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HOWARD GARDNER

Theory of Multiple
Intelligence
The theory behind Howard
Gardner's multiple intelligences is
that humans are not a "blank slate"
that is capable of learning any skill
presented before them, but that
humans have varied intelligences,
or strengths. This idea brings forth
the notion that all humans are
capable of learning, but each
person learns in a different way
according to which intelligences are
their strengths or weaknesses.
Gardner's list includes linguistic,
logical-mathematical, musical,
bodily-kinesthetic, visual-spatial,
interpersonal, intrapersonal and
naturalist. ou can use these
intelligences when teaching others
in order to ma!imi"e learning for
each type of learner. #ach lesson
should hit upon each intelligence.
Howard Gardner was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania in 1943. His
parents had fled from Nrnber! in Germany in 193" with their three#
year old son, $ric. %&st prior to Howard Gardner's birth $ric was
(illed in a slei!hin! accident. )hese two events were not disc&ssed
d&rin! Gardner's childhood, b&t were to have a very si!nificant
impact &pon his thin(in! and development *Gardner 19"9+ ,,-. )he
opport&nities for ris(y physical activity were limited, and creative and
intellect&al p&rs&its enco&ra!ed. .s Howard be!an to discover the
family's /secret history' *and %ewish identity- he started to reco!ni0e
that he was different both from his parents and from his peers.
His parents wanted to send Howard to Phillips .cademy in .ndover
1assach&setts 2 b&t he ref&sed. 3nstead he went to a nearby
preparatory school in 4in!ston, Pennsylvania *5yomin! Seminary-.
Howard Gardner appears to have embraced the opport&nities there 2
and to have elicited the s&pport and interest of some very able
teachers. 6rom there he went to Harvard 7niversity to st&dy history
in readiness for a career in the law. However, he was l&c(y eno&!h to
have $ric $ri(son as a t&tor. 3n Howard Gardner's words .$ri(son
probably /sealed' his ambition to be a scholar .
Howard Gardner viewed intelli!ence as /the capacity to solve
problems or to fashion prod&cts that are val&ed in one or more
c&lt&ral settin!' *Gardner 8 Hatch, 19"9-. He reviewed the literat&re
&sin! ei!ht criteria or /si!ns' of an intelli!ence+
Potential isolation by brain dama!e.)he e9istence of idiots savants,
prodi!ies and other e9ceptional individ&als.
.n identifiable core operation or set of operations.
. distinctive development history, alon! with a definable set of /end#
state' performances.
.n evol&tionary history and evol&tionary pla&sibility.S&pport from
e9perimental psycholo!ical tas(s.
S&pport from psychometric findin!s.
S&sceptibility to encodin! in a symbol system. *Howard Gardner
19"3+ :,#:9-
;andidates for the title /an intelli!ence' had to satisfy a ran!e of these
criteria and m&st incl&de, as a prere<&isite, the ability to resolve
/!en&ine problems or diffic&lties' *ibid.+ :=- within certain c&lt&ral
settin!s. 1a(in! >&d!ements abo&t this was, however, /reminiscent
more of an artistic >&d!ement than of a scientific assessment' *ibid.+
:,-.
Howard Gardner initially form&lated a list of seven intelli!ences. His
listin! was provisional. )he first two have been typically val&ed in
schools? the ne9t three are &s&ally associated with the arts? and the
final two are what Howard Gardner called /personal intelli!ences'
*Gardner 1999+ 41#43-.
Linguistic
intelligence involves
sensitivity to spo(en and
written lan!&a!e, the ability to
learn lan!&a!es, and the
capacity to &se lan!&a!e to
accomplish certain !oals. )his
intelli!ence incl&des the ability
to effectively &se lan!&a!e to
e9press oneself rhetorically or
poetically? and lan!&a!e as a
means to remember
information. 5riters, poets,
lawyers and spea(ers are
amon! those that Howard
Gardner sees as havin! hi!h
lin!&istic intelli!ence.
Logical-mathematical
intelligence consists of the
capacity to analy0e problems
lo!ically, carry o&t
mathematical operations, and
investi!ate iss&es scientifically.
3n Howard Gardner's words, it
entails the ability to detect
patterns, reason ded&ctively
and thin( lo!ically. )his
intelli!ence is most often
associated with scientific and
mathematical thin(in!.
Musical
intelligence involves s(ill in
the performance, composition,
and appreciation of m&sical
patterns. 3t encompasses the
capacity to reco!ni0e and
compose m&sical pitches,
tones, and rhythms. .ccordin!
to Howard Gardner m&sical
intelli!ence r&ns in an almost
str&ct&ral parallel to lin!&istic
intelli!ence.
Bodily-kinesthetic
intelligence entails the
potential of &sin! one's whole
body or parts of the body to
solve problems. 3t is the ability
to &se mental abilities to
coordinate bodily movements.
