You are on page 1of 15

Troubleshooting In Dyeing-Part I: General

By Dr. Brent Smith, NC State University, Dept. of Textile

Chemistry, Raleigh, NC
Second I n a series of ten articles by Dr. Brent Smith on the theme,
‘Troubleshooting In Dyeing.”

:Igure 1
Troubleshooting of dyeing prob
lems is a difficult task because s( Nernst Isotherm : Partitioning o f Dye between
many variables are involved an( ‘Substrate and DYQ Liquor by Solubility Effects
because observers are very sensitivc

to minor variations in dye application 0
This article, Part I, reviews several im U

portant factors that apply to dyein{

in general, including: L
Basic dye theory; n
Color standards and shade guides .d

Color judgments;
Raw material and substrate variation 4

Automat ion; c
Dyestuff quality controi; and, 0

Standard test methods. 4J

Parts I1 and Ill will deal with L
ipecifics of batch dyeing and of con. S
inuous dyeing, respectively. 01
S ~~~ ~

Iyeing The Basics
Dye Concentration in Dye Liquor C Os]
Before getting into specific details
if problem solving in dyeing, it may
le helpful to briefly mention some ‘igure 2
lasic concepts of dye theory. Twa
nportant and fundamentally dif.
?rentbranches of dye theoryshould
e understood, which are:
0 Kinetics (Mechanisms, Rates); ce -
0 Thermodynamics (Equilibria, E!
Isotherms). n A
To be a successful dyer requires
nowledge and understanding of
ow these elements are affected by
ianaging various parameters, as
ell as the ability to apply these prin-
= I /
ples then to the practice of dyeing.
nere are several basic dyeing - I /
,echanisms, as shown in Table 1.
Some of these mechanisms are us-
1 by exhaust dyers, 1.e. dlstrlbu-
in, affirlity, and (less often) entrap-
01 CDfl - K-CSf 1

1 +
CD, 3
K*CD, 1
ent. Others, especially entrapment 0
id binding, are often used by con- U
iuous dyers. The exhaust dyer at- Concentration in Dye Liquor COS]
mpts to produce an even, repro-
lcible shade by diffusion, migra-
ion, and subsequent fixation of dye 2 represented by the three dyeing mechanisms represent varying
in a substrate through an approach ,therms shown in Figures 1, 2 physical situations which’exist witt
to equilibrium conditions. Three d 3. particular fiberldyestuff combina
These isotherms and dyeing tions, as shown in Table II. They arc

March 1987 C Amedcan Dyestuff Reporter 77


troiyte, dyeing auxiliaries. an rigure 3

temperature. Each isotherm e Freundlich Isotherm : D y e Interacts Weakly w i t h
presses a relationship betwee
equilibrium concentrations o f dye i Substrata - - Hydrogan Bonding or Von der Wools
the fiber [Of],dye in the dye liquc
( e '
[D,] also, dyesites in the fiber [S, 0
and constants (N,K) which ar
characteristic of the system. Thes
isotherms represent specifi
equilibrium conditions and are if
fluenced by many specific factors fc
different dye classes. Control 0
these factors is essential for consis
tent dyeing. These will be reviewet
on a class-by-class basis in Part 11
In commerce, the equilibrium
which is represented by the isotherm
is never fully attained. Thus, anothe
critical factor for the exhaust dyer i: 1
the kinetics or rate of dyeing, a! 0
shown in Figure 4. This rate must bt
Concentrotion in Dye Liquor CDs3
:arefully tailored to the isotherm
specifics of the equipment, dye, anc
substrate. Exhaust curves expres: igure 4
:he rate df exhaust in terms of thc Uyaing kxhaust Curve
iltimate (equilibrium) percent of dyc Based on Amount o f Dye in the Fiber
Nhich will exhaust (E-) as well a!
he time (t*) required to obtain hall
q *
f that amount of exhaustion. Ex- 1 I
aust curves are non-equilibrium
ata based on percent exhaust
imounts, not concentrations) of dye.
:ontrol of many critical factors which
ffeCt tm is essential for good shade
2peats and level dyeings. The shape
f these exhaust curves will depend
n dyeing conditions, variations in
mperature, electrolyte, pH, etc.
hese considerations will be discuss-
d in depth in Part 11.
The continuous dyer, on the other
and, depends on uniform wetting
)Ilowed by fixation or binding steps %e
one under non-equilibrium condi- Tima
ons. To produce even dyeings in
lis situation, adyer gives careful at-
mtion to mechanical details as well Idor, color standards (physical or particular color. Color standards are
as chemical reactivity, penetration of imerical) are universally used by necessary in the development of new
dye, etc. Critical parameters for the ers for judgment of dye lots. Of shades and coordination of different
continuous dyer will be discussed in urse. the judgment is no better component parts.
Part 111 of this article, "Trouble- an the sample taken from the dye A shade guide, on the other hand,
shooting in Continuous Dyeing." .It is also no better than the stan- is a secondary standard of a par.
Control of shade and evenness of rd. Having a good standard as well ticular dye recipe on a specific
dyeing requires attention to different as a good sample from the lot is substrate in a certain state (for exam.
details,-depending on whether the ap- critical for both instrumental and pie, finished or not finished). The use
plication is exhaust (batch) 'or visual shade judgments. What con- of shade guides greatly facilitates
continuous. stitutes a "good" standard depends both instrumental and human colol
on many factors. judgments by avoiding certain prob-
Color standards and shade guides At this point, it is important to lems. One such problem is possible
One critical area in dyeing quality define the distinction between a "col- metamerism between the color Stan,
:ontrol is the selection, establish- or standard" and a "shade guide." dard and production lot sample,
nent, storage, and use of color stan- The color standard is a primary stan- which can result from differences in
lards. Since the human mind has dard which could be any physical ob- dye recipes. By using shade guides
eiatively poor ability to "remember" iect or numerical specification for a Iins t ead of color standards).

