
D&.&n'&nt Ori*ination, s$ill&' in $a--a an' its r&sults,
s&&s $a--a as it is in this +ay% Th& +orl' is 'ir&(t&' by
$a--a% Hu-anity is 'ir&(t&' by $a--a /G 2
Ha)in* loo$&' at th&s& ,our 'i,,&r&nt sha'&s o, -&anin* ,or th&
+or' F$a--a,G still it -ust b& str&ss&' that any '&,inition o,
$a--a shoul' al+ays b& bas&' on int&ntion% Int&ntion is th&
,a(tor +hi(h *ui'&s our r&lationshi.s +ith oth&r thin*s% 0h&th&r
+& +ill a(t un'&r th& in,lu&n(& o, uns$ill,ul t&n'&n(i&s, in th&
,or- o, *r&&', hatr&' an' '&lusion, or s$ill,ul t&n'&n(i&s, is all
un'&r th& (ontrol o, int&ntion%
Any a(t +hi(h is +ithout int&ntion has no b&arin* on th& la+ o,
$a--a% That is, it 'o&s not (o-& into th& la+ o, $a--a, but
on& o, th& oth&r niya-a, su(h as utuniya-a C.hysi(al la+sD%
"u(h a(tions ha)& th& sa-& si*ni,i(an(& as a .il& o, &arth (a)in*
in, a ro($ ,allin* ,ro- a -ountain, or a '&a' bran(h ,allin*
,ro- a tr&&%
Kin's o, $a--a
In t&r-s o, its Eualiti&s, or its roots, $a--a (an b& 'i)i'&' into
t+o -ain ty.&s% Th&y ar&4
1% A$usala $a--a4 $a--a +hi(h is uns$ill,ul, a(tions +hi(h
ar& not *oo', or ar& &)ilH s.&(i,i(ally, a(tions +hi(h ar& born
,ro- th& a$usala -ula, th& roots o, uns$ill,uln&ss, +hi(h ar&
*r&&', hatr&' an' '&lusion%
7% Kusala $a--a4 a(tions +hi(h ar& s$ill,ul or *oo'H s.&(i,i(ally,
a(tions +hi(h ar& born ,ro- th& thr&& $usala -ula, or
roots o, s$ill, +hi(h ar& nonA*r&&', nonAhatr&' an' nonA'&lusion%
Alt&rnati)&ly, $a--a (an b& (lassi,i&' a((or'in* to th& .aths
or (hann&ls throu*h +hi(h it o((urs, o, +hi(h th&r& ar& thr&&%
Th&y ar&4
1% Bo'ily $a--a4 int&ntional a(tions throu*h th& bo'y%
7% V&rbal $a--a4 int&ntional a(tions throu*h s.&&(h%
:% M&ntal $a--a4 int&ntional a(tions throu*h th& -in'%
In(or.oratin* both o, th& (lassi,i(ations '&s(rib&' abo)&, +&
ha)& alto*&th&r si? $in's o, $a--a4 bo'ily, )&rbal an' -&ntal
$a--a +hi(h is uns$ill,ulH an' bo'ily, )&rbal an' -&ntal
$a--a +hi(h is s$ill,ul%
Anoth&r +ay o, (lassi,yin* $a--a is a((or'in* to its r&sults% In
this (lassi,i(ation th&r& ar& ,our (at&*ori&s4
1% Bla($ $a--a, bla($ r&sult4 This r&,&rs to bo'ily a(tions,
)&rbal a(tions an' -&ntal a(tions +hi(h ar& har-,ul% "i-.l&
&?a-.l&s ar& $illin*, st&alin*, s&?ual in,i'&lity, lyin* an'
'rin$in* into?i(ants%&
7% 0hit& $a--a, +hit& r&sult4 Th&s& ar& bo'ily a(tions, )&rbal
a(tions an' -&ntal a(tions +hi(h ar& not har-,ul, su(h
as .ra(ti(in* in a((or'an(& +ith th& t&n bas&s ,or s$ill,ul
:% Ka--a that is both bla($ an' +hit&, *i)in* r&sults both
bla($ an' +hit&4 Bo'ily a(tions, )&rbal a(tions an' -&ntal
a(tions +hi(h ar& .artly har-,ul, .artly not%
<% Ka--a +hi(h is n&ith&r bla($ nor +hit&, +ith r&sults
n&ith&r bla($ nor +hit&, +hi(h l&a's to th& (&ssation o,
$a--a4 This is th& int&ntion to trans(&n' th& thr&& $in's
o, $a--a -&ntion&' abo)&, or s.&(i,i(ally, '&)&* th&
"&)&n Enli*ht&n-&nt ;a(tors or th& Nobl& Ei*ht,ol' Path%
O, th& thr&& (hann&ls o, $a--a > bo'ily, )&rbal an' -&ntal > it
is -&ntal $a--a +hi(h is (onsi'&r&' th& -ost i-.ortant an'
,arAr&a(hin* in its &,,&(ts, as is *i)&n in th& Pali4
FList&n, Ta.assi% O, th&s& thr&& ty.&s o, $a--a so 'istin*uish&'
by -&, I say that -&ntal $a--a has th& h&a)i&st
(ons&Eu&n(&s ,or th& (o--ittin* o, &)il '&&'s an' th& &?ist&n(&
o, &)il '&&'s, not bo'ily or )&rbal $a--a%G 3
M&ntal $a--a is (onsi'&r&' to b& th& -ost si*ni,i(ant b&(aus&
it is th& ori*in o, all oth&r $a--a% Thou*ht .r&(&'&s a(tion
throu*h bo'y an' s.&&(h% Bo'ily an' )&rbal '&&'s ar& '&ri)&'
,ro- -&ntal $a--a%
On& o, th& -ost i-.ortant in,lu&n(&s o, -&ntal $a--a is 'itthi
> b&li&,s, )i&+s an' .&rsonal .r&,&r&n(&s% Vi&+s ha)& an
i-.ortant b&arin* on in'i)i'ual b&ha)ior, li,& &?.&ri&n(&s an'
so(ial i'&als% A(tions, s.&&(h an' th& -ani.ulation o, situations
ar& bas&' on )i&+s an' .r&,&r&n(&s% I, th&r& is +ron* )i&+, it
,ollo+s that any subs&Eu&nt thin$in*, s.&&(h an' a(tions +ill
t&n' to ,lo+ in a +ron* 'ir&(tion% I, th&r& is ri*ht )i&+, th&n
th& r&sultant thou*hts, s.&&(h an' a(tions +ill t&n' to ,lo+ in a
.ro.&r an' *oo' 'ir&(tion% This not only to th& .&rsonal
l&)&l, but to th& so(ial l&)&l as +&ll% ;or &?a-.l&, a so(i&ty +hi(h
-aintain&' th& b&li&, that -at&rial +&alth is th& -ost )aluabl&
an' '&sirabl& *oal in li,& +oul' stri)& to attain -at&rial .oss&ssions,
*au*in* .ro*r&ss, .r&sti*& an' honor by abun'an(& o,
th&s& thin*s% Th& li,&Astyl& o, su(h .&o.l& an' th& '&)&lo.-&nt
o, su(h a so(i&ty +oul' assu-& on& ,or-% In (ontrast, a so(i&ty
+hi(h )alu&' .&a(& o, -in' an' (ont&nt-&nt as its *oal +oul'
ha)& a -ar$&'ly 'i,,&r&nt li,&Astyl& an' '&)&lo.-&nt%
Th&r& ar& -any o((asions +h&r& th& Bu''ha '&s(rib&' ri*ht
)i&+, +ron* )i&+, an' th&ir i-.ortan(&, su(h as4
FMon$sJ 0hat is =i*ht Vi&+@ I say that th&r& ar& t+o $in's
o, =i*ht Vi&+4 th& =i*ht Vi&+ Co, on&D +ith out,lo+s,
+hi(h is *oo' $a--a an' o, b&n&,i(ial r&sult to bo'y an'
-in'H an' th& =i*ht Vi&+ Co, on&D +ithout out,lo+s, +hi(h
is trans(&n'&nt, an' is a ,a(tor o, th& Nobl& Path%
FAn' +hat is th& =i*ht Vi&+ +hi(h (ontains out,lo+s,
+hi(h is *oo' an' o, b&n&,i(ial r&sult to bo'y an' -in'@
This is th& b&li&, that o,,&rin*s b&ar ,ruit, th& .ra(ti(&
o, *i)in* b&ars ,ruit, r&)&r&n(& is o, ,ruit, *oo' an' &)il
$a--a *i)& r&sultsH th&r& is this +orl', th&r&
is an a,t&rA+orl'H th&r& is a -oth&r, th&r& is a ,ath&rH th&r&
ar& s.ontan&ously aris&n b&in*sH th&r& ar& -&n'i(ants an'
r&li*ious +ho .ra(ti(& +&ll an' +ho .ro(lai- (l&arly th&
truths o, this +orl' an' th& n&?t% This I (all th& =i*ht Vi&+
+hi(h (ontains th& out,lo+s, +hi(h is *oo', an' is o, b&n&,i(ial
r&sult to bo'y an' -in' /G8
FMon$sJ I s&& no oth&r (on'ition +hi(h is so -u(h a (aus&
,or th& arisin* o, as y&t unaris&n uns$ill,ul (on'itions, an'
,or th& '&)&lo.-&nt an' ,ruition o, uns$ill,ul (on'itions
alr&a'y aris&n, as +ron* )i&+ /G 9
FMon$sJ I s&& no oth&r (on'ition +hi(h is so -u(h a (aus&
,or th& arisin* o, as y&t unaris&n s$ill,ul (on'itions, an'
,or th& '&)&lo.-&nt an' ,ruition o, s$ill,ul (on'itions alr&a'y
aris&n, as =i*ht Vi&+ /G 9
FMon$sJ 0h&n th&r& is +ron* )i&+, bo'ily $a--a (r&at&'
as a r&sult o, that )i&+, )&rbal $a--a (r&at&' as a r&sult
o, that )i&+, an' -&ntal $a--a (r&at&' as a r&sult o, that
)i&+, as +&ll as int&ntions, as.irations, +ish&s an' -&ntal
.roli,&rations, ar& all .ro'u(ti)& o, r&sults that ar& un'&sirabl&,
un.l&asant, 'isa*r&&abl&, yi&l'in* no b&n&,it, but
(on'u(i)& to su,,&rin*% On +hat a((ount@ On a((ount o,
that .&rni(ious )i&+% It is li$& a -ar*osa s&&', or a s&&' o,
th& bitt&r *our', .lant&' in -oist &arth% Th& soil an' +at&r
ta$&n in as nutri-&nt ar& +holly (on)&rt&' into a bitt&r
tast&, an a(ri' tast&, a ,oul tast&% 0hy is that@ B&(aus& th&
s&&' is not *oo'%
FMon$sJ 0h&n th&r& is =i*ht Vi&+, bo'ily $a--a (r&at&'
as a r&sult o, that )i&+, )&rbal $a--a (r&at&' as a r&sult
o, that )i&+, an' -&ntal $a--a (r&at&' as a r&sult o, that
)i&+, as +&ll as int&ntions, as.irations, +ish&s an' -&ntal
.roli,&rations, ar& all yi&l'in* o, r&sults that ar& '&sirabl&,
.l&asant, a*r&&abl&, .ro'u(in* b&n&,it, (on'u(i)& to On +hat a((ount@ On a((ount o, thos& *oo'
)i&+s% It is li$& a s&&' o, th& su*ar (an&, a s&&' o, +h&at,
or a ,ruit s&&' +hi(h has b&&n .lant&' in -oist &arth% Th&
+at&r an' soil ta$&n in as nutri-&nt ar& +holly (on)&rt&'
into s+&&tn&ss, into r&,r&sh-&nt, into a '&li(ious tast&% On
+hat a((ount is that@ On a((ount o, that *oo' s&&' /G 5
FMon$sJ Th&r& is on& +hos& birth into this +orl' is not ,or
th& b&n&,it o, th& -any, not ,or th& o, th& -any,
but ,or th& ruin, ,or th& har- o, th& -any,ol$, ,or th& su,,&rin*
o, both D&)as an' -&n% 0ho is that .&rson@ It is th&
.&rson +ith +ron* )i&+, +ith 'istort&' )i&+s% On& +ith
+ron* )i&+ l&a's th& -any a+ay ,ro- th& truth an' into
,als&hoo' /
FMon$sJ Th&r& is on& +hos& birth into this +orl' is ,or th&
b&n&,it o, th& -any, ,or th& o, th& -any, ,or
*ro+th, ,or b&n&,it, ,or th& o, D&)as an' -&n%
0ho is that .&rson@ It is th& .&rson +ith =i*ht Vi&+, +ho
has un'istort&' )i&+s% On& +ith =i*ht Vi&+ l&a's th&
-any a+ay ,ro- ,als&hoo', an' to+ar' th& truth /
FMon$sJ I s&& no oth&r (on'ition +hi(h is so har-,ul as
+ron* )i&+% O, har-,ul thin*s, -on$s, +ron* )i&+ is th&
FAll (on'itions ha)& -in' as ,or&runn&r, -in' as -ast&r,
ar& a((o-.lish&' by -in'% 0hat&)&r on& says or 'o&s +ith
a '&,&(ti)& -in' brin*s su,,&rin* in its +a$&, just as th&
(art+h&&l ,ollo+s th& o?!s hoo, / 0hat&)&r on& says or
'o&s +ith a (l&ar -in' brin*s in its +a$&, just
as th& sha'o+ ,ollo+s its o+n&r%G11
7 On Goo' an' E)il
Th& .robl&- o, *oo' an' &)il
B&(aus& $a--a is 'ir&(tly (on(&rn&' +ith *oo' an' &)il, any
'is(ussion o, $a--a -ust also in(lu'& a 'is(ussion o, *oo'
an' &)il% "tan'ar's ,or '&,inin* *oo' an' &)il ar&, ho+&)&r, not
+ithout th&ir .robl&-s% 0hat is F*oo',G an' ho+ is it so@ 0hat
is it that +& (all F&)il,G an' ho+ is that so@ Th&s& .robl&-s ar&
in ,a(t a -att&r o, lan*ua*&% In th& Bu''ha!s t&a(hin*, +hi(h is
bas&' on th& Pali lan*ua*&, th& -&anin* b&(o-&s -u(h (l&ar&r,
as +ill .r&s&ntly b& '&-onstrat&'%
Th& En*lish +or's F*oo'G an' F&)ilG ha)& )&ry broa' -&anin*s,
.arti(ularly th& +or' F*oo',G +hi(h is -u(h -or& +i'&ly us&'
than F&)il%G A )irtuous an' -oral .&rson is sai' to b& *oo'H '&li(ious
,oo' -i*ht b& (all&' F*oo'G ,oo'H a blo($ o, +oo' +hi(h
ha..&ns to b& us&,ul -i*ht b& (all&' a F*oo'G blo($ o, +oo'%
Mor&o)&r, so-&thin* +hi(h is *oo' to on& .&rson -i*ht not b&
*oo' to -any oth&rs% Loo$&' at ,ro- on& an*l&, a (&rtain thin*
-ay b& *oo', but not ,ro- anoth&r% B&ha)ior +hi(h is (onsi'&r&'
*oo' in on& ar&a, 'istri(t or so(i&ty -i*ht b& (onsi'&r&'
ba' in anoth&r%
It s&&-s ,ro- th&s& &?a-.l&s that th&r& is so-& 'is.arity% It
-i*ht b& n&(&ssary to (onsi'&r th& +or' F*oo'G ,ro- 'i,,&r&nt
)i&+.oints, su(h as *oo' in a h&'onisti( s&ns&, *oo' in an artisti(
s&ns&, *oo' in an &(ono-i( s&ns&, an' so on% Th& r&ason ,or
this 'is.arity is a -att&r o, )alu&s% Th& +or's F*oo'G an' F&)ilG
(an b& us&' in -any 'i,,&r&nt )alu& syst&-s in En*lish, +hi(h
-a$&s th&ir -&anin*s )&ry broa'%
In our stu'y o, *oo' an' &)il th& ,ollo+in* .oints shoul' b&
born& in -in'4
CaD Our stu'y +ill b& ,ro- th& .&rs.&(ti)& o, th& la+ o, $a--a,
thus +& +ill b& usin* th& s.&(ialiB&' t&r-s $usala an' a$usala
or s$ill,ul an' uns$ill,ul, +hi(h ha)& )&ry .r&(is& -&anin*s%
CbD Kusala an' a$usala, in t&r-s o, Bu''hist &thi(s, ar& Eualiti&s
o, th& la+ o, $a--a, thus our stu'y o, th&- is $&y&' to this
(ont&?t, not as a s&t o, so(ial )alu&s as is (o--only us&' ,or th&
+or's F*oo'G an' F&)il%G
C(D As 'is(uss&' in #ha.t&r On&, th& o.&ration o, th& la+ o,
$a--a is r&lat&' to oth&r la+s% ".&(i,i(ally, inso,ar as th& inn&r
li,& o, th& in'i)i'ual is (on(&rn&', $a--aniya-a int&ra(ts +ith
.sy(holo*i(al la+s C(ittaniya-aD, +hil& &?t&rnally it is r&lat&'
to "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&%
Th& -&anin* o, $usala an' a$usala
Althou*h $usala an' a$usala ar& so-&ti-&s translat&' as F*oo'G
an' F&)il,G this -ay b& -isl&a'in*% Thin*s +hi(h ar& $usala -ay
not al+ays b& (onsi'&r&' *oo', +hil& so-& thin*s -ay b& a$usala
an' y&t not *&n&rally (onsi'&r&' to b& &)il% D&.r&ssion, -&lan(holy,
sloth an' 'istra(tion, ,or &?a-.l&, althou*h a$usala, ar&
not usually (onsi'&r&' to b& F&)ilG as +& $no+ it in En*lish% In
th& sa-& )&in, so-& ,or-s o, $usala, su(h as (al-n&ss o, bo'y
an' -in', -ay not r&a'ily (o-& into th& *&n&ral un'&rstan'in*
o, th& En*lish +or' F*oo'%G
Kusala an' a$usala ar& (on'itions +hi(h aris& in th& -in',
.ro'u(in* r&sults initially in th& -in', an' ,ro- th&r& to &?t&rnal
a(tions an' .hysi(al ,&atur&s% Th& -&anin*s o, $usala an'
a$usala th&r&,or& str&ss th& stat&, th& (ont&nts an' th& &)&nts o,
-in' as th&ir basis%
Kusala (an b& r&n'&r&' *&n&rally as Fint&lli*&nt, s$ill,ul, (ont&nt&',
b&n&,i(ial, *oo',G or Fthat +hi(h r&-o)&s a,,li(tion%G
A$usala is '&,in&' in th& o..osit& +ay, as in Funint&lli*&nt,G
Funs$ill,ulG an' so on%
Th& ,ollo+in* ar& ,our (onnotations o, $usala '&ri)&' ,ro- th&
1% Aro*ya4 ,r&& o, illn&ss, a -in' that is h&althyH -&ntal stat&s
+hi(h (ontain thos& (on'itions or ,a(tors +hi(h su..ort
-&ntal h&alth an' .ro'u(& an untroubl&' an' stabl& -in'%
7% Ana)ajja4 unstain&'H ,a(tors +hi(h r&n'&r th& -in' (l&an
an' (l&ar, not stain&' or -ur$y%
:% Kosalasa-bhuta4 bas&' on +is'o- or int&lli*&n(&H -&ntal
stat&s +hi(h ar& bas&' on $no+l&'*& an' un'&rstan'in* o,
truth% This is su..ort&' by th& t&a(hin* +hi(h stat&s that
$usala (on'itions ha)& yonisoA-anasi$ara, (l&ar thin$in*, as
<% "u$ha)i.a$a4 r&+ar'&' by +&llAb&in*% Kusala is a (on'ition
+hi(h .ro'u(&s (ont&nt-&nt% 0h&n $usala (on'itions aris&
in th& -in', th&r& is naturally a s&ns& o, +&llAb&in*, +ithout
th& n&&' ,or any &?t&rnal in,lu&n(&% Must as +h&n on& is
stron* an' h&althy Caro*aD, ,r&shly bath&' Cana)ajjaD, an' in
a sa,& an' (o-,ortabl& .la(& C$osalasa-bhutaD, a s&ns& o,
+&llAb&in* naturally ,ollo+s%
Th& -&anin* o, a$usala shoul' b& un'&rstoo' in just th& o..osit&
+ay ,ro- abo)&4 as th& -in' that is unh&althy, har-,ul,
bas&' on i*noran(&, an' r&sultin* in su,,&rin*% In bri&,, it r&,&rs
to thos& (on'itions +hi(h (aus& th& -in' to '&*&n&rat& both in
Euality an' &,,i(i&n(y, unli$& $usala, +hi(h .ro-ot&s th& Euality
an' &,,i(i&n(y o, th& -in'%
In or'&r to ,urth&r (lari,y th&s& (on(&.ts, it -i*ht b& us&,ul to
loo$ at th& '&s(ri.tions o, th& attribut&s o, a *oo' -in', on&
that is h&althy an' troubl&A,r&&, ,oun' in th& #o--&ntari&s,
an' th&n to (onsi'&r +h&th&r $usala (on'itions 'o in'&&' in'u(&
th& -in' to b& this +ay, an' i, so, ho+% 0& (oul' th&n
(onsi'&r +h&th&r a$usala (on'itions '&.ri)& th& -in' o, su(h
stat&s, an' ho+ th&y 'o this%
;or &asy r&,&r&n(&, th& )arious (hara(t&risti(s o, $usala ,oun' in
th& #o--&ntari&s (an b& (' into *rou.s, as ,ollo+s4
1% ;ir-4 r&solut&, stabl&, un-o)in*, un'istra(t&'%
7% Pur& an' (l&an4 unstain&', i--a(ulat&, bri*ht%
:% #l&ar an' ,r&&4 unr&stri(t&', ,r&&, &?alt&', boun'l&ss%
<% ;it ,or +or$4 .liant, li*ht, ,lu&nt, .ati&nt%
2% #al- an' (ont&nt4 r&la?&', s&r&n&, satis,i&'%
Ha)in* loo$&' at th& Eualiti&s o, a h&althy -in', +& (an no+
(onsi'&r th& Eualiti&s +hi(h ar& $no+n as $usala an' a$usala,
ass&ssin* to s&& ho+ th&y a,,&(t th& Euality o, th& -in'%
"o-& &?a-.l&s o, $usala (on'itions ar&4 sati, -in',uln&ss or
r&(oll&(tion, th& ability to -aintain th& att&ntion +ith +hat&)&r
obj&(t or 'uty th& -in' is &n*a*&'H -&tta, *oo'+illH nonA
*r&&', abs&n(& o, '&sir& an' atta(h-&nt Cin(lu'in* altruisti(
thou*htsDH +is'o-, (l&ar un'&rstan'in* o, th& +ay thin*s ar&H
(al-, r&la?ation an' .&a(&H $usala(han'a, B&al or (ont&nt-&nt
+ith th& *oo'H a '&sir& to $no+ an' a(t in a((or'an(& +ith th&
truthH an' *la'n&ss at th& *oo' ,ortun& o, oth&rs%
0h&n th&r& is *oo'+ill, th& -in' is naturally ha..y, (h&&r,ul,
an' (l&ar% This is a (on'ition +hi(h is b&n&,i(ial to th& .sy(h&,
su..ortin* th& Euality an' &,,i(i&n(y o, th& -in'% Goo'+ill is
th&r&,or& $usala% "ati &nabl&s th& att&ntion to b& +ith +hat&)&r
th& -in' is in)ol)&' or &n*a*&', r&(oll&(tin* th& .ro.&r (ours&
o, a(tion, h&* to .r&)&nt a$usala (on'itions ,ro- arisin*,
an' thus &nablin* th& -in' to +or$ -or& &,,&(ti)&ly% "ati is
th&r&,or& $usala%
E?a-.l&s o, a$usala (on'itions ar&4 s&?ual '&sir&H ill +illH sloth
an' tor.orH r&stl&ssn&ss an' an?i&tyH 'oubt,* an*&r, j&alousy,
an' a)ari(&%
M&alousy -a$&s th& -in',ul an' o..r&ssi)&, (l&arly 'a-a*in*
th& Euality an' h&alth o, th& -in'% Th&r&,or& it is a$usala%
An*&r stirs u. th& -in' in su(h a +ay that ra.i'ly a,,&(ts &)&n
th& h&alth o, th& bo'y, an' thus is (l&arly a$usala% "&nsual '&sir&
(on,us&s an' obs&ss&s th& -in'% This is also a$usala%
Ha)in* &stablish&' an un'&rstan'in* o, th& +or's $usala an'
a$usala, +& ar& no+ r&a'y to un'&rstan' *oo' an' ba' $a--a,
or $usala $a--a an' a$usala $a--a% As has b&&n alr&a'y
-&ntion&', int&ntion is th& h&art o, $a--a% Thus, an int&ntion
+hi(h (ontains $usala (on'itions is s$ill,ul, an' an int&ntion
+hi(h (ontains a$usala (on'itions is uns$ill,ul% 0h&n thos&
s$ill,ul or uns$ill,ul int&ntions ar& a(t&' on throu*h th& bo'y,
s.&&(h or -in', th&y ar& $no+n as s$ill,ul an' uns$ill,ul $a--a
throu*h bo'y, s.&&(h an' -in' r&s.&(ti)&ly, or, alt&rnati)&ly,
bo'ily $a--a, )&rbal $a--a an' -&ntal $a--a +hi(h ar&
s$ill,ul an' uns$ill,ul as th& (as& -ay b&%
Kusala an' a$usala as (atalysts ,or &a(h oth&r
An a(t o, ,aith or *&n&rosity, -oral .urity, or &)&n an &?.&ri&n(&
o, insi*ht 'urin* -&'itation, +hi(h ar& all $usala (on'itions,
(an .r&(i.itat& th& arisin* o, (on(&it, .ri'& an' arro*an(&%
#on(&it an' .ri'& ar& a$usala (on'itions% This situation is $no+n
as F$usala a(tin* as an a*&nt ,or a$usala%G M&'itation .ra(ti(&
(an l&a' to hi*hly (on(&ntrat&' stat&s o, -in' C$usalaD, +hi(h
in turn (an l&a' to atta(h-&nt Ca$usalaD% Th& '&)&lo.-&nt o,
thou*hts o, *oo'+ill an' b&n&)ol&n(& to oth&rs C$usalaD, (an, in
th& .r&s&n(& o, a '&sirabl& obj&(t, .r&(i.itat& th& arisin* o, lust
Ca$usalaD% Th&s& ar& &?a-.l&s o, $usala a(tin* as an a*&nt ,or
"o-&ti-&s -oral or -&'itation .ra(ti(& C$usalaD (an b& bas&'
on a '&sir& to b& r&born in h&a)&n Ca$usalaD% A (hil'!s *oo'
b&ha)ior C$usalaD (an b& bas&' on a '&sir& to sho+ o,, to its
&l'&rs Ca$usalaDH a stu'&nt!s B&al in l&arnin* C$usalaD (an st&-
,ro- a-bition Ca$usalaDH an*&r Ca$usalaD, s&&n in th& li*ht o,
its har-,ul &,,&(ts, (an l&a' to +is& r&,l&(tion an' ,or*i)&n&ss
C$usalaDH th& ,&ar o, '&ath Ca$usalaD (an &n(oura*& intros.&(tion
C$usalaD4 th&s& ar& all &?a-.l&s o, a$usala as an a*&nt ,or
An &?a-.l&4 th& .ar&nts o, a t&&na*& boy +arn th&ir son that his
,ri&n's ar& a ba' in,lu&n(& on hi-, but h& ta$&s no noti(& an' is
lur&' into 'ru* a''i(tion% On r&aliBin* his situation, h& is at ,irst
an*&r&' an' '&.r&ss&', th&n, r&-&-b&rin* his .ar&nts! +arnin*s,
h& is -o)&' by th&ir (o-.assion Ca$usala as an a*&nt ,or
$usalaD, but this in turn -&r&ly a**ra)at&s his o+n s&l,Ahatr&'
C$usala as an a*&nt ,or a$usalaD%
Th&s& (han*&s ,ro- $usala to a$usala, or a$usala to $usala,
o((ur so ra.i'ly that th& untrain&' -in' is rar&ly abl& to s&&
Gau*in* *oo' an' ba' $a--a
It has b&&n -&ntion&' that th& la+ o, $a--a has a )&ry inti-at&
r&lationshi. +ith both .sy(holo*i(al la+s an' "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&%
This )&ry si-ilarity (an &asily (r&at& -isun'&rstan'in*s% Th&
la+ o, $a--a is so (los&ly r&lat&' to .sy(holo*i(al la+s that
th&y s&&- to b& on& an' th& sa-& thin*, but th&r& is a (l&ar
'i)i'in* lin& b&t+&&n th& t+o, an' that is int&ntion% This is th&
&ss&n(& an' -oti)atin* ,or(& o, th& la+ o, $a--a an' is that
+hi(h *i)&s th& la+ o, $a--a its 'istin(t ni(h& a-on* th& oth&r
niya-a or la+s% #ittaniya-a, on th& oth&r han', *o)&rns all
-&ntal a(ti)ity, in(lu'in* th& unint&ntional%
Hu-an int&ntion, throu*h th& la+ o, $a--a, has its o+n rol&
'istin(t ,ro- th& oth&r niya-a, *i)in* ris& to th& illusion that
hu-an b&in*s ar& in'&.&n'&nt o, th& natural +orl'% Int&ntion
-ust r&ly on th& -&(hani(s o, (ittaniya-a in or'&r to ,un(tion,
an' th& .ro(&ss o, (r&atin* $a--a -ust o.&rat& +ithin th& .ara-&t&rs
o, (ittaniya-a%
sin* an analo*y o, a -an 'ri)in* a -otor boat, th& F'ri)&rG is
int&ntion, +hi(h is th& 'o-ain o, th& la+ o, $a--a, +h&r&as
th& +hol& o, th& boat &n*in& is (o-.arabl& to th& -&ntal ,a(tors,
+hi(h ar& ,un(tions o, (ittaniya-a% Th& 'ri)&r -ust '&.&n'
on th& boat &n*in&% Ho+&)&r, ,or th& Fboat &n*in&G to l&a'
th& Fboat,G that is, ,or th& -in' to l&a' li,& an' th& bo'y, in any
'ir&(tion, is &ntir&ly at th& 'is(r&tion o, th& F'ri)&r,G int&ntion%
Th& 'ri)&r '&.&n's on an' -a$&s us& o, th& boat, but also ta$&s
r&s.onsibility ,or th& +&l,ar& o, both boat an' &n*in&% In th&
sa-& +ay, th& la+ o, $a--a '&.&n's on an' -a$&s us& o, (it
taniya-a, an' also a((&.ts r&s.onsibility ,or th& +&l,ar& o, li,&,
in(lu'in* both th& bo'y an' th& -in'%
Th&r& is not -u(h (on,usion about this r&lationshi. b&t+&&n th&
la+ o, $a--a an' (ittaniya-a, -ainly b&(aus& th&s& ar& not
thin*s in +hi(h th& a)&ra*& .&rson ta$&s -u(h int&r&st% Th& issu&
that (r&at&s th& -ost (on,usion is th& r&lationshi. b&t+&&n
th& la+ o, $a--a an' "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&, an' this (on,usion (r&at&s
a-bi*uity in r&*ar' to th& natur& o, *oo' an' &)il%
0& o,t&n h&ar .&o.l& say that *oo' an' &)il ar& hu-an or so(ial
in)&ntions% An a(tion in on& so(i&ty, ti-& or .la(&, -ay b& r&*ar'&'
as *oo', but in anoth&r ti-& an' .la(& r&*ar'&' as ba'%
"o-& a(tions -ay b& a((&.tabl& to on& so(i&ty, but not to anoth&r%
;or &?a-.l&, so-& r&li*ions t&a(h that to $ill ani-als ,or
,oo' is not ba', +hil& oth&rs t&a(h that to har- b&in*s o, any
$in' is n&)&r *oo'% "o-& so(i&ti&s hol' that a (hil' shoul' sho+
r&s.&(t to its &l'&rs, an' that to ar*u& +ith th&- is ba' -ann&rs,
+hil& oth&rs hol' that r&s.&(t is not '&.&n'&nt on a*&, an'
that all .&o.l& shoul' ha)& th& ri*ht to &?.r&ss th&ir o.inions%
To say that *oo' an' &)il ar& -att&rs o, hu-an .r&,&r&n(& an'
so(ial '&(r&& is tru& to so-& &?t&nt% E)&n so, th& *oo' an' &)il
o, "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(& 'o not a,,&(t or u.s&t th& +or$in*s o, th&
la+ o, $a--a in any +ay, an' shoul' not b& (on,us&' +ith it%
FGoo'G an' F&)ilG as so(ial (on)&ntions shoul' b& r&(o*niB&' as
"o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&% As ,or F*oo'G an' F&)il,G or -or& (orr&(tly,
$usala an' a$usala, as Eualiti&s o, th& la+ o, $a--a, th&s&
shoul' b& r&(o*niB&' as attribut&s o, th& la+ o, $a--a% E)&n
thou*h th& t+o ar& r&lat&' th&y ar& in ,a(t s&.arat&, an' ha)&
)&ry (l&ar 'istin(tions%
That +hi(h is at on(& th& r&lationshi., an' th& .oint o, 'istin(tion,
b&t+&&n this natural la+ an' th& "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(& is int&ntion,
or +ill% As to ho+ this is so, l&t us no+ (onsi'&r%
In t&r-s o, th& la+ o, $a--a, th& (on)&ntions o, so(i&ty -ay b&
'i)i'&' into t+o ty.&s4
1% Thos& +hi(h ha)& no 'ir&(t r&lationshi. to $usala an'
7% Thos& +hi(h ar& r&lat&' to $usala an' a$usala%
Thos& (on)&ntions +hi(h ha)& no 'ir&(t r&lationshi. to
$usala an' a$usala ar& th& a((&.t&' )alu&s or a*r&&-&nts
+hi(h ar& &stablish&' by so(i&ty ,or a s.&(i,i( so(ial ,un(tion,
su(h as to &nabl& .&o.l& to li)& to*&th&r har-oniously% Th&y
-ay in'&&' b& instru-&nts ,or (r&atin* so(ial har-ony, or th&y
-ay not% Th&y -ay in'&&' b& us&,ul to so(i&ty or th&y -ay in
,a(t b& har-,ul% All this '&.&n's on +h&th&r or not thos& (on)&ntions
ar& &stablish&' +ith su,,i(i&nt un'&rstan'in* an' +is'o-,
an' +h&th&r or not th& authority +ho &stablish&' th&- is
a(tin* +ith .ur& int&ntion%
Th&s& $in's o, (on)&ntions -ay ta$& -any ,or-s, su(h as tra'itions,
(usto-s or la+s% FGoo'G an' F&)ilG in this r&s.&(t ar&
stri(tly -att&rs o, "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&% Th&y -ay (han*& in -any
+ays, but th&ir (han*&s ar& not ,un(tions o, th& la+ o, $a--a,
an' -ust not b& (on,us&' +ith it% I, a .&rson 'isob&ys th&s&
(on)&ntions an' is .unish&' by so(i&ty, that is also a -att&r o,
"o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&, not th& la+ o, $a--a%h
No+, l&t us (onsi'&r an ar&a in +hi(h th&s& so(ial (on)&ntions
-ay o)&rla. +ith th& la+ o, $a--a, su(h as +h&n a -&-b&r