Howard Gardner sees mental
and physical activity as related.
Spatial intelligence involves
the potential to reco!ni0e and
&se the patterns of wide space
and more confined areas.
Interpersonal
intelligence is concerned with
the capacity to &nderstand the
intentions, motivations and
desires of other people. 3t
allows people to wor(
effectively with others.
$d&cators, salespeople,
reli!io&s and political leaders
and co&nsellors all need a well#
developed interpersonal
intelli!ence.
Intrapersonal
intelligence entails the
capacity to &nderstand oneself,
to appreciate one's feelin!s,
fears and
motivations. 3n Howard
Gardner's view it involves
havin! an effective wor(in!
model of o&rselves, and to be
able to &se s&ch information to
re!&late o&r lives.
3n Frames of Mind Howard
Gardner treated the personal
intelli!ences /as a piece'.
@eca&se of their close
association in most c&lt&res,
they are often lin(ed to!ether.
However, he still ar!&es that it
ma(es sense to thin( of two
forms of personal intelli!ence.
Gardner claimed that the seven
intelli!ences rarely operate
independently. )hey are &sed
at the same time and tend to
complement each other as
people develop s(ills or solve
problems.
3n essence Howard Gardner
ar!&ed that he was ma(in! two
essential claims abo&t m&ltiple
intelli!ences. )hat+
)he theory is an acco&nt of
h&man co!nition in its f&llness.
)he intelli!ences provided /a
new definition of h&man
nat&re, co!nitively spea(in!'
*Gardner 1999+ 44-. H&man
bein!s are or!anisms who
possess a basic set of
intelli!ences.
People have a &ni<&e blend of
intelli!ences. Howard Gardner
ar!&es that the bi! challen!e
facin! the deployment of
h&man reso&rces /is how to
best ta(e advanta!e of the
&ni<&eness conferred on &s as
a species e9hibitin! several
intelli!ences' *ibid.+ 4A-.
Ivan Pavlov
(1849-1936) was a ussian scientist intereste! in stu!ying how !igestion
wor"s in #a##als$ %e o&serve! an! recor!e! infor#ation a&out !ogs an!
their !igestive process$ 's part of his wor"( he &egan to stu!y what triggers
!ogs to salivate$ It shoul! have &een an easy stu!y) #a##als pro!uce saliva
to help the# &rea" !own foo!( so the !ogs shoul! have si#ply &egan
!rooling when presente! with foo!$
*ut what Pavlov !iscovere! when he o&serve! the !ogs was that !rooling
ha! a #uch #ore far-reaching effect than he ever thought) it pave! the way
for a new theory a&out &ehavior an! a new way to stu!y hu#ans$
+lassical +on!itioning
The people who fe! Pavlov,s !ogs wore la& coats$ Pavlov notice! that the
!ogs &egan to !rool whenever they saw la& coats( even if there was no foo!
in sight$ Pavlov won!ere! why the !ogs salivate! at la& coats( an! not -ust
at foo!$ %e ran a stu!y in which he rang a &ell every ti#e he fe! the !ogs$
Pretty soon( -ust ringing a &ell #a!e the !ogs salivate$Pavlov sai! that the
!ogs were !e#onstrating classical con!itioning$ %e su##e! it up li"e this)
there,s a neutral sti#ulus .the &ell)( which &y itself will not pro!uce a
response .li"e salivation)$ There,s also a non-neutral or uncon!itione!
sti#ulus .the foo!)( which will pro!uce anuncon!itione!
response .salivation)$ *ut if you present the neutral sti#ulus an! the
uncon!itione! sti#ulus together( eventually the !og will learn to associate
the two$ 'fter a while( the neutral sti#ulus &y itself will pro!uce the sa#e
response as the uncon!itione! sti#ulus .li"e the !ogs !rooling when they
hear! the &ell)$ This is calle!
uncon!itione! response$
.
CARL ROGERS
Experiential Learning

;arl Bo!ers was born %an&ary ", 19=, in Ca( Par(, 3llinois, a
s&b&rb of ;hica!o. He learned to read before a!e A. His
&pbrin!in! was strict and he and his five siblin!s had many
chores. He entered the 7niversity of 5isconsin, and as a st&dent
of ;hristian ministry, he was selected to !o to @ei>in! for the
D5orld St&dent ;hristian 6ederation ;onferenceE for si9
months. )his e9perience chan!ed his thin(in! s&ch that he
be!an to do&bt some of his reli!io&s beliefs. He instead entered
the clinical psycholo!y pro!ram of ;ol&mbia 7niversity, and
received his Ph.F. in 1931.
Rogers was discouraged by the emphasis on cognitivism in
education. He believed this was responsible or the loss o
e!citement and enthusiasm or learning. Rogers" point o
view emphasi#ed the inclusion o eelings and emotions in
education. He believed that education and therapy shared
similar goals o personal change and sel-knowing. He was
interested in learning that leads to personal growth and
development$ as was Maslow.
