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Cambridge Advanced

SYLLABUS
Cambridge InternationaI AS and A LeveI
BioIogy
9700
For exaninalion in June and ovenber 20!5
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Canbridge nlernalional Exaninalions relains lhe copyrighl on all ils publicalions. Fegislered Cenlres are
pernilled lo copy nalerial lron lhis booklel lor lheir own inlernal use. However, we cannol give pernission
lo Cenlres lo pholocopy any nalerial lhal is acknowledged lo a lhird parly even lor inlernal use wilhin a
Cenlre.
CCSE is lhe regislered lradenark ol Canbridge nlernalional Exaninalions
Canbridge nlernalional Exaninalions 20!3
Changes to syIIabus for 2015
This syllabus has been updaled. Signilicanl changes lo lhe syllabus are indicaled by black verlical
lines eilher side ol lhe lexl.
Contents
!. nlroduclion .................................................................................................................... 2
!.! vhy choose Canbridge?
!.2 vhy choose Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level?
!.3 vhy choose Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology?
!.4 Canbridge ACE (Advanced nlernalional Cerlilicale ol Educalion Diplona
!.5 How can lind oul nore?
2. Teacher supporl .............................................................................................................. 7
2.! Supporl nalerials
2.2 Fesource lisls
2.3 Training
3. Assessnenl al a glance ................................................................................................. 3
4. Syllabus ains and assessnenl objeclives .................................................................... !!
4.! Syllabus ains
4.2 Assessnenl objeclives
4.3 veighling ol assessnenl objeclives
4.4 Addilional inlornalion
5. Syllabus conlenl ........................................................................................................... !5
5.! Slruclure ol lhe syllabus
5.2 Core syllabus
5.3 Applicalions ol Biology
6. Delinilions .................................................................................................................... 32
7. Praclical assessnenl .................................................................................................... 40
7.! nlroduclion
7.2 Paper 3 - Advanced Praclical Skills !/2
7.3 Paper 5
3. Appendix ....................................................................................................................... 6!
3.! Salely in lhe laboralory
3.2 Laboralory equipnenl
3.3 alhenalical requirenenls
3.4 oles on lhe use ol slalislics in biology (Canbridge nlernalional A Level only
3.5 Clossary ol lerns
9. Olher inlornalion ......................................................................................................... 70
nlroduclion
2 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
1. Introduction
!.! vhy choose Canbridge?
Fecognilion
Canbridge nlernalional Exaninalions is lhe worlds largesl provider ol inlernalional educalion progrannes
and qualilicalions lor learners aged 5 lo !9. ve are parl ol Canbridge Assessnenl, a deparlnenl ol lhe
Universily ol Canbridge, lrusled lor excellence in educalion. Our qualilicalions are recognised by lhe worlds
universilies and enployers.
Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Levels are recognised around lhe world by schools, universilies and
enployers. The qualilicalions are accepled as prool ol acadenic abilily lor enlry lo universilies worldwide,
lhough sone courses do require specilic subjecls.
Canbridge nlernalional A Levels lypically lake lwo years lo conplele and oller a llexible course ol sludy
lhal gives learners lhe lreedon lo selecl subjecls lhal are righl lor lhen.
Canbridge nlernalional AS Levels ollen represenl lhe lirsl hall ol an A Level course bul nay also be laken
as a lreeslanding qualilicalion. The conlenl and dillicully ol a Canbridge nlernalional AS Level exaninalion
is equivalenl lo lhe lirsl hall ol a corresponding Canbridge nlernalional A Level. Canbridge AS Levels
are accepled in all UK universilies and carry hall lhe weighling ol an A Level. Universily course credil and
advanced slanding is ollen available lor Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Levels in counlries such as lhe
USA and Canada.
Learn nore al www.cie.org.uk]recognition
Excellence in educalion
Our nission is lo deliver worldclass inlernalional educalion lhrough lhe provision ol highqualily curricula,
assessnenl and services.
ore lhan 9000 schools are parl ol our Canbridge learning connunily. ve supporl leachers in over !60
counlries who oller lheir learners an inlernalional educalion based on our curricula and leading lo our
qualilicalions. Every year, lhousands ol learners use Canbridge qualilicalions lo gain places al universilies
around lhe world.
Our syllabuses are reviewed and updaled regularly so lhal lhey rellecl lhe lalesl lhinking ol inlernalional
experls and praclilioners and lake accounl ol lhe dillerenl nalional conlexls in which lhey are laughl.