Amerlcan Dyestuff Reporter 0 March 1987


metamerism and the effects 01 Table 1: Mechanisms of Dyeing

lighting variations are minimized 1. Simple distribution of dye between the substrate and dye liquor (non-ionic)
Problems arising from observe!
metamerism are also reduced. Fur 2. Specific affinity of dye for fiber by hydrogen bonding, Van der Waals forces, Or ionic
interaction which may occur at specific sites, by electrical effects, or formation Of
thermore, potential problems arisin5
from appearance differences be.
tween the color standard and lot Sam. 3. Mechanical entrapment of dye within fiber.
pie such as nap or other surface
finish, luster, gloss, and haze are 4. Binders which hold pigments in place on the fiber surface.
reduced. The use of shade guides
also improves performance of in. Table II: Physical Mechanisms, Dyeing Behavior, and Isotherms
strumental color judgments. Dyeing mechanism Fibeddyestuff example Observed behavior isotherm
An ideal shade guide is a full, Simple distribution disperselsynthetic Nernst
scale, no-add production dyeing ofa Specific affinity Acidlwool
particular recipe on a specific Acidlnylon Langmuir
substrate. Less desirable situations Basiclacrylic
include (from "better" to "worse"): Directlcellulose Freundlich
Lab dyeings (same recipelsub, Entrapment Vat'
st rate); Sulfur' None'
Sample production lot (short run of Naphtol'
Binding Pigment None
partial load);
Rehandled production lot, "topped
'Exhaust dyers apply certain types of dyes in a two-step procedure, in which the ex-
up," or lot with dye add: haust phase (described by an isotherm) is followed by a reactive phase not described
Different substrate andlor recipe; by any isothem.
Non-teRtile material.
In addition to the preceding, the rable Ill: AATCC Test Methods Relating to Preparation'
nannerof drying and conditioning is rest Property
:ritical for both the shade guide and lumber
ot sample. Drying temperatures, !O and 20A ............................................. ..Fiber Identification
imes, tensions, and surface contact 17 .................................................... .Extractable Materials
:an cause considerable shade varia- '8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A s h Content
ion between samples. Tensions and '9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A b s o r b e n c y
:ontact (such as with steam heated 144 .................................................. .Alkalinity of Substrate
i1 ......................................................... .pH of Substrate
lrying cans) may cause a change in
12 ................................................................. Fluidity
he surface appearance of samples 17,27,43 ........................................................... .Wetting
,ecause of surface fusing, thermal ~9...........................................,.......,........Mercerization
wiking, shrinking, or stretching of 38 .................................................... .Alkali in Bleach Baths
102 ............................................... .Peroxide in Bleach Baths
he substrate. The use of gas-heated
103.. ...................................................... .Enzyme Activity
lrier vs. electrically heated vs. hot 149 .............................................................. .Chelates
:ans may give different shade 110.. ........................................................... .Whiteness
Finishing recipes should be con-
istent between shade guide and lot have no documented standard' pro. be studied carefully by anyone who
,ample, especially with respect to cedure for making a visual color judg- makes use of CADltextile color
:atalysts, which may cause shade mpnt. Many companies have stan- systems.5 Since color vision is not
:hanges in cellulosic and other dyes, dard lighting surroundings. Some instantaneous, and because of suc-
ind with respect to softeners which even have standard presentation cessive contrast effects, the time of
nay be fluorescent or may contain methods and color testing for the observation as well as the
luorescent brighteners. observers. Few, i f any, have specific "resting" time between successive
:oror Judgments instructions forobservers with regard observations is important. Also, long
Having obtained an adequate to other factors involved. Important term fatigue plans an important role
hade guide and lot sample, one considerations for visual judgments in color judgment i f an observer
lust then make a comparison of the D f small color differences are works for several hours.
YO for some purpose, such as ac- described in the literature.3.' These There are many factors which must
eptingor rejecting the lot. This can recommended practices should be be carefully controlled in order to
B done instrumentally or visually. mderstood by each person who make color judgments which are
9e practical details of how to make makes critical commercial color reproducible and correlate with the
lstrumental color judgments are udgments. more important factors in perceived
!ported in the 1iterature.lJ Usually, A different set of considerations color:
specially in cases of problems o r , applies, however, when comparing -Illumination;
sputes, visual color judgments will {ideo displays to textile materials, for -Sample preparation and presenta-
B the deciding factor. It is amazing 2xample when using computer aided tion;
ial many processors who rely heavi- jesign systems. An excellent review -Surroundings;
on visual color judgments usually ,f this subject is available and should -Observer; and,

.*_.-a. .no- - d m a r l c ~ nDvestuff Reoorter


Intangibles. Table IV: Defects and Latent Defects Which Come from Preparation’
Consistent color judgments arc
not difficult to achieve. However, i Defect AATCC test method
is surprising how often the followin! Residual waxes and oils #97 Extractable Materials
undamental ground rules art Silicate deposits #78 Ash Content
JVerlOOked, leading to problems. Uneven absorbency #79 Absorbency
Residual alkalinity #81 pH and #144 Alkalinity
Illumination i s usually well con Fiber damage #82 Fluidity
trolled in dyeing and laboratory en Poor bleach base #110 Whiteness and
vironments, but not in other en #78 Ash Content
,vironments, such as cut-and-seH Resist (oxycellulose) Several Methods6
Poor mercerization .#89 Barium Number
areas or meetinglconference rooms Residual peroxide Spot Test?
Normal color matching is usuall)
done under daylight, incandescent Table V: Dyeing Defects and Water
cool-white fluorescent, andloi These tests have been ad.
ministered to hundreds of students Contamination
Ultralume@lighting. Techniques
equipment, and effects of varying in academic and extension courses
at NCSU and the differences which Inconsistent shade:
lighting are well known. Lighting Chorine
should be controlled in spectral are commonly detected between -Iron and copper [sensitive dyes]
energy content, level or intensity, and “normal” observers is surprisingly -Calcium and magnesium [poor wash.
great. Furthermore, observers usually ing o f f ]
diffusion. Blotchy or streaky dyeings:
Shade guides and color standards find it hard to believe that everyone -Alkalinity or acidity
should be handled and stored care. does not see color the same. Thus, it -Residual alum from city treatment
fully. seems only reasonable that every systems
person who is associated with com- Filtering, spots, resist:
Exposure to light, burned-gas -Sediment
fumes, and other atmospheric con- mercial shade developments should
taminants can cause changes in col- be tested on a frequent basis. This is -Metal hydroxides, fatty acid complexes
3r. Also, residual chemicals in paper I

and plastic holders cause changes in Table VI: Thin-Layer Chromatography5

color of a stored sample, i f tpe sam-
Dye Developer Solvent Adsorbent
ple comes in contact with them. Nor- class system proportions
mal use of shade guides causes them Acid n-ButanollAcetonelWaterlAmmonia 5:5:1:2 Silica Gel G
’0become stretched, dirty and abrad- Methyl Ethyl KetonelAcetoneMlater 2-4:1:1 Silica Gel G
i, causing a change in appearance n-ButanollEthanollWater 1 -2:1:1 Alumina G
and color. Therefore, shade guides 3asic n-ButanollEthanollWaterlAceticAcid 9:1:1:0.1 Silica Gel G
must be monitored and replaced n-ButanollAceticAcidwater 2: 1:5 Kieselguhr
when necessary. The frequency of Pyridinemater 1:2 Silica Gel G
EthanollWater 5:2 or neutral
replacement will depend on the Alumina
amount of use, physical properties of )ired n-ButanollMethanollAmmonialPyridine 4:1:3:2 Silica Gel G
the guide, and how carefully the Propanol/25% Ammonia 2:1 Silica Gel
guide is handled. Sample and guide PyridinelAmylAlcohol/25% Ammonia 1:1:1 Silica Gel
presentation should be consistent in Iisperse ToluenelAcetone 20:1 Silica Gel
orientation, size, viewing distance, iolvent ChloroformlHexanelAcetone 3:l:l Silica Gel
conditioning, edge contact and prep- faphthol ChloroformlAcetone 9: 1 Silica Gel
MethanollMethyl Ethyl Ketone 5:2 Silica Gel
aration. Surroundings should also be
3eactive Butyl AcetatelPyridinelWater 22:l Silica Gel
controlled carefully. The usual pro- n-ButanollPyridinelWaterlAmmonia 5:5:3:2 Silica Gel
cedure is to use a flat-gray surroun- PropanollEthyl AcetatelWater 6:1:3 Silica Gel
ding of about 18% reflectance, cor- detallized ChloroformlEthanoIlMorpholine &1:1 Silica Gel
responding to a photographic gray 21)
card or a MunsellQ color designation
D f N6 to N7. rarely done in commerce, perhaps dividuals, such as:
Another critical factor in color because many color professionals -Quality control manager: Who is
udgments is the observer. There are are reluctant to take these tests. the customer?
iubstantial differences between There are other modifying factors -Plant manager: When is the lot
rbservers with “normal” color vision. related to color vision beyond ob- due out?
’hese differences go beyond the server differences. These include -Dyer: What are the chances that
lross colorblindness detected by fatigue, impairments, successive and reworking the lot will make it better?
These factors can never be complete-
ly eliminated from color judgments.

Raw materials and substrates

P tamerism, which may be detected

and quantified by use of the Munsell-
Farnsworth Hundred Hue Color Dis-
crimination Test” and the Glenn Col-
or Rule@,respectively.