His %&'( book$ Freedom to Learn for the 80's presented his
ull theory oe!periential learning. He believed that the
highest levels o signiicant learning included personal
involvement at both the aective and cognitive levels$ were
sel-initiated$ were so pervasive they could change attitudes$
behavior$ and in some cases$ even the personality o the
learner. Learnings needed to be evaluated by the learner
and take on meaning as part o the total e!perience.
Rogers outlined attitudes which characteri#ed a true
acilitator o learning)
%. Realness - the instructor should not present a *ront* or
*acade* but should strive to be aware o his+her own
eelings and to communicate them in the classroom conte!t.
,he instructor should present genuineness$ and engage in
direct personal encounters with the learner.
-. .ri#ing the Learner - ,his characteristic includes
acceptance and trust o each individual student. ,he
instructor must be able to accept the ear$ hesitation$
apathy$ and goals o the learner.
(. /mpathic 0nderstanding - ,he instructor can understand
the student"s reactions rom the inside.
Rogers warned that a non-1udgmental teacher is sure to
arouse suspicion in older students and adults$ because they
have been *conned* so many times. ,he wise teacher is
aware o this and can accept their initial distrust and
apprehension as new relationships
between teacher and
students are built.
BEHAVIORISM (JOHN
B. WATSON 11!"
Thorndike and Pavlov provided important contributions to
behavioral psychology, but it was John B. Watson (1!"1#$%
who championed the popular behaviorist movement. Pavlov&s
contribution was made 'rom the discipline o' physiology and was
somewhat indirect. (is connection with )merican behavioral
psychology was initially made by Watson, who 'elt that Pavlov&s
e*periments provided a good e*ample o' a sound e*perimental
method used to observe the conditioning process o' the
secretory re+e*, by monitoring the +ow o' saliva . )s 'or
Thorndike, it is unlikely that he would have labeled himsel' a
,behaviorist&, since it wasn&t until 1#1- that the term began to
come into vogue. This new term, and the perspective on the
study o' psychology to which it re'erred, .uickly became the
dominating school o' psychology in )merican universities. /t was
in his article entitled, Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It,
that Watson (1#1-% positioned behavioral psychology as 0a
purely ob1ective e*perimental branch o' natural science2 with a
0theoretical goal2 o' 0prediction and control o' behavior2 (p.
1$%. Watson (1#3% more plainly de4ned behaviorism by saying
that.Behaviorism is the scienti4c study o' human behavior. /ts
real goal is to provide the basis 'or prediction and control o'
human beings5 6iven the situation, to tell what the human being
will do7 given the man in action, to be able to say why he is
reacting in that way.
8rom this data he concluded that 0young children taken at
random 'rom homes o' both the poor and o' the well"to"do do not
make good sub1ects2 (p. 19#% because their behavior was too
comple*. (is solution to this problem was to study hospital"
reared children belonging to wet nurses. Perhaps his most
'amous e*periments were those conducted to establish
conditioned emotional responses in 0:ittle )lbert2 by e*posing
him to various small animals and simultaneously sounding a loud
noise that had been 'ound to elicit crying. Through repeated
pairing o' the animals with the noise, the animals themselves
came to elicit responses o' 'ear, crying, and avoidance behavior;
where previously they had not (Watson < =ayner, 1#3>%. ?everal
other e*periments conducted with children are accounted in
Watson&s 1#-> publication entitled, Behaviorism.
Watson&s perspective on learning;i.e., his theory o' habit
'ormation;is illustrated in the 'ollowing e*ample generali@ed
'rom his observations o' several children in similar situations5
To make the whole process a little more concrete, let us put in
'ront o' the three"year"old child, whose habits o' manipulation
are well established, a problem bo*;a bo* that can be opened
only a'ter a certain thing has been done7 'or e*ample, he has to
press inward a small wooden button. Be'ore we hand it to him,
we show him the open bo* containing several small pieces o'
candy and then we close it and tell him that i' he opens it he may
have a piece o' candy. This situation is new to him. Aone o' his
previously learned 'ormed manipulation habits
will completely and instantly work in this situation. Aone o' his
unlearned reactions will help him very much. What does he doB
That depends upon his previous organi@ation. /' well organi@ed
by previous handling o' toys, he goes at the problem at once;(1%
he picks the bo* up, (3% he pounds it on the +oor, (-% he drags it
round and round, (9% he pushes it up against the base"board, ($%
he turns it over, (C% he strikes it with his 4st. /n other words, he
does everything he has learned to do in the past in similar
situations. (e displays his whole repertoire o' acts;brings all o'
his previously ac.uired organi@ation to bear upon the new
problem. Watson e*plained this instance o' learning;the ability
to open the bo* with increasing speed and with 'ewer and 'ewer
useless movements;as a 'unction o' frequency and recency. The
act that is per'ormed most 're.uently persists while the rest die
away. The act that has been per'ormed most recently is more
likely to appear sooner in the ne*t succeeding trial. Watson&s
e*planation o' recency and 're.uency as the basis 'or habit
'ormation was critici@ed by some writers, and speci4c
e*periments were per'ormed to demonstrate the inade.uacy o'
these two 'actors alone to account 'or learning (6engerelli,
1#3%. (owever, these 'actors do not 'orm Watson&s complete
picture o' learning. /n his introduction to a republication o'
Watson&s Behaviorism (Watson < Dimble, 3>>3, p. *ii% Dimble
lists nine hypothetical laws o' learning identi4ed by Watson.