Canbridge progrannes and qualilicalions are designed lo supporl learners in beconing:
confident in working wilh inlornalion and ideas - lheir own and lhose ol olhers
responsibIe lor lhenselves, responsive lo and respecllul ol olhers
refIective as learners, developing lheir abilily lo learn
innovative and equipped lor new and lulure challenges
engaged inlelleclually and socially, ready lo nake a dillerence.
nlroduclion
3 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Supporl lor leachers
A wide range ol supporl nalerials and resources is available lor leachers and learners in Canbridge schools.
Fesources suil a variely ol leaching nelhods in dillerenl inlernalional conlexls. Through subjecl discussion
loruns and lraining, leachers can access lhe experl advice lhey need lor leaching our qualilicalions. ore
delails can be lound in Seclion 2 ol lhis syllabus and al www.cie.org.uk]teachers
Supporl lor exans ollicers
Exans ollicers can lrusl in reliable, ellicienl adninislralion ol exan enlries and excellenl personal supporl
lron our cusloner services. Learn nore al www.cie.org.uk]examsofficers
ollorprolil, parl ol lhe Universily ol Canbridge
ve are a nollorprolil organisalion where lhe needs ol lhe leachers and learners are al lhe core ol whal we
do. ve conlinually invesl in educalional research and respond lo leedback lron our cusloners in order lo
inprove our qualilicalions, producls and services.
Our syslens lor nanaging lhe provision ol inlernalional qualilicalions and educalion progrannes lor
learners aged 5 lo !9 are cerlilied as neeling lhe inlernalionally recognised slandard lor qualily
nanagenenl, SO 900!:2003. Learn nore al www.cie.org.uk]ISO9001
!.2 vhy choose Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level?
Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Levels are inlernalional in oullook, bul relain a local relevance. The
syllabuses provide opporlunilies lor conlexlualised learning and lhe conlenl has been crealed lo suil a wide
variely ol schools, avoid cullural bias and develop essenlial lilelong skills, including crealive lhinking and
problensolving.
Our ain is lo balance knowledge, underslanding and skills in our progrannes and qualilicalions lo enable
candidales lo becone elleclive learners and lo provide a solid loundalion lor lheir conlinuing educalional
journey. Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Levels give learners building blocks lor an individualised
curriculun lhal develops lheir knowledge, underslanding and skills.
Schools can oller alnosl any conbinalion ol 60 subjecls and learners can specialise or sludy a range ol
subjecls, ensuring a breadlh ol knowledge. Civing learners lhe power lo choose helps nolivale lhen
lhroughoul lheir sludies.
Through our prolessional developnenl courses and our supporl nalerials lor Canbridge nlernalional
AS and A Levels, we provide lhe lools lo enable leachers lo prepare learners lo lhe besl ol lheir abilily and
work wilh us in lhe pursuil ol excellence in educalion.
Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Levels have a proven repulalion lor preparing learners well lor universily,
enploynenl and lile. They help develop lhe indeplh subjecl knowledge and underslanding which are so
inporlanl lo universilies and enployers.
nlroduclion
4 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Learners sludying Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Levels have lhe opporlunilies lo:
acquire an indeplh subjecl knowledge
develop independenl lhinking skills
apply knowledge and underslanding lo new as well as laniliar silualions
handle and evaluale dillerenl lypes ol inlornalion sources
lhink logically and presenl ordered and coherenl argunenls
nake judgenenls, reconnendalions and decisions
presenl reasoned explanalions, undersland inplicalions and connunicale lhen clearly and logically
work and connunicale in English.
Cuided learning hours
Canbridge nlernalional A Level syllabuses are designed on lhe assunplion lhal candidales have aboul
360 guided learning hours per subjecl over lhe duralion ol lhe course. Canbridge nlernalional AS Level
syllabuses are designed on lhe assunplion lhal candidales have aboul !30 guided learning hours per
subjecl over lhe duralion ol lhe course. This is lor guidance only and lhe nunber ol hours required lo gain
lhe qualilicalion nay vary according lo local curricular praclice and lhe learners prior experience ol lhe
subjecl.
!.3 vhy choose Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology?
Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology is accepled by universilies and enployers as prool ol
knowledge and underslanding ol biology. Successlul candidales gain lilelong skills, including:
conlidence in a lechnological world, wilh an inlorned inleresl in scienlilic nallers
an underslanding ol lhe uselulness (and linilalions ol scienlilic nelhod, and ils applicalion in olher
subjecls and in everyday lile
an underslanding ol how scienlilic lheories and nelhods have developed, and conlinue lo develop, as a
resull ol groups and individuals working logelher
an underslanding lhal lhe sludy and praclice ol biology are allecled and liniled by social, econonic,
lechnological, elhical and cullural laclors
an awareness lhal lhe applicalion ol biological science in everyday lile nay be bolh helplul and harnlul
lo lhe individual, lhe connunily and lhe environnenl
knowledge lhal biological science overcones nalional boundaries
lhe abilily lo connunicale elleclively using universal scienlilic convenlions
an awareness ol lhe inporlance ol T
a concern lor accuracy and precision
an underslanding ol lhe inporlance ol sale praclice
inproved awareness ol lhe inporlance ol objeclivily, inlegrily, enquiry, inilialive and invenliveness
an inleresl in, and care lor, lhe local and global environnenl and an underslanding ol lhe need lor
conservalion
an excellenl loundalion lor sludies beyond Canbridge nlernalional A Level in biological sciences, in
lurlher or higher educalion, and lor prolessional courses.
nlroduclion
5 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Prior learning
ve reconnend lhal candidales who are beginning lhis course should have previously conpleled a
Canbridge O Level or Canbridge CCSE course, or lhe equivalenl, in Biology or in Coordinaled Science.
Progression
Canbridge nlernalional A Level Biology provides a suilable loundalion lor lhe sludy ol Biology or relaled
courses in higher educalion. Equally il is suilable lor candidales inlending lo pursue careers or lurlher sludy
in Biological Sciences, or as parl ol a course ol general educalion.
Canbridge nlernalional AS Level Biology conslilules lhe lirsl hall ol lhe Canbridge nlernalional A Level
course in Biology and lherelore provides a suilable loundalion lor lhe sludy ol Biology al Canbridge
nlernalional A Level and lherealler lor relaled courses in higher educalion. Depending on local universily
enlrance requirenenls, il nay pernil or assisl progression direclly lo universily courses in Biology or sone
olher subjecls. l is also suilable lor candidales inlending lo pursue careers or lurlher sludy in Biology, or as
parl ol a course ol general educalion.
!.4 Canbridge ACE (Advanced nlernalional Cerlilicale ol
Educalion Diplona
Canbridge ACE Diplona is lhe group award ol lhe Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level. l gives schools
lhe opporlunily lo benelil lron ollering a broad and balances curriculun by recognising lhe achievenenls ol
learners who pass exaninalions in lhree dillerenl curriculun groups:
alhenalics and Science (Croup !
Languages (Croup 2
Arls and Hunanilies (Croup 3
A Canbridge nlernalional A Level counls as a doublecredil qualilicalion and a Canbridge nlernalional AS
Level counls as a singlecredil qualilicalion wilhin lhe Canbridge ACE Diplona award lranework.
To be considered lor an ACE Diplona, a candidale nusl earn lhe equivalenl ol six credils by passing a
conbinalion ol exaninalions al eilher double credil or single credil, wilh al leasl one course coning lron
each ol lhe lhree curriculun groups.
Biology (9700 lalls inlo Croup !, alhenalics and Science.
Credils gained lron Canbridge AS Level Clobal Perspeclives (3937 or Canbridge PreU Clobal Perspeclives
and ndependenl Fesearch (9766 can be counled lowards lhe Canbridge ACE Diplona, bul candidales
nusl also gain al leasl one credil lron each ol lhe lhree curriculun groups lo be eligible lor lhe award.
Learn nore aboul lhe Canbridge ACE Diplona al www.cie.org.uk]quaIifications]academic]uppersec]aice
The Canbridge ACE Diplona is awarded lron exaninalions adninislered in lhe June and ovenber series
each year.
Delailed linelables are available lron www.cie.org.uk]examsofficers
nlroduclion
6 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
!.5 How can lind oul nore?
l you are already a Canbridge school
You can nake enlries lor lhis qualilicalion lhrough your usual channels. l you have any queslions, please
conlacl us al info@cie.org.uk
l you are nol yel a Canbridge school
Learn aboul lhe benelils ol beconing a Canbridge school al www.cie.org.uk]startcambridge. Enail us al
info@cie.org.uk lo lind oul how your organisalion can regisler lo becone a Canbridge school.