The two fundamental sources of
product variation are raw materials
(including substrate) and processing.
It is not possible to properly optimize
processing conditions and e q u i p

Amerlcan Dyestuff Reporter 0 March 1987

merit while important raw material (
substrate variation is significant. Thl Table VII: Paper Chromatography5
is especially true io dyeing oper,
Developer Solvent
tions. Control methods for chemic; Dye
class system proportion
specialties, chemical commoditie: 4: 1
and the substrate itself are presente Acid Ethanol or Methanolwater
t-Butanolln-Butanollater 433:
in other parts of this series. n.ButanollEthanollWater/Ammonia 2:1:1:1
As to the effect of preparatio Methyl Ethyl KetonelAcetonelWater 24:1:1
upon dyeing, the key is consistenc! Basic MethanollSN Ammonia 8:2
Several standard tests for fabri ButanollAcetic Acidwater 2:1:5
preparation are shown in Table II Pyridinemater 1 :4
ButanollEthanol/Water 1:1:1
Properly administered and inte
preted, these tests will detec Direct ButanollPyridinelWater 23:3
Benzyl alcohollDMFMlater 322
defects and latent defects which cat
Disperse ChloroformlAcetic Acidwater 1:1:1
affect dyeing processes. Particula
(on Silicone treated paper)
defects and contaminants which frE 1 :3-5
qently result from improper a Tetrahydrofuranwater or N HC1 80-54
inadequate preparation are alsl (on Acetylated paper)
shown in Table IV, with tests t( Reactive 2% NaaHP04 in 5.1'0 Ammonia
detect them. Specific situation ButanolmaterlDMF 11:11:3
relating to these are discussed ii ButanollAcetic Acidwater 2:1:5
other parts of this series. Vat or 10% TetraethylenepentaminelNaiSiOa 10:1
Water quality, as discussed i Sulphur Ethyl AcetatelEthanolkVater 1-23:1
detail in other parts of this series, ha (on acetylated paper)
a profound effect on dyeing. Whil Metallized n-Butanollformic Acidwater 5:1:2
specific effects vary, commo (2:1) (on Whatman DE-20 paper)
Acid (1:l) Acetic Acidwater 3:2
causes and effects are shown i i Acid (2:l) Tetrahydrofuranlo. 1N HCl 80-54
Table V. (on 80% acetylated paper)
The limitations of dyeing-machir
z r y require one's particular attentior
:specially with respect to compatibil
ty with substrates. In many cases,
rothing can be done to avoid pro 'able VIII: Developing Solvents Polarity: Elutive PoweP
)lems arising from the above, bui
iometimes these problems can be Solvent Dielectric constanl
wercome by improved preparation non-polar m-Hexane 1.9
iven when nothing can be done t c less elutive power) Petroleum ether 2.0
Cyclohexane 2.0
mp rove c o m pat ib iI it y bet ween Carbon tetrachloride 2.2
ubstrate and equipment, knowledge Benzene 2.3
f the limitations allows for increased Tetrachloroethylene 2.3
luality control checks and proper Toluene 2.4
ost factors, based on anticipated Trichlorethylene 3.4
Diethyl ether 4.3
Igh off quality and seconds levels. Chloroform 4.8
Ethyl acetate 6.0
Automation Phenol 9.8
One trend in modern dyeing prac. Pyridine 12.3
tlce is the use of automated iso-Propanol 18.3
microprocessor controls for dyeing n-Propanol 20.1
equipment. These controls, if proper- Acetone 20.7
Ethanol 24.3
ly maintained and calibrated, can be Methanol 32.6
of great assistance to the dyer. Acetonitrile 37.5
However, there is a tendency for polar Water 78.5
dyers who use automated equipment (more elutive power)
to spend less time on the dyehouse
floor actually observing the dyeing
processes. In fact, automated con-
trollerscan lull a supervisor or dyer
into the false sense of security that ly unloaded from becks or jets can be Dyes
all is well. very revealing in terms of spotting There is, at this time, no com-
There is no substitute for the potential problems, which automated prehensive standard AATCC test
iyer's personal observation of pro- systems can not detect. This per- method for quality-control testing o f
:esses running on the floor. , sonal presence and observation of dyes, although procedures are being
One look at an unexhausted production processes is important in developed by committee RA98. How-
jyebath or unusual color of water batch or continuous dyeing, as well ever, it is necessary for dyers to have
jraining from boxes of cloth recent- as in preparation and i n finishing. some method of determining whether

24 Amerlcrn Dyestuff Reporter 0 March 1987

drops of dye mix are spotted on a
piece of filter paper. If a problem is
later detected, the spotted paper can
be eluted to determine qualitatively
that the correct dyes were in the mix.
Table IX: AATCC Methods Relating to Dyeing' If printing scales were used for
rest weighing, the amounts of each dye
Number Property
weighed can be verified also. Alter-
26 ............................................. .Aging of Sulphur Dyed Clot'
native solvents for development of
161.. .......................................... .Effects of Chelates in Dyein,
153.. ...................................... .Instrumental Color Measurement chromatograms are given in Table
darious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F a s t n e s s(25+ Test: VIII.
141.. ............................................... .Basic Dye Compatibilit One of the most important aspects
146 .................................................. .Disperse Dye Filterin1 of testing of dyestuffs is to review all
140 ......................................................... .Dye Migratiol
test data, good or bad, with the ven-
139 ................................... .Thermos01 Disperse Dyes on Polyeste
159 ...................................................... .Acid Dye Transfe dor. This establishes communica-
156 ..................................................... .Basic Dye Transfe tions before problems arise, and also
155 .................................................. .Disperse Dye Transfe makes the vendor aware that the mill
is checking. (Vendors also ask the
question "Who is the customer?").

Standard test methods

There are many standard test
methods that pertain to trouble-
shooting in dyeing. These are listed
in Table IX. The applicability of these
tests to various situations in exhaust
and continuous dyeing will be
or not incoming dyes are inadequatc such as AATCC Test Method 146.
described in detail in Parts II and I l l
for their needs. The following pro Color value of a dye can be determin-
of this article. 0 0 0
cedures are not necessarilyielatedt( ed by transmission measurements
the work of committee RA98, but arc after dissolution in an appropriate
simply suggestions to the practica solvent. However, this does not
... jyer of some methods which ma! measure certain important properties
xove useful. of a dye such as substantivity andlor
For each dye in use, it is good prac. fixation properties. Therefore there is References
ce to have not only the OSHA Form merit in the practice of evaluation by
1) AATCC Technical Manual, vol. 53,
0 (MSDS)as required by law, but actually dyeing a substrate with the (1986). AATCC, Research Triangle
Is0 the manufacturer's technical dye from the drum and with the dye Park,.NC.
ata sheet and a physical standard. standard. Results of dyeings may not 2) Smith, Brent, The Practical Side of Us-
tandards should be stored in a cool, be directly comparable between dif- ing Color Instrumentation, Textile
ark, dry place and should be replac- ferent mills, because different dyers Chemist and Colorist, 17, no. 11.
(November, 1985).
3 or updated as recommended by use different procedures and be- 3) Huey, Sam, "Standard Practices for
be dye manufacturer. A good quali- cause of even slight variations in Visual Examination of Small Color Dif-
control scheme for a dyehouse is water quality. However, using an ac- ferences, Color Technology in the Tex-
sample 50 to 100 grams of each tual dyeing has the important advan- tile Industry," AATCC, Research
Triangle, NC.
ye as received and send to the tage that it is mill-specific. 4) ASTM Test Method D1729, "Standard
lboratory for testing. A satisfactory In the event that the dye is used on Method for Evaluation of Color Dif-
,boratory evaluation comprises: blends, be sure to use the blend pro- ferences of Opaque Materials," ASTM,
-solubility or dispersion; cedure. For example, a disperse dye 1976 Race St.. Philadelphia, PA (1979).
5) Rich, Danny, "Colorimetric Problems
t o l o r value by either transmission which is normally used on polyester/ in Textile Dyeing Systems Using CRT
- dyeing; cotton blends, for disperseldirect Displays," Proceedings of 1985 Inter-
-thinlayer, or paper, chromato- one-bath dyeing, should be dyed with national Conference and Exhibition,
IraPhx; salt and other direct dye auxiliaries. AATCC, Research Triangle Park, NC
-special tests for unique dyes; Care must be taken to have a consis- (Oct. 1985).
5) Feeman, James, "An Introduction to
-viscosity, density, and specific tent supply of substrate for use on a Modern Methods of Dye Identifica-
jravity for liquids; long term basis for such dyeings. tion-Chromatography and Spec-
-retainSample for future reference; Another quick and simple test is trophotometry," Canadian Textile
tnd chromatography. Selected develop- Journal, February, 1970.
7) Lange, N.A. ed., "Handbook of
-proper documentation. ers for thinlayer chromatographs of Chemistry, Revised 10th Edition."
)rums which are suspected of caus- various dye classes are given in Table McGraw Hill, 1967.
-- ng problems or which have been VI, and for paper chromatography in B) Weaver, J. William, "Analytical
Ipened for a long term should be Table VII. Another application of the Methods for a Textile Laboratory 3rd
esampled and retested. paper chromatography technique is Ed.," AATCC, Research Triangle Park.
NC (1984).
Solubility or dispersion can be in the drug room. When each dye 3) Rucker. James, "Troubleshooting in
!asily tested by standard methods recipe is pasted up for use, a few Preparation," in press (ADR).