E1F The 4rst two are 're.uency and recency. The remaining seven
are
-. Gonditioning is a process o' stimulus substitution5 0The
Econditioned stimulusF now becomes a substitute stimulus;it will
call out the EresponseF whenever it stimulates the sub1ect2 (p.
31%
9. The process o' conditioning is ubi.uitous, 0?o 'ar as we know
we can substitute another stimulus 'or any stimulus calling out a
standard reaction2 (p. 33%. Thus, learning never produces truly
new responses. 0The organism starts out li'e with more unit
responses than it needs2 (p. 39%. The process that appears to
establish new responses 0concerns itsel' really with stimulus
substitutions and not reaction substitutions (pp. 3$"3C%.
:aws $"# came 'rom Pavlov, by way o' 6. H. )nrep (Watson does
not give a re'erence%.
$. 0Gonditioned responses Emay beF temporary and unstable.
)'ter periods o' no practice they cease to work Ebut they canF be
.uickly reestablished.2
C. 0The substituted stimulus can be made Eso speci4c that noF
other stimulus o' its class will then call out the re+e*.2 But, in
apparent contradiction to this idea, Watson also noted that
conditioned responses generali@e (trans'er% to similar
conditioned stimuli.
!. 0The magnitude o' the response is dependent upon the
strength o' the EconditionedF stimulus2.
. 0There is a marked summation eIect. /' a dog is conditioned
separately to Etwo stimuliF, there is a marked increase in the
Estrength o' the responseF i' the stimuli are given
simultaneously.2
#. 0Gonditioned responses can be ,e*tinguished.
Aoam
Ghomsky,
Gognition,
<
:anguage
)c.uisition
Aoam )vram Ghomsky was born the son o' =ussian
immigrants on Jecember !, 1#3 in Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania. (e learned several linguistic principles 'rom
his 'ather, William Ghomsky, who was a (ebrew scholar.
Kne o' his 'ather&s publications was a scholarly edition o' a
medieval (ebrew grammar.
Ghomsky attended Kak :ange Gountry Jay ?chool and
Gentral (igh ?chool in Philadelphia. Between ages 13 and
1, Ghomsky learned about the socialist"anarchist Aew
Lork Gity Jewish intellectual community and considered
traveling to /srael to work 'or )rab"Jewish cooperation.
These in+uences in Ghomsky&s childhood led into two
li'elong sub1ects o' great interest, controversy, and
success7 linguistics and politics.
Between 1#9$ and 1#$>, Ghomsky attended the Mniversity
o' Pennsylvania where he studied linguistics, mathematics,
and philosophy. (e was a student o' Aelson 6oodman, the
radical"empiricist philosopher. /n 1#$1, he accepted a
nomination by 6oodman as a Junior 8ellow to (arvard
Mniversity, where he conducted much o' his pre"doctoral
research.
)s a student, Ghomsky proo'read Nellig (arris&s Oethods in
?tructural :inguistics and developed sympathy 'or (arris&s
ideas on politics. /n 1#$-, he traveled to Purope. Juring
this trip, he resolved that his own attempt to 'ormali@e
structural linguistics would not work, because language
was a highly abstract generative phenomenon. (e went on
to complete his doctoral dissertation entitled,
Trans'ormational )nalysis. The ma1or theoretical views o'
the paper appeared in ?yntactic ?tructure, which, when
published in 1#$!, would overturn all previous approaches
to grammar and place synta* at the cutting edge o' the
discipline.
?ince earning his Ph.J. in :inguistics in 1#$$, Ghomsky has
taught at O/T, where he now holds the 8errari P. Ward Ghair
o' Oodern :anguage and :inguistics. Ghomsky was married
to Garol ?chat@ on Jecember 39, 1#9#, and has two
children.
Ghomsky asserted that children learn the rules o'
language, not 1ust speci4c responses, as ?kinner had
proposed. (e asserted that human beings are born
biologically e.uipped to learn a language, and proposed
his theory o' a :anguage )c.uisition Jevice (:)J% Q an
inborn mechanism or process that 'acilitates the learning
o' a language. )ccording to the theory, the :)J consists o'
brain structures and neural wiring that are uni.ue to
human beings. /n this nativist theory, humans are born
with the ability to
discriminate among phonemes, to 'ast"map morphemes,
and to ac.uire the rules o' synta*, and more.