o, a so(i&ty r&,us&s to (on,or- to on& o, its (on)&ntions, or in
,rin*&s on it%i In so 'oin*, that .&rson +ill b& a(tin* on a (&rtain
int&ntion% This int&ntion is th& ,irst st&. in, an' is th&r&,or& a
(on(&rn o,, th& la+ o, $a--a% In -any so(i&ti&s th&r& +ill b&
an att&-.t to s&ar(h out this int&ntion ,or as(&rtainin* th& Euality
o, th& a(tion% That is a*ain a (on(&rn o, "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&,
in'i(atin* that that .arti(ular so(i&ty $no+s ho+ to utiliB& th&
la+ o, $a--a% This (onsi'&ration o, int&ntion by so(i&ty is not,
ho+&)&r, in its&l, a ,un(tion o, th& la+ o, $a--a% CThat is, it is
not a ,or&*on& (on(lusion > ill&*al b&ha)ior is not al+ays .unish&'%
Ho+&)&r, +h&th&r a(tions ar& .unish&' or not th&y ar&
$a--a in th& s&ns& that th&y ar& )olitional a(tions an' +ill
brin* r&sults%D
As ,or th& .arti(ular rol& o, th& la+ o, $a--a, r&*ar'l&ss o,
+h&th&r so(i&ty in)&sti*at&s th& int&ntion or not, or &)&n +h&th&r
so(i&ty is a+ar& o, th& in,rin*&-&nt, th& la+ o, $a--a ,un(tions
i--&'iat&ly th& a(tion o((urs, an' th& .ro(&ss o, ,ruition
has alr&a'y b&&n s&t in -otion%
" s.&a$in*, th& '&(i'in* ,a(tor in th& la+ o, $a--a is
+h&th&r th& int&ntion is $usala or a$usala% In -ost (as&s, not to
(on,or- +ith any "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(& (an only b& sai' to (onstitut&
no int&ntional in,rin*&-&nt +h&n so(i&ty a*r&&s to aban'on
or to r&,or- that (on)&ntion% Only th&n +ill th&r& b& no
)iolation o, th& .ubli( a*r&&-&nt%
This (an b& illustrat&' by a si-.l& &?a-.l&% "u..os& t+o .&o.l&
'&(i'& to li)& to*&th&r% In or'&r to r&n'&r th&ir li)&s to*&th&r as
s-ooth an' as (on)&ni&nt as .ossibl&, th&y a*r&& to &stablish
a s&t o, r&*ulations4 althou*h +or$in* in 'i,,&r&nt .la(&s an'
r&turnin* ,ro- +or$ at 'i,,&r&nt ti-&s, th&y '&(i'& to ha)& th&
&)&nin* -&al to*&th&r% As it +oul' b& i-.ra(ti(al to +ait ,or
&a(h oth&r in'&,init&ly, th&y a*r&& that &a(h o, th&- shoul' not
&at b&,or& s&)&n .-% O, thos& t+o .&o.l&, on& li$&s (ats an'
'o&sn!t li$& 'o*s, +hil& th& oth&r li$&s 'o*s an' 'o&sn!t li$&
(ats% ;or -utual +&llAb&in*, th&y a*r&& not to brin* any .&ts at
all into th& hous&%
Ha)in* a*r&&' on th&s& r&*ulations, i, &ith&r o, thos& t+o .&o.l&
a(ts in (ontra'i(tion to th&-, th&r& is a (as& o, int&ntional in,rin*&-&nt,
an' $a--a aris&s, *oo' or ba' a((or'in* to th& int&ntion
that insti*at&' it, &)&n thou*h &atin* ,oo' b&,or& s&)&n
.-%, or brin*in* .&ts into a hous&, ar& not in th&-s&l)&s *oo'
or &)il% Anoth&r (ou.l& -i*ht &)&n &stablish r&*ulations +hi(h
ar& 'ir&(tly o..osit& to th&s&% An' in th& &)&nt that on& o, thos&
.&o.l& &)&ntually (onsi'&rs th&ir r&*ulations to b& no lon*&r
b&n&,i(ial, th&y shoul' 'is(uss th& -att&r to*&th&r an' (o-&
to an a*r&&-&nt% Only th&n +oul' any int&ntional non(on,or-ity
on that .&rson!s .art b& ,r&& o, $a--i( r&sult% This is th&
'istin(tion b&t+&&n F*oo'G an' F&)il,G an' Fri*htG an' F+ron*,G
as (han*in* so(ial (on)&ntions, as o..os&' to th& un(han*in*
.ro.&rti&s o, th& la+ o, $a--a, $usala an' a$usala%
Th& (on)&ntions +hi(h ar& r&lat&' to $usala an' a$usala
in th& la+ o, $a--a ar& thos& (on)&ntions +hi(h ar& &ith&r
s$ill,ul or uns$ill,ul% "o(i&ty -ay or -ay not -a$& th&s& r&*ulations
+ith a (l&ar un'&rstan'in* o, $usala an' a$usala, but th&
.ro(&ss o, th& la+ o, $a--a (ontinu&s alon* its natural (ours&
r&*ar'l&ss% It 'o&s not (han*& alon* +ith thos& so(ial (on)&ntions%
;or &?a-.l&, a so(i&ty -i*ht (onsi'&r it a((&.tabl& to ta$& into?i(ants
an' a''i(ti)& 'ru*s% E?tr&-& &-otions -ay b& &n(oura*&',
an' th& (itiB&ns -ay b& in(it&' to (o-.&t& a**r&ssi)&ly
in or'&r to s.ur &(ono-i( *ro+th% Or it -i*ht b& *&n&rally b&li&)&'
that to $ill .&o.l& o, oth&r so(i&ti&s, or, on a l&ss&r s(al&,
to $ill ani-als, is not bla-&+orthy%
Th&s& ar& &?a-.l&s +h&r& th& *oo' an' &)il o, "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&
an' $usala an' a$usala ar& at o''s +ith &a(h oth&r4 uns$ill,ul
(on'itions ar& so(ially .r&,&rr&' an' F*oo'G ,ro- a so(ial .&rs.&(ti)&
is Fba'G ,ro- a -oral on&% Loo$&' at ,ro- a so(ial .&rs.&(ti)&,
thos& (on)&ntions or attitu'&s -ay (aus& both .ositi)&
an' n&*ati)& r&sults% ;or &?a-.l&, althou*h a li,& o, t&nsion an'
hi*h (o-.&titi)&n&ss -ay (aus& a hi*h sui(i'& rat&, an unusually
lar*& a-ount o, -&ntal an' so(ial .robl&-s, h&art 'is&as&
an' so on, that so(i&ty -ay &?.&ri&n(& ra.i' -at&rial .ro*r&ss%
Thus, so(ial .robl&-s (an o,t&n b& tra(&' 'o+n to th& la+ o,
$a--a, in th& )alu&s (on'on&' an' &n(oura*&' by so(i&ty%
"o(ial Pr&,&r&n(& an' th& la+ o, $a--a ar& s&.arat& an' 'istin(t%
Th& ,ruits o, $a--a .ro(&&' a((or'in* to th&ir o+n la+,
in'&.&n'&nt o, any so(ial (on)&ntions +hi(h ar& at o''s +ith it
as -&ntion&' abo)&% Ho+&)&r, b&(aus& th& (on)&ntion an' th&
la+ ar& r&lat&', (orr&(t .ra(ti(& in r&*ar' to th& la+ o, $a--a,
that is, a(tions that ar& $usala, -i*ht still *i)& ris& to .robl&-s
on th& so(ial l&)&l% ;or &?a-.l&, an abstain&r li)in* in a so(i&ty
+hi(h ,a)ors into?i(atin* 'ru*s r&(&i)&s th& ,ruits o, $a--a
'i(tat&' by th& la+ o, $a--a > h& 'o&sn!t &?.&ri&n(& th& loss o,
h&alth an' -&ntal (larity 'u& to into?i(atin* 'ru*s > but in th&
(ont&?t o, "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&, as o..os&' to th& la+ o, $a--a,
h& -ay b& ri'i(ul&' an' s(orn&'% An' &)&n +ithin th& la+ o,
$a--a th&r& -ay aris& .robl&-s ,ro- his int&ntional o..osition
to this "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&, in th& ,or- o, -&ntal str&ss, -or&
or l&ss '&.&n'in* on his +is'o- an' ability to l&t *o o, so(ial
A .ro*r&ssi)& so(i&ty +ith +is& a'-inistrators us&s th& &?.&ri&n(&
a((u-ulat&' ,ro- .r&)ious *&n&rations in layin* 'o+n th&
(on)&ntions an' la+s o, so(i&ty% Th&s& b&(o-& th& *oo' an'
&)il o, "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&, an' i'&ally th&y shoul' (orr&lat& +ith
th& $usala an' a$usala o, $a--aniya-a% Th& ability to &stab
lish (on)&ntions in (on,or-ity +ith th& la+ o, $a--a +oul'
s&&- to b& a soun' *au*& ,or '&t&r-inin* th& tru& &?t&nt o, a
so(i&ty!s .ro*r&ss or (i)iliBation%
In this (ont&?t, +h&n it is n&(&ssary to a..rais& any (on)&ntion
as *oo' or &)il, it +oul' b&st b& (onsi'&r&' ,ro- t+o l&)&ls%
;irstly, in t&r-s o, "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&, by '&t&r-inin* +h&th&r
or not it has a b&n&,i(ial r&sult to so(i&ty% "&(on'ly, in t&r-s o,
th& la+ o, $a--a, by '&t&r-inin* +h&th&r or not it is $usala,
b&n&,i(ial to -&ntal +&llAb&in*%
"o-& (on)&ntions, &)&n thou*h -aintain&' by so(i&ti&s ,or lon*
.&rio's o, ti-&, ar& in ,a(t not at all us&,ul to th&-, &)&n ,ro-
th& .oint o, )i&+ o, "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&, l&t alon& ,ro- th& .oint
o, )i&+ o, th& la+ o, $a--a% "u(h (on)&ntions shoul' b& aban'on&',
an' it -ay b& n&(&ssary ,or an &?(&.tional b&in* +ith
.ur& h&art to .oint out th&ir ,ault%
In th& (as& o, a (on)&ntion +hi(h is s&&n to b& h&l.,ul to so(i&ty
an' to hu-an .ro*r&ss, but +hi(h is not in (on,or-ity +ith th&
$usala o, th& la+ o, $a--a, su(h as on& +hi(h &nhan(&s -at&rial
.ro*r&ss at th& &?.&ns& o, th& Euality o, li,&, it -i*ht b&
+orth (onsi'&rin* +h&th&r th& .&o.l& o, that so(i&ty ha)& not
*on& astray an' -ista$&n that +hi(h is har-,ul as b&in* b&n&,i(ial%
A truly b&n&,i(ial (usto- shoul' (on,or- +ith both "o(ial
Pr&,&r&n(& an' th& la+ o, $a--a% In oth&r +or's, it shoul' b&
b&n&,i(ial to both th& in'i)i'ual an' so(i&ty as a +hol&, an'
b&n&,i(ial on both th& -at&rial an' .sy(hi( l&)&ls%
In this r&*ar' +& (an ta$& a l&sson ,ro- th& situation o, so(i&ty
in th& .r&s&nt ti-&% Hu-an b&in*s, hol'in* th& )i&+ that +&alth
o, -at&rial .oss&ssions is th& .ath to tru&, ha)& .ro(&&'&'
to thro+ th&ir &n&r*i&s into -at&rial '&)&lo.-&nt% Th&
har-,ul &,,&(ts o, -any o, our att&-.ts at -at&rial .ro*r&ss
ar& only no+ b&(o-in* E)&n thou*h so(i&ty a..&ars
to b& .ros.&rous, +& ha)& (r&at&' -any n&+ .hysi(al 'an*&rs,
an' so(ial an' &n)iron-&ntal .robl&-s thr&at&n us on a *lobal
s(al&% Must as -at&rial .ro*r&ss shoul' not b& '&stru(ti)& to th&
.hysi(al bo'y, so(ial .ro*r&ss shoul' not b& '&stru(ti)& to th&
(larity o, th& -in'%
Th& Bu''ha *a)& a s&t o, r&,l&(tions on $usala an' a$usala ,or
ass&ssin* th& natur& o, *oo' an' &)il on a .ra(ti(al l&)&l, &n(oura*in*
r&,l&(tion on both th& *oo' an' &)il +ithin C(ons(i&n(&D,
an' th& t&a(hin*s o, +is& b&in*s Cth&s& t+o b&in* th& ,oun'ation
o, (ons(i&n(& an' -o'&styD%j Thir'ly, h& r&(o--&n'&'
.on'&rin* th& ,ruits o, a(tions, both in'i)i'ually an' on a so(ial
basis% B&(aus& th& natur& o, $usala an' a$usala -ay not al+ays
b& (l&ar, th& Bu''ha a')is&' a'h&rin* to r&li*ious an' &thi(al
t&a(hin*s, an', i, su(h t&a(hin*s ar& not (l&ar &nou*h, to loo$ at
th& r&sults o, a(tions, &)&n i, only ,ro- a so(ial basis%
;or -ost .&o.l&, th&s& thr&& bas&s ,or r&,l&(tion Ci%&%, in'i)i'ually,
so(ially, an' ,ro- th& a((&.t&' t&a(hin*s o, +is& b&in*sD
(an b& us&' to ass&ss b&ha)ior on a nu-b&r o, 'i,,&r&nt l&)&ls,
&nsurin* that th&ir a(tions ar& as (ir(u-s.&(t as .ossibl&%
Thus, th& (rit&ria ,or ass&ssin* *oo' an' &)il ar&4 in th& (ont&?t
o, +h&th&r an a(tion is $a--a or not, to ta$& int&ntion as th&
'&(i'in* ,a(torH an' in th& (ont&?t o, +h&th&r that $a--a is
*oo' or &)il, to (onsi'&r th& -att&r a*ainst th& ,ollo+in* .rin(i.l&s4
Pri-ary ;a(tors
N InEuirin* into th& roots o, a(tions, +h&th&r th& int&ntions
,or th&- aros& ,ro- on& o, th& s$ill,ul roots o, nonA*r&&',
nonAa)&rsion or nonA'&lusion, or ,ro- on& o, th& uns$ill,ul
roots o, *r&&', a)&rsion or '&lusion%
N InEuirin* into th& &,,&(ts on th& .sy(h&, or -&ntal +&llAb&in*,
o, a(tions4 +h&th&r th&y r&n'&r th& -in' (l&ar, (al-
an' h&althyH +h&th&r th&y .ro-ot& or inhibit th& Euality
o, th& -in'H +h&th&r th&y &n(oura*& th& arisin* o, s$ill,ul
(on'itions an' th& '&(r&as& o, uns$ill,ul (on'itions, or
)i(& )&rsa%
"&(on'ary ;a(tors
1% #onsi'&rin* +h&th&r on&!s a(tions ar& (&nsurabl& to on&s&l,
or not C(ons(i&n(&D%
7% #onsi'&rin* th& Euality o, on&!s a(tions in t&r-s o, +is&
:% #onsi'&rin* th& r&sults o, thos& a(tions4
a% to+ar's on&s&l,
b% to+ar's oth&rs%
It is .ossibl& to (lassi,y th&s& stan'ar's in a 'i,,&r&nt +ay, i,
+& ,irst (lari,y t+o .oints% ;irstly, loo$in* at a(tions &ith&r in
t&r-s o, th&ir roots, or as s$ill,ul an' uns$ill,ul in th&-s&l)&s,
ar& &ss&ntially th& sa-& thin*% "&(on'ly, in r&*ar' to
or (&nsur& by th& +is&, +& (an say that su(h +is& o.inions ar&
*&n&rally .r&s&r)&' in r&li*ions, (on)&ntions an' la+s% E)&n
thou*h th&s& (on)&ntions ar& not al+ays +is&, an' thus any
.ra(ti(& +hi(h (on,li(ts +ith th&- is not n&(&ssarily uns$ill,ul,
still it (an b& sai' that su(h (as&s ar& th& &?(&.tion rath&r than
th& rul&%
0& ar& no+ r&a'y to su--ariB& our stan'ar's ,or *oo' an'
&)il, or *oo' an' ba' $a--a, both stri(tly a((or'in* to th& la+
o, $a--a an' also in r&lation to "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&, both on an
intrinsi(ally -oral l&)&l an' on a so(ially .r&s(rib&' on&%
1% In t&r-s o, 'ir&(t b&n&,it or har-4 ar& th&s& a(tions in th&-s&l)&s
b&n&,i(ial@ Do th&y (ontribut& to th& Euality o, li,&@
Do th&y (aus& $usala an' a$usala (on'itions to in(r&as& or
7% In t&r-s o, b&n&,i(ial or har-,ul (ons&Eu&n(&s4 ar& th& &,,&(ts
o, th&s& a(tions har-,ul or b&n&,i(ial to on&s&l,@
:% In t&r-s o, b&n&,it or har- to so(i&ty4 ar& th&y har-,ul to
oth&rs, or h&l.,ul to th&-@
<% In t&r-s o, (ons(i&n(&, th& natural hu-an r&,l&?i)& (a.a(ity4
+ill thos& a(tions b& (&nsurabl& to on&s&l, or not@
2% In t&r-s o, so(ial stan'ar's4 +hat is th& .osition o, a(tions
in r&lation to thos& r&li*ious (on)&ntions, tra'itions, so(ial
institutions an' la+s +hi(h ar& bas&' on +is& r&,l&(tion Cas
o..os&' to thos& +hi(h ar& su.&rstitious or -ista$&n
Prior to a''r&ssin* th& Eu&stion o, th& r&sults o, $a--a in
th& n&?t (ha.t&r, it +oul' b& .&rtin&nt to (onsi'&r so-& o, th&
.oints '&s(rib&' abo)& in th& li*ht o, th& Pali #anon%
F0hat ar& s$ill,ul C$usalaD (on'itions@ Th&y ar& th& thr&&
roots o, s$ill,uln&ss > nonA*r&&', nonAa)&rsion an' nonA'&lusionH
,&&lin*s, .&r(&.tions, .roli,&rations an' (ons(iousn&ss
+hi(h (ontain thos& roots o, s$ill,uln&ssH bo'ily $a-
-a, )&rbal $a--a an' -&ntal $a--a +hi(h ha)& thos&
roots as th&ir bas&4 th&s& ar& s$ill,ul (on'itions%
F0hat ar& uns$ill,ul Ca$usalaD (on'itions@ Th&y ar& th&
thr&& roots o, uns$ill,uln&ss > *r&&', a)&rsion an' '&lusion
> an' all th& '&,il&-&nts +hi(h aris& ,ro- th&-H ,&&lin*s,
.&r(&.tions, .roli,&rations an' (ons(iousn&ss +hi(h
(ontain thos& roots o, uns$ill,uln&ssH bo'ily $a--a, )&rbal
$a--a an' -&ntal $a--a +hi(h ha)& thos& roots o,
uns$ill,uln&ss as a ,oun'ation4 th&s& ar& uns$ill,ul (on'itions%G
FTh&r& ar& t+o $in's o, 'an*&r, th& o)&rt 'an*&r an' th&
(o)&rt 'an*&r%
F0hat ar& th& Ko)&rt 'an*&rs!@ Th&s& ar& su(h thin*s as
lions, ti*&rs, .anth&rs, b&ars, l&'s, +ol)&s / ban'its
/ &y& 'is&as&s, &ar 'is&as&s, nos& 'is&as&s / (ol', h&at,
hun*&r, thirst, '&,&(ation, urination, (onta(t +ith *a',li&s,
-osEuito&s, +in', sun, an' (ra+lin* ani-als4 th&s& ar&
(all&' Ko)&rt 'an*&rs%!
F0hat ar& th& K(o)&rt 'an*&rs!@ Th&y ar& ba' bo'ily a(tions,
ba' )&rbal a(tions, ba' -&ntal a(tionsH th& hin'ran(&s o,
s&nsual '&sir&, ill +ill, sloth an' tor.or, r&stl&ssn&ss an'
'oubtH *r&&', a)&rsion an' '&lusionH an*&r, )&n*&an(&,, arro*an(&, j&alousy, -&ann&ss, '&(&.tion, boast,uln&ss,
stubbornn&ss, (ont&ntion, .ri'&, s(orn,uln&ss, '&lusion,
h&&'l&ssn&ssH th& '&,il&-&nts, th& ba' habitsH th&
(on,usionH th& lustH th& a*itationH all thou*hts that ar&
uns$ill,ul4 th&s& ar& th& K(o)&rt 'an*&rs%!
FTh&y ar& (all&' K'an*&rs! ,or +hat r&ason@ Th&y ar& (all&'
'an*&rs in that th&y o)&r+h&l-, in that th&y (aus& '&(lin&,
in that th&y ar& a sh&lt&r%
F0hy ar& th&y (all&' 'an*&rs in that th&y o)&r+h&l-@
B&(aus& thos& 'an*&rs su..r&ss, (onstri(t, o)&r(o-&, o..r&ss,
harass an' (rush /
F0hy ar& th&y (all&' 'an*&rs in that th&y (aus& '&(lin&@
B&(aus& thos& 'an*&rs brin* about th& '&(lin& o, s$ill,ul
(on'itions /
F0hy ar& th&y (all&' 'an*&rs in that th&y ar& a sh&lt&r@
B&(aus& bas&, uns$ill,ul (on'itions ar& born ,ro- thos&
thin*s an' ta$& sh&lt&r +ithin th&-, just as an ani-al
+hi(h li)&s in a hol& ta$&s sh&lt&r in a hol&, a +at&r ani-al
ta$&s sh&lt&r in +at&r, or a tr&&A'+&llin* ani-al ta$&s
sh&lt&r in tr&&s /G1:
F0h&n *r&&', a)&rsion an' '&lusion aris& +ithin his -in',
th&y '&stroy th& &)il 'o&r, just as th& ba-boo ,lo+&r si*nals
th& ruin o, th& ba-boo .lant /G1<
F"&& h&r&, Your Maj&sty% Th&s& thr&& thin*s aris& in th&
+orl' not ,or +&l,ar& or b&n&,it, but ,or +o&, ,or 'is(o-,ort%
0hat ar& thos& thr&&@ Th&y ar& *r&&', a)&rsion an'
'&lusion /G12
FMon$s, th&r& ar& th&s& thr&& roots o, uns$ill,uln&ss% 0hat
ar& th& thr&&@ Th&y ar& th& *r&&'Aroot, th& a)&rsionAroot
an' th& '&lusionAroot o, uns$ill,uln&ss /
FGr&&' its&l, is uns$ill,ulH +hat&)&r $a--a is (r&at&' on
a((ount o, *r&&', throu*h a(tion, s.&&(h or thou*ht, is
also uns$ill,ul% On& in th& .o+&r o, *r&&', sun$ in *r&&',
+hos& -in' is 'istort&' by *r&&', (aus&s troubl& ,or oth&rs
by stri$in* th&-, i-.risonin* th&-, (rushin* th&-, '&(ryin*
th&-, an' banishin* th&-, thin$in*, KI a- .o+&r,ul, I
a- -i*hty%! That is also uns$ill,ul% Th&s& -any $in's o,
(oars&, uns$ill,ul (on'itions, arisin* ,ro- *r&&', ha)in*
*r&&' as th&ir (aus&, ha)in* *r&&' as th&ir sour(&, ha)in*
*r&&' as (on'ition, .&rs&(ut& th& &)il 'o&r%
FHatr&' its&l, is uns$ill,ulH +hat&)&r $a--a is (r&at&' on
a((ount o, hatr&', throu*h a(tion, s.&&(h or thou*ht, is
also uns$ill,ul% On& in th& .o+&r o, hatr&' / (aus&s troubl&
,or oth&rs / that is also uns$ill,ul% Th&s& -any $in's
o, (oars&, uns$ill,ul (on'itions .&rs&(ut& th& &)il 'o&r /
FD&lusion its&l, is uns$ill,ulH +hat&)&r $a--a is (r&at&' on
a((ount o, '&lusion, throu*h a(tion, s.&&(h or thou*ht, is
also uns$ill,ul% On& in th& .o+&r o, '&lusion (aus&s troubl&
,or oth&rs / that is also uns$ill,ul% Th&s& -any $in's o,
uns$ill,ul (on'itions .&rs&(ut& th& &)il 'o&r in this +ay%
FOn& +ho is thus (au*ht u., +hos& -in' is thus in,&(t&', in
th& (oars&, uns$ill,ul (on'itions born o, *r&&', hatr&' an'
'&lusion, &?.&ri&n(&s su,,&rin*, str&ss, a*itation an' an?i&ty
in this .r&s&nt ti-&% At '&ath, at th& br&a$in* u. o, th&
bo'y, h& (an &?.&(t a +o&,ul bourn, just li$& a tr&& +hi(h
is (o-.l&t&ly &nt+in&' +ith a banyan (r&&.&r (o-&s to
ruin, to '&stru(tion, to '&(lin&, to 'issolution /
FMon$sJ Th&r& ar& th&s& thr&& roots o, s$ill,uln&ss% 0hat
ar& th& thr&&@ Th&y ar& th& nonA*r&&' root, th& nonAa)&rsion
root an' th& nonA'&lusion root /G13
FMon$sJ Th&r& ar& thr&& root (aus&s o, $a--a% 0hat ar&
th& thr&&@ Th&y ar& *r&&' / hatr&' / '&lusion /
F0hat&)&r $a--a is .&r,or-&' out o, *r&&' / hatr&' /
'&lusion, is born ,ro- *r&&' / hatr&' / '&lusion, has
*r&&' / hatr&' / '&lusion as its root an' as its (aus&,
that $a--a is uns$ill,ul, that $a--a is har-,ul, that
$a--a has su,,&rin* as a r&sult, that $a--a brin*s about
th& (r&ation o, -or& $a--a, not th& (&ssation o, $a--a%
FMon$sJ Th&r& ar& th&s& thr&& root (aus&s o, $a--a% 0hat
ar& th& thr&&@ Th&y ar& nonA*r&&' / nonAhatr&' / nonA
'&lusion /
F0hat&)&r $a--a is .&r,or-&' out o, nonA*r&&' / nonA
hatr&' / nonA'&lusion, is born o, nonA*r&&' / nonAhatr&'
/ nonA'&lusion, has nonA*r&&' / nonAhatr&' / nonA
'&lusion as its root an' its (aus&, that $a--a is s$ill,ul,
that $a--a is not har-,ul, that $a--a has as
a r&sult, that $a--a brin*s about th& (&ssation o, $a--a,
not th& (r&ation o, -or& $a--a /G18
FList&n, Kala-as% 0h&n you $no+ ,or yours&l)&s that th&s&
thin*s ar& uns$ill,ul, th&s& thin*s ar& har-,ul, th&s&
thin*s ar& (&nsur&' by th& +is&, th&s& thin*s, i, a(t&'
u.on, +ill brin* about +hat is n&ith&r b&n&,i(ial nor (on
'u(i)& to +&l,ar&, but +ill (aus& su,,&rin*, th&n you shoul'
aban'on th&-%G
FKala-as, ho+ 'o you (onsi'&r this -att&r@ Do *r&&' /
hatr&' / '&lusion in a .&rson, brin* about b&n&,it or nonA
CAns+&r4 NonAb&n&,it, V&n&rabl& "ir%D
FOn& +ho is '&sirous / is an*ry / is '&lu'&'H +ho is
o)&r+h&l-&' by *r&&' / hatr&' / '&lusion, +hos& -in'
is thus 'istort&', as a r&sult r&sorts to -ur'&r, to th&,t, to
a'ult&ry, to lyin*, an' &n(oura*&s oth&rs to 'o so% This is
,or th&ir nonAb&n&,it an' nonA+&l,ar& ,or a lon* ti-& to
CAns+&r4 That is tru&, V&n&rabl& "ir%D
FKala-as, ho+ say you, ar& thos& thin*s s$ill,ul or uns$ill,ul@G
CAns+&r4 Th&y ar& uns$ill,ul, V&n&rabl& "ir%D
FAr& th&y har-,ul or not har-,ul@G
CAns+&r4 Har-,ul, V&n&rabl& "ir%D
FPrais&' by th& +is&, or (&nsur&'@G
CAns+&r4 #&nsur&' by th& +is&, V&n&rabl& "ir%D
FI, th&s& thin*s ar& a(t&' u.on, +ill th&y brin* about har-
an' su,,&rin*, or not@ 0hat 'o you thin$@G
CAns+&r4 0h&n .ut into .ra(ti(&, th&s& thin*s brin* about
har- an' su,,&rin*, this is our )i&+ on this -att&r%D
FIn that (as&, Kala-as, +h&n I sai', K#o-&, Kala-as, 'o
not b&li&)& b&(aus& a b&li&, has b&&n a'h&r&' to ,or
*&n&rations / nor b&(aus& this -an is your t&a(h&r,
or is r&)&r&' by you, but +h&n you $no+ ,or yours&l)&s
that th&s& thin*s ar& uns$ill,ul, th&n you shoul' aban'on
thos& thin*s,! it is on a((ount o, this that I thus s.o$&%G19
Th& ,ollo+in* .assa*& is ,ro- an &?(han*& b&t+&&n Kin*
Pas&na'i o, Kosala an' th& V&n&rabl& Anan'a% It is a s&ri&s o,
Eu&stions an' ans+&rs r&latin* to th& natur& o, *oo' an' &)il,
,ro- +hi(h it (an b& s&&n that V&n&rabl& Anan'a -a$&s us& o,
all th& stan'ar's -&ntion&' abo)&%
Kin*4 V&n&rabl& "ir, +h&n ,oolish, unint&lli*&nt .&o.l&,
not (ar&,ully (onsi'&rin*, s.&a$ in .rais& or bla-& o, oth&rs,
I 'o not ta$& th&ir +or's s&riously% As ,or .un'its, th&
+is& an' astut&, +ho (ar&,ully (onsi'&r b&,or& .raisin* or
(riti(iBin*, I *i)& +&i*ht to th&ir +or's% V&n&rabl& Anan'a,
+hi(h $in's o, bo'ily a(tions, )&rbal a(tions an' -&ntal
a(tions +oul', on r&,l&(tion, b& (&nsur&' by +is& as(&ti(s
an' Brah-ins@
Anan'a4 Th&y ar& thos& a(tions o, bo'y / s.&&(h / -in'
that ar& uns$ill,ul, Your Maj&sty%
Kin*4 0hat ar& thos& a(tions o, bo'y / s.&&(h / -in'
that ar& uns$ill,ul@
Anan'a4 Th&y ar& thos& a(tions o, bo'y / s.&&(h / -in'
that ar& har-,ul%
Kin*4 0hat ar& thos& a(tions o, bo'y / s.&&(h / -in'
that ar& har-,ul@
Anan'a4 Th&y ar& thos& a(tions o, bo'y / s.&&(h / -in'
that ar& o..r&ssi)&%
Kin*4 0hat ar& thos& a(tions o, bo'y / s.&&(h / -in'
that ar& o..r&ssi)&@
Anan'a4 Th&y ar& thos& a(tions o, bo'y / s.&&(h / -in'
+hi(h r&sult in su,,&rin*%
Kin*4 0hat ar& thos& a(tions o, bo'y / s.&&(h / -in'
+hi(h r&sult in su,,&rin*@
Anan'a4 Thos& a(tions o, bo'y / s.&&(h / -in' +hi(h
s&r)& to tor-&nt on&s&l,, to tor-&nt oth&rs, or to tor-&nt
bothH +hi(h brin* about an in(r&as& in uns$ill,ul (on'itions
an' a '&(r&as& o, s$ill,ul (on'itionsH Your Maj&sty,
just th&s& $in's o, a(tions o, bo'y / s.&&(h / -in' ar&
(&nsur&' by +is& as(&ti(s an' Brah-ins%
;ollo+in* that, V&n&rabl& Anan'a ans+&r&' th& Kin*!s Eu&stions
about s$ill,ul (on'itions in th& sa-& +ay, su--ariBin*
FThos& a(tions o, bo'y / s.&&(h / -in' +hi(h r&sult
in, that is, thos& a(tions +hi(h 'o not s&r)& to
tor-&nt on&s&l,, to tor-&nt oth&rs, nor to tor-&nt bothH
+hi(h brin* about a '&(r&as& in uns$ill,ul (on'itions an'
an in(r&as& in s$ill,ul (on'itionsH Your Maj&sty, just th&s&
$in's o, a(tions o, bo'y / s.&&(h / -in' ar& not (&nsur&'
by +is& as(&ti(s an' Brah-ins%G15
FOn& in th& .o+&r o, *r&&' an' '&sir& / hatr&' an' r&s&nt-&nt
/ '&lusion / +ith -in' thus 'istort&' / 'o&s not
$no+ as it is +hat is us&,ul to on&s&l, / +hat is us&,ul to
oth&rs / +hat is us&,ul to both si'&s% Ha)in* aban'on&'
'&sir& / a)&rsion / '&lusion, on& $no+s (l&arly +hat is
us&,ul to on&s&l, / us&,ul to oth&rs / us&,ul to both%G76
FBa' $a--a is li$& ,r&shly sEu&&B&' -il$ > it ta$&s ti-& to
sour% Ba' $a--a ,ollo+s an' burns th& &)il 'o&r just li$&
hot (oals buri&' in ash%G71
FOn& +ho .r&)iously -a'& ba' $a--a, but +ho r&,or-s
an' (r&at&s *oo' $a--a, bri*ht&ns th& +orl' li$& th&
-oon a..&arin* ,ro- b&hin' a (lou'%G77
FTo -a$& *oo' $a--a is li$& ha)in* a *oo' ,ri&n' at your
FAnan'aJ ;or thos& ba' a(tions throu*h bo'y, s.&&(h an'
-in', +hi(h ar& 'is(oura*&' by -&, th& ,ollo+in* (ons&Eu&n(&s
(an b& &?.&(t&'4 on& is bla-&+orthy to on&s&l,H
th& +is&, on (ar&,ul (onsi'&ration, ,in' on& (&nsurabl&H a
ba' r&.utation s.r&a'sH on& 'i&s (on,us&'H an' at '&ath,
on th& br&a$in* u. o, th& bo'y, on& *o&s to th& +o&,ul
stat&s, th& n&th&r r&al-s, h&ll /
FAnan'aJ ;or thos& *oo' a(tions throu*h bo'y, s.&&(h an'
-in' r&(o--&n'&' by -&, th& ,ollo+in* r&+ar's (an b&
&?.&(t&'4 on& is not bla-&+orthy to on&s&l,H th& +is&, a,t&r
(ar&,ul (onsi'&ration, ,in' on& .rais&+orthyH a *oo'
r&.utation s.r&a'sH on& 'i&s un(on,us&'H an' at '&ath,
on th& br&a$in* u. o, th& bo'y, on& attains to a .l&asant
r&al-, to h&a)&n /G7<
FMon$s, aban'on uns$ill,ul (on'itions% ns$ill,ul (on'itions
(an b& aban'on&'% I, it +&r& i-.ossibl& to aban'on
uns$ill,ul (on'itions, I +oul' not t&ll you to 'o so / but
b&(aus& uns$ill,ul (on'itions (an b& aban'on&', thus 'o I
t&ll you / Mor&o)&r, i, th& aban'onin* o, thos& uns$ill,ul
(on'itions +as not (on'u(i)& to +&l,ar&, but to su,,&rin*, I
+oul' not say, KMon$s, aban'on uns$ill,ul (on'itions,! but
b&(aus& th& aban'onin* o, th&s& uns$ill,ul (on'itions is
(on'u(i)& to b&n&,it an', so I say, KMon$s, aban'on
uns$ill,ul (on'itions%!