26 Amerlcrn Dyestuff Raporler 0 March 1987

Troubleshooting In Dyeing-
Part 11: Batch Dyeing
~~ ~ ~

By Dr. Brent Smith, Dept. of Textile Chemistry, NCSU, Raleigh, NC

Abstract ing i s poor shade repeats (off shade There is a very widespread impres
The first part of this article (Mar. 8; sion that avoiding defects, and espe.
ADR) presented some fundamenta In addition to production which cially improving shade repeats, is a
aspects of dyeing quality control ir gets out of the dyehouse with an simple matter of discipline. Although
general. This part (11) present: unacceptable shade, poor shade supervision, good maintenance, and
specific details of controlling batct repeats actually are the underlying proper operation of equipment are
jye processes. Critical quality con cause of a substantial portion of important, it is also very important to
lrol parapeters are discussed foi physical damages, uneven dyeings, put quality (not cost reduction and
tarious dye classes, equipment and foreign deposits. These defects short cuts) as the number one prior-
xocesses, and substrates. Also frequently occur when a shade does ity, Management pressure to reduce
Yiagnostic tests and repair pro not repeat properly and requires cor- cost or increase production beyond
:edures are presented. The final pari rective action such as dye or chemi- reasonable limits (for example, by
)f this article will concentrate on cal adds, extra run time, boiling overloading eq u ipmen1) is frequent-
:ontinuous dyeing. down, stripping, redyeing, andlor ly counterproductive.
overdyeing Correctivelrepair pro-
ntroduction cedures require extra time and proc- Dye selection
Many different classes of dyes are essing; hence, the risk of physical The exhaust dyer has a wide vari-
applied to various substrates by damage is greater. Practices such as ety of colorants from which to select
batch methods in mill-specific situa. stripping or adds increase the risk of his dye recipe. Many considerations
tions using a wide variety of equip uneven dyeing and bath instability. enter into selection of dye class,
ment. It would be impossible to Consideration of dyeing econom- subclass, and specific dyestuffs. A
review each and every commercially ics and losses associated with dye- typical selection protocol is shown in
important combination of circum- ing defects must take into account Table II. Sometimes special situa-
stances in depth; therefore, informa. the relative value of the substrate (fre- tions such as unusual blend, sub-
tion presented herein is intended quently several dollars per pound), strates, constructions, or production
primarily as a guide for troubleshoot- versus the actual labor, overhead, volume arise which require complete
ing in a variety of bath dyeing produc- dye, and chemical cost for dyeing review of the entire formulation
tion situations. (usually less than $0.50 per pound for protocol. In these cases, it is impor-
most shades). Thus, a relatively large tant to make a careful evaluation and
Dyeing defects savings in dye cost can be quickly 7ot to treat the situation as "routine."
Various types of defects may oc- offset by even a minor increase in To avoid trouble, these situations
cur during batch dyeing and par- defect level and the associated nust be identified in advance and
ticular combinations of processes, losses such as the loss of expensive iandled properly in terms of equip-
equipment, dyes or substrates may substrate. For example, a 10% cost nent, process and dye selection,
be more or less susceptible to reduction on a dye cost of $0.25 per quality control requirements, cost
specific types of defects. Most pro- pound would be offset by an increase analysis, and expectations for off-
duction dyers cite various defects, of only 1% off-quality on a $2.50 quality and re-working. Using a cer-
such as those listed in Table I, as substrate. ,ain set of dyes, procedures, cost
their major problem areas. However, In addition, that 1% off quality analysis, etc., from habit is sure to
:here is no question that the major might be reworked or redyed by a ead, sooner or later, to trouble.
iroblem which occurs in. batch dye- costly procedure(causing additional Examples of such situations are
economic loss) which has a higher rot difficult to find. One example
risk and lower chance to produce ac- vhich frequently occurs is the design
tditor's Notes-Third in a series of ceptable product than first-run dye- I f difficult-to-dye blends, especially
len articles to be prepared by Dr. ings. Thus the dyer's priority must be hree fiber blends, by stylists who do
Brent Smith on the general theme, to avoid producing defects. To avoid lot realize the difficulties involved.
"Troubleshooting In Wet Proces- defects, the first step must be to pro. 'he dyeing behavior of many binary
sing". duce consistent shade repeats.

instrumental color analysis of the
Figure 1: Fiber Dyeing Chart dyebath or the substrate are also
he1pfu I . Exhaust rate compatibility
can also be evaluated by private
methods such as the Resolin S
Process.@* Failure to select compati-
A C R I U N 16 -
ble dyes in combination shades will
A C R I U N 1656 affect shade repeats.
3. CROSS m.uyK)N.OR Suggestions for quality control o f
rcREs EITHER nem
dyestuffs for a dyehouse are given in
Part I of this article. Storage,
weighing, and mixing of dyes should
be in a cool dry area. Proper ventila-
tion and air circulation are important
for worker protection and also to pre-
vent airborne dye particles from fly-
ing or drifting to areas where they
might deposit on in-process goods.
Certain dyes, especially fiber-reactive
powder dyes and many types of li-
quid dyes, have a tendency to
degrade during storage. All drums of
dye (and also chemicals) should be
dated when opened. Any drums
which are nearing the end of their
shelf life, as recommended by the
manufacturer, should be retested
using standard raw material quality.
zont rol procedures.
Paste-up of dyes can have a sub-
stantial effect on the quality in terms
7 f shade repeats as well as specific
lefects such as dye spots. Therefore,
lye paste-up should adhere careful-
y to manufacturers recommenda-
ions. General guidelines for drug
oom practices given in Table Ill are
lot intended to contradict or substi-
. --- I
ute for specific instructions which
I dye manufacturer might provide for