Ghomsky&s assertion that important aspects o' language
learning can only be e*plained ade.uately by innate
mental processes 'orever shattered the empirical
stronghold o' behaviorism, which had dominated
psychology 'or nearly $> years. Ghomsky&s criti.ue o'
?kinner&s Herbal Behavior, and pivotal work by 6eorge
Oiller, Jerome Bruner, Mlric Aeisser, and others brought
mind and thought back into the study o' psychology.
S#$ial Learning T%e#r& #' Al(ert Ban)*ra
The social learning theory o' Bandura emphasi@es the
importance o' observing and modeling the
behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions o'
others. Bandura (1#!!% states5 R:earning would be
e*ceedingly laborious, not to mention ha@ardous, i'
people had to rely solely on the eIects o' their
own actions to in'orm them what to do.
8ortunately, most human behavior is learned
observationally through modeling5 'rom observing
others one 'orms an idea o' how new behaviors are
per'ormed, and on later occasions this coded
in'ormation serves as a guide 'or action.R (p33%.
?ocial learning theory e*plains human behavior in
terms o' continuous reciprocal interaction between
cognitive, behavioral, an environmental in+uences.
The component processes underlying
observational learning are5 (1% )ttention, including
modeled events (distinctiveness, aIective valence,
comple*ity, prevalence, 'unctional value% and
observer characteristics (sensory capacities,
arousal level, perceptual set, past rein'orcement%,
(3% =etention, including symbolic coding, cognitive
organi@ation, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal%,
(-% Ootor =eproduction, including physical
capabilities, sel'"observation o' reproduction,
accuracy o' 'eedback, and (9% Ootivation, including
e*ternal, vicarious and sel' rein'orcement.Because
it encompasses attention, memory and motivation,
social learning theory spans both cognitive and
behavioral 'rameworks. BanduraSs theory improves
upon the strictly behavioral interpretation o'
modeling provided by Oiller < Jollard (1#91%.
Scope/Application:
Social learning theory has been applied extensively to the understanding
of aggression (Bandura, 197! and psychological disorders, particularly
in the context of behavior "odification (Bandura, 19#9!$ %t is also the
theoretical foundation for the techni&ue of behavior "odeling 'hich is
'idely used in training progra"s$ %n recent years, Bandura has focused
his 'or( on the concept of self)efficacy in a variety of contexts (e$g$,
Bandura, 199!$
*xa"ple:+he "ost co""on (and pervasive! exa"ples of social learning
situations are television co""ercials$ ,o""ercials suggest that
drin(ing a certain beverage or using a particular hair sha"poo 'ill
"a(e us popular and 'in the ad"iration of attractive people$
-epending upon the co"ponent processes involved (such as attention or
"otivation!, 'e "ay "odel the behavior sho'n in the co""erical and
buy the product being advertised$
.rinciples:1$ +he highest level of observational learning is achieved by
first organi/ing and rehearsing the "odeled behavior sy"bolically and
then enacting it overtly$ ,oding "odeled behavior into 'ords, labels or
i"ages results in better retention than si"ply observing$
0$ %ndividuals are "ore li(ely to adopt a "odeled behavior if it
results in outco"es they value$
$ %ndividuals are "ore li(ely to adopt a "odeled behavior if the
"odel is si"ilar to the observer and has ad"ired status and the
behavior has functional value$
E)+ar)
L.T%#rn)i,e
(1-./ 0 1/)
/dward L. ,horndike"s pioneer investigations in the ields
o human and animal learning are among the most inluential in
the history o .sychology. In %&%-$ he was recogni#ed or his
accomplishments and elected president o the 2merican
.sychological 2ssociation. In %&(3$ the 2merican 2ssociation or
the 2dvancement o Science elected ,horndike as the only social
scientist to head this proessional organi#ation. ,horndike
retired in %&(&$ but worked actively until his death in %&3&. His
work was a ma1or inluence on B.4.Skinner.
,horndike was a contemporary o .avlov and 5atson. He
introduced the concept o reinorcement$ which 5atson
and 6uthrie ignored. ,horndike"s work re7uently has not
received the attention it deserves because so many aspects o his
thinking became associated with B.4.Skinner. ,horndike"s work
is oten called connectionism$ because o the idea that bonds
between stimulus and response take the orm o neural
connections. Learning involves the *stamping in* o connections$
orgetting involves *stamping out* connections.
,horndike was very proliic$ and did work in areas o educational
practices$ verbal behavior$ comparative psychology$ intelligence
testing$ nature-nurture problem$ transer o learning$ and
7uantitative measurement$ in addition to learning theories.