FMon$s, (ulti)at& s$ill,ul (on'itions% "$ill,ul (on'itions
(an b& (ulti)at&'% I, it +&r& i-.ossibl& to (ulti)at& s$ill,ul
(on'itions, I +oul' not t&ll you to 'o so / but b&(aus&
s$ill,ul (on'itions (an b& (ulti)at&', thus 'o I t&ll you /
Mor&o)&r, i, th& (ulti)ation o, thos& s$ill,ul (on'itions +as
not (on'u(i)& to +&l,ar&, but to su,,&rin*, I +oul' not t&ll
you to (ulti)at& s$ill,ul (on'itions, but b&(aus& th& (ulti)ation
o, s$ill,ul (on'itions is (on'u(i)& to +&l,ar& an' to, thus 'o I say, KMon$s, (ulti)at& s$ill,ul (on'itions%!G
FMon$s, th&r& ar& thos& thin*s +hi(h shoul' b& aban'on&'
+ith th& bo'y, not th& s.&&(hH th&r& ar& thos& thin*s +hi(h
shoul' b& aban'on&' +ith th& s.&&(h, not th& bo'yH th&r&
ar& thos& thin*s +hi(h shoul' b& aban'on&' n&ith&r +ith
th& bo'y, nor s.&&(h, but -ust b& (l&arly s&&n +ith +is'o-
Cin th& -in'D an' th&n aban'on&'%
F0hat ar& thos& thin*s +hi(h shoul' b& aban'on&' +ith
th& bo'y, not throu*h s.&&(h@ H&r&in, a -on$ in this
Dha--aAVinaya in(urs trans*r&ssions throu*h th& bo'y%
His +is& (o-.anions in th& Dha--a, ha)in* (onsi'&r&'
th& -att&r, say to hi-4 KV&n&rabl& ;ri&n', you ha)&
in(urr&' th&s& o,,&ns&s% It +oul' b& +&ll i, you +&r& to
aban'on this +ron* bo'ily b&ha)ior an' (ulti)at& *oo'
bo'ily b&ha)ior%! Ha)in* b&&n so instru(t&' by thos& +is&
(o-.anions, h& aban'ons thos& +ron* bo'ily a(tions an'
(ulti)at&s *oo' on&s% This is a (on'ition +hi(h shoul' b&
aban'on&' by bo'y, not by s.&&(h%
F0hat ar& th& thin*s +hi(h shoul' b& aban'on&' throu*h
s.&&(h, not throu*h th& bo'y@ H&r&in, a -on$ in this
Dha--aAVinaya in(urs so-& trans*r&ssions throu*h
s.&&(h% His +is& (o-.anions in th& Dha--a, ha)in* (onsi'&r&'
th& -att&r, say to hi-4 KV&n&rabl& ;ri&n', you ha)&
in(urr&' th&s& o,,&ns&s o, s.&&(h% It +oul' b& +&ll i, you
+&r& to r&linEuish this +ron* s.&&(h an' (ulti)at& *oo'
s.&&(h%! Ha)in* b&&n so instru(t&' by thos& +is& (o-.anions,
h& aban'ons that +ron* s.&&(h an' (ulti)at&s *oo'
s.&&(h% This is a (on'ition +hi(h shoul' b& aban'on&' by
s.&&(h, not by bo'y%
F0hat ar& th& thin*s +hi(h shoul' b& aban'on&' n&ith&r
by bo'y nor s.&&(h, but +hi(h shoul' b& (l&arly un'&rstoo'
+ith +is'o- an' th&n aban'on&'@ Th&y ar& *r&&'
/ hatr&' / '&lusion / an*&r / )in'i(ti)&n&ss /
/ arro*an(& / -&ann&ss% Th&s& thin*s shoul' b& aban'on&'
n&ith&r by th& bo'y or s.&&(h, but shoul' b& (l&arly
un'&rstoo' +ith +is'o- an' th&n aban'on&'%G73
: Th& ;ruition o, Ka--a
=&sults o, $a--a on 'i,,&r&nt l&)&ls
Probably th& -ost -isun'&rstoo' as.&(t o, th& +hol& subj&(t o,
$a--a is th& +ay it yi&l's r&sults, as su--ariB&' in th& .rin(i.l&,
FGoo' a(tions brin* *oo' r&sults, ba' a(tions brin* ba'
r&sults%G Is this r&ally tru&@ To so-&, it s&&-s that in Fth& r&al
+orl'G th&r& ar& -any +ho obtain *oo' r&sults ,ro- ba' a(tions
an' ba' r&sults ,ro- *oo' a(tions% This $in' o, un'&rstan'in*
aris&s ,ro- (on,usion b&t+&&n F"o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&G an' th& la+
o, $a--a% Th& (on,usion (an b& r&a'ily s&&n ,ro- th& +ay
.&o.l& -isun'&rstan' &)&n th& -&anin* o, th& +or's, F*oo'
a(tions brin* *oo' r&sults%G Inst&a' o, un'&rstan'in* th& -&anin*
as Fin .&r,or-in* *oo' a(tions, th&r& is *oo'n&ss,G or F*oo'
a(tions brin* about *oo' r&sults in a((or'an(& +ith th& la+ o,
$a--a,G th&y ta$& th& -&anin* to b& F*oo' a(tions r&sult in
*oo' thin*s%G B&arin* this in -in', l&t us no+ (onsi'&r th& -att&r
in -or& '&.th%
Th& subj&(t +hi(h (aus&s 'oubt is th& 'istin(tion, an' th& r&lationshi.
b&t+&&n, th& la+ o, $a--a an' "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&% To
(lari,y this .oint, l&t us ,irst (onsi'&r th& ,ruition o, $a--a on
,our 'i,,&r&nt l&)&ls4
1% Th& inn&r, -&ntal l&)&l4 th& r&sults $a--a has +ithin th&
-in' its&l,, in th& ,or- o, a((u-ulat&' t&n'&n(i&s, both
s$ill,ul an' uns$ill,ul, an' th& Euality o, th& -in', its &?.&ri&n(&s
o,, su,,&rin*, an' so on%
7% Th& .hysi(al l&)&l4 th& &,,&(t $a--a has on (hara(t&r,
-ann&ris-s, b&arin*, b&ha)ioral t&n'&n(i&s% Th& r&sults on
this l&)&l ar& '&ri)&' ,ro- th& ,irst l&)&l, an' th&ir ,i&l's o,
r&l&)an(& o)&rla., but h&r& th&y ar& (onsi'&r&' s&.arat&ly in
or'&r to ,urth&r (lari,y th& +ay th&s& t+o l&)&ls a,,&(t li,&
:% Th& l&)&l o, li,& &?.&ri&n(&s4 ho+ $a--a a,,&(ts th&
&)&nts o, li,&, .ro'u(in* both '&sirabl& an' un'&sirabl& &?.&ri&n(&sH
s.&(i,i(ally, &?t&rnal &)&nts li$& .ros.&rity an'
'&(lin&, ,ailur& an' su((&ss, +&alth, status,, su,,&rin*,
.rais& an' (riti(is-% To*&th&r th&s& ar& $no+n as th&
lo$a'ha--a C+orl'ly (on'itionsD% Th& r&sults o, $a--a on
this l&)&l (an b& 'i)i'&' into t+o $in's4
N thos& arisin* ,ro- nonhu-an &n)iron-&ntal (aus&s
N thos& arisin* ,ro- (aus&s r&lat&' to oth&r .&o.l& an'
<% Th& so(ial l&)&l4 th& r&sults o, in'i)i'ual an' (oll&(ti)&
$a--a on so(i&ty, l&a'in* to so(ial .ros.&rity or '&(lin&,
har-ony or 'is(or'% This +oul' in(lu'& th& &,,&(ts o, hu-an
int&ra(tion +ith th& &n)iron-&nt%
L&)&ls 1 an' 7 r&,&r to th& r&sults +hi(h a,,&(t -in' an' (hara(t&r,
+hi(h ar& th& ,i&l's in +hi(h th& la+ o, $a--a is 'o-inant%
Th& thir' l&)&l is +h&r& th& la+ o, $a--a an' "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&
-&&t, an' it is at this .oint that (on,usion aris&s% This is th&
.robl&- +hi(h +& +ill no+ (onsi'&r% Th& ,ourth l&)&l, $a--a
on th& so(ial l&)&l, +ill b& (onsi'&r&' in th& n&?t (ha.t&r%
0h&n (onsi'&rin* th& -&anin* o, th& +or's F*oo' a(tions brin*
*oo' r&sults, ba' a(tions brin* ba' r&sults,G -ost .&o.l& t&n' to
ta$& not& only o, th& r&sults *i)&n on th& thir' l&)&l, thos& ,ro-
&?t&rnal sour(&s, (o-.l&t&ly i*norin* r&sults on l&)&ls on& an'
t+o% Ho+&)&r, th&s& ,irst t+o l&)&ls ar& o, .ri-& i-.ortan(&, not
only in that th&y '&t&r-in& -&ntal +&llAb&in*, inn&r str&n*th or
short(o-in*s, an' th& -aturity or +&a$n&ss o, th& ,a(ulti&s, but
also in th&ir .ot&ntial to '&t&r-in& &?t&rnal &)&nts% That is to
say, that .ortion o, r&sults on th& thir' l&)&l +hi(h (o-&s into
th& 'o-ain o, th& la+ o, $a--a is '&ri)&' ,ro- th& $a--aAr&sults
on th& ,irst an' s&(on' l&)&ls%
;or instan(&, stat&s o, -in' +hi(h ar& r&sults o, $a--a on th&
,irst l&)&l > int&r&sts, .r&,&r&n(&s, t&n'&n(i&s, -&tho's ,or ,in'in* or (* +ith su,,&rin* > +ill in,lu&n(& not only
th& +ay +& loo$ at thin*s, but also th& situations +& ar& 'ra+n
to+ar', r&a(tions or '&(isions -a'&, our +ay o, li,& an' th&
&?.&ri&n(&s or r&sults &n(ount&r&'% Th&y a,,&(t th& attitu'& +&
a'o.t to+ar's li,&!s &?.&ri&n(&s, +hi(h +ill in turn a,,&(t th&
s&(on' l&)&l Cb&ha)ioral t&n'&n(i&sD% This in turn .ro-ot&s th&
+ay in +hi(h -&ntal a(ti)iti&s Cth& ,irst l&)&lD a,,&(t &?t&rnal
&)&nts Cth& thir' l&)&lD% Th& 'ir&(tion, styl&, or -&tho' ta$&n ,or
a(tion, th& .&rsist&n(& +ith it, th& .arti(ular obsta(l&s in ,a(& o,
+hi(h +& +ill yi&l' an' in ,a(& o, +hi(h +& +ill .&rsist, in(lu'in*
th& .robability o, su((&ss, ar& all in,lu&n(&' by (hara(t&r
an' attitu'&% This is not to '&ny that oth&r ,a(tors, .arti(ularly
&n)iron-&ntal an' so(ial on&s, a,,&(t &a(h oth&r an' ha)& an
in,lu&n(& o)&r us, but h&r& +& ar& (on(&rn&' -or& +ith obs&r)in*
th& +or$in*s o, $a--a%
Althou*h &)&nts o, li,& ar& lar*&ly '&ri)&' ,ro- th& &,,&(ts o,
th& la+ o, $a--a ,ro- th& .&rsonal C.hysi(al an' -&ntalD
l&)&l, this is not al+ays th& (as&% An hon&st an' (a.abl& .ubli(
s&r)ant, ,or &?a-.l&, +ho' hi-s&l, to his +or$ +oul' b&
&?.&(t&' to a')an(& in his (ar&&r, at l&ast -or& so than on& +ho
+as in&,,i(i&nt an' in&.t% But so-&ti-&s this 'o&sn!t ha..&n%
This is b&(aus& th& &)&nts in li,& ar& not &ntir&ly subj&(t to th&
la+ o, $a--a% Th&r& ar& ,a(tors in)ol)&' ,ro- oth&r niya-a
an' )alu&Asyst&-s, &s.&(ially "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&% I, th&r& +&r&
only th& la+ o, $a--a o.&ratin* th&r& +oul' b& no .robl&-,
r&sults +oul' aris& in 'ir&(t (orr&s.on'&n(& +ith th& r&l&)ant
$a--a% But loo$in* only at th& in,lu&n(& o, $a--a to th& &?(lusion
o, oth&r ,a(tors, an' ,ailin* to 'istin*uish b&t+&&n th&
natural la+s an' "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&s in)ol)&', (aus&s (on,usion,
an' this is .r&(is&ly +hat (aus&s th& b&li&,, F*oo' a(tions brin*
ba' r&sults, ba' a(tions brin* *oo' r&sults%G
;or &?a-.l&, a (ons(i&ntious stu'&nt +ho hi-s&l, to his
l&ssons (oul' b& &?.&(t&' to a(Euir& l&arnin*% But th&r& -ay b&
ti-&s +h&n h& is .hysi(ally &?haust&' or has a h&a'a(h&, or th&
+&ath&r or so-& a((i'&nt -ay int&rru.t his r&a'in*% 0hat&)&r
th& (as&, +& (an still ass&rt that in *&n&ral, th& la+ o, $a--a is
th& .ri-& '&t&r-inin* ,a(tor ,or th& *oo' an' ba' &?.&ri&n(&s
o, li,&%
L&t us no+ loo$ at an' r&(ti,y so-& o, th& -isun'&rstan'in*s
in r&*ar' to th& ,ruition o, $a--a by r&,&rrin* to th& root t&?ts%
Th& .hras& that Thai .&o.l& li$& to r&.&at, F*oo' a(tions brin*
*oo' r&sults, ba' a(tions brin* ba' r&sults,G (o-&s ,ro- th&
Bu''ha!s stat&-&nt,
Ya'isa- ) bija- Ta'isa- labhat& .hala-
Kalyana$ari $alyana- Pa.a$ari (a .a.a$a-
0hi(h translat&s as4
As th& s&&', so th& ,ruit%
0ho&)&r 'o&s *oo', r&(&i)&s *oo',
0ho&)&r 'o&s ba', r&(&i)&s ba'%78
This .assa*& -ost (l&arly an' su((in(tly &?.r&ss&s th& Bu''hist
'o(trin& o, $a--a% CNot& that h&r& th& Bu''ha us&s bijaniya-a,
th& la+ o, h&r&'ity, ,or illustration%D " by (l&arly (onsi'&rin*
this illustration, +& (an allay all (on,usion r&*ar'in* th& la+
o, $a--a an' "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&%
That is to say, th& .hras&, FAs th& s&&', so th& ,ruit,G &?.lains
th& natural la+ .&rtainin* to .lants4 i, ta-arin' is .lant&', you
*&t ta-arin'H i, *ra.&s ar& .lant&', you *&t *ra.&sH i, l&ttu(&
is .lant&', you *&t l&ttu(&% It 'o&s not s.&a$ at all in t&r-s o,
"o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&, su(h as in Fi, ta-arin' is .lant&', you *&t
-on&y,G or F.lantin* l&ttu(& +ill -a$& you ri(h,G +hi(h ar& 'i,,&r&nt
sta*&s o, th& .ro(&ss%
Bijaniya-a an' "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(& b&(o-& r&lat&' +h&n, ha)in*
.lant&' *ra.&s, ,or &?a-.l&, an' obtain&' *ra.&s, an' th&
ti-& b&in* (oin(i'&nt +ith a *oo' .ri(& ,or *ra.&s, th&n your
*ra.&s ar& sol' ,or a *oo' .ri(&, an' you *&t ri(h that y&ar% But
at anoth&r ti-&, you -ay .lant +at&r -&lons, an' r&a. a *oo'
har)&st, but that y&ar &)&rybo'y .lants +at&r -&lons,
&?(&&'s '&-an', an' th& .ri(& o, +at&r -&lons *o&s 'o+n% You
-a$& a loss an' ha)& to thro+ a+ay a lot o, +at&r -&lons% ,ro- th& ,a(tor o, -ar$&t '&-an', th&r& -ay also b& oth&r
,a(tors in)ol)&', &(ono-i( on&s '&t&r-in&' by "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&%
But th& &ss&ntial .oint is th& (&rtainty o, th& natural la+ o, h&r&'ity,
an' th& 'istin(tion b&t+&&n that natural la+ an' "o(ial
Pr&,&r&n(&% Th&y ar& 'i,,&r&nt an' y&t (l&arly r&lat&'%
P&o.l& t&n' to loo$ at th& la+ o, $a--a an' "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&
as on& an' th& sa-& thin*, int&r.r&tin* F*oo' a(tions brin*
*oo' r&sultsG as -&anin* F*oo' a(tions +ill -a$& us ri(h,G or
F*oo' a(tions +ill &arn a .ro-otion,G +hi(h in so-& (as&s s&&-s
Euit& r&asonabl&% But thin*s 'o not al+ays *o that +ay% To say
this is just li$& sayin*, FPlant -an*o&s an' you!ll *&t a lot o,
-on&y,G or FTh&y .lant&' a..l&s, that!s +hy th&y!r& har' u.%G
Th&s& thin*s -ay b& tru&, or -ay not b&% But this $in' o, thin$in*
ju-.s ah&a' o, th& ,a(ts a st&. or t+o% It is not &ntir&ly tru&%
It -ay b& su,,i(i&nt to (o--uni(at& on an &)&ry'ay basis, but i,
you +ant&' to s.&a$ a((urat&ly, you +oul' ha)& to analyB& th&
.&rtin&nt ,a(tors -or& (l&arly%
;a(tors +hi(h a,,&(t th& ,ruition o, $a--a
In th& Pali th&r& ar& ,our .airs o, ,a(tors +hi(h in,lu&n(& th&
,ruition o, $a--a on th& l&)&l o, li,& &?.&ri&n(&s% Th&y ar&
*i)&n as th& ,our a')anta*&s Csa-.attiD an' th& ,our 'isa')anta*&s
"a-.atti translat&s rou*hly as attribut& or attain-&nt, an' r&,&rs
to th& (on,lu&n(& o, ,a(tors to su..ort th& ,ruition o, *oo'
$a--a an' obstru(t th& ,ruition o, ba' $a--a% Th& ,our ar&4
1% Gatisa-.atti4 ;a)orabl&, ,a)orabl& &n)iron-&nt,
(ir(u-stan(&s or (ar&&rH that is, to b& born into a ,a)orabl&
ar&a, lo(ality or (ountryH on a short t&r- s(al&, to b& in a ,a)orabl&
7% .a'hisa-.atti4 Th& ass&t, suitability an' su..ort o, th&
bo'yH that is, to ha)& a b&auti,ul or .l&asant a..&aran(&
or .&rsonality +hi(h arous&s r&s.&(t or ,a)orH a stron* an'
h&althy bo'y, &t(%
:% Kalasa-.atti4 Th& ass&t o, o..ortunity, o, ti-&, or
th& su..ort o, ti-&H that is, to b& born at a ti-& +h&n th&
(ountry li)&s in .&a(& an' har-ony, th& *o)&rn-&nt is *oo',
.&o.l& li)& )irtuously, .rais& *oo'n&ss an' 'o not su..ort
(orru.tionH on an i--&'iat& l&)&l, to &n(ount&r o..ortuniti&s
at th& ri*ht ti-&, at th& ri*ht -o-&nt%
<% Payo*asa-.atti4 Th& attribut& o, a(tion, o, a(tion,
or a')anta*& o, a(tionH that is, a(tion +hi(h is
to th& (ir(u-stan(&H a(tion +hi(h is in a((or'an(& +ith .&rsonal
s$ill or (a.abilityH a(tion +hi(h ,ully a((or's +ith th&
.rin(i.l&s or (rit&ria (on(&rn&'H thorou*h*oin*, not hal,h&art&',
a(tionH .ro.&r .ro(&'ur& or -&tho'%
Vi.atti translat&s rou*hly as '&,&(t or loss, an' r&,&rs to a t&n'&n(y
+ithin (on'itionin* ,a(tors to &n(oura*& th& ,ruition o,
ba' $a--a rath&r than th& *oo'% Th&y ar&4
1% Gati)i.atti4 n,a)orabl&, un,a)orabl& &n)iron-&nt,
(ir(u-stan(&s or (ar&&rH that is, to b& born into or b&
situat&' in a s.h&r&, lo(ality, (ountry or &n)iron-&nt +hi(h
is unsu..orti)&%
7% .a'hi)i.atti4 0&a$n&ss or '&,&(ti)&n&ss o, th& bo'yH that
is, to ha)& a '&,or-&' or si($ly bo'y, o, un.l&asant a..&aran(&%
This in(lu'&s ti-&s o, ba' h&alth an' illn&ss%
:% Kala)i.atti4 Disa')anta*& or '&,&(ti)&n&ss o, ti-&H that is,
to b& born into an a*& +h&n th&r& is so(ial unr&st, ba' *o)&rn-&nt,
a '&*&n&rat& so(i&ty, o..r&ssion o, *oo' .&o.l&,
.rais& o, th& ba', an' so on% This also in(lu'&s ino..ortun&
<% Payo*a)i.atti4 0&a$n&ss or '&,&(ti)&n&ss o, a(tionH .uttin*
&,,ort into a tas$ or -att&r +hi(h is +orthl&ss, or ,or +hi(h
on& is not (a.abl&H a(tion +hi(h is not thorou*hly (arri&'
;irst .air4 Gatisa-.atti4 Birth into an a,,lu&nt (o--unity an'
a *oo' &'u(ation (an .ro(ur& a hi*h&r .osition in so(i&ty than
,or anoth&r +ho, althou*h bri*ht&r an' -or& 'ili*&nt, is born
into a .oor&r (o--unity +ith l&ss o..ortunity% Gati)i.atti4 At
a ti-& +h&n a Bu''ha is born into th& +orl' an' &?.oun'in*
th& Dha--a, birth in a .ri-iti)& jun*l& or as a h&llAb&in* +ill
obstru(t any (han(& o, h&arin* th& t&a(hin*sH l&arnin* an' (a.ability
in a (o--unity +h&r& su(h tal&nts ar& not a..r&(iat&'
-ay yi&l' no b&n&,its, an' &)&n l&a' to r&j&(tion an' s(orn%
"&(on' .air4 .a'hisa-.atti4 Attra(ti)& ,&atur&s an' a .l&asant
a..&aran(& (an o,t&n b& utiliB&' to shi,t u.+ar's on th& so(ial
s(al&% .a'hi)i.atti4 D&,or-ity or '&,i(i&n(y ar& li$&ly to hin'&r
th& honor an' .r&sti*& that +oul' nor-ally b&,all a -&-b&r o,
a so(ially hi*h an' +&althy ,a-ilyH +h&r& t+o .&o.l& ha)& oth&r+is&
&Eual attribut&s, but on& is attra(ti)& +hil& th& oth&r is
un.l&asant loo$in* or si($ly, th& attribut&s o, th& bo'y -ay b&
th& '&(i'in* ,a(tor ,or su((&ss%
Thir' .air4 Kalasa-.atti4 At a ti-& +h&n *o)&rn-&nt an' so(i&ty
ar& hon&st an' .rais& )irtu&, hon&sty an' r&(titu'& (an .ro(ur&
a')an(&-&ntH at a ti-& +h&n .o&try is so(ially .r&,&rr&',
a .o&t is li$&ly to b&(o-& ,a-ous an' r&)&r&'% Kala)i.atti4 At
a ti-& +h&n so(i&ty has ,all&n ,ro- ri*ht&ousn&ss an' th& *o)&rn-&nt
is (orru.t, hon&st .&o.l& -ay a(tually b& .&rs&(ut&'H
at a ti-& +h&n a lar*& .ortion o, so(i&ty .r&,&rs harsh -usi(, a
-usi(ian s$ill&' at (ool an' r&la?in* -usi( -ay r&(&i)& littl&
;ourth .air4 Payo*asa-.atti4 E)&n +ithout *oo'n&ss or tal&nt,
a $na($ +ith .ubli( r&lations an' an un'&rstan'in* o, so(ial
-or&s (an h&l. to o)&rri'& ,ailin*s in oth&r ar&asH a s$ill in ,or*in*
'o(u-&nts -ay b& b&n&,i(ially turn&' to th& ins.&(tion o,
r&,&r&n(&s% Payo*a)i.atti4 Tal&nt an' abiliti&s +ill in&)itably b&
i-.air&' by an a''i(tion to *a-blin*H a s.rint&r +ith th& ability
to b&(o-& a (ha-.ion athl&t& -i*ht -isus& his tal&nt ,or
runnin* a+ay +ith oth&r .&o.l&!s *oo'sH a .ra(ti(ally -in'&'
.&rson +ith a -&(hani(al b&nt -i*ht *o to +or$ in a (l&ri(al
.osition ,or +hi(h h& is +holly unsuit&'%
Th& ,ruits o, $a--a on th& &?t&rnal l&)&l ar& -ostly +orl'ly
(on'itions, +hi(h ar& in a stat& o, (onstant ,lu?% Th&s& +orl'ly
(on'itions ar& r&lati)&ly su.&r,i(ial, th&y ar& not th& r&al &ss&n(&
o, li,&% Ho+ -u(h th&y in,lu&n(& us '&.&n's on th& &?t&nt
o, our atta(h-&nt to th&-% I, th&r& is littl& atta(h-&nt, it is .ossibl&
to -aintain &Euilibriu- in th& ,a(& o, har'shi.s, or at l&ast
not b& o)&r+h&l-&' by th&-% ;or this r&ason Bu''his- &n(oura*&s
int&lli*&nt r&,l&(tion an' un'&rstan'in* o, th& truth o, this
+orl', to ha)& -in',uln&ss an' not b& h&&'l&ss4 not to b&(o-&
into?i(at&' in ti-&s o, *oo' ,ortun&, an' not to ,all into '&.r&ssion
or an?i&ty in ti-&s o, -is,ortun&, but to (ar&,ully (onsi'&r
.robl&-s +ith +is'o-%
As.iration to +orl'ly *oals shoul' b& (ou.l&' +ith a $no+l&'*&
o, .&rsonal attribut&s an' +&a$n&ss&s, an' th& ability to (hoos&
an' or*aniB& th& r&l&)ant attribut&s to attain thos& *oals throu*h
s$ill,ul -&ans C$usala $a--aD% "u(h a(tions +ill ha)& a lastin*
an' b&n&,i(ial &,,&(t on li,& at all l&)&ls% "u((&ss sou*ht throu*h
uns$ill,ul -&ans, or ,a)orabl& o((asions us&' to (r&at& uns$ill,ul
$a--a, +ill (r&at& un'&sirabl& r&sults a((or'in* to th& la+
o, $a--a% Th&s& ,our a')anta*&s Csa-.attiD an' 'isa')anta*&s
C)i.attiD ar& (onstantly (han*in*% 0h&n ,a)orabl& ti-&s or o..ortuniti&s
ha)& .ass&', &)il $a--a +ill ri.&n% ;a)orabl& (on'itions
shoul' rath&r b& utiliB&' to (r&at& *oo' $a--a%
In this (ont&?t, +& -i*ht su--ariB& by sayin* that, ,or any
*i)&n a(tion, +h&r& -any 'i,,&r&nt natural la+s (o-& into .lay,
our .ri-& &-.hasis shoul' b& +ith th& ,a(tors o, $a--a% As ,or
th& ,a(tors +hi(h (o-& un'&r oth&r $in's o, natural la+, a,t&r
(ar&,ul (onsi'&ration, th&y (an also b& in(or.orat&', as lon* as
th&y ar& not har-,ul on th& l&)&l o, $a--a% Pra(ti(in* in this
+ay (an b& (all&' FutiliBin* s$ill,ul $a--a an' th& ,our a')anta*&s,G
or F$no+in* ho+ to b&n&,it ,ro- both th& la+ o, $a--a
an' "o(ial Pr&,&r&n(&s%G
In any (as&, b&arin* in -in' th& r&al ai- o, th& Bu''ha!s t&a(hin*,
an as.iration to tru& *oo'n&ss shoul' not b& tra'&' ,or
-&r&ly +orl'ly r&sults% Truly *oo' $a--a aris&s ,ro- on& or
anoth&r o, th& thr&& roots o, s$ill,uln&ss4 nonA*r&&', nonAa)&rsion
an' nonA'&lusion% Th&s& ar& a(tions bas&' on altruis-,
r&linEuishin* th& uns$ill,ul +ithin th& -in' an' '&)&*
b&n&)ol&nt thou*hts to+ar's oth&rs, (r&atin* a(tions bas&' on
*oo'+ill an' (o-.assion% "u(h a(tions ar& bas&' on +is'o-,
a -in' +hi(h to truth an' &nli*ht&n-&nt% This is th&
hi*h&st $in' o, $a--a, th& $a--a +hi(h l&a's to th& (&ssation
o, $a--a%
n'&rstan'in* th& .ro(&ss o, ,ruition
0h&n&)&r th& int&ntion to .&r,or- s$ill,ul or uns$ill,ul '&&'s
aris&s, that is th& b&*innin* o, -o)&-&nt in th& -in'% To us& a
-or& s(i&nti,i( .hras&, +& (oul' say that F)olitionA&n&r*yG has
aris&n% Ho+ this &n&r*y .ro(&&'s, +hi(h '&t&r-inants a,,&(t it
an' so on, ar& usually a -yst&ry to .&o.l&, on& in +hi(h th&y
ta$& littl& int&r&st% Th&y t&n' to '&)ot& -or& int&r&st to th&
r&sults +hi(h a..&ar (l&arly at th& &n' o, th& (y(l&, &s.&(ially
thos& +hi(h -at&rialiB& in th& hu-an so(ial s.h&r&% Th&s& ar&
thin*s +hi(h ar& &asily s&&n an' s.o$&n about%
Man$in' has a )&ry *oo' $no+l&'*& o, th& (r&ations o, th&
-in' on a -at&rial .lan&, an' ho+ th&s& thin*s (o-& about, but
about th& a(tual natur& o, th& -in' its&l,, th& s&at o, int&ntion,
an' th& +ay int&ntion a,,&(ts li,& an' th& .sy(h&, +& ha)& )&ry
littl& $no+l&'*& in'&&'% It is a 'ar$ an' -yst&rious r&al- ,or
-ost .&o.l&, in o, th& ,a(t that +& -ust ha)& an inti-at&
r&lationshi. +ith th&s& thin*s an' ar& 'ir&(tly in,lu&n(&' by
On a((ount o, this obs(urity an' i*noran(&, +h&n (on,ront&'
+ith s&&-in*ly ran'o- or un&?.lainabl& &)&nts, .&o.l& t&n' to
b& unabl& to join th& s(att&r&' thr&a's o, (aus& an' &,,&(t, an'
&ith&r ,ail to s&& th& r&l&)ant '&t&r-inin* ,a(tors, or s&& th&-
in(o-.l&t&ly% Th&y th&n .ro(&&' to r&j&(t th& la+ o, $a--a an'
.ut th& bla-& on oth&r thin*s% This is tanta-ount to r&j&(tin*
th& la+ o, (aus& an' &,,&(t, or th& natural .ro(&ss o, int&r'&.&n'&n(&%
=&j&(tin* th& la+ o, $a--a an' bla-in* oth&r ,a(tors
,or th& -is,ortun&s o, li,& is in its&l, .ro'u(ti)& o, -or& uns$ill,ul
$a--a% ".&(i,i(ally, by so 'oin*, any (han(& o,*
un,a)orabl& situations throu*h (l&ar un'&rstan'in* is '&,&at&'%
In any (as&, it is r&(o*niB&' that th& .ro(&ss o, $a--a ,ruition
is &?tr&-&ly (o-.l&?, it is a .ro(&ss that is b&yon' -ost .&o.l&!s
(o-.r&h&nsion% In th& Pali it is sai' to b& a(int&yya, b&yon' th&
(o-.r&h&nsion o, th& nor-al thou*ht .ro(&ss&s% Th& Bu''ha
sai' that insistin* on thin$in* about su(h thin*s (oul' -a$&
on& *o (raBy% In sayin* this, th& Bu''ha +as not so -u(h ,orbi''in*
any (onsi'&ration o, th& la+ o, $a--a, but rath&r .ointin*
out that th& intri(a(y o, (aus&s an' &)&nts in natur& (annot b&
un'&rstoo' throu*h thou*ht alon&, but only throu*h 'ir&(t, intuiti)&
Thus, b&in* a(int&yya 'o&s not ,orbi' us ,ro- tou(hin* th& subj&(t
at all% Our r&lationshi. +ith $a--a is on& o, $no+l&'*&
an' a ,ir- (on)i(tion in that $no+l&'*&, bas&' on &?a-ination
o, thos& thin*s +hi(h +& ar& abl& to $no+% Th&s& ar& th& thin*s
+hi(h ar& a(tually -ani,&stin* in th& .r&s&nt -o-&nt, b&*innin*
+ith th& -ost i--&'iat& an' &?t&n'in* out+ar's%
On th& i--&'iat& l&)&l +& ar& '&alin* +ith th& thou*ht .ro(&ss,
or int&ntion, as has b&&n '&s(rib&' abo)&, initially noti(in*
ho+ s$ill,ul thou*hts b&n&,it th& .sy(h& an' uns$ill,ul thou*hts
har- it% ;ro- th&r&, th& ,ruits o, th&s& thou*hts s.r&a' out+ar's
to a,,&(t oth&rs an' th& +orl' at lar*&, r&boun'in* to a,,&(t th&
.&r.&trator in (orr&s.on'in*ly b&n&,i(ial an' har-,ul +ays%
This .ro(&ss o, ,ruition (an b& s&&n on in(r&asin*ly intri(at&
l&)&ls, in,lu&n(&' by innu-&rabl& &?t&rnal (aus&s, until it is
.ossibl& to s&& a (o-.l&?ity ,ar &?(&&'in* anythin* +& ha' .r&)iously
(on(&i)&' o,% "u(h an a+ar&n&ss .ro)i'&s a ,ir- (on)i(tion
in th& truth o, th& natural la+ o, (aus& an' &,,&(t% On(& th&
.ro(&ss is un'&rstoo' on an i--&'iat& l&)&l, th& lon* t&r- basis
is also un'&rstoo', b&(aus& th& lon* t&r- is '&ri)&' ,ro- th&
i--&'iat& .r&s&nt% 0ithout an un'&rstan'in* o, th& .ro(&ss on
th& short t&r-, it is i-.ossibl& to un'&rstan' th& .ro(&ss on a
lon* t&r- basis% Only throu*h s&&in* in th& .r&s&nt (an +& s&&
th& +ay thin*s ar&%
Ha)in* a ,ir- (on)i(tion in th& natural .ro(&ss o, (aus& an'
&,,&(t in r&lation to int&ntion or )olition is to ha)& a ,ir- (on)i(tion
in th& la+ o, $a--a, or to b&li&)& in $a--a% 0ith a ,ir-
(on)i(tion in th& la+ o, $a--a, +& ar& abl& to r&aliB& as.irations
throu*h a(tion, +ith a (l&ar un'&rstan'in* o,
th& (aus& an' &,,&(t .ro(&ss in)ol)&'% 0h&n any *oal is '&sir&',
b& it in th& ar&a o, .&rsonal '&)&lo.-&nt or in +orl'ly (on'itions,
th& r&l&)ant ,a(tors in(lu'&' in both th& la+ o, $a--a
an' in oth&r niya-a -ust b& (ar&,ully (onsi'&r&', an' th& ri*ht
(on'itions (r&at&' a((or'in*ly%
;or &?a-.l&, a s$ill&' artist or (ra,ts-an -ust not (onsi'&r only
his o+n '&si*ns an' int&ntions to th& &?(lusion o, &)&rythin*
&ls&, but also th& r&l&)ant ,a(tors ,ro- oth&r niya-a an' )alu&A
syst&-s% 0h&n .lannin* an intri(at& hous& '&si*n, an ar(hit&(t
-ust (onsi'&r th& -at&rials to b& us&' ,or .arti(ular ar&as% I,
h& '&si*nat&s a so,t +oo' ,or us& +h&r& a har'+oo' is n&&'&',
no -att&r ho+ b&auti,ul th& '&si*n -ay b&, that hous& -ay (olla.s&
+ithout ,ul,illin* th& ,un(tion it +as int&n'&' ,or% To +or$
+ith th& la+ o, $a--a in a s$ill,ul +ay, it is n&(&ssary to '&)&lo.
