You are on page 1of 8

16

Chemistry in Everyday Life
Intext Questions
Intext Questions
Question 1. Sleeping pills are recommended by doctors to the patients
suffering from sleeplessness but it is not advisable to take its doses without
consultation with the doctor. Why?
Consider the effect of tranquilizers or antidepressants on the nervous
system.
Solution. Sleeping pills contain drugs that may be tranquilizers or
antidepressants. They affect the nervous system, relieve anxiety, stress,
irritability or excitement. But they should strictly be used under the
supervision of a doctor. If not, the uncontrolled and over dosage can
cause harm to the body and mind because in higher doses these drugs
act as poisons.
Question 2. With reference to which classification has the statement,
‘‘rantidine is an antacid’’ been given?
Solution. This statement refers to the classification of drugs according
to pharmacological effect because it neutralizes the acidity (excess) of
stomach.
Question 3. Why do we require artificial sweetening agents?
Mention the function of natural sweeteners, discuss the same for
artificial sweeteners.
Solution. Natural sweeteners (sucrose etc.) provide calories to the
body. Taking extra calories is harmful for diabetic patients. So, artificial
sweeteners are used (a) to control intake of calories and (b) as a
substitute of sugar for diabetics.
Question 4. Write the chemical equation for preparing sodium soap
from glyceryl oleate and glyceryl palmitate. Structural formulae of these
compounds are given below.
(i) (C H COO)
15 31 3
C H
3 5
- Glyceryl palmitate
(ii) ( ) C H COO C H - Glyceryl oleate
17 33 3 5 3
Consider the following method
Glyceryl ester + → NaOH Sodiumsalt or soap +Glycerol
CHOCO
CH OCO
CH OCO
NaOH
2
2
R
R
R


+ → CHOH
CH OH
CH OH
COONa
2
2
soap


+ R
452 NCERT Class XII Chemistry Solutions
2
Chemistry-XII Chemistry in Everyday Life
Solution. (i) CHOCOC H
CH OCOC H
CH OCOC H
15 31
2 15 31
2 15 31
Glyceryl palmi


tate
+  →  3NaOH
Heat
3 C H COONa
15 31
Sodium palmitate
(Soap)
+


CHOH
CH OH
CH OH
2
2
Glycerol
(ii) CHOCOC H
CH OCOC H
CH OCOC H
17 33
2 17 33
2 17 33
Glyceryl oleat


e
+  →  3NaOH
Heat
3 C H COONa
17 33
Sodium oleate
(Soap)
+


CHOH
CH OH
CH OH
2
2
Glycerol
Question 5. Following types of non-ionic detergents are present in
liquid detergents, emulsifying agents and wetting agents. Label the
hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in the molecule. Identify the functional
group ( ) s present in the molecule.
Solution. (a)
(b) Functional group : Ether and alcohol.
Exercises
Question 1. Why do we need to classify drugs in different ways?
It makes their use and study etc., easier.
Solution. Different types of classification to drugs is beneficial for the
people related to different fields. e.g., knowing pharmacological effect
makes it easy for doctors. It also makes the correct medicine available to
Chemistry in Everyday Life 453
O (CH CH O) CH CH OH
2 2 2 2 x
C H
9 19
( = 5 to 10) x
O (CH CH O) CH CH OH
2 2 2 2 x
C H
9 19
144424443 144444424444443
Hydrophilic
or polar part
Hydrophobic or
non-polar part
3
Exercises
Solution. (i) CHOCOC H
CH OCOC H
CH OCOC H
15 31
2 15 31
2 15 31
Glyceryl palmi


tate
+  →  3NaOH
Heat
3 C H COONa
15 31
Sodium palmitate
(Soap)
+


CHOH
CH OH
CH OH
2
2
Glycerol
(ii) CHOCOC H
CH OCOC H
CH OCOC H
17 33
2 17 33
2 17 33
Glyceryl oleat