8ne o ,horndike"s great contributions to psychology was
the Law o /ect$ which states that responses which occur 1ust
prior to a satisying state o aairs are more likely to be repeated$
and responses 1ust prior to an annoying state o aairs are more
likely 98, to be repeated. ,he second contribution was his
re1ection o the notion that man is simply another animal that can
reason. He believed intelligence should be deined solely in terms
o greater or lesser ability to orm connections.
Several additional laws orm part o ,horndike"s learning theory)
%. Multiple Response) in any given situation$ the organism will
respond in a variety o ways i the irst response does not
immediately lead to a more satisying state o aairs. .roblem
solving is through trial and error.
-. Set or 2ttitude) there are predisposition"s to behave or react in
a particular way. ,hese are uni7ue or species or groups o
related species$ and may be culturally determined in humans.
(. .repotency o /lements- ,horndike observed that a learner
could ilter out irrelevant aspects o a situation and respond only
to signiicant :proponent; elements in a problem situation.
3. Response by 2nalogy -In a new conte!t$ responses rom related
or similar conte!ts may be transerred to the new conte!t. ,his is
sometimes reerred to as the theory o identical elements.
<. 2ssociative shiting - It is possible to shit any response rom
one stimulus to another.
=. Law o Readiness- a series o responses can be chained
together to satisy some goal which will result in annoyance i
blocked.
>. Law o /!ercise - connections become strengthened with
practice$ and weaken when practice is discontinued.
'. Intelligence is a unction o the number o connections made.
Kohlberg's Theory of
Moral Development
Lawrence Kohlberg was a
developmental theorist of the mid-
twentieth century who is best known for his specific and
detailed theory of children's moral development. is work
continues to be influential today and contemporary research
has generally supported his theory. !"olby# et.al. $%&'( )est#
$%&*( +alker# $%&%# +alker ,Taylor# $%%$b-.
Kohlberg developed a si. stage theory of moral development# and
he grouped these si. stages into three# higher-order levels of
development/ $- the 0re-"onventional Level# 1- the
"onventional Level# and '- the 0ost-"onventional or
0rincipled Level. 2ach level is then further sub-divided into
two stages to make a total of si. stages. The 0re-
"onventional Level includes/ a- stage one# the punishment
and obedience orientation# and b- stage two# the
instrumental purpose orientation. The "onventional Level
includes/ a- stage three# the morality of interpersonal
cooperation# and b- stage four# the social-order-maintaining
orientation. The 0ost-"onventional Level includes a- stage
five# the social-contract orientation# and b- stage si.# the
universal ethical principle orientation. This article focuses on
the particular stages of moral development associated with
adolescent development. Therefore# the discussion begins
with stage three# the morality of interpersonal cooperation#
within the "onventional Level of moral reasoning. 3or more
information about Kohlberg's theory in general# or for a
description of the developmental stages prior to stage three#
see the Middle "hildhood Developmental 4rticle.
4ccording to Kohlberg's theory# moral development proceeds in a
linear# step-wise fashion( i.e.# moral development proceeds
gradually from one stage to the ne.t# in a predictable#
ordered se5uence. 4lthough Kohlberg recogni6ed each child
progressed through these stages at different rates# and
acknowledged that some youth may never reach the highest
stages# his theory does not account for regression back to
former# previously mastered stages as do some other
developmental theorists !such as Marcia's identity
development theory-.
Kohlberg believed that by early adolescence most youth have
reached the mid-level of moral reasoning called the
"onventional Level. 4t this level# morality is determined by
social norms( i.e.# morality is determined by the rules and
social conventions that are e.plicitly or implicitly agreed upon
by a group of people. These rules and customs function to
serve to the best interests of the group's ma7ority# while
simultaneously providing a structure that maintains social
order and limits discord among group members.The
"onventional Level is further subdivided into stage three and
stage four. 8tage three is called the morality of interpersonal
cooperation
4t stage three# moral decisions are made by anticipating how a
moral decision would be 7udged by other influential group
members. 9ecause youth at this stage wish to be considered
a good person and 7udged in a favorable light# their moral
decisions will be based on whether or not their decisions
would win the approval of those people whose opinions
matter to them.3or e.ample# 4nthony is hanging out with
some new friends when one of his new friends offers him a
cigarette. :f 4nthony has reached stage three# the morality of
interpersonal cooperation# he might be thinking the
following/ ;+hat if : try this cigarette and <randpa finds out=
e'll think of me as a smoker. e already told me that he
doesn't respect smokers because they damage their health.
My grandma would be disappointed in me# too. 8he told me
that smokers are weak people who need a crutch. This
thought process will likely dissuade 4nthony from accepting a
cigarette from his friend.
The ne.t stage within the "onventional Level is stage four# and is
called the social-order-maintaining orientation. 4t this stage#
morality is determined by what is best for the ma7ority of people.