an int&r&st in -oral r&(titu'& an' an a..r&(iation o, *oo'n&ss,
C$usala(han'a or 'ha--a(han'aD, an' a -oti)ation to li,& an' on&!s surroun'in*s% A '&sir& ,or Euality or (ar&
in .&rsonal a(tions an' r&lationshi.s is n&(&ssary% P&o.l& +ho
'&sir& only +orl'ly r&sults, n&*l&(tin* this as.iration ,or *oo'n&ss,
t&n' to try to .lay +ith or (h&at th& la+ o, $a--a, (ausin*
troubl& not only ,or th&-s&l)&s, but ,or so(i&ty as a +hol&%
;ruits o, $a--a on a lon* t&r- basis > H&a)&n an' H&ll
"o-& s(holars ,&&l that in or'&r to (on)in(& th& lay-an o, th&
la+ o, $a--a an' to &n(oura*& -orality, h& -ust ,irst b& (on)in(&'
o, th& ,ruition o, $a--a on th& lon* t&r- basis, ,ro-
.ast li)&s an' into ,utur& li)&s% As a r&sult o, this, th&y s&& th&
n&&' to )&ri,y th& &?ist&n(& o, an a,t&rli,&, or at l&ast to .r&s&nt
so-& (on)in(in* &)i'&n(& to su..ort it% "o-& s(holars ha)& att&-.t&'
to &?.lain th& .rin(i.l& o, $a--a an' a,t&rli,& by r&,&rrin*
to -o'&rn s(i&nti,i( la+s, su(h as Th& La+ o, #ons&r)ation
o, En&r*y, a..lyin* it to th& +or$in*s o, th& -in' an' int&ntion%
Oth&rs r&,&r to th& th&ori&s o, -o'&rn .sy(holo*y an' 'ata (on(&rnin*
r&(oll&(tion o, .ast li)&s% "o-& &)&n *o so ,ar as to us&
-&'iu-s an' s&an(&s to su..ort th&ir (lai-s% Th&s& att&-.ts at
s(i&nti,i( )&ri,i(ation +ill not b& '&tail&' h&r&, b&(aus& th&y ar&
b&yon' th& s(o.& o, this boo$% Thos& int&r&st&' ar& a')is&' to
loo$ into th& -att&r ,or th&-s&l)&s ,ro- any o, th& nu-&rous
boo$s a)ailabl& on th& subj&(t% As ,ar as th& .r&s&nt boo$ *o&s,
only a ,&+ r&,l&(tions on th& -att&r +ill b& *i)&n%
Th& '&sirability o, '&-onstratin* th& truth o, ,utur& li)&s an'
th& ,ruits o, $a--a on a lon* t&r- basis +oul' s&&- to ha)&
so-& )ali'ity% I, .&o.l& r&ally 'i' b&li&)& th&s& thin*s, it is .ossibl&
that th&y +oul' b& -or& in(lin&' to shun ba' a(tions an'
(ulti)at& *oo' on&s% It +oul' thus s&&- unn&(&ssary to o..os&
th& (ontinu&' stu'y o, an' &?.&ri-&ntation +ith su(h -att&rs,
as lon* as it li&s +ithin th& boun's o, r&ason% COth&r+is&, su(h
in)&sti*ations, inst&a' o, (astin* li*ht on th& -yst&rious, -ay
turn obs&r)abl& truths into in&?.li(abl& -yst&ri&sJD I, th&r& is
hon&st an' r&ason&' &?.&ri-&ntation, at th& )&ry l&ast so-&
s(i&nti,i( *ain is to b& &?.&(t&'%
On th& oth&r han', s(holars +ho ar& '&l)in* into su(h -att&rs
shoul' not b&(o-& so &n*ross&' in th&ir r&s&ar(h that th&y ar&
blin'&' by it, s&&in* its i-.ortan(& abo)& all &ls& an' o)&rloo$in*
th& i-.ortan(& o, th& .r&s&nt -o-&nt% This b&(o-&s an
&?tr&-& or unbalan(&' )i&+%
O)&r&-.hasis on r&birth into h&a)&n r&al-s an' h&ll r&al-s
i*nor&s th& *oo' +hi(h shoul' b&' to in th& .r&s&nt% Our
ori*inal int&ntion to &n(oura*& -oral (ons(i&n(& at all ti-&s, in(lu'in*
,utur& li)&s, an' an unsha$abl& ,aith in th& la+ o, $a--a,
+ill r&sult inst&a' in an as.iration only ,or ,utur& r&sults,
+hi(h b&(o-&s a $in' o, *r&&'% Goo' a(tions ar& .&r,or-&' ,or
th& sa$& o, .ro,it% O)&r&-.hasis on .ast an' ,utur& li)&s i*nor&s
th& i-.ortan(& o, th& Eualiti&s o, -oral r&(titu'& an' '&sir& ,or
*oo'n&ss, +hi(h in turn b&(o-&s a '&nial o,, or &)&n an insult
to, th& hu-an .ot&ntial to .ra(ti(& an' '&)&lo. truth an' ri*ht&ousn&ss
,or th&ir o+n sa$&s%
E)&n thou*h th&r& ar& so-& *roun's to th& i'&a that )&ri,i(ation
o, an a,t&rli,& -i*ht in,lu&n(& .&o.l& to l&a' -or& )irtuous
li)&s, still th&r& is no r&ason +hy .&o.l& shoul' ha)& to +ait to
b& satis,i&' on this .oint b&,or& th&y +ill a*r&& to l&a' -or&
-oral li)&s% It is i-.ossibl& to t&ll +h&n th& bi* Fi,G o, this s(i&nti,i(
r&s&ar(h +ill b& ans+&r&'4 +h&n +ill this r&s&ar(h b&
I, +& (onsi'&r th& -att&r stri(tly a((or'in* to th& -&anin* o,
th& +or' F)&ri,i(ation,G as b&in* a (l&ar '&-onstration, th&n
th& +or' is in)ali' in this instan(&% It is i-.ossibl& ,or on&
.&rson to r&sol)& anoth&r!s 'oubts about r&birth% =&birth is
so-&thin* +hi(h only thos& +ho s&& ,or th&-s&l)&s (an r&ally
b& sur& about% This F)&ri,i(ationG that is s.o$&n o, is -&r&ly an
ass&-bla*& o, r&lat&' ,a(ts an' (as& histori&s ,or analysis or
s.&(ulation% Th& r&al &ss&n(& o, th& -att&r r&-ains a(int&yya,
un,atho-abl&% No -att&r ho+ -any ,a(ts ar& a-ass&' to su..ort
th& issu&, ,or -ost it +ill r&-ain a -att&r o, ,aith or b&li&,%
As lon* as it is still a -att&r o, b&li&,, th&r& +ill al+ays b& thos&
+ho 'isb&li&)&, an' th&r& +ill al+ays b& th& .ossibility o, 'oubt
+ithin thos& +ho b&li&)&% Only +h&n (&rtain o, th& ,&tt&rs ha)&
b&&n aban'on&' on th& attain-&nt o, "tr&a- Entry is it .ossibl&
to b& b&yon' 'oubt%
To su- u., s&ar(hin* ,or 'ata an' .&rsonal histori&s to su..ort
th& issu& o, li,& a,t&r '&ath has so-& b&n&,it, an' su(h 'oin*s
shoul' not b& 'is(oura*&', but to say that &thi(al .ra(ti(& -ust
'&.&n' on th&ir )&ri,i(ation is n&ith&r tru& nor '&sirabl&%
"u--ary4 )&ri,yin* ,utur& li)&s
Ar& th&r& r&ally .ast an' ,utur& li)&s, h&a)&n an' h&ll@ This is
not only a ,as(inatin* Eu&stion, but also, to so-&, a 'isEui&tin*
on&, b&(aus& it is an un$no+n Euantity% Th&r&,or& I +oul' li$&
to in(lu'& a s-all su--ary o, th& -att&r%
1% A((or'in* to th& t&a(hin*s o, Bu''his- as .r&s&r)&' in th&
s(ri.tur&s, th&s& thin*s 'o &?ist%
7% Th&r& is no &n' to )&ri,yin* th&-, b&(aus& th&y (annot b&
.ro)&n on& +ay or anoth&r% You &ith&r b&li&)& in th&- or you
'on!t% N&ith&r thos& +ho b&li&)&, nor thos& +ho 'isb&li&)&,
nor thos& +ho ar& tryin* to .ro)& or ', r&ally $no+
+h&r& li,& (o-&s ,ro- or +h&r& it *o&s to, &ith&r th&ir o+n
or oth&rs!% All ar& in 'ar$n&ss, not only about th& 'istant .ast,
but &)&n to+ar' th&ir .r&s&nt birth, th&ir .r&s&nt li)&s, an'
th& ,utur&, &)&n on& 'ay a+ay%
:% On th& subj&(t o, )&ri,i(ation4 it (an b& sai' that Fsi*hts -ust
b& s&&n +ith th& &y&, soun's -ust b& h&ar' +ith th& &ar,
,la)ors -ust b& tast&' +ith th& ton*u&G an' so on% It +oul'
b& i-.ossibl& to s&& a )isual obj&(t usin* or*ans oth&r than
th& &y&, &)&n i, you us&' t&n &ars an' t&n ton*u&s to 'o so%
"i-ilarly, .&r(&i)in* )isual or au'ibl& obj&(ts Csu(h as ultra)iol&t
li*ht +a)&s or su.&rsoni( soun' +a)&sD +ith instru-&nts
o, 'is.arat& or in(o-.atibl& +a)& l&n*th is i-.ossibl&%
"o-& thin*s ar& )isibl& to a (at, but &)&n t&n hu-an &y&s
(annot s&& th&-% "o-& thin*s, althou*h au'ibl& to a bat, ar&
inau'ibl& to &)&n t&n hu-an &ars% In this (ont&?t, '&ath an'
birth ar& &?.&ri&n(&s o, li,&, or to b& -or& .r&(is&, &)&nts o,
th& -in', an' -ust b& r&s&ar(h&' by li,& or th& -in'% Any
r&s&ar(h shoul' th&r&,or& b& (arri&' out in on& o, th& ,ollo+in*
CaD In or'&r to )&ri,y th& truth o, th&s& thin*s in th& -in', it is
sai' that th& -in' -ust ,irst b& in th& stat& o, (on(&ntrat&'
(al-, or sa-a'hi% Ho+&)&r, i, this -&tho' s&&-s i-.ra(ti(al
or in(on)&ni&nt, or is (onsi'&r&' too .ron& to s&l,A'&(&.tion,
th&n th& n&?t -&tho' is/
CbD to )&ri,y +ith this .r&s&nt li,& its&l,% Non& o, us ha)& &)&r
'i&'% Th& only thorou*h t&st is that a(hi&)&' +ith on&!s
o+n '&ath / but ,&+ s&&- in(lin&' to try this -&tho'%
C(D I, th&r& is no r&al t&stin* as -&ntion&' abo)&, all that r&-ains
is to sho+ a nu-b&r o, (as& histori&s an' (oll&(t&'
'ata, su(h as a((ounts o, r&(oll&(tions o, .r&)ious li)&s, or
to us& analo*i&s ,ro- oth&r ,i&l's, su(h as soun's .&r(&.tibl&
only to (&rtain instru-&nts, to sho+ that th&s& thin*s
'o ha)& so-& (r&'ibility% Ho+&)&r, th& issu& r&-ains on th&
l&)&l o, b&li&,%
=&*ar'l&ss o, b&li&, or 'isb&li&,, or ho+&)&r .&o.l& try to .ro)&
th&s& thin*s to on& anoth&r, th& una)oi'abl& ,a(t, ,ro- +hi(h
all ,utur& li,& -ust st&-, is li,& in th& .r&s&nt -o-&nt% Gi)&n
this, it ,ollo+s that this is +h&r& +& shoul' b& 'ir&(tin* our
att&ntion% In Bu''his-, +hi(h is (onsi'&r&' to b& a .ra(ti(al
r&li*ion, th& r&al .oint o, int&r&st is our .ra(ti(al r&lationshi.
to+ar's this .r&s&nt li,&% Ho+ ar& +& *oin* to (on'u(t our li)&s
as th&y un,ol' ri*ht no+@ Ho+ ar& +& *oin* to -a$& our .r&s&nt
li,& a *oo' on&, an' at th& sa-& ti-&, in th& &)&nt that th&r&
is a ,utur& li,&, &nsur& that it +ill b& *oo'@ In th& li*ht o, th&s&
.oints, +& -i*ht (onsi'&r th& ,ollo+in*4
N In th& ori*inal Pali, that is, in th& Dis(ours&s C"uttasD, th&r&
is )&ry littl& -&ntion o, .r&)ious an' ,utur& li)&s, h&a)&n
an' h&ll% In -ost (as&s th&y ar& -&r&ly *i)&n a -&ntion%
This in'i(at&s that not -u(h i-.ortan(& or r&l&)an(& is attribut&'
to th&- in (o-.arison to th& (on'u(t o, li,& in th&
.r&s&nt +orl', or th& .ra(ti(&s o, -orality, -&'itation an'
N 0h&n, in th& Pali, r&birth in h&a)&n or h&ll is in(lu'&' in
th& ,ruits o, *oo' an' &)il $a--a, it is usually a,t&r -&ntionin*
all th& ,ruits o, $a--a o((urrin* in th& .r&s&nt li,&%
Th&s& -ay b& *i)&n as ,our, ,i)& or u. to t&n in nu-b&r,
+ith th& ,inal .hras&4 FAt '&ath, on th& br&a$in* u. o, th&
bo'y, h& *o&s to th& n&th&r +orl's, a +o&,ul stat&, h&ll,G
or FAt '&ath, on th& br&a$in* u. o, th& bo'y, h& *o&s to a
.l&asant bourn, h&a)&n%G
Th&r& ar& t+o obs&r)ations to b& -a'& in this r&s.&(t4
;irstly, th& ,ruits o, $a--a in th& .r&s&nt li,& ar& *i)&n .riority
an' ar& '&s(rib&' in '&tail% =&sults in an a,t&rli,& s&&- to b&
thro+n in at th& &n' to Froun' o,, th& 'is(ussion,G so to s.&a$%
"&(on'ly, th& Bu''ha!s &?.lanation o, th& *oo' an' ba' r&sults
o, $a--a +as al+ays as a '&-onstration o, th& truth that th&s&
thin*s .ro(&&' a((or'in* to (aus&s% That is, th& r&sults Co, $a--aD
,ollo+ auto-ati(ally ,ro- th&ir (aus&s% " to $no+ this
,a(t is to install (on,i'&n(& in th& ,ruits o, a(tions%
As lon* as thos& +ho 'o not b&li&)& in an a,t&rli,& still 'o not
$no+ ,or a ,a(t that th&r& is no a,t&rli,&, or h&a)&n an' h&ll, th&y
+ill b& unabl& to (o-.l&t&ly r&,ut& th& 'oubts lur$in* '&&.ly
+ithin th&ir -in's% 0h&n su(h .&o.l& ha)& s.&nt th& &n&r*y o,
th&ir youth an' ol' a*& is a')an(in*, th&y t&n' to &?.&ri&n(&
,&ar o, th& ,utur&, +hi(h, i, th&y ha)& not l&' a )irtuous li,&, (an
b& )&ry 'istr&ssin*% Th&r&,or&, to b& (o-.l&t&ly (&rtain, &)&n
thos& +ho 'o not b&li&)& in th&s& thin*s shoul' '&)&lo. *oo'n&ss%
Th&n, +h&th&r th&r& is or is not an a,t&rli,&, th&y (an b& at
As ,or thos& +ho b&li&)&, th&y shoul' &nsur& that th&ir b&li&, is
bas&' on an un'&rstan'in* o, th& truth o, (aus& an' &,,&(t% That
is, th&y shoul' s&& r&sults in a ,utur& li,& as &nsuin* ,ro- th&
Euality o, th& -in' '&)&lo.&' in th& .r&s&nt on&, *i)in* &-.hasis
to th& (r&ation o, *oo' $a--a in th& .r&s&nt% This $in' o,
&-.hasis +ill &nsur& that any r&lationshi. +ith a ,utur& li,& +ill
b& on& o, (on,i'&n(&, bas&' on th& .r&s&nt -o-&nt% As.irations
,or a ,utur& li,& +ill thus &n(oura*& (ar& +ith th& (on'u(t o, th&
.r&s&nt -o-&nt, b&arin* in -in' th& .rin(i.l&4 F=&*ar'l&ss o,
ho+ you r&lat& to th& n&?t li,&, 'on!t *i)& it -or& i-.ortan(&
than th& .r&s&nt on&%G This +ay, th& -ista$& o, .&r,or-in*
*oo' '&&'s as a $in' o, in)&st-&nt -a'& ,or .ro,it is a)oi'&'%
Any b&li&, in a ,utur& li,& shoul' h&l. to all&)iat& or (o-.l&t&ly
'o a+ay +ith any '&.&n'&n(& on hi*h&r .o+&rs or thin*s o((ult%
B&li&, in a ,utur& li,& -&ans b&li&, in th& &,,i(a(y o, on&@s
o+n a(tions C$a--aD% D&.&n'&n(& on any &?t&rnal .o+&r +ill
only hin'&r .ro*r&ss in li,& an' .&rsonal '&)&lo.-&nt% Thos&
+ho ha)& allo+&' th&-s&l)&s to sli'& into su(h '&.&n'&n(i&s
shoul' stri)& to &?tra(t th&-s&l)&s ,ro- th&- an' b&(o-& -or&
I'&ally, +& shoul' try to a')an(& to th& sta*& o, a)oi'in* ba' a(tions
an' '&)&* th& *oo', irr&s.&(ti)& o, b&li&, or 'isb&li&,%
This -&ans to .&r,or- *oo' '&&'s +ithout th& n&&' ,or a r&sult
in so-& ,utur& li,&, an' to a)oi' &)il a(tions &)&n i, you 'on!t
b&li&)& in su(h thin*s% This (an b& a(hi&)&' by4
C1D '&)&* an a..r&(iation ,or -oral r&(titu'&, an as.iration
,or *oo'n&ss, an' a '&sir& ,or th& b&st in all situations%
C7D '&)&* an a..r&(iation ,or th& subtl& o, inn&r
.&a(& throu*h -&'itation .ra(ti(&, an' -a$in* that in
its&l, an instru-&nt ,or .r&)&ntin* th& arisin* o, &)il stat&s
o, -in' an' ,or &n(oura*in* th& *oo'% This is b&(aus& it is
n&(&ssary to a)oi' ba' a(tions an' (ulti)at& th& *oo' in or'&r
to &?.&ri&n(& this inn&r .&a(&% In a''ition, inn&r .&a(&
is an i-.ortant ai' in r&sistin* th& attra(tion o, s&nsual
'&sir&, thus .r&)&ntin* th& (r&ation o, th& -or& &?tr&-&
,or-s o, ba' $a--a% Ho+&)&r, (on(&rnin* th& stat& o, inn&r
.&a(&, as lon* as it is on th& +orl'ly l&)&l, it is a')isabl&
to b& +ary o, *&ttin* so (au*ht u. in it as to (&as& to .ro*
r&ss in on&!s .ra(ti(& by allo+in* it to b&(o-& an obj&(t o,
C:D trainin* th& -in' to (on'u(t li,& +ith +is'o-, $no+in* th&
truth o, th& +orl' an' li,&, or $no+in* th& truth o, (on'itions%
This &nabl&s us to ha)& so-& '&*r&& o, ,r&&'o- ,ro-
-at&rial thin*s or s&ns& .l&asur&s, thus r&'u(in* th& li$&lihoo'
o, (o--ittin* ba' $a--a on th&ir a((ount% 0& '&)&lo.