e
+  →  3NaOH
Heat
3 C H COONa
17 33
Sodium oleate
(Soap)
+


CHOH
CH OH
CH OH
2
2
Glycerol
Question 5. Following types of non-ionic detergents are present in
liquid detergents, emulsifying agents and wetting agents. Label the
hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in the molecule. Identify the functional
group ( ) s present in the molecule.
Solution. (a)
(b) Functional group : Ether and alcohol.
Exercises
Question 1. Why do we need to classify drugs in different ways?
It makes their use and study etc., easier.
Solution. Different types of classification to drugs is beneficial for the
people related to different fields. e.g., knowing pharmacological effect
makes it easy for doctors. It also makes the correct medicine available to
Chemistry in Everyday Life 453
O (CH CH O) CH CH OH
2 2 2 2 x
C H
9 19
( = 5 to 10) x
O (CH CH O) CH CH OH
2 2 2 2 x
C H
9 19
144424443 144444424444443
Hydrophilic
or polar part
Hydrophobic or
non-polar part
3
Chemistry-XII Chemistry in Everyday Life
the patient as first aid. As antacid can be used in case of excessive
acidity in stomach.
In the same way other types of classification help the scientists, drug
manufactures, students, chemists etc.
Question 2. Explain the term target molecules or drug targets used in
medicinal chemistry.
Solution. Drugs interact with macromolecules such as proteins,
carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids. Hence, these are called drug
targets. Drugs possessing some common structural features may have
the same mechanism of action on targets.
Question 3. Name the macro-molecules that are chosen as drug
targets.
Name macromolecules of biological origin.
Solution. Nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, enzymes are
chosen as drug targets.
Question 4. Why should not medicines be taken without consulting
doctors?
Solution. If doctor’s advice is not taken before using medicines, it may
create some side effects or may cause another ailment. The dosage of
medicine is of equal importance which must be consulted by a doctor.
Question 5. Define the term chemotherapy.
Chemo means chemicals; therapy means treatment.
Solution. Chemotherapy means ‘the treatment of a disease with the
help of chemicals in the form of medicines’. It involves diagnosis,
prevention and treatment of diseases.
Question 6. Which forces are involved in holding the drugs to the active
site of enzymes?
Solution. Ionic bonding, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals’
interaction, dipole-dipole interaction etc., are involved in holding the
drugs to the active site of enzymes.
Question 7. While antacids and antiallergic drugs interfere with the
function of histamines, why do these not interfere with the function of
each other?
If the site of function is different, there is no interference in action of the
two.
454 NCERT Class XII Chemistry Solutions
4
Chemistry-XII Chemistry in Everyday Life
Solution. These (antacids and antiallergic drugs) do not interfere with
the function of each other because they work on different receptors in
the body.
Question 8. Low level of noradrenaline is the cause of depression.
What types of drugs are needed to cure this problem? Name two drugs.
Solution. Noradrenaline is a neutrotransmitter and plays an important
role in mood changes. Its low level leads to depression, so tranquilizers
(antidepressant) are needed. Iproniazid and phenylzine are such two
drugs.
Question 9. What is meant by the term ‘broad spectrum antibiotics’?
Explain.
Solution. Antibiotics which kill or inhibit a wide range of harmful or
disease-causing bacteria are called broad spectrum antibiotics. These
are equally effective against gram positive and gram negative bacteria
(both).
Examples : Ampicillin and Amoxycillin .
Question 10. How do antiseptics differ from disinfectants? Give one
example of each.
Solution. Antiseptics are the chemical substance which prevent the
growth of microorganisms and are capable of killing them without
harming the human tissues. These are applied on wounds, ulcers, cuts
and diseased skin surfaces. Examples : Dettol, savlon, furacin,
saframycin etc. Disinfectants are the chemical substances which kill
microorganisms but they are unsafe for living tissues. These are used
for the objects as in toilets, drains, floors etc. For example : Phenol (
≥ 1%solution) and chlorine (0.2 0.4 to ppm).
Note The same substance can behave as antiseptic and disinfectant.
Question 11. Why are cimetidine and rantidine better antacids than
sodium hydrogen carbonate or magnesium or aluminum hydroxide?
Solution. Antacids NaHCO
3
, Mg(OH)
2
or Al (OH)
3
neutralize the