3urthermore# moral decisions reflect an understanding that the
ma7ority of people benefit from a social order that fosters
harmonious relationships among group members.
4t this stage# youth understand that laws are intended to serve
everyone's best interest# and believe that societies function best
when everyone strictly adheres to the law. These youth will begin
to compare their daily decisions# and the conse5uences of those
decisions# to the larger society's moral standards.3or instance# if
4nthony from the previous e.ample had reached stage four# the
social-order-maintaining orientation# and was offered a cigarette
by his new friends# he may now consider that it is illegal for
youth to smoke.
e may choose not to smoke because he believes that if he
smokes# he should be punished for breaking the law. e
understands the intent of the law is for his own benefit and
protection# but he also understands the law serves to benefit the
larger society because when young people become addicted to
nicotine it poses a cost and a health risk to others.
T(P PJMG)T/KA):/?T?
The RPducationalistsR believed that children were
born as Rblank slatesR, beginning their lives morally
neutral. 8rom this point o' view, in'ants were neither
inherently good or inherently evil. ) childSs nature
and personality would develop over childhood, a
period o' time during which the educationalists
believed a child was particularly impressionable.
)dults surrounding a child could potentially have a
very lasting eIect on his personality.
Perhaps the man most
in+uential to educationalist
theory was John :ocke. )s
Oargaret J. O. P@ell puts it, his
1C#- bookSome Thoughts
concerning Education presents
the basic argument that Ra
childSs mind must be educated
be'ore he is instructed, that the
true purpose o' education is the
cultivation o' the intellect
rather than an accumulation o'
'acts.R )ccording to :ocke, the ideal education would
instill a strong moral sense. /n particular, a child
should be taught virtue, wisdom, breeding, and
learning.
-9
This was possible because, among other reasons, a
childSs mind was a Rtabula rasaR, or blank slate (:ocke
originally used the term in his earlier work An Essay
concerning Human Understanding, considered by
modern philosophers to be his most in+uential work%.
?ince the childSs mind was so malleable, a parent
could mold him with care'ul diligence. )'ter all, one
could write good moral sense upon a blank slate as
well as numerous 'aults.
->
(is opinion o' the use o' imaginative literature and
the 4ne arts, 'or instance, was not particularly
positive. (e advocated two 'orms o' literature 'or
instruction, 'ables and religious works. /n particular,
he promoted the use o' Aeso! s "a#les. )s to other
literature (as well as other arts%, however, :ocke
believed that they served no didactic purpose.
-1
/n addition, he thought that passionate music would
intensi'y emotions in the child, and that would
damage the cultivation o' reason. Kn the other hand,
later educationalists saw the cultivation o' the
imagination a worthwhile pursuit, and encouraged the
use o' literature such as poetry and mythology.
Operant
Conditioning
(B.8. ?kinner%
The theory of *$/$ 0"inner is &ase! upon the i!ea that learning is a function of
change in overt &ehavior$ +hanges in &ehavior are the result of an in!ivi!ual,s
response to events .sti#uli) that occur in the environ#ent$ ' response
pro!uces a conse1uence such as !efining a wor!( hitting a &all( or solving a
#ath pro&le#$ 2hen a particular 0ti#ulus-esponse .0-) pattern is
reinforce! .rewar!e!)( the in!ivi!ual is con!itione! to respon!$ The
!istinctive characteristic of operant con!itioning relative to previous for#s of
&ehavioris# .e$g$(connectionis#( !rive re!uction) is that the organis# can
e#it responses instea! of only eliciting response !ue to an e3ternal sti#ulus$
einforce#ent is the "ey ele#ent in 0"inner,s 0- theory$ ' reinforcer is
anything that strengthens the !esire! response$ It coul! &e ver&al praise( a
goo! gra!e or a feeling of increase! acco#plish#ent or satisfaction$ The
theory also covers negative reinforcers -- any sti#ulus that results in the
increase! fre1uency of a response when it is with!rawn .!ifferent fro#
a!versive sti#uli -- punish#ent -- which result in re!uce! responses)$ ' great
!eal of attention was given to sche!ules of reinforce#ent .e$g$ interval versus
ratio) an! their effects on esta&lishing an! #aintaining &ehavior$
4ne of the !istinctive aspects of 0"inner,s theory is that it atte#pte! to
provi!e &ehavioral e3planations for a &roa! range of cognitive pheno#ena$
/or e3a#ple( 0"inner e3plaine! !rive .#otivation) in ter#s of !eprivation an!
reinforce#ent sche!ules$ 0"inner .1956) trie! to account for ver&al learning
an! language within the operant con!itioning para!ig#( although this effort
was strongly re-ecte! &y linguists an! psycholinguists$ 0"inner .1961) !eals
with the issue of free will an! social control$
4perant con!itioning has &een wi!ely applie! in clinical settings .i$e$(
&ehavior #o!ification) as well as teaching .i$e$( classroo# #anage#ent) an!