a s&nsiti)ity to th& li)&s an' ,&&lin*s o, oth&rs, un'&rstan'in*
th&ir .l&asur&s, .ains an' '&sir&s, so that th&r& is
a '&sir& to h&l. rath&r than to ta$& a')anta*& o, th&-% This
is th& li,& styl& o, on& +ho has r&a(h&', or is .ra(ti(in* to+ar's,
th& trans(&n'&nt truth an' trans(&n'&nt =i*ht Vi&+%
;ailin* this, +& (an li)& by th& ,aith +hi(h is th& ,or&runn&r
o, that +is'o-, th& unsha$abl& (on)i(tion in a li,& *ui'&'
by lib&ratin* +is'o- as th& ,in&st an' -ost &?(&ll&nt $in'
o, li,&% This $in' o, an a..r&(iation +ill s&r)& as a ,oun'ation
,or th& '&)&lo.-&nt o, su(h a li,&%
Th&s& thr&& .rin(i.l&s o, .ra(ti(& ar& (onn&(t&' an' su..ort
&a(h oth&r% In .arti(ular, .oint nu-b&r C1D, (han'a CB&alD is n&(&ssary
in .&r,or-in* any $in' o, *oo' a(tion, so is also &ss&ntial
in .oints C7D (on(&ntration an' C:D +is'o-%
0h&n a((o-.ani&' by .ra(ti(& in a((or'an(& +ith th&s& thr&&
.rin(i.l&s, any b&li&, in ,ruition o, $a--a in a ,utur& li,& +ill
s&r)& to &n(oura*& an' str&n*th&n th& a)oi'an(& o, ba' a(tions
an' '&)&lo.-&nt o, th& *oo'% "u(h b&li&, +ill not in its&l, b& so
(riti(al that +ithout &?.&(tation o, *oo' r&sults in a ,utur& li,&,
th&r& +ill no lon*&r b& any in(&nti)& to 'o *oo' '&&'s%
I, it is not .ossibl& to .ra(ti(& th&s& thr&& .rin(i.l&s, th&n b&li&,
in a ,utur& li,& (an b& us&' to &n(oura*& a -or& -oral li,&, +hi(h
is b&tt&r than l&ttin* .&o.l& li)& th&ir li)&s obs&ss&' +ith th&
s&ar(h ,or s&nsual *rati,i(ation, +hi(h only s&r)&s to in(r&as&
&?.loitation on both th& in'i)i'ual an' so(ial l&)&ls% In a''ition,
b&li&, in a ,utur& li,& is (onsi'&r&' to b& -un'an& =i*ht Vi&+
an' thus is on& st&. on th& +ay to '&)&* a *oo' li,&%
Ka--a ,ruition in th& #ula Ka--a)ibhan*a "utta
Ha)in* &stablish&' an initial un'&rstan'in*, l&t us no+ loo$ at
on& o, th& Bu''ha!s (lassi( t&a(hin*s '&alin* +ith th& ,ruition o,
$a--a, &?t&n'in* ,ro- th& .r&s&nt into a ,utur& li,&%
F"&& h&r&, youn* -an% B&in*s ar& th& o+n&rs o, th&ir
$a--a, h&irs to th&ir $a--a, born o, th&ir $a--a, ha)&
$a--a as th&ir lin&a*&, ha)& $a--a as th&ir su..ort%
Ka--a it is +hi(h 'istin*uish&s b&in*s into ,in& an'
(oars& stat&s%G
1%a% A +o-an or a -an is *i)&n to $illin* li)in* b&in*s,
is ruthl&ss, $ills li)in* b&in*s (onstantly an' is la($in*
in *oo'+ill or (o-.assion% At '&ath, on a((ount
o, that $a--a, '&)&lo.&' an' nurtur&' +ithin, that
.&rson *o&s to a +o&,ul bourn, th& n&th&r +orl's, to
h&ll% Or, i, not r&born in h&ll, but in th& hu-an +orl',
h& or sh& +ill b& shortAli)&'%
b% A +o-an or -an shuns $illin* an' is .oss&ss&' o,
*oo'+ill an' (o-.assion% At '&ath, on a((ount o,
that $a--a, '&)&lo.&' an' nurtur&' +ithin, that
.&rson *o&s to a *oo' bourn, to a h&a)&n r&al-% Or,
i, not r&born in h&a)&n, but as a hu-an b&in*, h& or
sh& +ill b& bl&ss&' +ith lon*&)ity%
7%a% A +o-an or -an is *i)&n to har-in* oth&r b&in*s
by th& han' an' th& +&a.on% At '&ath, on a((ount
o, that $a--a, '&)&lo.&' an' nurtur&' +ithin, that
.&rson *o&s to a +o&,ul bourn, th& n&th&r +orl's, to
h&ll% Or, i, not r&born in h&ll, but as a hu-an b&in*,
h& or sh& +ill b& si($ly%
b% A +o-an or -an shuns har-in* oth&r b&in*s% At
'&ath, on a((ount o, that $a--a, '&)&lo.&' an' nurtur&'
+ithin, that .&rson arri)&s at a *oo' bourn, a
h&a)&n r&al-% Or, i, not r&born in h&a)&n, but as a hu-an
b&in*, h& or sh& +ill b& on& +ith ,&+ illn&ss&s%
:%a% A +o-an or -an is o, ill t&-.&r, is Eui($ to hatr&',
o,,&n'&' at th& sli*ht&st (riti(is-, harbors hatr&' an'
'is.lays an*&r% At '&ath, on a((ount o, that $a--a,
'&)&lo.&' an' nurtur&' +ithin, that .&rson *o&s to
a +o&,ul bourn, th& n&th&r +orl's, to h&ll% Or, i, not
born in h&ll, but as a hu-an b&in*, h& or sh& +ill b&
b% A +o-an or a -an is not &asily an*&r&'% At '&ath,
on a((ount o, that $a--a, '&)&lo.&' an' nurtur&'
+ithin, that .&rson *o&s to a .l&asant bourn, a h&a)&n
r&al-% Or, i, not r&born in h&a)&n, but as a hu-an
b&in*, h& or sh& +ill b& o, .l&asant a..&aran(&%
<%a% A +o-an or -an has a j&alous -in'% 0h&n oth&rs
r&(&i)& a+ar's, honor an' r&s.&(t, h& or sh& is ill at
&as& an' r&s&nt,ul% At '&ath, on a((ount o, that $a--a,
'&)&lo.&' an' nurtur&' +ithin, that .&rson *o&s
to a +o&,ul bourn, th& n&th&r +orl's, to h&ll% Or, i, not
r&born in h&ll, but as a hu-an b&in*, h& or sh& +ill b&
on& o, littl& in,lu&n(&%
b% A +o-an or a -an is on& +ho harbors no j&alousy%
At '&ath, on a((ount o, that $a--a, '&)&lo.&' an'
nurtur&' +ithin, that .&rson *o&s to a *oo' bourn, to
a h&a)&n r&al-% Or, i, not r&born in h&a)&n, but as a
hu-an b&in*, h& or sh& +ill b& .o+&r,ul an' in,lu&ntial%
2%a% A +o-an or -an is not on& +ho *i)&s, 'o&s not shar&
out ,oo', +at&r an' (lothin*% At '&ath, on a((ount
o, that $a--a, '&)&lo.&' an' nurtur&' +ithin, that
.&rson *o&s to a +o&,ul bourn, th& n&th&r +orl's, to
h&ll% Or, i, not r&born in h&ll, but as a hu-an b&in*,
h& or sh& +ill b& .oor%
b% A +o-an or a -an is on& +ho .ra(ti(&s *i)in*, +ho
shar&s out ,oo', +at&r an' (lothin*% At '&ath, on a((ount
o, that $a--a, '&)&lo.&' an' nurtur&' +ithin,
that .&rson *o&s to a *oo' bourn, to a h&a)&n r&al-%
Or, i, not r&born in h&a)&n, but as a hu-an b&in*, h&
or sh& +ill b& +&althy%
3%a% A +o-an or -an is stubborn an' unyi&l'in*, .rou',
arro*ant an' 'isr&s.&(t,ul to thos& +ho shoul' b&
r&s.&(t&'% At '&ath, on a((ount o, that $a--a, '&)&lo.&'
an' nurtur&' +ithin, that .&rson *o&s to a
+o&,ul bourn, th& n&th&r +orl's, to h&ll% Or, i, not
r&born in h&ll, but as a hu-an b&in*, h& or sh& +ill b&
born into a lo+ ,a-ily%
b% A +o-an or -an is not stubborn or unyi&l'in*, not
.rou', but .ays r&s.&(t an' ta$&s an int&r&st in thos&
+ho shoul' b& r&s.&(t&'% At '&ath, on a((ount o, that
$a--a, '&)&lo.&' an' nurtur&' +ithin, that .&rson
*o&s to a *oo' bourn, to a h&a)&n r&al-% Or, i, not r&
born in h&a)&n, but as a hu-an b&in*, h& or sh& +ill
b& born into a hi*h ,a-ily%
8%a% A +o-an or -an n&ith&r )isits nor Eu&stions as(&ti(s
an' Brah-ins about +hat is *oo', +hat is &)il, +hat
is har-,ul, +hat is not har-,ul, +hat shoul' b& 'on&
an' +hat shoul' not b& 'on&H +hi(h a(tions l&a' to
su,,&rin*, +hi(h a(tions +ill l&a' to lastin*
At '&ath, on a((ount o, that $a--a, '&)&lo.&' an'
nurtur&' +ithin, that .&rson *o&s to a +o&,ul bourn,
th& n&th&r +orl's, to h&ll% Or, i, not r&born in h&ll, but
as a hu-an b&in*, h& or sh& +ill b& o, littl& int&lli*&n(&%
b% A +o-an or -an s&&$s out an' Eu&stions as(&ti(s an'
Brah-ins about +hat is *oo' / At '&ath, on a((ount
o, that $a--a, '&)&lo.&' an' nurtur&' +ithin, that
.&rson *o&s to a *oo' bourn, to a h&a)&n r&al-% Or,
i, not r&born in h&a)&n, but as a hu-an b&in*, h& or
sh& +ill b& int&lli*&nt%75
In this "utta, althou*h ,ruition in a ,utur& li,& is s.o$&n o,, y&t
it is th& a(tions o, th& .r&s&nt -o-&nt, .arti(ularly thos& +hi(h
ha)& b&(o-& r&*ular, +hi(h ar& &-.hasiB&'% =&*ular a(tions
nurtur& th& Eualiti&s o, th& -in' +hi(h h&l. to ,or- .&rsonality
an' (hara(t&r% Th&s& ar& th& ,or(&s +hi(h brin* about r&sults
in 'ir&(t r&lation to th& (aus&s% =&+ar's o, su(h a(tions ar& not
,antasti(, su(h as in 'oin* on& sin*l& *oo' '&&', an a(t o, *i)in*,
,or &?a-.l&, an' r&(&i)in* so-& boun'l&ss r&+ar' ,ul,illin* all
+ish&s an' '&sir&s% I, this sort o, attitu'& .r&)ails it only (aus&s
.&o.l& to 'o *oo' '&&'s as an in)&st-&nt, li$& sa)in* -on&y
in a ban$ an' sittin* aroun' +aitin* ,or th& int&r&st to *ro+H
or li$& .layin* th& lott&ry, .uttin* 'o+n a tiny in)&st-&nt an'* ,or a hu*& r&+ar'% As a r&sult .&o.l& .ay no att&ntion to
th&ir 'aily b&ha)ior an' ta$& no int&r&st in (on'u(tin* a *oo'
li,& as &?.lain&' in this "utta%
"u--ariBin*, th& &ss&n(& o, th& #ula Ka--a)ibhan*a "utta
still r&sts on th& ,a(t that any '&lib&ration about r&sults in a
,utur& li,& shoul' b& bas&' on a ,ir- (on)i(tion in th& $a--a,
that is, th& Euality o, th& -in' an' o, (on'u(t, +hi(h is b&in*
-a'& in th& .r&s&nt -o-&nt% Th& r&sults o, a(tions on a lon*
t&r- basis ar& '&ri)&' ,ro- an' r&lat&' to th&s& (aus&s%
A basi( .rin(i.l& in this r&*ar' -i*ht b& su--ariB&' as ,ollo+s4
Th& (orr&(t attitu'& to r&sults o, $a--a in ,utur& li)&s -ust b&
on& +hi(h .ro-ot&s an' str&n*th&ns a .r&'il&(tion ,or -oral
(on'u(t an' +is'o- '&)&lo.-&nt% Any b&li&, in $a--aAr&sults
+hi(h 'o&s not str&n*th&n this .r&'il&(tion ,or *oo'n&ss, but
inst&a' s&r)&s to str&n*th&n *r&&' an' '&sir&, shoul' b& r&(o*niB&'
as a -ista$&n $in' o, b&li&, +hi(h shoul' b& (orr&(t&'%
< Ka--a on th& "o(ial L&)&l
Th& hu-an +orl' is th& +orl' o, int&ntional a(tion% Hu-an b&in*s
ha)& )&ry so.histi(at&' l&)&ls o, int&ntion, +hi(h, in (onjun(tion
+ith th&ir thou*ht .ro(&ss&s, allo+ th&- to a(hi&)&
thin*s +hi(h +oul' b& i-.ossibl& ,or oth&r ani-als% Althou*h
th& lo+&r ani-als, too, .oss&ss int&ntion, it is li-it&' to a no-inal
'&*r&&, b&in* lar*&ly on th& instin(tual l&)&l%
Thin$in* is *ui'&' by int&ntion% Int&ntion is +hat ,ashions th&
thin$in* .ro(&ss an', throu*h that, &?t&rnal (on'itions% Our
+ay o, li,&, +h&th&r on th& in'i)i'ual l&)&l or on th& l&)&l o,
so(i&ti&s, both s-all an' lar*&, is 'ir&(t&' by int&ntion an' th&
thin$in* .ro(&ss% It +oul' not b& +ron* to say that int&ntion,
b&in* th& &ss&n(& o, $a--a, is +hat 'ir&(ts th& un,ol'in* o,
our hu-an li)&s%
No+ l&t us loo$ at so-& &?a-.l&s o, ho+ int&ntion a,,&(ts so(i&ty%
Int&ntion on th& n&*ati)& si'& is that +hi(h is in,lu&n(&' by
'&,il&-&nts% Th&r& ar& -any $in's o, '&,il&-&nts% 0h&n th&s&
'&,il&-&nts &nt&r into our -in's th&y (olor th& +ay +& thin$%
H&r& I +ill -&ntion thr&& $in's o, '&,il&-&nts, +hi(h .lay an
i-.ortant rol& in 'ir&(tin* hu-an b&ha)ior% Th&y ar&4
1% Tanha > (ra)in* ,or .&rsonal *ain%
7% Mana > .ri'&, '&sir& to 'o-inat&%
:% Ditthi > (lin*in* to )i&+s%
Nor-ally +h&n tal$in* o, '&,il&-&nts +& t&n' to su--ariB&
th&- as *r&&', hatr&' an' '&lusion, th& roots o, a$usala% Gr&&',
hatr&' an' '&lusion ar& -or& or l&ss '&,il&-&nts on th& roots
l&)&l% Tanha, -ana an' 'itthi, or (ra)in*, .ri'& an' )i&+s, ar&
th& a(ti)& ,or-s o, '&,il&-&nts, th& rol&s th&y .lay in hu-an
un'&rta$in*s an' th& ,or- th&y -ost o,t&n ta$& on th& so(ial
Th& +ay th&s& thr&& '&,il&-&nts a,,&(t hu-an a(ti)iti&s (an b&
s&&n &)&n -or& (l&arly on th& so(ial s(al& than on th& in'i)i'ual
l&)&l% 0h&n .&o.l&!s -in's ar& rul&' by th& s&l,ish '&sir& ,or
.&rsonal *ain, as.irin* to .l&asur&s o, th& s&ns&s, th&ir a(tions
in so(i&ty r&sult in (ont&ntion, '&(&it an' &?.loitation% Th& la+s
an' (on)&ntions ,or-ulat&' by so(i&ty to (ontrol hu-an b&ha)ior
ar& al-ost &ntir&ly n&(&ssitat&' by th&s& thin*s% An' in
o, all &,,orts, th&s& .robl&-s s&&- to b& al-ost i-.ossibl& to
A si-.l& &?a-.l& is th& 'ru* .robl&-% P&o.l& ha)& a t&n'&n(y
to b& attra(t&' to a''i(ti)& thin*s, an' th&r& ar& a *r&at nu-b&r
o, .&o.l& +ho ar& tra..&' in this .robl&-% An' +hy is it so har'
to '&al +ith@ Pri-arily, b&(aus& o, th& 'ru* .&''l&rs% Th&ir '&sir&
,or th& .ro,it to b& *ain&' ,ro- th& 'ru* tra'& *i)&s ris& to
th& +hol& in'ustry, an' th& (orru.tion an' )iol&n(& it br&&'s%
Th& in'ustry has b&(o-& so &?t&nsi)& an' (o-.l&? that any &,,orts
to r&(ti,y th& situation, in(lu'in* &,,orts to broa'(ast th&
'an*&rs o, 'ru* abus&, ar& r&n'&r&' in&,,&(ti)&% This .robl&- o,
'ru* abus&, +hi(h is a .robl&- on th& so(ial an' national s(al&,
aris&s ,ro- tanha%
Pollution is anoth&r (as& in .oint% "in(& th& in'is(ri-inat&
'* o, (h&-i(als an' +ast& .ro'u(ts .r&s&nts a 'an*&r to
th& &n)iron-&nt an' .ubli( h&alth, th& *o)&rn-&nt -ust (r&at&
la+s ,or th& (ontrol o, ,a(tori&s an' +ast& 'is.osal% But thos&
runnin* th& in'ustri&s ar& not in(lin&' to *i)& u. th&ir .ro,its
so &asily% Th&y ,in' +ays to (ir(u-)&nt th& la+s, an' so +& ,in'
&?a-.l&s o, *o)&rn-&nt o,,i(ials o.&ratin* throu*h s&l,ishn&ss%
0ith -in's 'o-inat&' by *r&&', inst&a' o, (arryin* out th&
tas$ &?.&(t&' o, th&-, th&y ta$& brib&s% Th& la+ br&a$&rs *o on
un(h&($&', as 'o&s th& .ollution, (ausin* stri,& ,or th& +hol&
o, so(i&ty% Both th& .r&s&n(& o, .ollution, an' th& 'i,,i(ulty &n(ount&r&'
in .r&)&ntin* an' (ontrollin* it, aris& ,ro- (ra)in*%
#orru.tion is anoth&r so(ial .robl&- +hi(h s&&-s i-.ossibl& to
&ra'i(at&% This (on'ition ,ans out+ar's to (aus& (ountl&ss oth&r
.robl&-s in so(i&ty, +hi(h ar& all in th& &n' (aus&' by (ra)in*%
It is i-.ossibl& to list all th& .robl&-s (aus&' by tanha%
Tanha also +or$s in (onjun(tion +ith -ana, th& (ra)in* ,or
.o+&r an' in,lu&n(&% ;ro- an(i&nt ti-&s, .&o.l& ha)& *on& to
+ar throu*h this '&sir& ,or .o+&rH so-&ti-&s at th& insti*ation
o, on& in'i)i'ual, so-&ti-&s throu*h a ,a(tion, an' so-&ti-&s
(oll&(ti)&ly as +hol& (ountri&s% #ou.l&' +ith th& (ra)in* ,or
.&rsonal *ain, th& (ra)in* ,or .o+&r *i)&s ris& to &?.loitation,
nationalis- an' &?.ansionis- +ith all th&ir subs&Eu&nt (haos%
You (oul' say that th& +orl' turns al-ost &ntir&ly at th& 'ir&(tion
o, tanha, (ra)in*, an' -ana, .ri'&% Hu-an history is
lar*&ly th& story o, th&s& '&,il&-&nts%
Th& i-.ortan(& o, 'itthi in th& (r&ation o, $a--a
Ho+&)&r, i, +& loo$ -or& '&&.ly into th& .ro(&ss&s ta$in* .la(&,
+& +ill s&& that th& '&,il&-&nt +hi(h &?&rts th& -ost in,lu&n(&
is th& thir' on& > 'itthi% Ditthi is )i&+ or b&li&,, th& atta(h-&nt
to a (&rtain +ay o, thin$in*% Our attitu'&s an' +ays o, thin$in*
+ill '&(i'& th& ty.& o, .&rsonal *ain an' in,lu&n(& that +&
to% 0h&n th&r& is th& )i&+ that a (&rtain (on'ition is '&sirabl&
an' +ill .ro)i'& tru&, (ra)in* ,or .&rsonal *ain
is 'ir&(t&' to+ar' that &n'% #ra)in* an' .ri'& *&n&rally .lay a
su..ortin* rol& to 'itthi% Ditthi is th&r&,or& th& -ost i-.ortant
an' .o+&r,ul o, th&s& thr&& '&,il&-&nts%
"o(ial 'ir&(tions ar& '&(i'&' by 'itthi% A s&ns& o, )alu& o, any
*i)&n thin*, &ith&r on an in'i)i'ual or so(ial basis, is 'itthi%
0ith this 'itthi as a basis, th&r& ar& &,,orts to r&aliB& th& obj&(t
o, '&sir&% P&o.l&!s b&ha)ior +ill b& in,lu&n(&' a((or'in*ly% ;or
&?a-.l&, +ith th& b&li&, that is to b& ,oun' in an
abun'an(& o, -at&rial *oo's, our a(tions an' un'&rta$in*s +ill
t&n' to this &n'% This is a +ron* )i&+, thus any un'&rta$in*s
r&sultin* ,ro- it +ill also b& +ron*% All att&-.ts at soA(all&'
.ro*r&ss +ill b& -is*ui'&' an' .robl&-ati(% Mat&rial .ro*r&ss
al+ays brin*s .robl&-s in its +a$&, b&(aus& it is ,oun'&' on
t+o basi(ally +ron* an' har-,ul )i&+s4
1% That hu-anity -ust (onEu&r natur& in or'&r to a(hi&)&
+&llAb&in* an' ,in' tru&
7% That is '&.&n'&nt on -at&rial +&alth%
Th&s& t+o )i&+s ar& th& -ain ,or(&s b&hin' th& -o'&rn sur*&
,or .ro*r&ss%
Th& $in' o, (i)iliBation +hi(h is &?&rtin* its in,lu&n(& o)&r th&
&ntir& +orl' to'ay is ,oun'&' on th& basi( .r&-is& that -an$in'
is s&.arat& ,ro- natur&% A((or'in* to this )i&+, Man$in' is
natur&!s o+n&r, ,r&& to -ani.ulat& natur& a((or'in* to his +ill%
In th& .r&s&nt ti-& +& ar& b&*innin* to s&& that -any o, th&
.robl&-s arisin* ,ro- -at&rial .ro*r&ss, .arti(ularly th& &n)iron-&ntal
on&s, ar& root&' in this basi( -is(on(&.tion%
Gui'&' by +ron* )i&+, &)&rythin* &ls& *o&s +ron*% 0ith ri*ht
)i&+, a(tions ar& *ui'&' in th& ri*ht 'ir&(tion% Thus, '&sir&s
,or .&rsonal *ain (an b& b&n&,i(ial i, th&y ar& ,oun'&' on ri*ht
)i&+, but +ith +ron* )i&+ or +ron* b&li&,, all r&sultant a(tions
b&(o-& har-,ul% On th& in'i)i'ual l&)&l, )i&+s &?.r&ss th&-s&l)&s
as b&li&,s in th& '&sirability o, (&rtain (on'itions, +hi(h
in turn l&a' to &,,orts to &,,&(tuat& th&-% On th& so(ial l&)&l,
+& ,in' attitu'&s a'h&r&' to by +hol& so(i&ti&s% 0h&n th&r& is
a (on)i(tion in th& '&sirability o, any *i)&n thin*, so(i&ty su..orts
it% This (oll&(ti)& su..ort b&(o-&s a so(ial )alu&, a Euality
a'h&r&' to by so(i&ty as a +hol&, +hi(h in turn .r&ssur&s th&
-&-b&rs o, th& so(i&ty to .&r.&tuat& su(h b&li&,s or .r&,&r&n(&s%
It is &asy to s&& th& in,lu&n(& so(ial )alu&s ha)& on .&o.l&%
"o(iolo*ists an' .sy(holo*ists ar& )&ry ,a-iliar +ith th& rol&
.lay&' by so(ial )alu&s an' th& &,,&(t th&y ha)& on our -in's%
;ro- so(ial )alu&s, 'itthi &?t&n's out+ar's to b&(o-& b&li&,
syst&-s, i'&olo*i&s, .oliti(al an' &(ono-i( syst&-s, su(h as
(a.italis-, (o--unis- an' so on, an' r&li*ions% 0h&n th&ori&s,
b&li&,s an' .oliti(al i'&olo*i&s ar& blin'ly a'h&r&' to, th&y ar&
al+ays .ro'u(ts o, th& '&,il&-&nt o, 'itthi%
;ro- on& .&rson, th&s& i'&as ,an out to b&(o-& .ro.&rti&s o,
+hol& *rou.s an' so(i&ti&s% On& in'i)i'ual +ith +ron* )i&+
(an &,,&(t a +hol& so(i&ty% A (as& in .oint is th& (ountry o,
#a-bo'ia% On& l&a'&r, *ui'&' by +ron* )i&+, '&sirin* to
(han*& th& so(ial syst&- o, #a-bo'ia, .ro(&&'&' to try to r&aliB&
his ai- by authoriBin* th& $illin* o, -illions o, .&o.l& an'
turnin* th& +hol& (ountry'& 'o+n% Anoth&r &?a-.l& is th&
NaBis, +ho b&li&)&' that th& M&+ish ra(& +as &)il an' ha' to b&
'&stroy&', an' that th& Aryan ra(& +&r& to b& th& -ast&rs o, th&
+orl'% ;ro- this b&li&, aros& all th& atro(iti&s +hi(h o((urr&'
'urin* th& Holo(aust in 0orl' 0ar II%
Th&n th&r& ar& &(ono-i( syst&-s an' i'&olo*i&s, su(h as
#o--unis- an' #onsu-&ris-4 -any o, th& (han*&s that ha)&
ta$&n .la(& in th& +orl' o)&r th& last (&ntury ha)& b&&n bas&'
on th&s& i'&olo*i&s% An' no+ it s&&-s that it +as all so-&ho+
so-& $in' o, -ista$&, +& ha)& to turn aroun' an' un'o th&
(han*&s% An' this (aus&s anoth&r -o-&ntous u.h&a)al ,or
th& .o.ulation, as (an b& s&&n in =ussia an' th& ,or-&r "o)i&t
On& o, th& +ays in +hi(h 'itthi (aus&s .robl&-s on a so(ial l&)&l
is in th& ,i&l' o, r&li*ion% 0h&n r&li*ious i'&olo*i&s ar& blin'ly
(lun* to, hu-an b&in*s r&sort to &?.loitation an' )iol&n(& in
th& na-& o, r&li*ion% 0ars ,ou*ht in th& na-& o, r&li*ion ar&
.arti(ularly )iol&nt% This $in' o, (lin*in* has b&&n a *r&at ban&
to -an$in' throu*hout history% Th& Bu''ha r&(o*niB&' th&
i-.ortan(& o, 'itthi an' *r&atly &-.hasiB&' it in his t&a(hin*%
E)&n b&li&, in r&li*ion is a ,or- o, 'itthi, +hi(h -ust b& tr&at&'
+ith *r&at (aution in or'&r to .r&)&nt it ,ro- b&(o-in* a blin'
atta(h-&nt% Oth&r+is& it (an b&(o-& a (aus& o, .&rs&(ution
an' )iol&n(&% This is +hy th& Bu''ha str&ss&' th& i-.ortan(&
o, 'itthi, an' ur*&' (ir(u-s.&(tion in r&lation to it, as o..os&'
to blin' atta(h-&nt%
On th& n&*ati)& si'&, int&ntion +or$s throu*h th& )arious '&,il&-&nts,
su(h as thos& -&ntion&' just no+% On th& .ositi)& si'&,
+& ha)& th& o..osit& $in' o, in,lu&n(&s% 0h&n .&o.l&!s -in's
ar& *ui'&' by .ositi)& )alu&s, th& r&sultin* &)&nts +ithin so(i&ty
+ill ta$& a 'i,,&r&nt 'ir&(tion% An' so +& ha)& th& o((asional att&-.ts
to r&(ti,y so(ial .robl&-s an' (r&at& (onstru(ti)& in,lu&n(&s
an' hu-an so(i&ty 'o&s not (o-.l&t&ly annihilat& its&l,%
"o-&ti-&s hu-an b&in*s a(t throu*h $in'n&ss an' (o-.assion,
*i)in* ris& to r&li&, -o)&-&nts an' hu-an ai' or*aniBations%
As soon as $in'n&ss &nt&rs into hu-an a+ar&n&ss, .&o.l& +ill
un'&rta$& all sorts o, +or$s ,or th& .ur.os& o, h&* oth&rs%
Int&rnational in(i'&nts, as +&ll as r&li&, -o)&-&nts, ar& r&sults
o, int&ntion, ,ashion&' by &ith&r s$ill,ul or uns$ill,ul Eualiti&s,
.ro(&&'in* ,ro- -&ntal $a--a into )&rbal an' bo'ily $a--a%
Th&s& institutions or or*aniBations th&n .ro(&&' to &ith&r (r&at&
or sol)& .robl&-s on th& in'i)i'ual l&)&l, th& *rou. l&)&l, th&
so(ial l&)&l, th& national l&)&l, th& int&rnational l&)&l an' ulti-at&ly
th& *lobal l&)&l%
Th& i-.ortan(& o, 'itthi, +h&th&r as a .&rsonal )i&+, a so(ial
)alu& or an i'&olo*y, (annot b& o)&r&-.hasiB&'% Th& r&a'&r is
in)it&' to (onsi'&r, ,or &?a-.l&, th& r&sults on so(i&ty an' th&
Euality o, li,& i, &)&n on& so(ial )alu&, that o, -at&rialis-, +&r&
to (han*& into an a..r&(iation o, s$ill,ul a(tion an' inn&r +&llA
b&in* as th& ,oun'ations ,or tru&
E?t&rnal in,lu&n(&s an' int&rnal r&,l&(tion
0h&n .&o.l& li)& to*&th&r in any $in' o, *rou., th&y naturally
in,lu&n(& &a(h oth&r% P&o.l& ar& lar*&ly in,lu&n(&' by th&ir &n)iron-&nt%
In Bu''his- +& (all this .arato*hosa > lit&rally, Fth&
soun' ,ro- outsi'&,G r&,&rrin* to th& in,lu&n(& o, &?t&rnal ,a(tors,
or th& so(ial &n)iron-&nt% Th&s& (an b& &ith&r har-,ul or
b&n&,i(ial% On th& b&n&,i(ial si'&, +& ha)& th& $alyana-itta, th&
*oo' ,ri&n'% Th& *oo' ,ri&n' is on& $in' o, &?t&rnal in,lu&n(&%
Th& Bu''ha *r&atly str&ss&' th& i-.ortan(& o, a *oo' ,ri&n',
&)&n *oin* so ,ar as to say that asso(iation +ith *oo' ,ri&n's
+as th& &ss&n(& o, th& Holy Li,&%
Most .&o.l& ar& .ri-arily in,lu&n(&' by &?t&rnal in,lu&n(&s o,
on& $in' or anoth&r% On th& in'i)i'ual l&)&l, &?t&rnal in,lu&n(&s
ar& our (onta(t +ith oth&rs, th& in,lu&n(& o, +hi(h is ob)ious%
Youn* (hil'r&n, ,or &?a-.l&, ar& r&a'ily in,lu&n(&' an' *ui'&'
by a'ults% On th& lar*&r s(al&, b&li&,s, so(ial )alu&s, an' th&
(ons&nsus o, th& -ajority s&r)& th& sa-& .ur.os&% P&o.l& born
into so(i&ty ar& auto-ati(ally &?.os&' to an' *ui'&' by th&s&
In *&n&ral +& (an s&& that -ost .&o.l& ,ollo+ th& in,lu&n(&s
,ro- th& so(ial &n)iron-&nt aroun' th&-% An &?a-.l& is
In'ia in th& ti-& o, th& Bu''ha% At that ti-& Brah-anis- (o-.l&t&ly
(ontroll&' th& so(ial syst&-, 'i)i'in* th& +hol& o, so(i&ty
into ,our (ast&s > th& rulin* (ast&, th& int&ll&(tual or r&li*ious
(ast& Cth& Brah-insD, th& -&r(hant (ast& an' th& -&nial (ast&%
This +as th& status Euo ,or so(i&ty at that ti-&% Most .&o.l&
born into that so(i&ty +oul' naturally absorb an' unEu&stionin*ly
a((&.t this situation ,ro- th& so(i&ty aroun' th&-%
But o((asionally th&r& aris& .&o.l& +ho $no+ ho+ to thin$ ,or
th&-s&l)&s% Th&s& b&in*s .oss&ss insi*ht into so(i&ty!s .robl&-s
an' ho+ th&y (a-& about, an' +ill initiat& a(tion to (orr&(t
thos& .robl&-s% This in)ol)&s th& us& o, yonisoA-anasi$ara,
s$ill,ul r&,l&(tion, +hi(h is th& ability to r&(o*niB& th& -ista$&n
.ra(ti(&s +ithin so(i&ty an' loo$ ,or +ays to th&-, as
'i' th& Bu''ha +ith th& (ast& syst&- in an(i&nt In'ia% Th&
Bu''ha .oint&' out that r&al +orth (annot b& '&(i'&' by a .&rson!s
birth station, but by a(tions, *oo' or &)il as th& (as& -ay
b&% ;ro- th& Bu''ha!s s$ill,ul r&,l&(tion a n&+ t&a(hin* aros&,
+hi(h b&(a-& $no+n as Bu''his-%
0ithout s$ill,ul r&,l&(tion, hu-an b&in*s ar& utt&rly s+a-.&'
by th& in,lu&n(& o, &?t&rnal ,a(tors, su(h as r&li*ious b&li&,s,
tra'itions an' so(ial )alu&s% It is &asy to s&& ho+ tra'itions an'
(usto-s -oul' hu-an attitu'&s% Most .&o.l& ar& (o-.l&t&ly
s+ay&' by th&s& thin*s, an' this is th& $a--a that th&y a((u-ulat&%
0& (oul' &)&n say that tra'itions an' (usto-s ar&
so(ial $a--a that has b&&n a((u-ulat&' throu*h th& a*&s, an'
th&s& thin*s in turn -oul' th& b&li&,s an' thou*hts o, th& .&o.l&
+ithin &a(h so(i&ty%
E)&ry on(& in a +hil& th&r& +ill b& on& +ho, *au*in* th& so(ial
(on)&ntions an' institutions o, th& ti-& +ith r&ason&' r&,l&(tion,
+ill insti*at& &,,orts to (orr&(t -ista$&n or '&tri-&ntal b&li&,s
an' tra'itions% Th&s& -&ans ,or '&alin* +ith .robl&-s +ill
b&(o-& n&+ syst&-s o, thou*ht, n&+ so(ial )alu&s an' +ays
o, li,&, +hi(h in turn b&(o-& so(ial (urr&nts +ith th&ir o+n
i-.&tus% In ,a(t, so(ial (urr&nts ar& ori*inat&' by in'i)i'uals,
an' ,ro- th&r& th& -ass&s ,ollo+% Thus +& (an say that so(i&ty
l&a's th& in'i)i'ual, but at th& sa-& ti-&, th& in'i)i'ual is th&
ori*inator o, so(ial )alu&s an' (on)&ntions% Thus, in th& ,inal
analysis, th& in'i)i'ual is th& i-.ortant ,a(tor%
P&rsonal r&s.onsibility an' so(ial $a--a
Ho+ 'o&s a so(ially a((&.t&' )i&+ b&(o-& .&rsonal $a--a@
P&rsonal $a--a aris&s at th& .oint +h&r& th& in'i)i'ual a*r&&s
to th& )alu&s .r&s&nt&' by so(i&ty%
Ta$&, ,or &?a-.l&, th& (as& o, an auto(rat +ho (on(&i)&s a '&sir&
to (r&at& an & This is a (on'ition arisin* +ithin on&
.&rson, but it s.r&a's out to a,,&(t a +hol& so(i&ty% In this (as&,
+hat $a--a 'o&s th& so(i&ty in(ur@ H&r&, +h&n th& $in* or
'&s.ot!s a')is&rs a*r&& to an' su..ort his +ish&s, an' +h&n th&
.&o.l& allo+ th&-s&l)&s to b& (au*ht u. in th& lust ,or *r&atn&ss,
this b&(o-&s $a--a ,or thos& .&o.l& also, an' b&(o-&s
$a--a on a so(ial s(al&% It -ay s&&- that this (hain o, &)&nts
has aris&n sol&ly on a((ount o, on& .&rson, but it is not so% All
ar& in)ol)&', an' all ar& $a--i(ally r&s.onsibl&, to a *r&at&r
or l&ss&r '&*r&&, '&.&n'in* on th& &?t&nt o, th&ir .&rsonal in)ol)&-&nt
an' a(Eui&s(&n(&% Th& )i&+s an' '&sir&s (on(&i)&'
by th& '&s.ot b&(o-& a'o.t&' by th& .&o.l& aroun' hi-% Th&r&
is an &n'ors&-&nt, -or& or l&ss (ons(ious, o, that '&sir& by th&
.&o.l&, allo+in* th& (ra)in* ,or .o+&r an' *r&atn&ss to s.r&a'
an' &s(alat& throu*hout th& .o.ulation%
This a*r&&-&nt, or &n'ors&-&nt, o, so(ial )alu&s, is an int&ntional
a(t on th& l&)&l o, &a(h in'i)i'ual, +hi(h ,or -ost is 'on&
+ithout s$ill,ul r&,l&(tion, an' ,or th& -ost .art +ithout a+ar&
n&ss% ;or instan(&, th& (on(&.t o,*r&ssG so o,t&n s.o$&n
about in th& .r&s&nt ti-& is a (on(&.t bas&' on (&rtain assu-.tions%
But -ost .&o.l& 'o not inEuir& into th& basi( assu-.tions
on +hi(h this (on(&.t is bas&'% Thus th& (on(&.t o,*r&ssG
*o&s un(hall&n*&'% This la($ o, r&,l&(tion is also a $in' o, $a--a,
as it l&a's to th& sub-ission to th& so(ial )alu& (on(&rn&'%
H&r& in Thailan', +& ar& a((&.tin* th& so(ial )alu&s intro'u(&'
to us by th& 0&st, +hi(h has a 'ra-ati( &,,&(t on Thai so(i&ty%
B&in* &?.os&' to this ,or- o, b&li&,, Thai .&o.l& ar& l&' into
b&li&)in* that th& -at&rial .ro*r&ss ,ro- th& 0&st is '&sirabl&%
A'o.tin* this +ay o, thin$in*, th&ir +hol& +ay o, li,& is a,,&(t&',
l&a'in* to a r&j&(tion o, r&li*ion an' a '&(lin& in -orals%
It is not 'i,,i(ult to s&& th& la($ o, r&,l&(tion .r&s&nt in -ost
.&o.l& in so(i&ty% E)&n to un'&rstan' th& +or$in*s o, thin*s
on an &l&-&ntary l&)&l, su(h as in s&&in* th& (aus& an' &,,&(t
in)ol)&' in .&rsonal a(tions, is b&yon' -ost .&o.l&!s a+ar&n&ss%
Most .&o.l& ,ollo+ th& (ro+'% This is th& +ay so(i&ty usually
o.&rat&s, an' this is so(ial $a--a%
=&s.onsibl& so(ial a(tion
All in all, (ontrary to th& +i'&s.r&a' i-a*& o, Bu''his- as a
.assi)& r&li*ion &n(oura*in* ina(tion, r&s.onsibl& so(ial a(tion
is rath&r &n(oura*&' in th& Bu''ha!s t&a(hin*% Th&r& ar& nu-&rous
t&a(hin*s ,or &n(oura*in* so(ial (on(or', su(h as th& ,our
san*aha )atthu, th& #on'itions ,or "o(ial 0&l,ar&4 'ana, *&n&rosityH
.iya)a(a, $in'ly s.&&(hH attha(ariya, h&l.,ul a(tionH an'
sa-anattata, i-.artiality or &Eual .arti(i.ation%
Ho+&)&r, in Bu''his-, all a(tion shoul' i'&ally aris& ,ro- s$ill,ul
-&ntal Eualiti&s% A s&&-in*ly +&llAint&ntion&' a(tion (an
b& ruin&' by th& in,lu&n(& o, uns$ill,ul -&ntal stat&s, su(h as
an*&r or ,&ar, or it (an b& taint&' throu*h ult&rior -oti)&s% On
th& oth&r han', to (ulti)at& s$ill,ul -&ntal stat&s +ithout
r&sultant so(ial a(tion is not )&ry .ro'u(ti)&% "o +& (an loo$ at
)irtu& on t+o l&)&ls4 on th& -&ntal l&)&l +& ha)&, ,or &?a-.l&,
th& ;our "ubli-& "tat&s% Th&s& ar& th& bas&s o, altruisti( a(tion,
or, at th& l&ast, o, har-onious r&lations on a so(ial l&)&l% On th&
s&(on' l&)&l +& ha)& th& &?t&rnal o, th&s& s$ill,ul
Eualiti&s, su(h as in th& ,our #on'itions ,or "o(ial 0&l,ar&% Th&
t+o l&)&ls o, )irtu& ar& int&rr&lat&'%
Th& ;our "ubli-& "tat&s ar& -&tta, *oo'+ill, ,ri&n'lin&ssH $aruna
, (o-.assion, th& '&sir& to h&l. oth&r b&in*sH -u'ita, sy-.ath&ti(
joy, *la'n&ss at th& *oo' ,ortun& o, oth&rsH an' u.&$$ha,
i-.artiality or &Euani-ity%
Goo'+ill is a -&ntal stan(& assu-&' to+ar's thos& +ho ar& in
th& nor-al (on'ition, or on an &Eual .lan& +ith ours&l)&sH (o-.assion
is a -&ntal attitu'& to+ar' thos& +ho ar& in 'istr&ssH
*la'n&ss is an attitu'& to+ar' thos& +ho ar& &?.&ri&n(in* su((&ssH
&Euani-ity or i-.artiality is &)&nA-in'&'n&ss to+ar' th&
)arious situations in +hi(h +& ,in' ours&l)&s%
In .ra(ti(al t&r-s th&s& ,our Eualiti&s -ani,&st as th& ;our
#on'itions ,or "o(ial 0&l,ar&% Dana, *i)in* or *&n&rosity, is
-or& or l&ss a basi( stan(& to+ar's oth&rs in so(i&ty, an attitu'&
o, *&n&rosity, +hi(h (an b& bas&' on *oo'+ill, (o-.assion, or
*la'n&ss, throu*h *i)in* as an a(t o, &n(oura*&-&nt% G&n&rally
s.&a$in*, althou*h *i)in* r&,&rs to -at&rial thin*s, it (an also
b& th& *i)in* o, $no+l&'*& or labor%
Th& s&(on' (on'ition ,or har-ony is .iya)a(a, $in'ly s.&&(h,
+hi(h (an b& bas&' on all ,our o, th& "ubli-& "tat&s% ;ri&n'ly
s.&&(h, bas&' on *oo'+ill, as stan'ar' b&ha)ior in &)&ry'ay
situationsH $in'ly s.&&(h, bas&' on (o-.assion, in ti-&s o, 'i,
,i(ulty, as +ith +or's o, a')i(& or (on'ol&n(&H an' (on*ratulatory
s.&&(h, bas&' on *la'n&ss, as in +or's o, &n(oura*&-&nt in
ti-&s o, an' su((&ss% Ho+&)&r, +h&n (on,ront&' +ith
.robl&-s in so(ial situations, $in'ly s.&&(h (an b& &?.r&ss&' as
i-.artial an' just s.&&(h, +hi(h is bas&' on &Euani-ity%
Th& thir' (on'ition is attha(ariya, h&l.,ul a(tion, +hi(h r&,&rs
to th& o,,&rin* o, .hysi(al &,,ort to h&l. oth&rs% In th& ,irst ,a(tor,
*&n&rosity, +& ha' th& *i)in* o, -at&rial *oo's% In th& s&(on'
,a(tor, $in'ly s.&&(h, +& ha)& th& o,,&rin* o, *&ntl& s.&&(h%
0ith this thir' it&- +& ha)& th& o,,&rin* o, .hysi(al &,,ort in
th& ,or- o, h&l.,ul (on'u(t% This h&l. (an b& on or'inary o((asions,
su(h as o,,&rin* h&l. in a situation +h&r& th& r&(i.i&nt
is not in any .arti(ular 'i,,i(ulty% H&l. in this instan(& is -or&
or l&ss a F,ri&n'ly *&stur&,G an' so is bas&' on *oo'+ill% H&l.