I certain dye. Beyond these specific

rocedures and temperatures, how-
ver, there are other considerations.
)lends is given in Figure 1 (the ester and cotton. An alternativ When dyes are weighed, it is an ad-
xiginal source of this widely cir- fabric, with filament acetate yarn o antage to use printing scales for a
:ulated table is uncertain). Introduc- the face and lW% cotton yam on th ,emanent record of amounts, and to
ng a third fiber can create great dif- back, on the other hand, was relativc lip the corner of a piece of filter
iculties for the dyer. ly easy and less costly to dye. japer in the final paste for diagnostic
One specific commercial example The two important ideas in thi :hromatography test later, i f neces-
,f such a situation involved a poly. example are to design product ,ary.
isterlcottonlacetate blend. The idea which have the greatest potential fc I f the water is hard, hexaphos
if the designer was to make a two- overall profit and when high degref ,houId be added and thoroughly
ided fabric with filament acetate of-difficulty products are encour lissolved prior to pasting dye.
arn on the face and a spun yarn on tered, to have special procedures f c I f chlorine is present in the water,
he back. Although the back side of handling them. gram per liter of thiosulfate should
hefabric could have been made from In exhaust dyeing, properselectio ie added. Excessiveamounts of thio-
00% cotton yarn, the designer of a specific dye combination for ulfate are detrimental.
selected 50150 polyesterlcotton yarn shade is critical. Factors such as e) Sequestrants for iron and copper
by habit. The resulting three-fiber haust rate (strike), leveling propertie: EDTA, DTPA, NTA) should not be
blend (polyesterlcottonlacetate) was and sensitivity to pH and electrolyt ised because many dyes are sen-
a dyer's nightmare in dark shades be- must be consistent for all dyes in th itive. If metals such as iron and cop-
cause of difficulties in disperse dye formula. AATCC Test Methods 14 ier are a problem, water treatment
selection as well as the physical and and 156 for basic dyes, 155 for diz lot chelates) should be employed.
chemical damage which occurred to perse dyes, and 159 for acid dyes ar Some paste-up procedures given
the acetate while dyeing the poly- helpful.' Exhaust curves prepared b

American Dyeslulf Reporter U April 1987

Table I: Batch Dyeing Defects Various dye classes exhibit sub A laboratory dyeing which had 90%
stantially different behaviors ii exhaustion at equilibrium determined
- Physical damage: thermo-dynamic equilibrium (is0 by colorimetric measurements of
tender or weak. therm) and kinetics (exhaust 0 residual dye in the dyebath, and a Ii.
scuffed, pilled, chafed or abraded
fabric strike).'To be successful, dyeing pro quor ratio of 25:l would have:
frayed or abraded yarn cedures and equipment must bc
picked or snagged fabric compatible with these behaviors. 0
holes, torn, or broken fabric 0 course, individual dyes within a clas!
yarn, When the same shade is dyed on pro.
creases, cracks, breaklines, or ropt may have substantial variation!
marks in fabric which must be considered. Excellen duction machines at 1O:l liquor ratio,
presentationsof the fundamentals 0 a value of exhaustion of:
Uneven d e application:
fab ric or yarn,
exhaust dye applications have beer
shaded goods (sidelside, endlend, published.' For each dye class, then E- = 180 l(180 + 10) = .947 or 9 . 7 %
insideloutside, etc.), are certain critical factors to be con
blotchy. trolled or special considerations t(
be made in order to avoid trouble.
- Foreign deposits: One particular factor is the manne
Thus to get 1% ye on the goods
dye spots, in the laboratory (251 liquor ratio) rE
wax, oil, or size spots, oidetermining amounts of chemicals quires 1.11 % dye on weight of good:
chemical breakout (bath instabi to be used in exhaust dyeings. The
[owg), but in the production machine
i!Y)# dye, of course, must be based on the
f 11t ering deposits. [10:1 liqucy ratio) requires 1.06% dyc
weight of fiber to be dyed. It is coma
Dwg. Failure to make an appropriatc
mon practice to base amounts of
adjustment would result in poor lab
chemical auxiliaries also on the
Table 11: Formulation of Dye Recipe! xatory-to-dyehousecorrelation, ever
weight of fabric. This can create
if chemicals were based on the
I. Select Equipment: problems with shade repeats, for ex.
Production Volume Expected ample when acid, alkali, or other buf-
Cost Requirement (Market Competi Another source of variations in dye
fers are used to adjust pH to specific
tlon) sxhaust is the substitution 01
ralues or when electrolyte is used.
Physical Form of Substrate Slauber's (GL)salt for common salt
Quality (Reproducibility vs. Evenness Therefore, quantities of these chem.
Several dye classes use salt t c
Avallability of Equipment cals should be based on the amount
3f dye liquor present. Failure to do so
achieve exhaust, and several types oi
!. Select Dye Class: salt can be used, including;
s a prominent cause of poor labor-
Substrate ( Fiber Content, Blend)
EquipmentlProcedure atory-todyehouse correlation, as well
BS poor shade repeats on odd-sized - Common salt (NaCI)
Cost Requirement
Fastness Requirement ots. When liquor ratios vary, basing - GL salt heptahydrate
(NalSO'. 7H10)
.i Select Specific Dyes (within Class):
:hemicais on the amount of goods
:auses variations in concentrations - GL salt anhydrous (NalSO,)
Availability vhich in tum changes the percent ex- - Brine (NaClaq)
cost iaust of dye, therefore affecting
Fiber Content of Substrate (eSp. ,hade repeats. Typical laboratory li. Because of the differences of
Blends) luor ratios will usually be over.20:1, formula weight between the above,
Fastness thile typical production liquor ratios substitution should not be made on
Shade Reproducibility and Evenness
Required rill be 8:l up to 16:l. equal pound-for-pound basis. Actual
Quality Factors (Fastness) Even when chemicals are based on equivalences are:
Value, Chroma, Hue of Colorants he bath, changing liquor ratios can
ause shade variations. To adjust dye 100# Common salt
Match the Color:
Percentages of DyeslChemicals to Use ecipes forvariance in liquor ratio re- 122# GL salt anhydrous
luires knowledge of the dyeing be- 278# GL salt heptahydrate
iaviors described in Part l of this ar- 38.5 gallons brine
:eam, which is common practice in Me. In particular, the effective value (23 Be or 25% NaCI)
ime drug rooms. If live steam is f "K" in the isotherm (at equilibrium)
sed, there is a risk of introducing lust be known for the dyeing. Dye adds
letal contamination from the steam One common practice in exhaust
'pes. Also, using live steam can dyeing is the addition of dyestuffs
iise the pH of the heated water due (adds) to an exhausted bath in order
1 atbline contaminants in the he liquor ratio L and Kerf are related to adjust a shade which did not pro-
eam. It is not unusual to find pH 1 the equilibrium exhaust E by equa- perly repeat. The manner in which
values of 8.5 to 9 or higher for water m s 2 and 3. iuch adds are made can substantially
which has been heated to 180'F with affect overall dyehouse performance.
live steam. I f live steam is used, daking adds to production dyeings
check frequently to ensure that s difficult at best. The main difficulty
metallic contamination and alkalinity which arises is that something, often
are not being inadvertently intro- JnknOWn, has caused the shade to fail
duced into dye pastes, dyebaths, and o repeat. It could be pH, salt content,
washinglscouring operations. :ontamination in raw water, inac-