Teacher supporl
7 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
2. Teacher support
2.! Supporl nalerials
Canbridge syllabuses, pasl queslion papers and exaniner reporls lo cover lhe lasl exaninalion series are
on lhe S,||abus and Suppor! a!eria|s DVD, which we send lo all Canbridge schools.
You can also go lo our public websile al www.cie.org.uk]aIeveI lo download currenl and lulure syllabuses
logelher wilh specinen papers or pasl queslion papers and exaniner reporls lron one series.
For leachers al regislered Canbridge schools a range ol addilional supporl nalerials lor specilic syllabuses
is available online. For Teacher Supporl go lo http:]]teachers.cie.org.uk (usernane and password required.
2.2 Fesource lisls
ve work wilh publishers providing a range ol resources lor our syllabuses including lexlbooks, websiles,
CDs elc. Any endorsed, reconnended and suggesled resources are lisled on bolh our public websile and
on Teacher Supporl.
The resource lisls can be lillered lo show all resources or jusl lhose which are endorsed or reconnended
by Canbridge. Fesources endorsed by Canbridge go lhrough a delailed qualily assurance process and are
wrillen lo align closely wilh lhe Canbridge syllabus lhey supporl.
2.3 Training
ve oller a range ol supporl aclivilies lor leachers lo ensure lhey have lhe relevanl knowledge and skills lo
deliver our qualilicalions. See www.cie.org.uk]events lor lurlher inlornalion.
Assessnenl al a glance
3 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
3. Assessment at a gIance
Candidales lor Advanced Subsidiary (AS cerlilicalion lake Papers !, 2 and 3 (eilher Advanced Praclical
Skills ! or Advanced Praclical Skills 2 in a single exan series.
Candidales who already have AS cerlilicalion and wish lo achieve lhe lull Advanced Level qualilicalion
nay carry lheir AS narks lorward and lake jusl Papers 4 and 5 in lhe exan series in which lhey require
cerlilicalion.
Candidales laking lhe conplele Advanced Level qualilicalion lake all live papers in a single exan series.
Candidates may onIy enter for the papers in the combinations indicated above.
Candidates may not enter for singIe papers either on the first occasion or for re-sit purposes.
This syllabus is lor:
candidales lor AS certification onIy in eilher 20!3 or 20!5,
candidales carrying lorward AS narks and laking Papers 4 and 5 lo cerlilicale lheir lull Advanced
Level qualilicalion in 20!5,
candidales laking lhe conplele Advanced Level qualilicalion al lhe end ol lheir course in 20!5.
Paper Type of Paper Duration Marks Weighting
AS LeveI A LeveI
! ulliple Choice ! hour 40 3!' !5'
2 AS Slruclured Oueslions ! hour !5 nin 60 46' 23'
3 Advanced Praclical Skills
!/2
2 hours 40 23' !2'
4 A2 Slruclured Oueslions 2 hours !00 33'
5 Planning, Analysis and
Evalualion
! hour !5 nin 30 !2'
Assessnenl al a glance
9 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Paper !
This paper will consisl ol 40 nulliple choice queslions based on lhe AS syllabus. All queslions will be ol lhe
direcl choice lype wilh lour oplions. Candidales will answer all queslions.
Paper 2
This paper will consisl ol a variable nunber ol slruclured queslions ol variable nark value. All lhe queslions
will be based on lhe AS syllabus. Candidales will answer all lhe queslions on lhe queslion paper.
Paper 3 - Advanced Praclical Skills !/2
n sone exaninalion series, lwo versions ol lhe Advanced Praclical Skills paper will be available, idenlilied
as Advanced Praclical Skills ! and Advanced Praclical Skills 2. n olher series only Advanced Praclical Skills !
will be available.
These papers will be equivalenl and each candidale will be required lo lake only one ol lhen. This is lo allow
large Cenlres lo splil candidales inlo lwo groups: one group will lake Advanced Praclical Skills !, lhe olher
group will lake Advanced Praclical Skills 2. Each ol lhese papers will be linelabled on a dillerenl day.
Each ol lhese praclical papers will consisl ol lwo approxinalely equal parls, one ol which will require lhe
use ol a nicroscope wilh lowpower and highpower objeclives and an eyepiece gralicule (see Seclion 7.2.5
lor delails. Cenlres are expecled lo use eyepiece gralicules and slage nicroneler scales during leaching.