(an b& o,,&r&' in ti-&s o, 'i,,i(ulty, in +hi(h (as& it is bas&' on
(o-.assion% H&l. (an b& o,,&r&' as an &n(oura*&-&nt in ti-&s
o, su((&ss, in +hi(h (as& it is bas&' on sy-.ath&ti( joy or *la'n&ss
at th& *oo' ,ortun& o, oth&rs% Thus, attha(ariya, h&l.,ul
(on'u(t, -ay b& bas&' on any o, th&s& thr&& "ubli-& "tat&s%
;inally +& ha)& sa-anattata, lit&rally, F-a$in* on&s&l, a((&ssibl&
or &Eual%G This is a 'i,,i(ult +or' to translat&% It -&ans to
shar& +ith oth&r .&o.l&!s .l&asur&s an' .ains, to join in +ith
th&-, to b& on& +ith th&-% It r&,&rs to sharin*, (oo.&ratin* an'
joinin* in% 0& (oul' say that it -&ans to b& hu-bl&, su(h as
+h&n h&* oth&rs in th&ir un'&rta$in*s &)&n +h&n it is not
on&!s 'uty, or to b& ,air, su(h as +h&n arbitratin* in a 'is.ut&%
In Bu''his-, +hil& so(ial a(tion is &n(oura*&', it shoul' al+ays
st&- ,ro- s$ill,ul -&ntal stat&s rath&r than i'&alisti( i-.uls&s%
Any so(ial a(tion, no -att&r ho+ s&&-in*ly +orth+hil&, +ill
b& ruin&' i, it b&(o-&s taint&' +ith uns$ill,ul int&ntions% ;or
this r&ason, all a(tion, +h&th&r in'i)i'ual or so(ially ori&nt&',
shoul' b& 'on& (ar&,ully, +ith an a+ar&n&ss o, th& r&al int&ntion
b&hin' it%
H&r& ar& so-& o, th& Bu''ha!s +or's on $a--a on th& so(ial
FTh&n th& l&a'&rs a-on* thos& b&in*s (a-& to*&th&r%
Ha)in* -&t, th&y (on,&rr&' a-on* th&-s&l)&s thus4 K"irsJ
Ba' '&&'s ha)& aris&n a-on* us, th&,t has (o-& to b&,
slan'&r has (o-& to b&, li&s ha)& (o-& to b&, th& ta$in*
u. o, th& sta,, has (o-& to b&% Enou*hJ L&t us (hoos& on&
a-on* us to a'-onish ri*htly thos& +ho shoul' b& a'-onish&',
to r&bu$& ri*htly thos& +ho shoul' b& r&bu$&',
to banish ri*htly thos& +ho shoul' b& banish&', an' +&
+ill a..ortion so-& o, our +h&at to hi-%! 0ith that, thos&
b&in*s .ro(&&'&' to a..roa(h on& b&in* o, ,in& attribut&s,
-or& a'-irabl&, -or& ins.irin* an' -or& a+&so-& than
any o, th& oth&rs, an' sai' to hi-, K#o-&, "ir, -ay you
ri*htly a'-onish thos& +ho shoul' b& a'-onish&', ri*htly
r&bu$& thos& +ho shoul' b& r&bu$&', an' ri*htly banish
thos& +ho shoul' b& banish&'% 0&, in turn, +ill a..ortion
so-& o, our +h&at to you%! A($no+l&'*in* th& +or's o,
thos& oth&r b&in*s, h& b&(a-& th&ir l&a'&r / an' th&r&
(a-& to b& th& +or' K$in*! /G:6
FIn this +ay, bhi$$hus, +h&n th& rul&r o, a (ountry ,ails to
a..ortion +&alth to thos& in n&&', .o)&rty b&(o-&s .r&)al&nt%
Po)&rty b&in* .r&)al&nt, th&,t b&(o-&s .r&)al&nt%
Th&,t b&in* .r&)al&nt, +&a.ons b&(o-& .r&)al&nt% 0h&n
+&a.ons b&(o-& .r&)al&nt, $illin* an' -ai-in* b&(o-&
.r&)al&nt, lyin* b&(o-&s .r&)al&nt / slan'&r / s&?ual
in,i'&lity / abus& an' ,ri)olity / (o)&tousn&ss an' j&alousy
/ +ron* )i&+ b&(o-&s .r&)al&nt%G:1
2 Th& Ka--a that En's Ka--a
In th& last .art o, #ha.t&r 1, ,our 'i,,&r&nt $in's o, $a--a +&r&
-&ntion&', (lassi,i&' a((or'in* to th&ir r&lationshi.s +ith th&ir
r&s.&(ti)& r&sults4
1% Bla($ $a--a, bla($ r&sult%
7% 0hit& $a--a, +hit& r&sult%
:% Ka--a both bla($ an' +hit&, r&sult both bla($ an'
<% Ka--a n&ith&r bla($ nor +hit&, r&sult n&ith&r bla($ nor
+hit&, this b&in* th& $a--a that &n's $a--a%:7
All o, th& )ari&ti&s o, $a--aAr&sults so ,ar '&s(rib&' ha)& b&&n
li-it&' to th& ,irst thr&& (at&*ori&s, +hit& $a--a, bla($ $a--a,
an' both +hit& an' bla($ $a--a, or *oo' $a--a an' ba'
$a--a% Th& ,ourth $in' o, $a--a r&-ains to b& &?.lain&'%
B&(aus& this ,ourth $in' o, $a--a has an &ntir&ly 'i,,&r&nt
r&sult ,ro- th& ,irst thr&&, it has b&&n *i)&n its o+n s&.arat&
;or -ost .&o.l&, in(lu'in* Bu''hists, any int&r&st in $a--a
t&n's to b& (&nt&r&' aroun' th& ,irst thr&& $in's o, $a--a,
(o-.l&t&ly 'isr&*ar'in* th& ,ourth $in', &)&n thou*h this last
$in' o, $a--a is on& o, th& .i)otal t&a(hin*s o, Bu''his-, an'
l&a's to its ulti-at& *oal%
Bla($, +hit& an' bla($Aan'A+hit& $a--a ar& *&n&rally '&s(rib&'
as th& nu-&rous $in's o, a(tion in(lu'&' +ithin th& t&n bas&s
o, uns$ill,ul a(tion, su(h as $illin* li)in* b&in*s, in,rin*in* on
th& .ro.&rty o, oth&rs, s&?ual -is(on'u(t, an' ba' or -ali(ious
s.&&(h, +ith th&ir r&s.&(ti)& o..osit&s as s$ill,ul a(tions% Th&s&
$in's o, $a--a ar& '&t&r-inants ,or )arious $in's o, *oo' an'
ba' li,& &?.&ri&n(&s, as has b&&n &?.lain&' abo)&% Th& &)&nts o,
li,& in turn a(ti)at& -or& *oo' an' ba' $a--a, thus s.innin*
th& +h&&l o, sa-sara roun' an' roun' &n'l&ssly%
Th& ,ourth $in' o, $a--a r&sults in &?a(tly th& o..osit& +ay%
=ath&r than (ausin* th& a((u-ulation o, -or& $a--a, it l&a's
to th& (&ssation o, $a--a% In &,,&(t this r&,&rs to th& .ra(ti(&s
+hi(h l&a' to th& hi*h&st *oal o, Bu''his-, Enli*ht&n-&nt,
su(h as th& Nobl& Ei*ht,ol' Path, also $no+n as th& Thr&&,ol'
Trainin* CMoral Dis(i.lin&, M&ntal Dis(i.lin& an' 0is'o-D, or
th& "&)&n ;a(tors o, Enli*ht&n-&nt% "o-&ti-&s this ,ourth $in'
o, $a--a is s.o$&n o, as th& int&ntion, bas&' on nonA*r&&',
nonAhatr&' an' nonA'&lusion, to aban'on th& oth&r thr&& $in's
o, $a--a%
No 'is(ussion o, $a--a shoul' ,ail to -&ntion an'
su,,&rin*% Ka--a is th& (aus& +hi(h r&sults in an'
su,,&rin*, an' as lon* as th&r& is $a--a, th&r& +ill b& ,lu(tuation
b&t+&&n th&s& t+o stat&s% In as.irin* to th& hi*h&st *oo'
+hi(h is '&)oi' o, &)&ry ,la+, ho+&)&r, any (on'ition taint&'
+ith &ith&r or su,,&rin*, b&in* subj&(t to ,lu(tuation,
is ina'&Euat&% All +orl'ly $a--a is still taint&' +ith su,,&rin*,
an' is a (aus& o, su,,&rin*%
Ho+&)&r, this is )ali' only ,or th& ,irst thr&& $in's o, $a--a%
Th& ,ourth $in' o, $a--a is &?&-.t, b&(aus& it l&a's to th& (&ssation
o, $a--a, an' thus to th& (o-.l&t& (&ssation o, su,,&rin*%
Althou*h *oo' $a--a r&sults in, su(h
is taint&' +ith su,,&rin* an' (an b& a (aus& ,or su,,&rin* in th&
,utur&% But this ,ourth $in' o, $a--a, in a''ition to b&in* in
its&l, ,r&& o, su,,&rin*, also *i)&s ris& to th& untaint&' an' total
,r&&'o- ,ro- su,,&rin*% It is thus th& .ur&st $in' o,
Th& (&ssation or Eu&n(hin* o, $a--a +as tau*ht in a nu-b&r
o, 'i,,&r&nt r&li*ions in th& Bu''ha!s ti-&, notably th& Ni*antha
CMainD "&(t% Th& Ni*anthas tau*ht th& .rin(i.l& o, ol' $a--a,
th& (&ssation o, $a--a, an' th& -orti,i(ation o, th& bo'y in
or'&r to F+&ar outG ol' $a--a% I, th&s& thr&& .rin(i.l&s ar& not
(l&arly 'istin*uish&' ,ro- th& Bu''ha!s t&a(hin* th&y (an &asily
b& (on,us&' +ith it% #on)&rs&ly, 'istin*uishin* th&- (l&arly
,ro- th& .rin(i.l&s o, Bu''his- (an h&l. to ,urth&r (lari,y th&
Bu''ha!s -&ssa*&% Th& Ni*anthas tau*ht4
FAll, su,,&rin* an' n&utral ,&&lin* ar& &ntir&ly
(aus&' by .r&)ious $a--a% ;or this r&ason, +h&n ol'
$a--a is 'on& a+ay +ith by .ra(ti(in* aust&riti&s, an' no
n&+ $a--a is (r&at&', th&r& +ill no lon*&r b& th& in,lu&n(&
o, $a--aAr&sults% 0ith no in,lu&n(& o, $a--aAr&sults,
$a--a is 'on& a+ay +ith% Ka--a b&in* 'on& a+ay
+ith, su,,&rin* is 'on& a+ay +ith% 0h&n su,,&rin* is 'on&
a+ay +ith, ,&&lin* is 'on& a+ay +ith% 0ith no -or& ,&&lin*,
all su,,&rin* is (o-.l&t&ly Eu&ll&'%G::
Th& Ni*anthas b&li&)&' that &)&rythin* is (aus&' by ol' $a--a%
To b& ,r&& o, su,,&rin* it is n&(&ssary to aban'on ol' $a--a
an', by .ra(ti(in* aust&riti&s, not a((u-ulat& n&+ $a--a% But
Bu''his- stat&s that ol' $a--a is -&r&ly on& o, th& ,a(tors in
th& +hol& (aus& an' &,,&(t .ro(&ss% This is an i-.ortant .oint%
Ka--a (an l&a' to th& trans(&n'&n(& o, su,,&rin*, but it -ust
b& th& ri*ht $in' o, $a--a, th& $a--a +hi(h .r&)&nts th& arisin*
o, -or& $a--a an' thus l&a's to its (&ssation% Th&r&,or&,
in or'&r to nulli,y $a--a, inst&a' o, -&r&ly* still or
'oin* nothin*, th& .ra(ti(in* Bu''hist -ust hi-s&l, to a
.ra(ti(& bas&' on ri*ht un'&rstan'in*% #orr&(t .ra(ti(& in'u(&s
in'&.&n'&n(&, (larity an' ,r&&'o- ,ro- th& 'ir&(ti)&s o, '&sir&
as it, in han' +ith i*noran(&, &ntan*l&s b&in*s in th& s&ar(h ,or
In or'&r to (lari,y this ,ourth $in' o, $a--a, its *&n&ral ,&atur&s
-ay b& bri&,ly su--ariB&' thus4
CaD It is th& .ath o, .ra(ti(& +hi(h l&a's to th& (&ssation o,
$a--a% At th& sa-& ti-&, it is in its&l, a $in' o, $a--a%
CbD It is $no+n as Fth& $a--a +hi(h is n&ith&r bla($ nor +hit&,
ha)in* r&sults +hi(h ar& n&ith&r bla($ nor +hit&, an' +hi(h
l&a's to th& (&ssation o, $a--a%G
C(D NonA*r&&', nonAhatr&' an' nonA'&lusion ar& its root (aus&s%
C'D It is bas&' on +is'o- an' un'&rstan'in* o, th& a')anta*&s
an' th& ina'&Eua(i&s o, thin*s as th&y r&ally ar&% It is an
i-.&((abl& $in' o, a(tion, a(tion that is truly +orth+hil&,
bas&' on soun' r&ason, an' (on'u(i)& to a h&althy li,&%
C&D B&(aus& this $in' o, a(tion is not 'ir&(t&' by '&sir&, +h&th&r
in th& ,or- o, s&l,ish &?.loitation, or ina(tion bas&' on
,&ar o, .&rsonal loss, it is th& sur&st $in' o, altruisti( &,,ort,
*ui'&' an' su..ort&' by -in',uln&ss an' +is'o-%
C,D It is $usala $a--a, s$ill,ul a(tion, on th& l&)&l $no+n as
Trans(&n'&nt "$ill,ul A(tion%
C*D In t&r-s o, .ra(ti(&, it (an b& (all&' th& Ei*ht,ol' Path to th&
(&ssation o, su,,&rin*, th& ;ourth o, th& ;our Nobl& Truths,
th& "&)&n ;a(tors o, Enli*ht&n-&nt, or th& Thr&&,ol'
Trainin*, '&.&n'in* on th& (ont&?tH it is also r&,&rr&' to in
a *&n&ral s&ns& as th& int&ntion to aban'on th& ,irst thr&&
$in's o, $a--a%
In r&*ar' to .oint C&D abo)&, it is not&+orthy that tanha, or '&sir&,
is s&&n by -ost .&o.l& as th& ,or(& +hi(h -oti)at&s a(tion%
As ,ar as -ost .&o.l& ar& (on(&rn&', th& -or& '&sir& th&r& is,
th& -or& int&ns& an' (o-.&titi)& is th& r&sultant a(tionH th&y
s&& that +ithout '&sir& th&r& is no in(&nti)& to a(t, an' th& r&sult
(oul' only b& in&rtia an' laBin&ss% This $in' o, un'&rstan'in*
(o-&s ,ro- loo$in* at hu-an natur& only .artially% I, us&'
as a *ui'&lin& ,or .ra(ti(&, it (an (aus& .robl&-s on both th&
in'i)i'ual an' so(ial l&)&ls%
In ,a(t, '&sir& is an i-.&tus ,or both a(tion an' ina(tion% 0h&n
it is s&ar(hin* ,or obj&(ts +ith +hi(h to ,&&' its&l,, '&sir& is an
i-.&tus ,or a(tion% This $in' o, a(tion t&n's to *&n&rat& &?.loitation
an' (ont&ntion% Ho+&)&r, at a ti-& +h&n *oo' an' altruisti(
a(tions ar& (all&' ,or, '&sir& +ill b&(o-& an in(&nti)& to ina(tion,
bin'in* th& s&l, to .&rsonal (o-,ort, &)&n i, only atta(h-&nt
to sl&&.% Thus, it b&(o-&s an &n(u-bran(& or stu-blin*
blo($ to .&r,or-in* *oo' '&&'s% I, i*noran(& is still stron*, that
is, th&r& is no un'&rstan'in* o, th& )alu& o, *oo' a(tions, '&sir&
+ill &n(oura*& in&rtia an' n&*li*&n(&% ;or this r&ason, '&sir&
-ay b& an in(&nti)& ,or &ith&r an &?.loitati)& $in' o, a(ti)ity, or
a l&thar*i( $in' o, ina(ti)ity, '&.&n'in* on th& (ont&?t%
Th& .ra(ti(& +hi(h su..orts a h&althy li,& an' is truly b&n&,i(ial
is (o-.l&t&ly 'i,,&r&nt ,ro- this .an'&rin* to s&l,ish '&sir&s,
an' in -any (as&s (alls ,or a r&linEuish-&nt o, .&rsonal (o-,orts
an' .l&asur&s% This $in' o, .ra(ti(& (annot b& a(hi&)&'
throu*h '&sir& C&?(&.t i, +& ,irst Euali,y our t&r-sD, but -ust
b& a(hi&)&' throu*h an un'&rstan'in* an' a..r&(iation o, th&
a')anta*& o, su(h .ra(ti(& as it r&ally is%
This a..r&(iation, or as.iration, is (all&' in Pali (han'a C$no+n
in ,ull as $usala(han'a or 'ha--a(han'aD% #han'a, or B&al, is
th& r&al in(&nti)& ,or any truly (onstru(ti)& a(tions% Ho+&)&r,
B&al -ay b& i-.&'&' by '&sir& an' its atta(h-&nts to laBin&ss,
l&thar*y, or .&rsonal (o-,ort% In this (as&, '&sir& +ill stain
any att&-.ts to .&r,or- *oo' a(tions +ith su,,&rin*, by r&sistin*
th& .ra(ti(& throu*h th&s& n&*ati)& stat&s% I, th&r& is (l&ar
un'&rstan'in* o, th& a')anta*& o, thos& a(tions an' su,,i(i&nt
a..r&(iation C(han'aD o, th&-, &nablin* th& bur'&nin* &,,&(t o,
'&sir& to b& o)&r(o-&, (han'a b&(o-&s, in a''ition to an i-.&tus
,or a(tion, a (aus& ,or
This $in' o, 'i,,&rs ,ro- th& r&sultin* ,ro-
'&sir& > it is li*ht an' untroubl&' rath&r than (onstri(ti)& an'
h&a)y, an' (on'u(i)& to (r&ati)& a(tions ,r&& o, su,,&rin*% In this
(as&, sa-a'hi, th& ,ir-ly &stablish&' -in', (o-.risin* &,,ort,
-in',uln&ss an' un'&rstan'in*, +ill '&)&lo. +ithin an' 'ir&(tly
su..ort su(h un'&rta$in*s% This $in' o, .ra(ti(& is $no+n as
Fth& $a--a that &n's $a--a%G
By .ra(ti(in* a((or'in* to th& Nobl& Ei*ht,ol' Path, '&sir& has
no (hann&l throu*h +hi(h to ,un(tion, an' is &li-inat&'% Gr&&',
hatr&' an' '&lusion 'o not aris&% 0ith no '&sir&, *r&&', hatr&'
or '&lusion, th&r& is no $a--a% 0ith no $a--a th&r& ar& no
$a--aAr&sults to bin' th& -in'% 0ith no $a--a to bin' th&
-in', th&r& &-&r*&s a stat& o, (larity +hi(h trans(&n's su,,&rin*%
Th& -in' +hi(h +as on(& a sla)& o, '&sir& b&(o-&s on&
that is *ui'&' by +is'o-, 'ir&(tin* a(tions in'&.&n'&ntly o,
'&sir&!s in,lu&n(&%
H&r& ,ollo+ so-& o, th& Bu''ha!s +or's '&alin* +ith th& $a--a
that &n's $a--a%
FBhi$$hus, $no+ $a--a, $no+ th& (aus& o, $a--a, $no+
th& )ariations o, $a--a, $no+ th& r&sults o, $a--a, $no+
th& (&ssation o, $a--a an' $no+ th& +ay l&a'in* to th&
(&ssation o, $a--a / Bhi$$hus, int&ntion, I say, is $a--a%
A .&rson int&n's b&,or& a(tin* throu*h bo'y, s.&&(h
or -in'% 0hat is th& (aus& o, $a--a@ "&ns& (onta(t is th&
(aus& o, $a--a% 0hat ar& th& )ariations o, $a--a@ Th&y
ar&, th& $a--a +hi(h r&sults in birth in h&ll, th& $a--a
+hi(h r&sults in birth in th& ani-al +orl', th& $a--a
+hi(h r&sults in birth in th& r&al- o, hun*ry *hosts, th&
$a--a +hi(h r&sults in birth in th& hu-an r&al-, an' th&
$a--a +hi(h r&sults in birth in th& h&a)&n r&al-s% Th&s&
ar& $no+n as th& )ariations o, $a--a% 0hat ar& th& r&sults
o, $a--a@ I t&a(h thr&& $in's o, $a--aAr&sult% Th&y
ar&, r&sults in th& .r&s&nt ti-&, r&sults in th& n&?t li,&, or
r&sults in a ,utur& li,&% Th&s& I (all th& r&sults o, $a--a%
0hat is th& (&ssation o, $a--a@ 0ith th& (&ssation o,
(onta(t, $a--a (&as&s% This )&ry Nobl& Ei*ht,ol' Path is
th& +ay l&a'in* to th& (&ssation o, $a--a% That is, =i*ht
Vi&+, =i*ht Int&ntion, =i*ht ".&&(h, =i*ht A(tion, =i*ht
Li)&lihoo', =i*ht E,,ort, =i*ht Min',uln&ss an' =i*ht (on(&ntration%G
FBhi$$hus, +h&n a nobl& 'is(i.l& thus (l&arly un'&rstan's
$a--a, th& (aus& o, $a--a, th& )ariations o, $a--a, th&
r&sults o, $a--a, th& (&ssation o, $a--a an' th& +ay
l&a'in* to th& (&ssation o, $a--a, h& th&n (l&arly $no+s
th& Hi*h&r Li,& (o-.risin* $&&n +is'o-, +hi(h is th& (&ssation
o, this $a--a%G:<
FBhi$$hus, I +ill &?.oun' n&+ $a--a, ol' $a--a, th&
(&ssation o, $a--a an' th& +ay l&a'in* to th& (&ssation
o, $a--a / 0hat is ol' $a--a@ Ey& / &ar / nos& /
ton*u& / bo'y / -in' shoul' b& un'&rstoo' as ol' $a-
-a, th&s& b&in* ,or-&' ,ro- (on'itions, born o, )olition,
an' th& bas& o, ,&&lin*% This is (all&' Kol' $a--a%!
FBhi$$hus, +hat is Kn&+ $a--a!@ A(tions (r&at&' throu*h
bo'y, s.&&(h an' -in' in th& .r&s&nt -o-&nt, th&s& ar&
(all&' Kn&+ $a--a%!
FBhi$$hus, +hat is th& (&ssation o, $a--a@ Th& &?.&ri&n(&
o, lib&ration arisin* ,ro- th& (&ssation o, bo'ily $a--a,
)&rbal $a--a an' -&ntal $a--a, is (all&' th& (&ssation
o, $a--a%
FBhi$$hus, +hat is th& +ay l&a'in* to th& (&ssation o, $a--a@
This is th& Nobl& Ei*ht,ol' Path, na-&ly, =i*ht Vi&+
/ =i*ht #on(&ntration% This is (all&' th& +ay l&a'in* to
th& (&ssation o, $a--a%G:2
FBhi$$hus, this bo'y 'o&s not b&lon* to you, nor 'o&s it
b&lon* to anoth&r% You shoul' s&& it as ol' $a--a, ,or-&'
by (on'itions, born o, )olition, a bas& o, ,&&lin*%G:3
FBhi$$hus, th&s& thr&& $a--aAori*ins, *r&&', hatr&' an'
'&lusion, ar& (aus&s o, $a--a% 0hat&)&r $a--a is .&r,or-&'
on a((ount o, *r&&', is born ,ro- *r&&', has *r&&'
as ori*in, an' is ,or-&' ,ro- *r&&', r&sults in r&birth%
0h&r&)&r his $a--a ri.&ns, th&r& th& 'o&r -ust &?.&ri&n(&
th& ,ruits o, his $a--a, b& it in th& .r&s&nt li,&, in th&
n&?t li,& or in a ,utur& li,&% Ka--a .&r,or-&' on a((ount
o, hatr&' / $a--a .&r,or-&' on a((ount o, '&lusion /
Cth& sa-& as ,or *r&&'D
FBhi$$hus, th&s& thr&& $a--aAori*ins, nonA*r&&', nonA
hatr&' an' nonA'&lusion, ar& (aus&s o, $a--a% 0hat&)&r
$a--a is .&r,or-&' on a((ount o, nonA*r&&', is born ,ro-
nonA*r&&', has nonA*r&&' as ori*in, an' is ,or-&' ,ro-
nonA*r&&', is '&)oi' o, *r&&', that $a--a is *i)&n u., (ut
o,, at th& root, -a'& li$& a .al- tr&& stu-., (o-.l&t&ly (ut
o,, +ith no .ossibility o, arisin* a*ain% 0hat&)&r $a--a
is .&r,or-&' on a((ount o, nonAhatr&' / on a((ount o,
nonA'&lusion /G:8
FBhi$$hus, th&s& thr&& $a--aAori*ins, *r&&', hatr&' an'
'&lusion, ar& (aus&s o, $a--a% 0hat&)&r $a--a is .&r,or-&'
on a((ount o, *r&&', is born ,ro- *r&&', has *r&&'
as ori*in, is ,or-&' ,ro- *r&&', that $a--a is uns$ill,ul
/ is har-,ul / has su,,&rin* as a r&sult% That $a--a &?ists
,or th& arisin* o, -or& $a--a, not ,or th& (&ssation o,
$a--a% 0hat&)&r $a--a is 'on& on a((ount o, hatr&' /
on a((ount o, '&lusion /
FBhi$$hus, th&s& thr&& $a--aAori*ins, nonA*r&&', nonA
hatr&' an' nonA'&lusion, ar& (aus&s o, $a--a% 0hat&)&r
$a--a is 'on& on a((ount o, nonA*r&&', is born o, nonA
*r&&', has nonA*r&&' as ori*in, is ,or-&' ,ro- nonA*r&&',
that $a--a is s$ill,ul / not har-,ul / has as
a r&sult% That $a--a l&a's to th& (&ssation o, $a--a, not
to th& arisin* o, $a--a% 0hat&)&r $a--a is 'on& on a((ount
o, nonAhatr&' / on a((ount o, nonA'&lusion /G:9
FBhi$$hus, $illin* o, li)in* b&in*s, I say, is o, thr&& $in's%
That is, +ith *r&&' as -oti)&, +ith hatr&' as -oti)& an'
+ith '&lusion as -oti)&% "t&alin* / s&?ual -is(on'u(t /
lyin* / -ali(ious tal&Ab&arin* / abusi)& s.&&(h / ,ri)olous
s.&&(h / (o)&tousn&ss / r&s&nt-&nt / +ron* )i&+,
I say, ar& o, thr&& $in's% Th&y ar&, +ith *r&&' as -oti)&,
+ith hatr&' as -oti)& an' +ith '&lusion as -oti)&% Thus,
*r&&' is a (aus& ,or $a--a, hatr&' is a (aus& ,or $a--a,
'&lusion is a (aus& ,or $a--a% 0ith th& (&ssation o, *r&&',
th&r& is th& (&ssation o, a (aus& o, $a--a% 0ith th& (&ssation
o, hatr&', th&r& is th& (&ssation o, a (aus& o, $a--a%
0ith th& (&ssation o, '&lusion, th&r& is th& (&ssation o, a
(aus& o, $a--a%G:5
FBhi$$hus, th&r& ar& th&s& ,our $in's o, $a--a / 0hat is
bla($ $a--a, bla($ r&sult@ "o-& .&o.l& in this +orl' ar&
*i)&n to $illin*, *i)&n to st&alin*, *i)&n to s&?ual in,i'&lity,
*i)&n to lyin*, *i)&n to 'rin$in* into?i(ants +hi(h l&a' to
h&&'l&ssn&ss% This is (all&' bla($ $a--a, bla($ r&sult%
FBhi$$hus, +hat is +hit& $a--a, +hit& r&sult@ "o-& .&o.l&
in this +orl' '+&ll aloo, ,ro- $illin*, aloo, ,ro- st&alin*,
aloo, ,ro- s&?ual in,i'&lity, aloo, ,ro- lyin*, aloo,
,ro- th& 'rin$in* o, into?i(ants +hi(h l&a' to h&&'l&ssn&ss%
This is (all&' +hit& $a--a, +hit& r&sult%
FBhi$$hus, +hat is $a--a both ba($ an' +hit& +ith r&sult
both bla($ an' +hit&@ "o-& .&o.l& in this +orl' (r&at&
a(tions throu*h bo'y / s.&&(h / -in' +hi(h ar& both
har-,ul an' not har-,ul% This is (all&' K$a--a both bla($
an' +hit& +ith r&sult both bla($ an' +hit&%!
FBhi$$hus, +hat is $a--a n&ith&r bla($ nor +hit&, +ith r&sult
n&ith&r bla($ nor +hit&, +hi(h l&a's to th& (&ssation o,
$a--a@ 0ithin thos& thr&& $in's o, $a--a, th& int&ntion
to aban'on Cthos& $in's o, $a--aD, this is (all&' th& $a-
-a +hi(h is n&ith&r bla($ nor +hit&, +ith r&sult n&ith&r
bla($ nor +hit&, +hi(h l&a's to th& &n'in* o, $a--a%G <6
FList&n, 'ayi% A bhi$$hu in this T&a(hin* an' Dis(i.lin&
(ulti)at&s th& Min',uln&ss Enli*ht&n-&nt ;a(tor / th&
EEuani-ity Enli*ht&n-&nt ;a(tor, +hi(h t&n' to s&(lusion,
t&n' to 'is.assion, t&n' to (&ssation, +hi(h ar& +&ll
'&)&lo.&', +hi(h ar& boun'l&ss, )oi' o, irritation% Ha)in*
(ulti)at&' th& Min',uln&ss Enli*ht&n-&nt ;a(tor / th&
EEuani-ity Enli*ht&n-&nt ;a(tor / (ra)in* is 'is(ar'&'%
0ith th& 'is(ar'in* o, (ra)in*, $a--a is 'is(ar'&'% 0ith
th& 'is(ar'in* o, $a--a, su,,&rin* is 'is(ar'&'% Thus,
+ith th& &n'in* o, (ra)in* th&r& is th& &n'in* o, $a--aH
+ith th& &n'in* o, $a--a th&r& is th& &n'in* o, su,,&rin*%G
3 Misun'&rstan'in*s o, th& La+
o, Ka--a
0ho (aus&s an' su,,&rin*@
A((or'in* to th& Bu''ha!s +or's, FThrou*h I*noran(&, bo'ily
a(tions / )&rbal a(tions / -&ntal a(tions / ar& (r&at&', o,
on&!s o+n a((or' / throu*h &?t&rnal in,lu&n(&s / $no+in*ly
/ un$no+in*ly%G Th&r& ar& also instan(&s +h&r& th& Bu''ha r&,ut&'
both th& th&ory that all an' su,,&rin* ar& (aus&'
by th& s&l, C$no+n as atta$ara)a'aD an' th& th&ory that all
an' su,,&rin* ar& (aus&' by &?t&rnal ,or(&s C$no+n as
.ara$ara)a'aD% This hi*hli*hts th& n&&' to s&& $a--a in its
r&lation to th& &ntir& str&a- o, (aus& an' &,,&(t% Th& &?t&nt o,
any in)ol)&-&nt, &ith&r on&!s o+n or o, &?t&rnal ,a(tors, -ust
b& (onsi'&r&' in r&lation to this .ro(&ss% Oth&r+is& th& (o--on
-isun'&rstan'in* aris&s that all &)&nts ar& (aus&' by .&rsonal
a(tions, to th& &?(lusion o, &)&rythin* &ls&%
0hat -ust b& *ras.&' is th& 'i,,&r&n(& b&t+&&n $a--a in
th& (ont&?t o, natural la+, an' $a--a in th& (ont&?t o, &thi(s%
0h&n s.&a$in* o, $a--a as a natural la+, a .ro(&ss that &?ists
in natur& an' in(or.orat&s a +i'& ran*& o, (on'itionin* ,a(tors,
+& 'o not o)&r&-.hasiB& th& rol& o, in'i)i'ual a(tion, so +&
say that $a--a is not th& only (aus& o, an' su,,&rin*%
But on th& l&)&l o, &thi(s, th& t&a(hin* o, $a--a is -&ant
to b& us&' on a .ra(ti(al basis% #ons&Eu&ntly, ,ull r&s.onsibility
is .la(&' on th& in'i)i'ual% This is &-.hasiB&' in th& Bu''ha!s
+or's ,ro- th& Dha--a.a'a, FB& a r&,u*& unto yours&l,%G
In a''ition to -&anin* that +& -ust h&l. ours&l)&s, this injun(tion
also in(lu'&s our r&lationshi. +h&n h&l.&' by oth&rs% That
is, &)&n in th& &)&nt o, h&l. arisin* ,ro- &?t&rnal sour(&s, +&
ar& still r&s.onsibl& ,or a((&.tin* su(h h&l. on all or any o, th&
,ollo+in* thr&& l&)&ls4 CaD In th& in)itation, +h&th&r int&ntional
or oth&r+is&, +h&th&r (ons(ious or not, o, su(h h&l.H CbD In ,ost&rin*
su(h h&l. throu*h b&ha)iorH C(D An' at th&
)&ry l&ast, in th& a((&.tan(& o, su(h h&l.% ;or this r&ason, th&
.rin(i.l& o, $a--a on th& l&)&l o, natural la+ an' on th& l&)&l
o, &thi(s 'o not (on,li(t, but a(tually su..ort &a(h oth&r%
B&li&,s that ar& (ontrary to th& la+ o, $a--a
Th&r& ar& thr&& .hiloso.hi&s +hi(h ar& (onsi'&r&' by Bu''his-
to b& +ron* )i&+ an' +hi(h -ust b& (ar&,ully 'istin*uish&'
,ro- th& t&a(hin* o, $a--a4
1% Pubb&$atah&tu)a'a4 Th& b&li&, that all an' su,,&rin*
aris& ,ro- .r&)ious $a--a CPastAa(tion '&t&r-inis-D%
7% Issarani--anah&tu)a'a4 Th& b&li&, that all an'
su,,&rin* ar& (aus&' by th& 'ir&(ti)&s o, a "u.r&-& B&in*
CTh&isti( '&t&r-inis-D%
:% Ah&tuAa.a((aya)a'a4 Th& b&li&, that all an'
su,,&rin* ar& ran'o-, ha)in* no (aus& CIn'&t&r-inis- or
#on(&rnin* this, +& ha)& th& Bu''ha!s +or's4
FBhi$$hus, th&s& thr&& s&(ts, on b&in* Eu&stion&' by th&
+is&, ,all ba($ on tra'ition an' stan' ,ast on ina(tion%
Th&y ar&4
1% Th& *rou. o, as(&ti(s or Brah-ins +hi(h t&a(h&s an'
is o, th& )i&+ that all, su,,&rin* an' n&utral
,&&lin* ar& &ntir&ly a r&sult o, $a--a 'on& in a .r&)ious
7% Th& *rou. o, as(&ti(s an' Brah-ins +hi(h t&a(h&s an'
is o, th& )i&+ that all, su,,&rin* an' n&utral
,&&lin* ar& &ntir&ly a r&sult o, th& +ill o, a "u.r&-&
:% Th& *rou. o, as(&ti(s an' Brah-ins +hi(h t&a(h&s an'
is o, th& )i&+ that all, su,,&rin* an' n&utral
,&&lin* ar& &ntir&ly +ithout (aus&%
FBhi$$hus, o, thos& thr&& *rou.s o, as(&ti(s an' Brah-ins,
I a..roa(h th& ,irst *rou. an' as$, KI h&ar that you u.hol'
this t&a(hin* an' )i&+ / Is that so@! I, thos& as(&ti(s an'
Brah-ins, on b&in* thus Eu&stion&' by -&, ans+&r that it
is so, th&n I say to th&-, KI, that is so, th&n you ha)& $ill&'
li)in* b&in*s as a r&sult o, $a--a (o--itt&' in a .r&)ious
ti-&, ha)& stol&n as a r&sult o, $a--a 'on& at a .r&)ious
ti-&, ha)& &n*a*&' in s&?ual -is(on'u(t / ha)& utt&r&'
,als& s.&&(h / ha)& h&l' +ron* )i&+ as a r&sult o, $a--a
'on& in a .r&)ious ti-&%!