curate weighing of dyes or chemi- propriate properties with regard t
cals, poor temperature control, leak- end uses. Exhaust and leveling ar
ing drain or f i l l valve, improper dye or controlled by pH. Traditionally an
chemical addition procedure, varia- monium sulfate has been used t
tions in substrate preparation, etc. In generate acid in the bath when an
many cases, excess dye is still in the monia is released by the reaction:
bath and is not exhausted onto the fiber, exhaust (strike) begins very
fiber. Therefore, nonstandard-dye e rapidly at a specific temperature.
haustion has occurred, and the pro1 Also, fabrics which are run in rope
er first action is to correct the dyi This does not work well for pH cor form tend to form permanent creases
ing as nearly as possible to standar trol on modern enclosed dyeinl i f heated or cooled rapidly in the
conditions. machines such as jets, beams temperature range near To.
If the problem is procedural i package dye machines, and pressun Therefore, i t is best to be very con-
nature, such as an error in timc becks because the enclosure of thc servative with heating and cooling
temperature, pH, salt content or I machine prevents the ammonia fron near To.
quor ratio, there is little chance th: escaping. On such equipment, alter Typical TQvalues for acrylics are
a dye add will behave any better tha nate buffer systems should be used in the range of 175' to 19O'F, but the
the original dyeing. To allow for thi! 'If an acid such as formic or acetic To of wet fiber under tension in the
jyers have learned to "hedge" the is used for pH control, additior jye bath may be significantly dif-
adds in order not to overshoot. I should be even and slow. Lightfast ferent from the dry To reported by
fact, it is rare for a dyer to make ness of acid-dye recipes, which i: :he fiber manufacturers. To repair
arge add to correct a shade in on generally very good, can be improv :reases and cracks in acrylic fabrics,
:ry; multiple adds are common. Thi ed even further by the addition o ieat 210' to 225'F, run 15 minutes,
greatly increases the risk of streak copper sulfate to the dye bath. How hen cool back to well below TQvery
)r daqaged goods. To make a gooc sver, copper-containing baths musl ;lowly (0.5'Flminute).
lye add requires careful judgment a De handled by special techniques Retarders are frequently used to
he exact reason for the failure of thi Such as reuse, to avoid environ, issist i n even shade buildup.
;hade to repeat, inspection of thc nental or waste treatment problems ilauber's (GL)salt acts as a mild
lyebath for unexhaustea dye, detei Repair procedures for acid dyes in. etarder. Specialty retarders have
nination of pH and electrolyte con :lude leveling by boiling (ph must be :trongereffects such as permanent-
ent, and determination of whether i :ontrolled in accordance with the y blocking dye sites or complexing
lye (color) add is the correct action specific dye selection), or stripping lye in the dye liquor. It is possible to
iome things that can be done tc Stripping procedures include reduc. lake a retarder with precisely con-
lake adds easier for the dyer are tc ion (zinc sulfoxylatelformaldehyde), rolled action by mixing GL salt with
stablish: )xidation (sodium chlorite), or
;pecially ethylene-oxide-tallow-
- Good shade repeats in the lab imine stripping agents which have
and good lab-to-dyehoust iffinity forthe acid dye and complex
correlations; t in solution. The specialty strippers
- a reproducible production dyc vork at slightly alkaline pH. provid-
recipe and procedure for thc !d by adding TSPP to the bath. Light-
shade; astness of stripped and redyed
- a dyer's take-off shade guide loods is frequently inferior to first-
produced from the same recipe un goods.
on the same substrate (no1
finished) for color difference lasic dyes
determinations, shade passing, Basic dyes obey the Langmuir
and estimating dye adds; and, jotherm when applied to acrylics,
- to inspect the dyebath for dye, nd undergo strong, ionic interac-
pH, salt content and other fact. ion. Because of the strong affinity of
ors before adding color. asic dyes for acrylic (and other
asicdyeable)fibers, exhaust is near-
Other factors for controlling shade 100% and migration or leveling is
epeats and even dyeings are merally poor. Therefore, the selec-
)resented below for specific dye 3n of dyes with similar exhaust
:lasses. iaracteristics is of primary impor-
nce. There are several methods for
rcid dyes determining compatibility, including
Acid dyes obey the Langmuir AATCCTest Method 141. Other meth-
jothem when applied to wool and ods such as "diffusion numbers"'
nylon, and undergo strong ionic inter- and affinity determinations' can also
action. Acid dyes, as a class, are be used. Careful attention to dye
relatively easy to apply. I t is im- compatibility is necessary to obtain
portant to select dyes with compat- consistent shade repeats, on-tone ) i r e d dyes
ible exhaust characteristic and ap- shade build up, and even dyeing. Direct dyes obey the Freundlich
- --. I f - -
__^_,__ ._,'I .e$-

isotherm, when applied to cellulose, mum exhaust temperatures are tures (250.F.) These dyes must bt
and undergo weak interaction with shown in Table IV. The practical im- avoided i f good shade repeats are t c
the fiber. There are three subclasses plications of these temperatures of be obtained,
or types of direct dyes. Type A directs maximum exhaust are important. Direct dyeings have inadequate
have good migration and leveling pro. Suppose a recipe had for example fastness for many end uses unles:
perties even in the presence of salt. CI Directs Red 81, Elue 80, and some sort of fixative is applied
Type B directs level well without salt, Yellow 105, which give maximum ex- Several types are commonly used t c
but not so well when salt is present. hausts at 140'F, 205'F, and 203'F, improve wet fastness of direct-dyec
For this reason, salt addition must be respectively. Ifthe dyeing were done goods. The misuse of fixatives is fre,
very carefully controlled, especially at 205'F, the Red 81 would continue quently a contributing factor to off,
ifbrine is used. However, penetration to exhaust during the cooling part of quality direct dyeings. The use 01
and leveling may be achieved with the dye cycle. Thus the fabric sam- copper sulfate has been largely dis.
type B directs by boiling the dyebath ple ("hot patch") taken at the dyeing continued because of its detrimental
prior to salt addition. Type C directs temperature of 205'F would not con- effects on the environment. Epsom
do not level well at all, and evenness tain as much Red 81 as the final (cold) salt is sometimes used as an anti-
31 exhaust must therefore be assured patch. This may lead to poor shade migrant to temporarily fix the dye un-
by careful temperature control. Type rep,eats or even worse, unnecessary til a permanent fixative can be ap-
2 are relatively very difficult to dye, dye adds based on an inaccurate hot plied from a continuous finish mix.
and exhaust must be controlled by patch. More commonly, resinous fixatives
:areful heating. Details of dye proc- When direct dyes are used for are either exhausted from the dye-
Csses fordirects such as addition of blends, several special considera- bath or applied in finishing. Improper
ialt (hot or cold) and rate of rise must tions must be taken into account. application of these resinous fix-
,e carefully tailored to the dye types One important consideration is the atives can cause spots and streaky,
n the recipe. selectionpf dyes with good stability blotchy, or shaded dyeings. The first
Important factors in dye selection at high temperature. This is very im- point of concem is never to introduce
or directs include type compatibility, portant when dyeing synthetic/ the fixative into a direct-dye bath
!xhaust temperature compatibility, cellulose blends together in the same which is not clear of dye. Ifany dye
lead cotton coverage, fastpess, and bath above 212'F. High temperature remains in the bath, adding fixative
,lend considerations (staining). Max- stability of some dyes is given in w i l l immediately precipitate i t ,
mum exhaust temperature for in- Table V. Many direct dyes are hydrol- thereby producing defective goods.
lividual direct dyes varies. Examples yzed by slightly-acidic conditions at To clear the bath, many dyers use salt
if a few direct dyes and their maxi- extended times and high tempera- in the final rinse. However, many f i x -