excess acid produced in the stomach, but their prolong use can cause
the production of excess acid in the stomach which is harmful and may
result in ulcers,. Cimetidine and rantidine work without such side
effects as they prevent interaction of histamine with the receptores of
the stomach wall as histamine stimulates the secretion of acid.
Question 12. Name a substance which can be used as an antiseptic as
well as disinfectant.
Solution. 0.2% solution of phenol can be used as antiseptic while 1%
solution of phenol acts as a disinfectant.
Question 13. What are the main constituents of dettol?
Solution. Chloroxylenol and terpineol .
Chemistry in Everyday Life 455
5
Chemistry-XII Chemistry in Everyday Life
Question 14. What is tincture of iodine? What is its use?
Solution. It is a dilute solution of iodine (2 to 3 per cent) prepared in
ethanol. It is a powerful antiseptic for wounds.
Question 15. What are food preservatives?
Solution. Chemical substances which are used to protect food against
bacteria, yeasts, moulds etc., are called food preservatives. For
example : sodium meta bisulphite, sodium benzoate etc. Sugar,
common salt, vegetable oils are also good food preservatives.
Question 16. Why is the use of aspartame limited to cold foods and
drinks?
Solution. Aspartame decomposes on heating and may not work well.
So, its use as an artificial sweetener is limited to foods and drinks at low
temperatures.
Question 17. What are artificial sweetening agents? Given two
examples.
Solution. Artificial sweetening agents are the chemical substances
which provide sweetness to the food without increasing the calories to
the body. For example, saccharin, aspartame, sucralose etc.
Question 18. Name the sweetening agent used in the preparation of
sweets for a diabetic patient.
Solution. Sucralose (a trichloro derivative of sucrose) or Saccharin.
Question 19. What problem arises in using alitame as artificial
sweetener?
Solution. Alitame is a high potency artificial sweetener. Therefore, it
becomes difficult to control the level of sweetness while using it.
Question 20. How are synthetic detergents better than soaps?
Solution. Advantages of synthetic detergents over soaps :
1. Detergents can work with hard water too while soaps cannot.
2. They can work even in acidic medium while soaps cannot.
3. Synthetic detergents are stronger cleansing agents than soaps.
4. Their solubility is higher than that of soaps.
5. They are prepared form hydrocarbons (petroleum) so their use is
to save vegetable oils which are used during the preparation of
soaps.
Question 21. Explain the following terms with suitable examples :
(i) Cationic detergents
(ii) Anionic detergents and
(iii) Non-ionic detergents
456 NCERT Class XII Chemistry Solutions
6
Chemistry-XII Chemistry in Everyday Life
Solution.
(i) Cationic detergents These are quarternary ammonium salts of
amines with acetates, chlorides or bromides.
Example : Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide
(ii) Anionic detergents These detergents have large anionic part in
their molecules. These are of two types :
(a) Sodium alkyl sulphates For example, Sodium lauryl suphate
CH (CH ) CH OSO Na
3 2 10 2 3
+ −
.
(b) Sodium alkyl benzene sulphonates For example, sodium
dodecyl benzene sulphona
(iii) Non-ionic detergents These are esters of high molecular mass
alcohols with fatty acids. For example, Polyethylene glycol
stearate.
CH (CH ) COO(CH CH O) CH CH OH
3 2 16 2 2 2 2 n
Question 22. What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable
detergents? Give one example of each.
Solution. Biodegradable detergents Cleansing agents or detergents
which are decomposed by microbes are called biodegradable
detergents. Their molecules have less branching. Examples : Sodium
n-dodecyl benzene sulphonate. Soap is also a biodegradable
detergent (not synthetic). Such detergents do not create water
pollution.
Non-biodegradable detergents These detergents are not decomposed
by microbes and called non-biodegradable. When go to water sources,
they create water pollution. These have more branching in their
structure. Example : Most of the synthetic detergents .
Question 23. Why do soaps not work with hard water?
Solution. Calcium and magnesium salts present in hard water react
with soaps to from insoluble compounds, which form curdy white
precipitates and are difficult to remove from the clothes.
Chemistry in Everyday Life 457
SO Na
3
– +
CH (CH )
3 2 11
SO Na
3
– +
CH —CH—CH
3 2
CH
3
CH
CH
3
Non-biodegradable ABS detergent
3
7
Chemistry-XII Chemistry in Everyday Life
2C H COONa + MgCl (C H
17 35 2 17 35
Soap
(
In hard water
)
→ COO) Mg
2
White curdy ppt