FBhi$$hus, a'h&rin* to .r&)iously 'on& $a--a as th& &ss&n(&,
th&r& ar& n&ith&r -oti)ation nor &,,ort +ith +hat
shoul' b& 'on& an' +hat shoul' not b& 'on& / Not u.hol'in*
ar'&ntly +hat shoul' b& 'on&, nor aban'onin*
+hat shoul' b& aban'on&', thos& as(&ti(s an' Brah-ins
ar& as i, '&lu'&', la($in* a (ontrol, in(a.abl& o, ha)in*
any tru& t&a(hin*% This is our l&*iti-at& r&,utation o, th&
,irst *rou. o, as(&ti(s an' Brah-ins hol'in* th&s& )i&+s%
FBhi$$hus, o, thos& thr&& *rou.s o, as(&ti(s an' Brah-ins,
I a..roa(h th& s&(on' *rou. / an' say to th&-, KI, that
is so, th&n you ha)& $ill&' li)in* b&in*s b&(aus& o, th& 'ir&(ti)&s
o, a "u.r&-& B&in* / stol&n th& *oo's o, oth&rs
/ &n*a*&' in s&?ual -is(on'u(t / utt&r&' ,als& s.&&(h
/ ha)& h&l' +ron* )i&+ b&(aus& o, th& 'ir&(ti)&s o, a
"u.r&-& B&in*%!
FBhi$$hus, a'h&rin* to th& +ill o, a "u.r&-& B&in* as th&
&ss&n(&, th&r& ar& n&ith&r -oti)ation nor &,,ort +ith +hat
shoul' b& 'on& an' +hat shoul' not b& 'on& /
FBhi$$hus, o, thos& *rou.s o, as(&ti(s an' Brah-ins, I a..roa(h
th& thir' / an' say to th&-, KI, that is so, th&n you
ha)& $ill&' li)in* b&in*s ,or no r&ason +hatso&)&r / stol&n
th& *oo's o, oth&rs / &n*a*&' in s&?ual -is(on'u(t
/ utt&r&' ,als& s.&&(h / ha)& h&l' +ron* )i&+ ,or no
r&ason +hatso&)&r%!
FBhi$$hus, a'h&rin* to a((i'&ntalis- as b&in* th& &ss&n(&,
th&r& ar& n&ith&r -oti)ation nor &,,ort +ith +hat shoul'
b& 'on& an' +hat shoul' not b& 'on& /G <7
Th& ,irst o, th&s& thr&& s(hools o, thou*ht is that o, th&
Ni*anthas, about +hi(h +& (an l&arn so-& -or& ,ro- th&
Bu''ha!s +or's4
FBhi$$hus, th&r& ar& so-& as(&ti(s an' Brah-ins +ho ar& o,
this )i&+, KAll an' su,,&rin* ar& &ntir&ly (aus&'
by .r&)ious $a--a% ;or this r&ason, +ith th& &?haustin*
o, ol' $a--a throu*h aust&riti&s, th&r& +ill b& no in,lu&n(&
&?&rt&' by $a--aAr&sults% 0h&n th&r& is no -or&
in,lu&n(& o, $a--aAr&sults, $a--a is &n'&'% 0ith th&
&n'in* o, $a--a th&r& is an &n'in* o, su,,&rin*% 0ith th&
&n'in* o, su,,&rin* th&r& is an &n'in* o, ,&&lin*% 0ith th&
&n'in* o, ,&&lin*, all su,,&rin* is &)&ntually &?tin*uish&'%!
Bhi$$hus, th& Ni*anthas ar& o, this )i&+%G <:
Th& ,ollo+in* +or's ,ro- th& Bu''ha (l&arly illustrat& th&
Bu''hist )i&+4
FList&n, "i)a$a% "o-& $in's o, ,&&lin* aris& +ith bil& as
(on'ition / +ith (han*&s in th& +&ath&r as (on'ition /
+ith in(onstant b&ha)ior as (on'ition / +ith 'an*&r ,ro-
an &?t&rnal sour(& as (on'ition / +ith $a--aAr&sults as
(on'ition% Any as(&ti( or Brah-in +ho is o, th& )i&+ that,
KAll ,&&lin* is &ntir&ly (aus&' by .r&)ious $a--a,! I say is
-ista$&n%G <<
Th&s& +or's 'is(oura*& us ,ro- *oin* too ,ar +ith $a--a by
(onsi'&rin* it as &ntir&ly a thin* o, th& .ast% "u(h a )i&+ &n(oura*&s
ina(ti)ityH .assi)&ly +aitin* ,or th& r&sults o, ol' $a--a to
ri.&n an' ta$in* thin*s as th&y (o-& +ithout thin$in* to (orr&(t
or th&-% This is a har-,ul ,or- o, +ron* )i&+, as
(an b& s&&n ,ro- th& Bu''ha!s +or's abo)&%
"i*ni,i(antly, in th& abo)& .assa*&, th& Bu''ha ass&rts &,,ort
an' -oti)ation as th& (ru(ial ,a(tors in '&(i'in* th& &thi(al
)alu& o, th&s& )arious t&a(hin*s on $a--a%
Th& Bu''ha 'i' not 'is-iss th& i-.ortan(& o, .r&)ious $a--a,
b&(aus& it 'o&s .lay a .art in th& (aus& an' &,,&(t .ro(&ss, an'
thus has an &,,&(t on th& .r&s&nt in its (a.a(ity as on& o, th&
(on'itionin* ,a(tors% But it is on& o, thos& (on'itions, it is
not a su.&rnatural ,or(& to b& (lun* to or sub-itt&' to .assi)&ly%
An un'&rstan'in* o, th& Prin(i.l& o, D&.&n'&nt Ori*ination an'
th& (aus& an' &,,&(t .ro(&ss +ill (lari,y this%
;or &?a-.l&, i, a -an (li-bs to th& thir' ,loor o, a buil'in*,
it is un'&niably tru& that his arri)in* is a r&sult o, .ast a(tion
> na-&ly, +al$in* u. th& stairs% An' ha)in* arri)&' th&r&, it is
i-.ossibl& ,or hi- to r&a(h out an' tou(h th& *roun' +ith his
han', or to 'ri)& a (ar aroun'% Ob)iously, this is b&(aus& h& has
*on& u. to th& thir' ,loor% Or, ha)in* arri)&' at th& thir' ,loor,
+h&th&r h& is too &?haust&' to (ontinu& is also r&lat&' to ha)in*
+al$&' u. th& stairs% His arri)al th&r&, th& thin*s h& is abl& to 'o
th&r& an' th& situations h& is li$&ly to &n(ount&r, ar& all (&rtainly
r&lat&' to th& Fol' $a--aG o, ha)in* +al$&' u. th& stairs% But
&?a(tly +hi(h a(tions h& +ill .&r,or-, his r&a(tions to th& situations
+hi(h h& -&&ts th&r&, +h&th&r h& +ill ta$& a r&st, +al$
on, or +al$ ba($ 'o+n th& stairs an' out o, that buil'in*, ar&
all -att&rs +hi(h h& (an '&(i'& ,or hi-s&l, in that .r&s&nt -o-&nt,
,or +hi(h h& +ill also r&a. th& r&sults% E)&n thou*h th&
a(tion o, +al$in* u. th& stairs -ay still b& in,lu&n(in* hi- C,or
&?a-.l&, +ith his str&n*th sa..&' h& -ay b& unabl& to ,un(tion
&,,i(i&ntly in any *i)&n situationD, +h&th&r h& '&(i'&s to *i)& in
to that tir&'n&ss or try to o)&r(o-& it ar& all -att&rs +hi(h h&
(an '&(i'& ,or hi-s&l, in th& .r&s&nt -o-&nt%
Th&r&,or&, ol' $a--a shoul' b& un'&rstoo' in its r&lation to
th& +hol& (aus& an' &,,&(t .ro(&ss% In t&r-s o, &thi(al .ra(ti(&,
to un'&rstan' th& (aus& an' &,,&(t .ro(&ss is to b& abl& to l&arn
,ro- ol' $a--a, un'&rstan'in* th& situation at han', an' to
s$ill,ully -a$& a .lan o, a(tion ,or* on an' .r&.arin*
,or th& ,utur&%
#an $a--a b& &ras&'@
At on& ti-& th& Bu''ha sai'4
FBhi$$hus, th&r& ar& thos& +ho say K0hat&)&r $a--a is
-a'& by this -an, h& +ill r&(&i)& i'&nti(al r&sults th&r&o,%!
I, su(h +&r& th& (as&, th&r& (oul' b& no hi*h&r li,&, no .ath
(oul' b& .&r(&i)&' ,or th& su((&ss,ul &n'in* o, su,,&rin*%$
FBut +ith th& )i&+, K0h&n $a--a bas&' on a (&rtain $in'
o, ,&&lin* is -a'& C.l&asant or un.l&asant, ,or &?a-.l&D,
r&sults aris& in (on,or-ity +ith that ,&&lin*,! th& hi*h&r
li,& (an b&, th&r& is a +ay ,or th& &n'in* o, su,,&rin*%
FBhi$$hus, ,or so-& .&o.l&, only a littl& ba' $a--a (an
l&a' to r&birth in h&ll, but ,or oth&rs that sa-& s-all
a-ount o, ba' $a--a +ill .ro'u(& r&sults only in th&
.r&s&nt -o-&nt, an' &)&n th&n, only th& -ost &?tr&-&
as.&(ts o, it +ill b&(o-&, not th& -inor%
F0hat $in' o, .&rson is it +ho, ,or only a littl& ba' $a--a,
*o&s to h&ll@ Th&r& ar& thos& +ho ha)& not train&' th&ir a(tions,
ha)& not train&' in -oral r&straint, ha)& not train&'
th&ir -in's an' ha)& not '&)&lo.&' +is'o-% Th&y ar& o,
littl& +orth, ar& o, s-all status an' '+&ll 'is(ont&nt&'
o)&r -inor $a--a r&sults% This $in' o, .&rson it is +ho,
o)&r just a littl& ba' $a--a, (an *o to h&ll Cli$& .uttin* a
lu-. o, salt into a )&ry s-all )&ss&lD%
F0hat $in' o, .&rson is it +ho, ,or &?a(tly th& sa-& a-ount
o, ba' $a--a, r&(&i)&s ,ruit only in th& .r&s&nt, an' &)&n
th&n, th& -inor as.&(ts o, that $a--a 'o not -ani,&st,
only th& -ajor@ Th&r& ar& thos& +ho ha)& train&' th&ir
a(tions, ha)& train&' in -oral r&straint, ha)& train&' th&ir
-in's an' ha)& '&)&lo.&' +is'o-% Th&y ar& not o, littl&
+orth, th&y ar& *r&at b&in*s, th&y ha)& a -&asur&l&ss abi'in*%
;or this $in' o, .&rson, just th& sa-& $in' o, -inor
ba' $a--a *i)&s r&sults only in th& .r&s&nt, an' &)&n th&n
th& -inor as.&(ts o, that $a--a 'o not -ani,&st, only th&
-ajor Cli$& .uttin* a lu-. o, salt into a ri)&rD%G <2
FList&n, hous&hol'&r, so-& t&a(h&rs *i)& th& t&a(hin* an'
ar& o, th& )i&+ that thos& +ho $ill li)in* b&in*s -ust +ithout
&?(&.tion *o to th& +o&,ul stat&s, ,allin* to h&llH that
thos& +ho st&al -ust +ithout &?(&.tion *o to th& +o&,ul
stat&s, ,allin* to h&llH that thos& +ho (o--it a'ult&ry
-ust +ithout &?(&.tion *o to th& +o&,ul stat&s, ,allin* to
h&llH that thos& +ho li& -ust +ithout &?(&.tion *o to th&
+o&,ul stat&s, ,allin* to h&ll% Dis(i.l&s o, thos& t&a(h&rs,
thin$in*, KOur t&a(h&r *i)&s th& t&a(hin* an' is o, th& )i&+
that thos& +ho $ill li)in* b&in*s -ust all ,all into h&ll,! (on(&i)&
th& )i&+ thus, KI ha)& $ill&' li)in* b&in*s% Th&r&,or&
I, too, -ust *o to h&ll%! Not r&linEuishin* that s.&&(h an'
that )i&+, h& in'&&' *o&s to h&ll, just as i, .ush&' th&r& by
FAs ,or th& Tatha*ata, ,ully &nli*ht&n&' Bu''ha, h& aris&s
in th& +orl' / H& s.&a$s in 'is.rais& o, $illin* li)in* b&in*s
/ st&alin* / a'ult&ry / lyin*, in -any +ays, an'
t&a(h&s, KKillin* o, li)in* b&in*s / st&alin* / a'ult&ry /
lyin* shoul' b& aban'on&'%! A 'is(i.l& o, th& T&a(h&r, r&,l&(tin*
thus, KTh& Bl&ss&' On& s.&a$s in 'is.rais& o, $illin*
li)in* b&in*s / in -any a +ay, an' t&a(h&s th& aban'onin*
o, $illin* li)in* b&in*s% I ha)& $ill&' -any b&in*s
alr&a'y% That $illin* o, li)in* b&in*s by -& is not *oo', is
not +orthy% I +ill su,,&r on a((ount o, thos& a(tions, an'
on th&ir a((ount I +ill not b& b&yon' r&.roo,%! =&,l&(tin*
in this +ay, h& *i)&s u. $illin* o, li)in* b&in*s, an' is on&
+ho aban'ons th& $illin* o, li)in* b&in*s ,ro- that -o-&nt
on% Thus 'o&s h& aban'on that ba' $a--a /
FH& aban'ons th& $illin* o, li)in* b&in*s / lyin* / -ali(ious
tal&Ab&arin* / (oars& s.&&(h / ,ri)olous s.&&(h /
(o)&tousn&ss / &n-ity / +ron* )i&+% H& is on& &n'o+&'
+ith =i*ht Vi&+, h& is a Nobl& Dis(i.l& +ith a -in' ,r&& o,
*r&&', ,r&& o, a)&rsion, not '&lu'&' but .oss&ss&' o, s&l,
a+ar&n&ss an' ,ir- -in',uln&ss% H& '+&lls +ith a -in'
,ull o, *oo'+ill, s.r&a'in* to th& ,irst / s&(on' / thir'
/ th& +hol& ,our 'ir&(tions, abo)&, b&lo+, s.r&a'in* out
+i'& to th& +hol& +orl', to all b&in*s in all .la(&s, +ith a
-in' ,ull o, *oo'+ill that is &?.ansi)&, *ran', boun'l&ss,
,r&& o, &n-ity an' ill +ill% Ha)in* so thorou*hly '&)&lo.&'
th& Min' D&li)&ran(& throu*h Goo'+ill, any -o'&rat&
a-ount o, $a--a .r&)iously 'on& +ill no lon*&r
-ani,&st /G <3
Th&s& +or's ha)& b&&n Euot&' to .r&)&nt -isun'&rstan'in*s in
r&lation to th& ,ruition o, $a--a% Th& .r&s&nt &?tra(t is only a
s-all .ortion o, th& -at&rial a)ailabl&, as to .r&s&nt it all +oul'
ta$& u. too -u(h s.a(&%
Do $a--a an' notAs&l, (ontra'i(t &a(h oth&r@
Th&r& is on& Eu&stion +hi(h, thou*h only o((asionally as$&',
t&n's to lin*&r in th& -in's o, -any n&+(o-&rs to th& stu'y o,
Bu''his-4 FDo th& t&a(hin*s o, $a--a an' notAs&l, (ontra'i(t
&a(h oth&r@G I, &)&rythin*, in(lu'in* bo'y an' -in', is notAs&l,,
th&n ho+ (an th&r& b& $a--a@ 0ho is it +ho (o--its $a--a@
0ho r&(&i)&s th& r&sults o, $a--a@ Th&s& 'oubts ar& not
a .h&no-&non o, th& .r&s&nt ti-&, but ha)& &?ist&' ,ro- th&
ti-& o, th& Bu''ha, as (an b& s&&n in th& ,ollo+in* &?a-.l&4
A bhi$$hu (on(&i)&' th& ,ollo+in* 'oubt,
F0& $no+ that bo'y, ,&&lin*, .&r(&.tion, )olitional i-.uls&s
an' (ons(iousn&ssl ar& not s&l,% I, so, th&n +ho is it
+ho r&(&i)&s th& r&sults o, th& $a--a -a'& by this KnonA
At that ti-&, th& Bl&ss&' On&, $no+in* th& thou*hts o, that
bhi$$hu, a''r&ss&' th& bhi$$hus thus4
FBhi$$hus, it -ay b& that so-& ,oolish .&o.l& in this
T&a(hin* an' Dis(i.lin&, +ith -in' ,all&n into i*noran(&
an' (on,us&' by '&sir&, -i*ht (on(&i)& th& t&a(hin* o,
th& Mast&r to b& rationaliB&' thus4 K0& $no+ that bo'y,
,&&lin*, .&r(&.tion, )olitional i-.uls&s an' (ons(iousn&ss
ar& not s&l,% I, that is so, +ho is it +ho r&(&i)&s th& r&sults
o, th& $a--a (r&at&' by this FnonAs&l,G@! All o, you no+,
ha)in* b&&n thorou*hly instru(t&' by -&, (onsi'&r th&s&
-att&rs4 is ,or- .&r-an&nt or i-.&r-an&nt@G
FI-.&r-an&nt, Lor'%G
FIs +hat is i-.&r-an&nt Ca (aus& ,orD or su,,&rin*@G
F"u,,&rin*, Lor'G
FO, that +hi(h is i-.&r-an&nt, unsatis,a(tory, an' nor-ally
subj&(t to '&*&n&ration, is it .ro.&r to say that Kthis
is -in&, this is -&, this is -y s&l,!@G
FNo, it is not .ro.&r, Lor'%G
F;or that r&ason, ,or-, ,&&lin*, .&r(&.tion, )olitional a(ti)iti&s
an' (ons(iousn&ss, o, +hat&)&r '&s(ri.tion, ar&
-&r&ly ,or-, ,&&lin*, .&r(&.tion, )olitional a(ti)iti&s an'
(ons(iousn&ss% Th&y ar& not K-in&,! not K-&,! not K-y s&l,%!
=&,l&(t on this as it is +ith +is'o-% Th& l&arn&', Nobl&
Dis(i.l&, s&&in* in this +ay, 'o&s not atta(h to ,or-, ,&&lin*,
.&r(&.tion, )olitional i-.uls&s or (ons(iousn&ss% H& is
,r&& o, thos& thin*s, an' has no ,urth&r tas$ to 'o%G <8
B&,or& &?a-inin* this s(ri.tural r&,&r&n(&, (onsi'&r th& ,ollo+in*
illustration4 "u..os& +& ar& stan'in* on th& ban$ o, a
ri)&r, +at(hin* th& +at&r ,lo+ by% Th& +at&r ,lo+s in a -ostly
,lat ar&a, th&r&,or& it ,lo+s )&ry slo+ly% Th& &arth in that .arti(ular
ar&a is r&', +hi(h *i)&s this bo'y o, +at&r a r&''ish tint%
In a''ition to this, th& +at&r .ass&s -any h&a)ily .o.ulat&'
ar&as, ,ro- +h&r& .&o.l& ha)& lon* thro+n in r&,us&, +hi(h,
in a''ition to th& in'ustrial +ast& .our&' into th& +at&r by a
nu-b&r o, r&(&ntly built ,a(tori&s, .ollut&s th& +at&r% Th& +at&r
is th&r&,or& uninhabitabl& ,or -ost ani-alsH th&r& ar& not -any
,ish in it% "u--ariBin*, th& bo'y o, +at&r +& ar& loo$in* at is
r&''ish, 'irty, .ollut&', s.ars&ly inhabit&' an' slu**ish% All o,
th&s& ,&atur&s to*&th&r ar& th& (hara(t&risti(s o, this .arti(ular
bo'y o, +at&r% "o-& o, th&s& (hara(t&risti(s -i*ht b& si-ilar to
oth&r str&a-s or ri)&rs, but th& su- total o, th&s& (hara(t&risti(s
is uniEu& to this str&a- o, +at&r%
Pr&s&ntly +& ar& in,or-&' that this bo'y o, +at&r is (all&' th&
Tah 0un* =i)&r% Di,,&r&nt .&o.l& '&s(rib& it in 'i,,&r&nt +ays%
"o-& say th& Tah 0un* =i)&r is 'irty an' 'o&sn!t ha)& -any
,ish% "o-& say th& Tah 0un* =i)&r ,lo+s )&ry slo+ly% "o-& say
that th& Tah 0un* =i)&r is r&'A(olor&'%
"tan'in* on th& ri)&r!s ban$, it s&&-s to us that th& bo'y o,
+at&r +& ar& loo$in* at is a(tually (o-.l&t& in its&l,% Its attribut&s,
su(h as b&in* slu**ish, r&'A(olor&', 'irty, an' so on, ar&
all (aus&' by )arious (on'itionin* ,a(tors, su(h as th& ,lo+in*
+at&r (onta(tin* th& r&' &arth% In a''ition, th& +at&r +hi(h +&
ar& loo$in* at is (onstantly ,lo+in* by% Th& +at&r +hi(h +& sa+
at ,irst is no lon*&r h&r&, an' th& +at&r +& ar& no+ s&&in* +ill
Eui($ly .ass% E)&n so, th& ri)&r has its uniEu& ,&atur&s, +hi(h
'o not (han*& as lon* as th& r&l&)ant (on'itionin* ,a(tors ha)&
not (han*&'%
But +& ar& tol', th&n, that this is th& Tah 0un* =i)&r% Not only
that, th&y say that th& Tah 0un* =i)&r is slu**ish, 'irty, an'
short o, ,ish% Must loo$in*, +& (an s&& no FTah 0un* =i)&rG oth&r
than this bo'y o, +at&r ,lo+in* by% 0& (an s&& no FTah 0un*
=i)&rG .oss&ssin* this bo'y o, +at&r% Y&t th&y t&ll us that th& Tah
0un* =i)&r br&a$s u. th& r&' &arth as it .ass&s, +hi(h -a$&s
th& +at&r turn r&'% It!s al-ost as i, this FTah 0un* =i)&rG 'o&s
so-&thin* to th& r&' &arth, +hi(h (aus&s th& &arth to F.unishG
it by turnin* its +at&r r&'%
0& (an s&& (l&arly that this bo'y o, +at&r is subj&(t to th& .ro(&ss
o, (aus& an' &,,&(t *o)&rn&' by its )arious (on'itionin* ,a(tors4
th& +at&r s.lashin* a*ainst th& r&' &arth an' th& r&' &arth
'issol)in* into th& +at&r is on& (ausal (on'ition, th& r&sult o,
+hi(h is th& r&'A(olor&' +at&r% 0& (an ,in' no Fbo'yG 'oin*
anythin* or r&(&i)in* any r&sults% 0& (an s&& no a(tual Tah
0un* =i)&r any+h&r&% Th& +at&r ,lo+in* .ast us no+ ,lo+s
ri*ht on by, th& +at&r s&&n .r&)iously is no lon*&r h&r&, n&+ +at&r
(onstantly ta$in* its .la(&% 0& ar& abl& to '&,in& that bo'y o,
+at&r only by '&s(ribin* its (on'itionin* ,a(tors an' th& &)&nts
+hi(h aris& as a r&sult, (ausin* th& ,&atur&s +& ha)& obs&r)&'%
I, th&r& +as an a(tual an' un(han*in* Tah 0un* =i)&r, it +oul'
b& i-.ossibl& ,or that ,lo+ o, +at&r to .ro(&&' a((or'in* to its
)arious '&t&r-inin* ,a(tors% ;inally +& s&& that this FTah 0un*
=i)&rG is su.&r,luous% 0& (an s.&a$ about that bo'y o, +at&r
+ithout ha)in* to both&r +ith this FTah 0un* =i)&r%G In a(tual
,a(t th&r& is no Tah 0un* =i)&r at allJ
As ti-& *o&s by +& tra)&l to anoth&r 'istri(t% 0ishin* to '&s(rib&
th& bo'y o, +at&r +& sa+ to th& .&o.l& th&r&, +& ,in'
ours&l)&s at a loss% Th&n +& r&(all so-&on& t&llin* us that that
bo'y o, +at&r +as $no+n as th& Tah 0un* =i)&r% Kno+in* this,
+& (an r&lat& our &?.&ri&n(& ,lu&ntly, an' th& oth&r .&o.l& ar&
abl& to list&n +ith int&r&st an' att&ntion% 0& t&ll th&- that th&
Tah 0un* =i)&r has 'irty +at&r, not -any ,ish, is slu**ish, an'
At that ti-&, +& r&aliB& (l&arly that this FTah 0un* =i)&r,G an'
th& rol& it .lays in th& &)&nts +& '&s(rib&, ar& (on)&ntions
o, lan*ua*& us&' ,or (on)&ni&n(& in (o--uni(ation% 0h&th&r
th& (on)&ntion o, Tah 0un* =i)&r &?ists or not, an' +h&th&r +&
us& it or not, has no b&arin* +hatso&)&r on th& a(tions o, that
bo'y o, +at&r% That bo'y o, +at&r (ontinu&s to b& a .ro(&ss o,
int&rr&lat&' (aus& an' &,,&(t r&a(tions% 0& (an (l&arly 'istin*uish
b&t+&&n th& (on)&ntion an' th& a(tual (on'ition% No+ +&
ar& abl& to un'&rstan' an' us& th& (on)&ntion o, s.&&(h +ith
Th& thin*s +hi(h +& (on)&ntionally $no+ as .&o.l&, to +hi(h
+& *i)& na-&s, an' r&,&r to as F-&G an' Fyou,G ar& in r&ality
(ontinuous an' int&r(onn&(t&' str&a-s o, &)&nts, -a'& u. o,
(ountl&ss r&lat&' (onstitu&nt ,a(tors, just li$& that ri)&r% Th&y
ar& subj&(t to (ountl&ss ,a(tors, 'ir&(t&' by r&lat&' '&t&r-inants,
both ,ro- +ithin that str&a- o, &)&nts an' ,ro- +ithout% 0h&n
a .arti(ular r&a(tion ta$&s .la(& in a (ausal +ay, th& ,ruit o, that
a(tion aris&s, (ausin* (han*&s +ithin th& ,lo+ o, &)&nts%
Th& (on'itions +hi(h ar& r&,&rr&' to as $a--a an' )i.a$a ar& th& .lay o, (aus& an' &,,&(t +ithin on& .arti(ular str&a-
o, &)&nts% Th&y ar& .&r,&(tly (a.abl& o, ,un(tionin* +ithin that
str&a- +ithout th& n&&' ,or th& (on)&ntions o, na-&, or th&
+or's F-&G an' Fyou,G &ith&r as o+n&rs or .&r.&trators o, thos&
a(tions, or as r&(&i)&rs o, th&ir r&sults% This is r&ality,- +hi(h
,un(tions naturally in this +ay% But ,or (on)&ni&n(& in (o--uni(ation
+ithin th& so(ial +orl', +& -ust us& th& (on)&ntion o,
na-&s, su(h as Mr% "-ith an' so on, ,or .arti(ular str&a-s o,
Ha)in* a((&.t&' th& (on)&ntion, +& -ust a((&.t r&s.onsibility
,or that str&a- o, &)&nts, b&(o-in* th& o+n&r, th& a(ti)& .&r.&trator
an' th& .assi)& subj&(t o, a(tions an' th&ir r&sults, as
th& (as& -ay b&% But +h&th&r +& us& th&s& (on)&ntions or not,
+h&th&r +& a((&.t th& lab&ls or not, th& str&a- o, &)&nts its&l,
,un(tions any+ay, 'ir&(t&' by (aus& an' &,,&(t% Th& i-.ortant
.oint is to b& a+ar& o, thin*s as th&y ar&, 'istin*uishin* b&t+&&n
th& (on)&ntion an' th& (on'ition its&l,% On& an' th& sa-& thin*,
in th& (ont&?t o, its a(tual natur&, is on& +ay, but +h&n s.o$&n
o, in (on)&ntional t&r-s it -ust b& r&,&rr&' to in anoth&r +ay% I,
+& ha)& an un'&rstan'in* o, th& a(tual r&ality o, th&s& thin*s
+& +ill not b& '&lu'&' or (on,us&' by th& (on)&ntions%
Both r&ality an' (on)&ntion ar& n&(&ssary% =&ality Co,t&n r&,&rr&'
to as .ara-atthaD is th& natural stat&% #on)&ntions ar& a
us&,ul an' .ra(ti(al hu-an in)&ntion% Probl&-s aris& +h&n +&
(on,us& th& t+o, (lin*in* to th& r&ality an' tryin* to -a$& it
,ollo+ (on)&ntions% 0ithin th& a(tual r&ality th&r& is no (on,usion,
b&(aus& th& .rin(i.l& naturally ,un(tions by its&l,, not b&in*
subj&(t to anybo'y!s i'&as about it > it is .&o.l& +ho b&(o-&
(on,us&'% An' b&(aus& r&ality is not (on,us&', ,un(tionin* in'&.&n'&ntly
o, .&o.l&!s '&sir&s, it ,rustrat&s thos& '&sir&s an'
-a$&s .&o.l& &)&n -or& (on,us&' an' ,rustrat&'% Any .robl&-
o((urrin* is .ur&ly a hu-an on&%
As (an b& s&&n in th& .assa*& abo)&, th& bhi$$hu +ho (on(&i)&'
this 'oubt +as (on,usin* th& '&s(ri.tion o, th& r&ality, +hi(h
h& ha' l&arn&', +ith th& (on)&ntion, to +hi(h h& still (lun*%
This +as th& (aus& o, his b&+il'&r-&nt an' 'oubt% =&,&rrin*
to th& ori*inal +or'in*, it *o&s so-&thin* li$& this4 FI, $a--a
is (r&at&' by notAs&l,, +hat s&l, is it that r&(&i)&s th& ,ruits o,
$a--a@G Th& ,irst .art o, th& s&nt&n(& is s.o$&n a((or'in* to
his a(Euir&' $no+l&'*& o, th& r&ality, +hil& th& s&(on' .art is
s.o$&n a((or'in* to his o+n habitual .&r(&.tion% Naturally th&y
'on!t ,it%
;ro- th& ,or&*oin*, +& (an su--ariB& thus4
N Th& t&a(hin*s o, notAs&l, an' $a--a ar& not at all (ontra'i(tory%
On th& (ontrary, notAs&l, l&n's +&i*ht to th&
t&a(hin* o, $a--a% B&(aus& thin*s ar& notAs&l,, th&r& (an
b& $a--a, an' $a--a (an ,un(tion% 0h&n th& .ro(&ss
o, &)&nts is o.&ratin*, all th& ,a(tors in)ol)&' -ust aris&,
(&as& an' int&ra(t unhin'&r&', so that th& str&a- o, &)&nts
(an .ro(&&'% Th&r& (an b& no .&r-an&nt or a(tual &ntity to
blo($ this ,lo+% I, th&r& +as a s&l,, th&r& (oul' b& no $a--a,
b&(aus& a s&l, Cby '&,initionD is not subj&(t to (aus&
an' &,,&(t% Nothin* (an &,,&(t its &?ist&n(&, or (aus& th&
s&l, to b& oth&r than +hat it is% In th& &n' +& +oul' ha)& to
'i)i'& th& in'i)i'ual into t+o l&)&ls, su(h as is h&l' by th&
sassata'itthi Cb&li&, in an intrinsi( s&l,D s&(ts, +ho b&li&)&
that th& s&l, +ho (r&at&s an' r&(&i)&s th& ,ruits o, $a--a
is -&r&ly th& &?t&rnal or su.&r,i(ial s&l,, +hil& th& r&al s&l,,
or &ss&n(& o, th& s&l,, li&s un(han*in* +ithin%
N Th& (r&ation o, $a--a an' its r&sults in th& .r&s&nt ti-&
is 'on& +ithout th& n&&' ,or an a*&nt or a r&(i.i&nt% 0&
shoul' (onsi'&r thus4 F0hi(h ,a(tors ar& o.&ratin* h&r&@
0hat r&lationshi.s ar& in)ol)&'@ 0hat &)&nts ar& arisin*
+ithin th& str&a- as a r&sult, an' ho+ ar& th&y &,,&(tin*
(han*&s +ithin th& str&a-@G 0h&n a (aus&, $no+n as