atives will precipitate in the presenc

of salt, giving resinous spots. 7 Table Ill: Dye Paste Up Practices
avoid fixative spots or streaks, tak Add 1 gram per liter thiosulfate i f chlorine i s present in the water.
the following precautions: Add hexaphos i f hardness is present in the water.
- never add fixative hot; kee Do not use EDTA, DTPA, NTA, or similar sequesterants.
temperature around 80' f Be careful when using live steam (pH and metal contamination).
1OO'F while adding fixative;
- be sure the bath is clear of dy
Direct Dyes
Mix dye directly into cool (80.F) water
before adding the fixative; With stirring. heat (live steam is OK) to 160'F
- if washing in salt, be sure thc Continue stirring until used
the fixative is compatible wit
salt; Basic Dyes
Paste dye in equal weight of acetic acid
- heat the dye bath to 140' to er Add dye paste to 2°F water with stirring
sure fixative exhaustion, usin Avoid live steam (even before adding dye)
a slow, even rate of temper:
ture rise;
- watch out for chlorine harc . Acid dyes
Add dye directly to water with stirring
ness, iron, etc. in the waterdu ...
premets, cool (80.F)
ing the fixing processing, (ad1 ..
. leveling types, hot (180.F)
thiosulfate andlor hexaphos i
necessary); and Fiber Reactive Dyes
Add dye directly to water at 140'F to 170'F with stirring
- keep control of the pH accorc Avoid live steam (even before adding dye)
ing to values recommended b' A d d 70 grams per liter or more of urea to increase solubility
the fixative manufacture i f solubility problems persist, use liquid dyes.
(typically about 4).
Direct dyes are commonly appliec Disperse Dyes
Add dye to 170' to 115'F water, with stirring
vith salt and the amount, type, an( Avoid live steam (even before dye is added)
nanner of addition of salt is impor
ant to ensure reproducible and leve Vat. Sulfur, Naphthol, Developed, Mordant dyes
lyeings. The total amount should bc Follow manufacturer's instructions (varies).
These are usually available as liquids
0 grams per liter of common salt fo
ach 1% of direct dye in the recipe
lowever, the total amount of com
mon salt should not be less than f 'able IV Temperature of Maximum Exhaust for Selected Direct Dyes
grams per liter nor more than 4(
grams per liter. The amounts shoulc Temp. Temp.
:I Direct ('F) CI Direct ('FJ
be based on the bath (not the goods
and amounts should be properly ad 'ellow 50 140 Blue 1 140
justed if GL salt is used instead 01 'ellow 106 203
'ellow 105 203 Blue 80 205
common salt, as discussec )range 39 175 Blue 218 203
previously. led 81 140 Black 80 212
The amount of electrolyte actually fiolet 4 158 Black 22 212
in a bath can be determined by tech,
niques such as conductivity meas.
urement, which can easily be done Table V : Stability of Direct Dyes @ 250'F, pH 6
with a pH meter equipped with a con.
ductivity probe. Dlrecf Dyes wllh Good Stability Q 250.6 pH 6
Salt must be added evenly and Shade CI Number (Direct)
slowly, preferably in 3 to 5 parts. Yellow 8, 11, 12, 27, 28, 29, 98. 105, 106, 114, 127, 137
Great care must be exercised when Orange 34, 37, 57, 107
Red 2. 9, 16.. 76,. 81, 89, 207
adding brine due to its extreme:y fast Vioiet 49,51
action on the dyebath. A good Blue 2. 71, 76, 77, 80, 86, 90, 98, 160, 191, 218. 224
scheme for fractions in a four-part Green 26. 29. 31. 33 .
salt addition are: Brown 2, 95, 113; 200
118 : 118 : 114 : 112; Black 38, 51, 78, 80, 91
allowing .jO minutes between each
salt addition This is most critical for
type B and C.
Some other critical factors to be
- Watch the pH

4.5 to 6 for directlbasic - Metals and sequestrants in-

)lends); terfere with many directs,

especially at high temperatu dyes with lower values (less than 20) Test Method 146. The effect of metal
(250'F for polyesterlcottc do not level as well. contamination in process water is
bI ends).
- Dyebath assistants such i
lubricants or carriers, levele
(for blends) can retard dye e
haust andlor affect shac
repeats, staining, fastness, et Yellow 54 50 Blue 60 32 Orange 41 If
Repair of direct dyeings can t Yellow 67 36 Blue 56 35 qrown 2 2r
done only after removal of any fix, Orange 25 32 Yellow 93 34 ...>
let 26 2c
Orange 44 32 Red 55 25 a u e 27 1E
tive andlor resin finish from t h Red 1 1 33 Red 59 30 Yellow 42 5
goods. A quick test with carbozol Red 60 36 Red 65 25 Orange 21 4
can detect the presence of finis1 Violet 18 33 Yellow 23 16 Red 135 :
After finish removal, dye can be leve Violet 27 33
ed by raising the pH to 8-9with sod
ash, boiling down the shade, an
then salting back. Stripping can b
done with either hydrolsoda ash c
hypochlorite depending on the spt Transfer index is determined by reviewed in another article in this
cific dye recipe. Some dyes, such a placing a dyed fabric and a mock- series, Water and Textiles Wet Proc-
CI Direct Yellow 105 cannot be striF dyed (white) fabric together in a essing-Part 11.'
ped satisfactorily. mock-dye bath. Color transfer is Oil spotting, the development of
measured as: dye spots due to oil (especially knit-
Disperse dyes Dye desorbed = [(WSbefore- (ws after] I
ting oil) on goods, is especially a
Disperse dyes interact weakly an( problem with colorants such as CI
(Wsbefore Disperse Red 60. Spots may also ap-
form solid solutions of dye in syr
:hetic substrates and follow thl Dye absorbed = (wsltransferl(KWafter pear when dyebath contaminants,
Vemst isotherm. Because goods an especially fiber finish, polyester size,
jyed above TOof the fiber, there is i Transfer index = [Dye desorbed] x [Dye and/or trimer, precipitate as the
absorbed] x 100
-isk of shrinkage, moire, permanen dyebath is cooled. This can be avoid-
xeases, cracks, or rope marks where: ed by the use of dyebath auxiliaries
?speciallyi f heating and cooling arc (WS)before = color Value of dyed (dis persantslsurfactan t s), or drop p-
.apid. A combination of several fact cloth prior to leveling; ing the bath hot (above 19O'F)
)rs must be considered to ensun (K/S)after = color value of dyed Disperse dyes are difficult to strip.
:ompatibility of the dye recipe especially from polyester. Useful pro-
cloth after leveling; and,
:hemica1 auxiliaries, substrate ma cedures are excess carrier with either
(WShMsfer = color value of white
:hinery, and process. These factor: reducing agents (hydrolcaustic) or
:an be quantified by any of severa cloth after leveling chlorite (Texton"). Sometimes a se-
:ommercial methods23 which takt quential strip with hydrolcaustic
nto account: Many dyes, such as CI Disperse followed by chlorite at 250'F is
Yellow 42, appear to be bargains in effective.
- dyeing speed of fiber; terms of color value for the price, but
- timeltemperature of procedure they can present significant leveling Disperseldirect blends
- dyestuff characteristics (sub, problems with certain types of ex- When dyeing polyesterlcotton
c Iass); Taustdyeing equipment and proc- blends with disperseldirect dye
- accelerant (carrier) used; and, zsses. recipes, some important factors must
- machine turnoverlrate 01 Some machines, especially those be considered in addition to those
heating. Hhich pump the dye liquor, such as presented above for pure substrates:
ets, beams and packages, can have
iroblems in specific temperature
s with other classes, rate coma 'anges due to cloudpoint effects of - disperse-dye leveling agents
atibility of all dyes in a recipe is ranionic emulsifier and surfactant and carriers can affect direct
ssential for good shade repeats. ;ystems used in many chemical shade repeats and leveling
Another important factor in dye ipecialties. This can cause spots, properties;
zlectJon is the ability of dyes to )oor crocking fastness, and other - dispersedye carrier can in-
~vecDyes with good leveling proper- lroblems. fluence direct-dye stain on
es can be exhausted more rapidly Other commonly encountered polyester, giving poor fastness:
ith less chance of streaking the :auses of defects in exhaust dyeing - keeping the pH near 6 is a good
iods. The ability of dyes to level can ,f disperse dyes Include filtering of compromise for both dye
5 determined by several methods, lye in package machines and beams, classes;
cluding AATCC Test Method #155 netal sensitivity and oil spotting, - disperse dye leveling agent? '
"'transfer index". Leveling ability of loor wash and crocking fastness, and carriers may be sensitive tt
!vera1 dyes in typical production Ind dulling of shade by salt (usually salt, especially under condi-
ocesses is shown in Table VI. Dyes 3r dyeing blends). Filtering and bath tions of high shear (pumping)
ith high values (above 30) level well, tability can be evaluated by AATCC or at specific temperatures;
.,- , - .- ,e--