+ 2NaCl
2C H COONa CaCl
17 35 2
Soap In hard water
+ → (C H COO) Ca 2NaCl
17 35 2
White ppt.
↓ +
Question 24. Can you use soaps and detergents to check the hardness
of water?
Solution. Soaps can be used to check the hardness of water as it forms
insoluble precipitate with hard water. While it is soluble in softwater.
Detergents are soluble in both types of water so, they cannot be used to
check the hardness of water.
Question 25. Explain the cleansing action of soaps.
Solution. Soap molecule can be represented as
Hydrocarbon chain is water repelling and ionic part is water attracting.
When soap is dissolved in water and a dirty cloth is agitated in the
solution, the oily dirt attaches to the hydrocarbon part while water
attaches to the ionic part.
Now these soap molecules arrange themselves in the form of micelles.
As the mixture is agitated more, the more and more dirt particles leave
the cloth and get attached to the soap molecules. The negative charges
of micelles prevent the dirt to form aggregates. Thus, soap removes dirt
by reducing the surface tension of water.
458 NCERT Class XII Chemistry Solutions
COO Na
– +
14444424444431444442444443
Ionic or polar part
(Hydrophilic)
Hydrocarbon chain
(Hydrophobic or
non-polar)
Na
+
Na
+
Na
+
Na
+
Na
+
Na
+
Na
+
Oil droplet
Soap molecule
O

O

O

O

O

O

O

Micelle formation
8
Chemistry-XII Chemistry in Everyday Life
Question 26. If water contains dissolved calcium hydrogen carbonate,
out of soaps and synthetic detergents which one will you use for cleaning
clothes?
Solution. Calcium hydrogen carbonate reacts with soap to form
insoluble compound. It reduces the cleaning capacity of the soap.
3 COONa + Ca (HCO ) ( COO) Ca
Soap
(ppt)
3 2 2
R R → ↓ + 2NaHCO
3
Synthetic detergents do not form such compounds so they can be used
for cleaning clothes with water containing dissolved Ca(HCO )
3
.
Question 27. Label the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in the
following compounds.
(i) CH (CH ) CH OSO Na
3 2 10 2 3
+ −
(ii) CH (CH ) N (CH ) Br
3 2 15
+
3 3

(iii) CH (CH ) COO(CH CH O)
3 2 16 2 2 n
CH CH OH
2 2
Solution.
(i) CH (CH ) CH O SO Na
3 2 10 2 3
+
Hydrophobic Hydr
1 2 444 3 444

ophilic
1 2 44 3 44
(ii) CH (CH ) N (CH ) Br
3 2 15
+
3 3
Hydrophobic
Hydroph
1 2 44 3 44

ilic
1 2 44 3 44
(iii) CH (CH ) COO (CH CH O) CH CH
3 2 16 2 2 2 2
Hydrophobic
1 2 44 3 44
n
OH
Hydrophilic
1 2 444444 3 444444
Selected NCERT Exemplar Problems
Short Answer Type
Question 1. What is the average molecular mass of drugs?
Solution. ~ 100 to 500 u
Question 2. Which type of drugs come under anti-microbial drugs?
Solution. Antiseptics, antibiotics and disinfectants.
Question 3. Where are receptors located?
Solution. Receptors are embedded in cell membrane.
Question 4. Which site of an enzyme is called allosteric site?
Solution. Sites different from active site of enzyme where a molecule
can bind and affect the active site is called allosteric site. Some drugs
may also bind to this site.
Chemistry in Everyday Life 459
9