$a--a, or a(tion, aris&s, th&r& ,ollo+s th& r&sult, $no+n
as )i.a$a, +ithin that str&a- o, &)&nts% 0& (all this F(aus&
an' &,,&(t%G This .ro(&ss is not '&.&n'&nt on an o+n&r o,
thos& a(tions, or a 'o&r an' a r&(i.i&nt o, r&sults as an a''itional,
&?tran&ous &ntity% Ka--a is th& ,lo+ o, (aus& an'
&,,&(t +ithin that str&a- o, &)&nts, unli$& th& (on)&ntions
+hi(h ar& .ast&' o)&r th&-%
0h&n th&r& is an a*r&&-&nt to (all that str&a- o, &)&nts Mr%
"-ith or Miss Bro+n, th&r& aris&s an o+n&r o, a(tions, a 'o&r
an' a r&(i.i&nt o, r&sults% Ho+&)&r, th& str&a- o, &)&nts .ro
(&&'s r&*ar'l&ss, (o-.l&t&ly .&r,&(t +ithin its&l, as ,ar as th&
(aus& an' &,,&(t .ro(&ss *o&s% It 'o&s not '&.&n' on na-&s in
or'&r to ,un(tion%
0h&n it is ti-& to s.&a$ in th& (ont&?t o, a str&a- o, &)&nts,
'&s(ribin* its o.&ration, its (aus&s an' its r&sults, th&n +& (an
so s.&a$% 0h&n it is ti-& to s.&a$ in th& (ont&?t o, (on)&ntions,
'&s(ribin* a(tions an' th& ,ruits o, a(tions in .&rsonal t&r-s,
+& (an s.&a$ thus also% 0ith ri*ht un'&rstan'in*, +& 'o not
(on,us& th& t+o l&)&ls%
E)&n +ith r&*ar' to inani-at& obj&(ts, su(h as th& ri)&r abo)&,
-ost .&o.l& still -ana*& to (lin* to (on)&ntions as a(tual &ntiti&s%
Ho+ -u(h -or& so +h&n it (o-&s to hu-an b&in*s, +hi(h
ar& -or& (o-.l&? an' intri(at& jun(tions o, (ausal .ro(&ss&s,
in)ol)in* -&ntal ,a(tors% As ,or th&s& -&ntal ,a(tors, th&y ar&
&?tr&-&ly subtl&% E)&n i-.&r-an&n(& is in(o-.r&h&nsibl& to
-any .&o.l&% Th&r& ar& thos& +ho say, ,or instan(&, F0ho says
-&-ory is i-.&r-an&nt an' unstabl&@ M&-ory is .&r-an&nt,
b&(aus& +h&r&)&r an' +h&n&)&r it aris&s, it is al+ays -&-ory,
it n&)&r (han*&s%G
"o-& .&o.l& -ay a*r&& +ith this lin& o, r&asonin*, but i, th&
ar*u-&nt is' to a -at&rial obj&(t th& &rror b&(o-&s -or&
ob)ious% It is li$& sayin*, F0ho says th& bo'y is i-.&r-an&nt@
Th& bo'y is .&r-an&nt an' un(han*in*, b&(aus& +h&r&)&r
an' +h&n&)&r th& bo'y aris&s, it is al+ays th& bo'y, it n&)&r
(han*&s%G It is &asi&r to s&& th& -ista$& in this latt&r ar*u-&nt,
but a(tually both ar*u-&nts ar& &Eually -ista$&n% That is, both
(on,us& -&-ory, ,or instan(&, an' th& lab&l F-&-ory,G or bo'y
an' th& lab&l Fbo'y%G Th& ar*u-&nts su**&st that -&-ory an'
th& bo'y ar& stabl& an' un(han*in*, but in ,a(t +hat th&y ar&
sayin* is that th& na-&s F-&-oryG an' Fbo'yG ar& Cr&lati)&lyD
stabl& an' un(han*in*%
"tu'yin* th& la+ o, $a--a sol&ly on th& l&)&l o, (on)&ntion
so-&ti-&s l&a's to a si-.listi( )i&+ o, thin*s, su(h as b&li&)in*
that a (&rtain .&rson, ha)in* (o--itt&' su(hAan'Asu(h $a--a,
on su(hAan'Asu(h a 'ay, t&n y&ars lat&r r&(&i)&s su(hAan'Asu(h
ba' r&sult% Th& (aus& an' &,,&(t .ro(&ss r&,&rr&' to ju-.s o)&r
a o, t&n y&ars all in on& st&.% Th& total str&a- o, &)&nts
in)ol)&' is not ta$&n into a((ount, an' so it is 'i,,i(ult to s&& th&
r&al .ro(&ss in)ol)&'% "tu'yin* th& sa-& (as& in t&r-s o, th&
natural str&a- o, &)&nts h&l.s to s&& th& o.&ration o, (aus& an'
&,,&(t r&lationshi.s -or& (o-.l&t&ly an' in -or& '&tail, r&)&alin*
th& r&al si*ni,i(an(& o, th& r&sults +hi(h ha)& aris&n an'
ho+ th&y ha)& (o-& about%
"u..os& a (&rtain Mr% Bro+n has an ar*u-&nt +ith his n&i*hbor
an' $ills hi-% Althou*h h& *o&s into hi'in*, &)&ntually h&
is arr&st&' an' (on)i(t&'% Lat&r, &)&n a,t&r ha)in* b&&n ,r&&' at
th& &n' o, his .rison t&r-, Mr% Bro+n still &?.&ri&n(&s r&-ors&
on a((ount o, his ba' a(tions% H& is o,t&n haunt&' by th& i-a*&
o, th& -ur'&r )i(ti-% His ,a(ial ,&atur&s an' .hysi(al b&arin*
(han*&, b&(o-in* a*itat&', ,&ar,ul an' '&.r&ssi)&% Th&s& -&ntal
stat&s, (ou.l&' +ith his stron* .hysi(al b&arin*, to*&th&r
(aus& hi- to b&(o-& &)&n -or& )iol&nt an' ba'At&-.&r&'% As
ti-& *o&s on his .hysi(al ,&atur&s ta$& on (oars& an' hostil&
(hara(t&risti(s% H& hi'&s his su,,&rin* +ith a**r&ssi)& b&ha)ior,
b&(o-in* a 'an*&r to so(i&ty an' to hi-s&l,, unabl& to ,in' any
In this &?a-.l&, +& (an say that Mr% Bro+n has (o--itt&'
ba' $a--a an' su,,&r&' th& r&sults o, his a(tions% This is
s.&a$in* (on)&ntionally, an' it is r&a'ily un'&rstoo' by -ost
.&o.l&% It is a +ay o, (o--uni(ation, ,a(ilitatin* th& &?(han*&
o, i'&as, but it s.&a$s -&r&ly o, th& &?t&rnal a..&aran(& o,
thin*s, or th& *ross&r r&sults o, th& r&l&)ant ,a(tors +hi(h ar&
(on(&al&' +ithin% It 'o&s not .i&r(& th& tru& &ss&n(& o, th& -at
t&r, o, th& int&rr&lat&' ,a(tors r&a(tin* a((or'in* to th& natural
Ho+&)&r, i, +& s.&a$ in t&r-s o, r&ality, +& (an s.&a$ o, th&
&ss&n(& in its &ntir&ty, r&,&rrin* to it as a .ro(&ss o, &)&nts% ;or
&?a-.l&, +& (oul' say that +ithin th& o.&ration o, this s&t o,
,i)& $han'has, a -in' stat& bas&' on an*&r aros&% Th&r& ,ollo+&'
th& -&ntal .roli,&ration in a((or' +ith that an*&r, l&a'in*
to .hysi(al a(tion% #on(&i)in* in this +ay habitually, th&
-in' b&*an to assu-& thos& t&n'&n(i&s% Physi(al r&.&r(ussions
,ro- &?t&rnal sour(&s +&r& &?.&ri&n(&', a''in* to th& un.l&asant
,&&lin*, an' so on%
".&a$in* a((or'in* to th& (on'itions in this +ay, +& ha)& all
th& n&(&ssary in,or-ation +ithout th& n&&' ,or r&,&r&n(& to Mr%
Bro+n or any $in' o, s&l,% Th& .ro(&ss (ontains in its&l, natural
&l&-&nts o, )arious $in's arisin* an' r&a(tin* +ith &a(h oth&r
to .ro'u(& a(tions an' r&a(tions, +ithout th& n&&' ,or a 'o&r or
a r&(&i)&r o, r&sults%
0h&th&r s.&a$in* a((or'in* to th& (on'itions as *i)&n h&r&,
or a((or'in* to th& (on)&ntion as r&lat&' abo)&, th& r&ality o,
th& situation is i'&nti(al > n&ith&r is '&,i(i&nt or -or& (o-.l&t&
> but th& '&s(ri.tion o, thin*s as a natural (on'ition is *i)&n in
t&r-s o, th& natural ,a(ts, +ithout th& a..&n'a*&s o, (on)&ntional
In any (as&, &)&n +ith th&s& &?a-.l&s, th&r& -ay still b& so-&
'oubt on th& -att&r, so it -i*ht b& h&l.,ul to (on(lu'& +ith a
Tit Porn*n +&nt to )isit th& V&n&rabl& Abbot o, th& n&arby
-onast&ry% At on& .oint, h& as$&'4
FEh, Luan* Por, th& Bu''ha tau*ht that &)&rythin* is notA
s&l,, an' is +ithout an o+n&r > th&r& is noAon& +ho (o--its
$a--a an' noAon& +ho r&(&i)&s its r&sults% I, that!s th& (as&,
th&n I (an *o out an' hit so-&bo'y o)&r th& h&a' or &)&n $ill
th&-, or 'o anythin* I li$&, b&(aus& th&r& is noAon& (o--ittin*
$a--a an' noAon& r&(&i)in* its r&sults%G
No soon&r ha' Tit Porn* ,inish&' s.&a$in*, +h&n th&
Abbot!s +al$in* sti($, (on(&al&' so-&+h&r& un$no+n to Tit
Porn*, s+un* 'o+n li$& a ,lash% Tit Porn* (oul' har'ly *&t
his ar- u. ,ast &nou*h to +ar' o,, th& blo+% E)&n so, th&
+al$in* sti($ stru($ sEuar&ly in th& -i''l& o, his ar-, *i)in*
it a *oo' bruis&%
#lut(hin* his sor& ar-, Tit Porn* sai', FLuan* PorJ 0hy
'i' you 'o that@G His )oi(& tr&-bl&' +ith th& an*&r that +as
+&llin* u. insi'& hi-%
FOhJ 0hat!s th& -att&r@G th& Abbot as$&' o,,han'&'ly%
F0hy, you hit -&J That hurtsJG
Th& Abbot, assu-in* a ton& o, )oi(& usually r&s&r)&' ,or
s&r-ons, slo+ly -ur-ur&'4 FTh&r& is $a--a but noAon&
(r&atin* it% Th&r& ar& r&sults o, $a--a, but noAon& r&(&i)in*
th&-% Th&r& is ,&&lin*, but noAon& &?.&ri&n(in* it% Th&r& is
.ain, but noAon& in .ain / H& +ho tri&s to us& th& la+ o, notA
s&l, ,or his o+n s&l,ish .ur.os&s is not ,r&&' o, s&l,H h& +ho
(lin*s to notAs&l, is on& +ho (lin*s to s&l,% H& 'o&s not r&ally
$no+ notAs&l,% H& +ho (lin*s to th& i'&a that th&r& is noAon&
+ho (r&at&s $a--a -ust also (lin* to th& i'&a that th&r& is
on& +ho is in .ain% H& 'o&s not r&ally $no+ that th&r& is noA
on& +ho (r&at&s $a--a an' noAon& +ho &?.&ri&n(&s .ain%G
Th& -oral o, this story is4 i, you +ant to say Fth&r& is noA
on& +ho (r&at&s $a--a,G you -ust ,irst l&arn ho+ to sto.
sayin* FOu(hJG
8 In #on(lusion
Th& .ra(ti(al )alu& o, th& t&a(hin* o, $a--a (an b& su--ariB&'
N It &stablish&s an un'&rstan'in* o, a(tions an' th&ir
r&sults as subj&(t to (aus& an' &,,&(t, rath&r than
lu($y (har-s an' aus.i(ious obj&(ts%
N It '&-onstrat&s that th& su((&ss o, any as.iration is
'&.&n'&nt on a(tion, &n(oura*in* s&l,Ar&lian(& an'
N It '&)&lo.s a s&ns& o, r&s.onsibility > to on& s&l, by
*i)in* u. ba' a(tions, an' to+ar's oth&rs by a(tin*
$in'ly to+ar's th&-%
N It nurtur&s th& un'&rstan'in* that all .&o.l& ha)& a
natural an' &Eual ri*ht, &ith&r to l&t th&-s&l)&s '&*&n&rat&,
or to an' '&)&lo. th&-s&l)&s%
N It sho+s that -&ntal Eualiti&s, abiliti&s an' b&ha)ior
ar& th& -&asurin* sti($s o, hu-an bas&n&ss or r&,in&-&nt,
an' that 'is(ri-ination a((or'in* to (ast& or
ra(& ar& unn&(&ssary an' har-,ul%
N It sho+s ho+ to l&arn ,ro- ol' $a--a C.ast a(tionsD,
by (onsi'&rin* a(tions a((or'in* to r&asonH not
,in'in* ,ault +ith oth&rs or &?t&rnal situations,
but loo$in* into on&!s o+n a(tions, as(&rtainin* ho+
to (orr&(t th&- an' on&s&l,, an' '&t&r-inin*
th& -ost us&,ul a(tions ,or any *i)&n situation%
N It .uts th& ,utur&, in th& ,or- o, .&rsonal r&s.onsibility,
ba($ into th& han's o, &a(h in'i)i'ual%
Th&s& )alu&s (an b& (onsi'&r&' in th& li*ht o, th& Bu''ha!s
+or's .r&s&nt&' h&r&4
Th& *&n&ral -&anin*
FBhi$$hus, int&ntion, I say, is $a--a% 0ith int&ntion as th&
,or&runn&r, $a--a is (r&at&' throu*h bo'y, s.&&(h an'
-in'%G <9
FAll b&in*s ar& th& o+n&rs o, th&ir $a--a, h&irs to th&ir
$a--a, born o, th&ir $a--a, r&lat&' to th&ir $a--a,
su..ort&' by th&ir $a--a% Ka--a it is +hi(h 'i)i'&s b&in*s
into (oars& an' r&,in&' stat&s%G <5
F0hat&)&r s&&' on& .lants, on& r&a.s th& ,ruit th&r&o,%
0ho 'o&s *oo' r&(&i)&s *oo', +ho 'o&s &)il r&(&i)&s
&)il%G 26
FTh& ,ool tr&ats hi-s&l, li$& an &n&-y, (r&atin* ba'
$a--a, a (aus& ,or -is&ry% A(tions +hi(h l&a' to 'istr&ss,
a ,a(& +&t +ith t&ars an' 'istra(tion, ar& not *oo' $a--a%G
FA(tions +hi(h l&a' not to 'istr&ss, but to a h&art bri*ht
an' (h&&r,ul, ar& *oo' $a--a% Kno+in* +hat $a--a is
us&,ul, on& shoul' Eui($ly a(t th&r&on%G 21
Int&lli*&n(& o)&r su.&rstition
FI, it +&r& .ossibl& to (l&ans& &)il $a--a by bathin*
in a ri)&r, th&n th& ,ro*s, ,ish, ott&rs, (ro(o'il&s an' oth&r
ri)&rA'+&llin* ani-als +oul' (&rtainly b& '&stin&' ,or r&birth
in a h&a)&n r&al- / I, th&s& ri)&rs +&r& (a.abl& o,
(arryin* a+ay your &)il $a--a, th&n th&y (oul' .robably
also (arry a+ay your *oo' $a--a%G 27
FB&n&,it sli.s by +hil& th& ,ool (ounts th& stars% B&n&,it is
th& harbin*&r o, b&n&,it, o, +hat us& ar& th& stars@G 2:
F;or +hoso&)&r th&r& is ri*ht a(tion, that is a ,a)orabl& ti-&,
an aus.i(ious ti-&, an aus.i(ious -ornin*, an aus.i(ious
'a+nin*, an aus.i(ious -o-&nt, an aus.i(ious o((asionH
an' in that a(tion th&r& is )&n&ration o, th& holy% Th& bo'ily
$a--a / )&rbal $a--a / -&ntal $a--a o, su(h a
on& ar& aus.i(ious, an' his +ish&s ar& aus.i(ious% Ha)in*
(r&at&' aus.i(ious $a--a, that .&rson &?.&ri&n(&s only
aus.i(ious r&sults%G 2<
A(tion rath&r than .ray&r
FY&arn n&ith&r ,or th& .ast, nor anti( th& ,utur&% Th&
.ast is *on&, th& ,utur& y&t to (o-&% On& +ho s&&s (l&arly
th& .r&s&nt -o-&nt, (&rtain an' un+a)&rin*, shoul' stri)&
to -aintain that a+ar&n&ss% Pra(ti(& 'ili*&ntly to'ay, +ho
$no+s +h&th&r to-orro+ +ill brin* '&ath@ NoAon& (an
bar*ain +ith th& Lor' o, D&ath an' his hor'&s% On& +ho
.ra(ti(&s in su(h a +ay, &)&n ,or on& ni*ht, ar'&nt, laBy
n&ith&r 'ay nor ni*ht, is .rais&' by th& P&a(&,ul On&%G 22
FList&n, hous&hol'&r, th&s& ,i)& (on'itions ar& '&sirabl&,
+orthy o, ,a)or, +orthy o, .l&asur&, an' ar& har' to (o-&
by in this +orl'% Th&y ar& lon*&)ity / .l&asant a..&aran(&
/ / status / h&a)&n% Th&s& ,i)& (on'itions, I
say, ar& not to b& ha' by -&r& or as.iration%
I, th&s& ,i)& (on'itions +&r& obtainabl& throu*h -&r& or as.iration, th&n +ho in this +orl' +oul'
not ha)& th&-@ List&n, hous&hol'&r, th& Nobl& Dis(i.l&,
'&sirin* lon* li,&, shoul' not +ast& his ti-&*
or -&r&ly in'ul*in* in th& +ish ,or lon*&)ity% Th& Nobl&
Dis(i.l& '&sirin* lon*&)ity shoul' -aintain th& .ra(ti(&
+hi(h .ro'u(&s lon*&)ity% Only th& .ra(ti(& +hi(h .ro'u(&s
lon*&)ity is (a.abl& o, .ro(urin* lon*&)ity% That
Nobl& Dis(i.l& +ill thus b& on& +ho has lon*&)ity, both
'i)in& an' hu-an / h& +ho '&sir&s .l&asant a..&aran(&
/ / status / h&a)&n, shoul' '&)&lo. th& .ra(ti(&
+hi(h .ro'u(&s .l&asant a..&aran(& / /
status / h&a)&n /G 23
FBhi$$hus, &)&n thou*h a bhi$$hu +&r& to (on(&i)& th&
+ish, KMay -y -in' b& ,r&&' ,ro- th& out,lo+s,! i, h& 'o&s
not 'ili*&ntly '&)ot& hi-s&l, to th& trainin* o, th& -in',
h& +ill b& unabl& to ,r&& th& -in' ,ro- th& out,lo+s% Must
li$& a -oth&r h&n +ho r&,us&s to sit on h&r &**s, to +ar-,
to in(ubat& th&-% E)&n thou*h that h&n -i*ht (on(&i)& th&
+ish, KMay -y (hi($s, usin* th&ir ,&&t an' b&a$s, br&a$ out
sa,&ly ,ro- th&s& &**s,! it +oul' b& i-.ossibl& ,or thos&
(hi($s to 'o so%G 28
NonAa'h&r&n(& to ra(& or (lass
FI 'o not say that on& b&(o-&s a Brah-in on &-&r*in* ,ro-
th& +o-b% That is +hat th& Brah-ins say% "u(h a
.&rson still has '&,il&-&nts% I say that it is rath&r th& on&
+ho has no '&,il&-&nts an' (lin*in* +ho is a Brah-in%
FNa-& an' ,a-ily ar& &stablish&' in this +orl' as -&r&ly
+orl'ly (on)&ntions% Th&y aris& ,ro- th& )i&+s a'h&r&'
to o)&r th& a*&s by i*norant b&in*s% Thos& i*norant b&in*s
say th&y ar& Brah-ins b&(aus& o, th&ir birth, but on&
'o&s not b&(o-& &ith&r Brah-in or nonABrah-in throu*h
birth% On& is a Brah-in throu*h a(tion C$a--aD, is a
nonABrah-in throu*h a(tion% On& is a ,ar-&r throu*h a(tion,
on& is an artist throu*h a(tion, a -&r(hant throu*h
a(tion, a s&r)ant throu*h a(tion, a thi&, throu*h a(tion,
a Kin* throu*h a(tion% Th& +is&, s$ill&' in th& Prin(i.l&
o, D&.&n'&nt Ori*ination, un'&rstan'in* $a--a an' its
r&sults, $no+ $a--a (l&arly as it is / that th& +orl' .ro(&&'s
a((or'in* to $a--a, all b&in*s ,ar& a((or'in* to
$a--a% B&in*s ar& boun' to*&th&r by $a--a, just as a
runnin* (art is boun' by its (ou.lin*s%G 29
FOn& is not &)il b&(aus& o, birth, an' is not a Brah-in
b&(aus& o, birth, but is &)il b&(aus& o, $a--a, an' is a
Brah-in b&(aus& o, $a--a%G 25
F;ro- a-on* th&s& ,our (ast&s > th& Nobl&, th& Brah-in,
th& -&r(hants an' th& .l&b&ians, all +ho ha)& l&,t ho-&
an' *on& ,orth in th& T&a(hin* an' Dis(i.lin& o, th&
Tatha*ata, +ill 'is.&ns& +ith na-& an' ,a-ily, an' all
b&(o-& &Eually r&(lus&s, "ons o, th& "a$yans%G 36
F;ro- a-on* th&s& ,our (ast&s, any +ho ha)& b&(o-&
bhi$$hus, ,r&&' o, th& out,lo+s, +ho ha)& (o-.l&t&' th&
trainin*, 'on& +hat +as to b& 'on& an' lai' 'o+n th&
bur'&nH +ho ha)& attain&' th& tru& b&n&,it, th& ,r&&'o-
,ro- th& ,&tt&rs, an' lib&ration throu*h tru& +is'o- /
th&y ar& -or& &?(&ll&nt than any o, thos& (ast&s%G 31
"&l, r&lian(&
FYou -ust 'o th& .ra(ti(& yours&l)&s% Th& Tatha*ata only
.oints th& +ay%G 37
F"&l, is th& -ainstay o, s&l,, +ho &ls& (oul' b& your -ainstay@
Ha)in* train&' th& s&l, +&ll, on& attains a -ainstay
har' to (o-& by%G 3:
FPurity an' i-.urity ar& .&rsonal r&s.onsibiliti&s% No on&
&ls& (an -a$& you .ur&%G 3<
FBhi$$hus, b& a r&,u*& unto yours&l)&s, 'o not (lin* to
anythin* &ls&% Ta$& th& Dha--a as your r&,u*&, ta$&
nothin* &ls& as your r&,u*&%G 32
A (aution ,or th& ,utur&
F0o-&n, -&n, hous&hol'&rs an' thos& *on& to ho-&l&ssn&ss
shoul' r&*ularly r&,l&(t, K0& ar& th& o+n&rs o, our
$a--a, th& h&irs o, our $a--a, born o, our $a--a,
'&s(&n'&' ,ro- our $a--a, su..ort&' by our $a--a%
0hat&)&r $a--a is 'on& by us, +h&th&r *oo' or ba', +&
+ill r&(&i)& th& r&sults th&r&o,%!G 33
FI, you ,&ar su,,&rin*, 'o not -a$& ba' $a--a, &ith&r in
.ubli( or in .ri)at&% I, you -a$& ba' $a--a, &)&n i, you
,ly into th& air, you +ill b& unabl& to &s(a.& su,,&rin*%G 38
FGrain, .oss&ssions, -on&y, all th& thin*s you lo)&, s&r)ants,
&-.loy&&s an' asso(iat&s / non& o, th&s& (an you
ta$& +ith you, you -ust (ast th&- all asi'&%
FBut +hat&)&r $a--a is -a'& by you, +h&th&r by bo'y,
s.&&(h or -in', that is your r&al .oss&ssion, an' you
-ust ,ar& a((or'in* to that $a--a% That $a--a +ill ,ollo+
you, just as th& sha'o+ ,ollo+s its o+n&r%
FTh&r&,or&, 'o *oo' a(tions, *ath&r b&n&,it ,or th& ,utur&%
Goo'n&ss is th& -ainstay o, b&in*s in th& h&r&a,t&r%G 39
a Ka--a > th& Pali s.&llin* > +hi(h is us&' throu*hout this
boo$, is not as ,a-iliar as th& "ans$rit s.&llin*, $ar-a, althou*h
th&y both -&an th& sa-&% %
b In th& Thai lan*ua*&, th& +or's F*u--aniyah-G C$a--aniya-a
D an' Fsun*$o- niyo-G Cso(ial .r&,&r&n(&D ha)&
a (&rtain a-ount o, ,lu&n(y that is lost in th& translation%
( Volitional ,or-ations% %
' Pati((asa-u..a'a% %
& Th&s& ar& th& .ra(ti(&s .ros(rib&' by th& ;i)& Pr&(&.ts,
th& basi( -oral stan'ar' ,or a .ra(ti(in* Bu''hist% %
, Th& t&n bas&s o, s$ill,ul a(tion4 =&,rainin* ,ro- $illin*,
st&alin*, s&?ual -is(on'u(t, lyin*, -ali(ious tal&Ab&arin*,
abusi)& s.&&(h, ,ri)olous s.&&(h, (o)&tousn&ss, ill +ill
an' +ron* )i&+% %
* Th&s& ,irst ,i)& Eualiti&s ar& (all&' th& ;i)& Hin'ran(&s
Cni)aranaD, so na-&' b&(aus& th&y ar& obsta(l&s to th& su((&ss,ul
'&)&lo.-&nt o, -&'itation or a (l&ar -in'% %
h E?a-.l&s o, su(h (on)&ntions ar& so(ial (o'&s o, 'r&ss4 b&,or&
&nt&rin* a Bu''hist t&-.l& in Thailan', ,or &?a-.l&,
it is to r&-o)& sho&s an' hat, +h&r&as to &nt&r
a #hristian (hur(h it is o,t&n r&Euir&' to +&ar both% %
i > su(h as by r&,usin* to r&-o)& on&!s sho&s in a Bu''hist
t&-.l& or to +&ar a hat in a #hristian (hur(h% %
j Hiri4 s&ns& o, sha-&H otta..a4 ,&ar o, +ron* 'oin*% %
$ An &?a-.l& o, this $in' o, b&li&,4 I, you br&a$ 'o+n a t&r-it&
-oun' in this li,&, in a ,utur& li,& you +ill in&)itably
ha)& your hous& bro$&n 'o+n by thos& )&ry sa-& t&r-it&s,
.ossibly r&born as hu-an b&in*s% %
l Th& ,i)& $han'has, or a**r&*at&s o, &?ist&n(&% %
- Th& +or' Fr&alityG -i*ht s&&- so-&+hat arbitrary to
thos& not ,a-iliar +ith Bu''his-% In th& (ont&?t o, this
+or$, +& (oul' '&,in& it -or& (l&arly as Fth& natural +orl'
as 'istin(t ,ro- hu-an (on)&ntional a..&n'a*&s%G %
n Tit Porn*4 FTitG is a Thai na-& ,or on& +ho has or'ain&'
as a bhi$$hu ,or so-& ti-& an' lat&r 'isrob&'% FLuan* Por,G
lit&rally -&anin* V&n&rabl& ;ath&r, is a t&r- o, r&s.&(t
*i)&n to )&n&rat&' -on$s% %
0hat&)&r a(tions +& 'o
0h&th&r *oo' or &)il
O, that $a--a
0& +ill b& th& h&irs
Th& r&,&r&n(&s *i)&n ,irst ar& ,ro- th& Pali T&?t "o(i&ty!s )&rsion
o, th& Pali Ti.ita$a, +hil& thos& in bra($&ts ar& ,ro- th&
Thai "ia-Arattha )&rsion o, th& sa-&%
Abbr&)iations us&'4
A% O An*uttaraAni$aya
D% O Di*haAni$aya
Dh% O Dha--a.a'a
Dhs% O Dha--asan*ani
It% O Iti)utta$a
M% O Mata$a
M% O Majjhi-aAni$aya
N'1 O CMahaAD Ni''&sa
N'7 O C#ulaAD Ni''&sa
"% O "a-yuttaAni$aya
"n% O "uttani.ata
'% O 'ana
Vbh% O Vibhan*a
1% "n%32< CM%1:P868P3<9H "n%72P:97P<28D %
7% A%III%<12 CA%77P::<P<3<D %
:% M%IV%:56 CM%78P762<P<1:D %
<% It%72 CIt%72P769A5P7<9A5D %
2% "n%317A32< CM%1:P868P3<:A5H "n%72P:97P<21A9D %
3% M%I%:8: CM%1:P3<P23D %
8% M%III%87 CM%1<P729P191D %
9% A%I%:6 CA%76P197P<6D %
5% A%I%:7 CA%76P195A156P<7A<:D %
16% A%I%:: CA%76P151A:P<<D %
11% Dh%1A: CDh%72P11P12D %
17% Dhs%191 CDhs%:<P33:P725D %
1:% N'117, :36, <38H N'7155 CN'175P77P1<A19H 879P<:3A
<<1H 511P28:A9H N'7:6P357P:<9A:27D %
1<% "%I%86, 59H It%<2 C"%12P:75P161H <6<P1<:H It%72P779P
73<D %
12% "%I%59 C"%12P<6:P1<7D %
13% A%I%761 CA%76P265P729A73:D %
18% A%I%73: CA%76P221P::9D %
19% A%I%195 CA%76P262P7<:D %
15% M%II%11< CM%1:P22:A<P266A:D %
76% A%I%713 CA%76P211P789A5D %
71% Dh%81 CDh%72P12P7<D %
77% Dh%187 CDh%72P7:P:9D %
7:% "%I%:8 C"%12P13:P21D %
7<% A%I%28 CA%76P73<P8:D %
72% A%I%29 CA%76P732P8<D %
73% A%V%:5 CA%7<P7:P<1D %
78% "%I%778H M%II%155, III%128 C"%12P56:P:::H M%78P75<P9<H
81:P133D %
79% Vbh%::9 CVbh%:2P9<6P<29A5D %
75% M%III%76: CM%1<P285A258P:83A:92D %
:6% D%I%57 CD%11P37A3:P161A7D %
:1% D%I%86 CD%11P<2P88D %
:7% D%I%7:6H M%I%:95H A%II%7:6A7:8 CD%11P723P7<7H M%1:P
99P97H A%71P7:7A9P:1:A:77D %
::% M%II%71<H M%15:H A%I%776 CM%1<P:P7H M%17P715P192H
A%76P21<P79<D %
:<% A%III%<12 CA%77P::<P<3<D %
:2% "%III%1:7 C"%19P778A7:6P133D %
:3% "%II%3< C"%13P1<:P88D %
:8% A%I%1:< CA%76P<8:P181D %
:9% A%I%73:H (,% A%I%73<H A%III%::9 CA%76P221P::9H
(,%A%76P227P::5H A%77P:16P:89D %
:5% A%V%731 CA%7<P13:P797D %
<6% A%II%7:: CA%71P7:2P:19D %
<1% "%V%93 C"%15P<26P17:D %
<7% A%I%18:H (,%Vbh%:38H M%II%71< CA%76P261P777H
(,%Vbh%:2P5<6P<53H M%1<P7A11P1A1:D %
<:% M%II%71< CM%1<P7P1D %
<<% "%IV%7:6 C"%19P<78P79<D %
<2% A%I%7<5 CA%76P2<6P:76D %
<3% "%IV%:15 C"%19P31:A5P:5:A:59D %
<8% M%III%15H "%III%16< CM%1<P175P163H "%18P157P173D %
<9% A%III%<12 CA%77P::<P<3<D %
<5% M%III%76: CM%1<P285P:83D %
26% "%I%778 C"%12P56:P:::D %
21% "%I%28 C"%12P791P91D %
27% Tha*%7<6A7<< CTha*%73P<33P<8:D %
2:% M%I%728 CM%78P<5P13D %
2<% A%I%75< CA%76P252P:85D %
22% M%III%198 CM%1<P278P:<9D %
23% A%III%<8 CA%77P<:P21D %
28% "%III%12: C"%18P731P193D %
29% "n%376, 3<9A32< CM%1:P868P3<2H "n%72P:97P<2:D %
25% "n%1<7 C"n%72P:63P:27D %
36% A%IV%76: CA%7:P165P762D %
31% D%III%58 CD%11P81P168D %
37% Dh%783 CDh%72P:6P21D %
3:% Dh%136 CDh%72P77P:3D %
3<% Dh%132 CDh%72P77P:8D %
32% D%II%166H D%III%88H "%III%<7 CD%16P5<P115H D%11P<5P9<H
"%18P98P2:D %
33% A%III%81 CA%77P28P97D %
38% '%21 C'%72P112P126D %
39% "%I%5: C"%12P:57P1:<D %