instructional !evelop#ent .e$g$( progra##e! instruction)$ Parenthetically( it
shoul! &e note! that 0"inner re-ecte! the i!ea of theories of learning .see
0"inner( 1957)$
*y way of e3a#ple( consi!er the i#plications of reinforce#ent theory as
applie! to the !evelop#ent of progra##e! instruction .Mar"le( 19698 0"inner(
1968)
1$ Practice shoul! ta"e the for# of 1uestion .sti#ulus) - answer .response)
fra#es which e3pose the stu!ent to the su&-ect in gra!ual steps
9$ e1uire that the learner #a"e a response for every fra#e an! receive
i##e!iate fee!&ac"
3$ Try to arrange the !ifficulty of the 1uestions so the response is always
correct an! hence a positive reinforce#ent
4$ :nsure that goo! perfor#ance in the lesson is paire! with secon!ary
reinforcers such as ver&al praise( pri;es an! goo! gra!es$
Principles
1$ *ehavior that is positively reinforce! will reoccur8 inter#ittent
reinforce#ent is particularly effective
9$ Infor#ation shoul! &e presente! in s#all a#ounts so that responses
can &e reinforce! .<shaping<)
3. einforce#ents will generali;e across si#ilar sti#uli .<sti#ulus
generali;ation<) pro!ucing secon!ary con!itioning.
WERTHEIMER Gestalt Learning Theory
6estalt became one o the main theories o learning. ,he three main
6estalt theorists :5ertheimer$ ?ohler$ and ?oka; were all
6ermans$ and received their training and did their early work in
6ermany$ but all three ended their careers in the 0S. ,he term
*6estalt* was coined by 6ra @hristian von /hrenels. His ideas
inluenced the trio o theorists.
6estalt was a holistic approach and re1ected the mechanistic
perspectives o the stimulus - response models. 9umerous new
concepts and approaches emerged rom this dierent philosophical
perspective. ,he 6estalt theory proposes that learning consists o the
grasping o a structural whole and not 1ust a mechanistic response to
a stimulus.
2 *6estalt* is an integrated whole system with it"s parts
enmeshed. ,he whole is greater than 1ust the sum o the parts.
,he *.HI* phenomenon described a characteristic o things
wherein they have a recogni#ability inherent in their nature.
/!amples include the recogni#ability o a melody$ no matter how it is
arranged or what instrument plays it$ or the recogni#ability o a
letter rendered in a wide variety o dierent onts or type styles.
8ther e!amples include the apparent motion created by a rapid
se7uence o stills in motion pictures$ and the se7uences o
illminating elements in neon signs which give the illusion o
movement. Aisual and auditory e!amples are numerous. ,his
phenomenon leads to the conclusion that elements sensed are not
the only reality.
*.henomenology* is the acceptance o irst hand e!perience as it
is ound in human consciousness.
6estalt Learning ,heory proposed several laws o organi#ation$
which are innate ways that human beings organi#ed perceptions. 2
gestalt actor is a condition that aids in perceiving situations as a
whole or totality. Isomorphism reers to the Boctrine o
.sychophysical parallelism and depicts the cerebral corte! as
*mapping these gestalt ields o stimuli.
,he 4actor o @losure suggests that perception tends to complete
incomplete ob1ects. 5hen only part o an image$ sound$ thought or
eeling is presented as a stimulus$ the brain attempts to complete it
to generate the whole.
,he 4actor o .ro!imity suggests that when elements are grouped
closely together$ they are percieved as wholes. ,his has relevance in
reading$ visual arts$ and music.
,he 4actor o Similarity proposes that like parts tend to be
grouped together in cognition. ,his has implications or instruction$
suggesting that learning is acilitated i similar ideas are treated and
linked together and then contrasted with opposing or
complementary sets o ideas.
,he 4igure-6round /ect suggests that the eye tends to see the
ob1ects$ rather than the spaces or holes between them.
,race ,heory - ,his proposes a mechanism or learning in which
neruological changes occur as connections are made in the brain.
,hese changes$ called traces$ represent links between thoughts$
ideas$ concepts$ images$ etc. R/petition and uni7ueness reinorce a
trace. ,hus$ learning is the creation o traces. ,races group together
to orm maps. Instructional methods relating to repetition and to
making items to be learned somehow distinctive to make learning
:trace ormation; 7uicker and more lasting.
4rom the early theorys o 6estalt$ there also emerged a branch o
therapeutic interventions$ called 6estalt ,herapy. 4rit# .erls went
through psychoanalytic training with ?aren Horney and then with
5ilhelm Reich. He also adapted e!istentialist philosophy along with
Cen and ,aoist views to therapeutic work$ and was strongly
inluenced by 4reud.