- sequestering agents o f the Et Table VII: Fiber Reactive Dyeing Methods
TA, NTA, or DTPA type may i r
Conventional Constant High temperature All-In
fluence shade repeats of direc temperature
and disperse dyes; and,
- lubricants are sometime 1. Set bath and Set bath and Set bath and Set bath and
load substrate
necessary and appropriate, bu load substrate load substrate load substrate
they may infjuence shadl Add dye
2. Add dye Add dye Add dye
repeats and evenness. Alsi
lubricants may have incorr 3. Run Run Run Run
patibility with salt or higl
temperatures. 4. Add salt Heat to dyeing Heat to high Add salt
temperature' temperature'
'iber reactive dyes 5. Heat to dyeing Add salt Cool to dyeing Heat to dyeing
The application of fiber reactivi temperature (*) temperature * temperature '
jyes has a fairly high degree of diffi
:ulty compared to other classes 6. Add alkali Run for exhaust Add salt Run for
exhaust and reactior
Jerhaps one reason for this is thc
arge number of choices to be madc 7. Run for reaction Add alkali Run for exhaust Cool
:oncerning dye type (hot vs. cold)
xocedure (conventional, constan 8. Cool Run for reaction Add alkali Wash
emperature, high temperature, or all 9. Wash Cool Run for fixation Apply fixative
n), and alkali (bicarb, soda ash, TSP
iiiicate, or caustic). Also, the impor IO. Apply fixative Wash Cool
ance of procedures after dye ap
,tication, especially washing off anc 11. - Apply fixative Wash
ixing, are frequently overlooked i2.
:iber reactives in general are mor(
- - Apply fixative

ldversely influenced by variations ir Typical dyelng 1emp.raIures are 175'F for hot types. l40'F for cold
'Hlgh lemprrtuns i r e 203'F fw hot typ.s. 160' lor cold
otton, poor preparatibn, "dead" 01
nmature cotton, neps, and othei
ubstrate differences than are other
ellulosicdye systems. Also, making run consistently on equipment with The conventional procedure gives
ye adds to reactive dyeings is fa1 poor temperature controls or in mills good shade repeats and is fairly sim-
-lore likely to cause a defective dye- "ith inadequate boiler capacity to ple to run. Penetration and leveling
g than are other classes, such as ;upply peak steam demands. are better than the all-in method but
rects. The hotdyeing types are usually not as good as the high-temperature
The hotdyeing types are less reac- larder to wash off, therefore the method. Good temperature control is
vel therefore, require higher washing required after dyeing is essential.
!mperatures. They are more stable nore critical. The constant temperature method
I hydrolysis and precise temper- Cold dyeing types show more of la- is simple to run and is the most for-
ure control is not as critical as for ent defects from preparation. Of giving in terms of temperature fluc-
le colddyeing types. Also, penetra- :oursel less energy, salt and alkali tuations. Leveling and penetration
m of the dye and leveling is better we required for the colddyeing are better than all-in but not as good
ith the hot-dyeing types. ypes, . but without excellent as the high temperature method.
Dye cycles are usually shorter with emperature control, these savings The high-temperature method is
e colddyeing types, leading to less ire quickly offset by quality losses. more complex, longer to run, and
vorking" of the goods. This can Each fiber reactivedye has distinc- consumes more energy, however it
ther be good or bad, depending on ive characteristics which influence gives the best penetration and level-
e specific situation, the hand IOW i t will behave in a particularproc- ing, and is especially useful on prob-
!sired, ruggedness of the goods, !ss.These include substantivity and lem styles or poorly prepared goods.
c. The cold types are especially sen- eactivity. Figure 2 shows the effect The goods are subjected to more
tive to variation in heating rate or of these two factors upon dye ex- physical "work" also; thus the han-
action temperature control, there- haustion. Unlike direct dyes, some dle of the fabric is affected and
re they are extremely difficult to fiber reactive dyes do not fully ex- physical damage (pitting, or abrasion)
haust until alkali is added. Thus the is more likely. Shades generally do
manner of addition of alkali is even not repeat as well when this method
more critical than addition of salt due is used, however it is not certain
to the rapid exhaust that occurs upon whether this poor repeatability is due
the addition of alkali as well as the to the method itself or due to the
fact that the reactive dye will not level generally poorer preparation of
appreciably after alkali addition. The goods for which this procedure is
four methods most widely used in designed.
commercial dyeing operations for The all-in method is the simplest,
fiber reactive dyes are summarized in shortest and least expensive to run
Table VII.
Table VIII: True-Shade Beck Capacities

Liquor Model 85 Model 850

-0 Type
Type p
Type R
Type s
Type 0
Type p
Type :
21 64 74 80 91 58 72 85
24 76 88 95 108 70 85 7 01
27 89 102 110 125 81 98 117
30 102 116 125 142 93 110 133
33 114 129 140 158 105 123 149
36 127 143 155 175 116 136 165
39 139 157 170 191 128 149 182
42 152 171 186 208 140 162 198
15 164 185 201 224 214
18 177 199 216 241
51 189 212 231 258
54 202 226 247 275
j7 215 240 . 262 291
SO 228 254 277 308

Model 85 has straight front Model 850 has curved front
Front to back dimension
Type 0 = 7’2”, Type P = 7 ‘11 ”, Type R = 8‘8“, Type S = 9‘5”

~ ~~

I terms of labor, steam, and other dye. Therefore, redyeing of stripped

actors. Because the -dye is ex- goods will behave differently than
austing, fixing, and hydrolyzing all dyeing of new goods. In particular,
t the same time in this method, more alkali and time may be required.
hade repeats are poor, dyeings tend
> become uneven and streaky un- Equipment
?ss the temperature control i s Many different types of equipment
lmost perfect. Turnover times for are used for exhaust dyeing. Some
l e bath andlor fabric must be ade- good general guidelines for various
uate to insure even exhaustion of equipment is given below.
i e dye, as no leveling will occur. Becks are one of the oldest tradi-
his method is extremely risky, over- tional types of equipment for exhaust
‘I, especially with the colddyeing dyeing. Their continued popularity in-
‘pes which react and hydrolyze so dicates the versatility and economy
ipidly. of becks. They provide quite a lot of
Reactive dyes are sensitive to alka- mechanical action to the fabric. Older
linity, chlorine, residual peroxide, and models, which generally lack heat ex-
metals. Good water treatment and changers and circulating pumps, fre-
#ell-prepared goods are essential. quently have problems with temper-
rhorough washing off of unreacted ature differentials (front-to-back, end-
jye is important to get good shade to-end) as well as the difficulties
’epeats and level dyeings. On ma- associated with the use of live steam.
:hines with poor washing efficiency, These machines cannot be properly
iuch as beams, jigs and packagedye heated unless they contain cloth.
nachines, fixative should be used to Therefore, any attempt to heat prior
wevent migration of dye. More to loading the fabric is futile.
vashing is needed when using Since the electrolyte and alkali are
;tronger alkali, such as caustic soda. to be used on the basis of bath
iome dyers use potassium hydroxide volume, It is important to know the
nstead of caustic) since it washes sxact amount of dye liquor in the
iff easier. Fixative handling pro- beck. This can be determined either
edures should. be the same as with a water meter or by the use of
iscussed under direct dyes. commonly available tables like Table
Use of hydrolcaustic or hypochlor- VIII. An audit checklist for mechani-
e will generally result i n a complete cal condition of becks is presented
tripping of reactive color. However, in Table IX. An operations checklist
ye sites on the cellulose may remain for becks is shown in Table X. Care-
locked due to residual fragments of ful attention to these details through