For the examination, Centres shouId provide eyepiece graticuIes as standard. However, Cambridge
wiII suppIy stage micrometer scaIes for the examination as needed.
Candidales will be allowed lo use lhe nicroscope lor a naxinun ol ! hour. Candidales will be expecled
lo show evidence ol skill in lhe handling ol laniliar and unlaniliar biological nalerial. vhere unlaniliar
nalerials/lechniques are required, lull inslruclions will be given.
Candidales will answer all lhe queslions on lhe queslion paper. Allhough no disseclion ol nalerials ol
aninal origin will be sel in Advanced Praclical Skills papers, disseclion, inleraclive videos or sinilar will
conlinue lo be a uselul aid lo leaching, e.g. when lhe hearl is being sludied.
(Full delails are given in Seclion 6 lhe Praclical Assessnenl seclion ol lhe syllabus.
Paper 4
This paper will consisl ol lwo seclions.
Section A (85 marks) will consisl ol a variable nunber ol slruclured queslions ol variable nark value, based
on lhe A2 core and lhe Applicalions ol Biology syllabus.
Section B (15 marks) will consisl ol a lreeresponse queslion, presenled in an eilher/or lorn, lhal will carry
!5 narks based on lhe A2 core and lhe Applicalions ol Biology syllabus.
Candidales will answer all queslions on lhe queslion paper.
Assessnenl al a glance
!0 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Paper 5
This paper will consisl ol lwo or nore queslions based on lhe praclical skills ol planning, analysis and
evalualion. The exaniners will nol be reslricled by lhe subjecl conlenl. Candidales will answer all lhe
queslions on lhe queslion paper. Oueslions will require an underslanding ol lhe use ol slalislical lesls.
The lornulae lor lhese lesls will be provided. (Full delails are given in lhe Praclical Assessnenl seclion ol
lhe syllabus.
Availabilily
This syllabus is exanined in lhe ay/June exaninalion series and lhe Oclober/ovenber exaninalion
series.
This syllabus is available lo privale candidales. However, il is expecled lhal privale candidales learn in an
environnenl where praclical work is an inlegral parl ol lhe course. Candidales will nol be able lo perlorn
well in lhis assessnenl or progress successlully lo lurlher sludy wilhoul lhis necessary and inporlanl
aspecl ol science educalion.
Delailed linelables are available lron www.cie.org.uk]examsofficers
Cenlres in lhe UK lhal receive governnenl lunding are advised lo consull lhe Canbridge websile
www.cie.org.uk lor lhe lalesl inlornalion belore beginning lo leach lhis syllabus.
Conbining lhis wilh olher syllabuses
Candidales can conbine lhis syllabus in an exaninalion series wilh any olher Canbridge syllabus, excepl
syllabuses wilh lhe sane lille al lhe sane level.
Syllabus ains and assessnenl objeclives
!! Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
4. SyIIabus aims and assessment objectives
4.! Syllabus ains
A course based on lhis syllabus should ain lo:
! Provide, lhrough welldesigned sludies ol experinenlal and praclical biological science, a worlhwhile
educalional experience lor all sludenls, whelher or nol lhey go on lo sludy science beyond lhis level.
n parlicular, il should enable lhen lo:
becone conlidenl cilizens in a lechnological world, wilh an inlorned inleresl in scienlilic nallers,
recognise lhe uselulness (and linilalions ol scienlilic nelhod, and ils applicalion in olher subjecls
and in everyday lile,
be suilably prepared lor sludies in biological sciences beyond Canbridge nlernalional A Level, in
lurlher or higher educalion, and lor prolessional courses.
2 Develop abililies and skills lhal:
are relevanl lo lhe sludy and praclice ol biological science,
are uselul in everyday lile,
encourage elleclive, ellicienl and sale praclice,
encourage elleclive connunicalion using universal scienlilic convenlions.
3 Develop alliludes relevanl lo biological science, such as:
concern lor accuracy and precision
objeclivily
inlegrily
skills ol enquiry
inilialive
invenliveness.
4 Slinulale inleresl in, and care lor, lhe local and global environnenl, and help sludenls lo undersland lhe
need lor conservalion.
5 ake sludenls aware:
lhal scienlilic lheories and nelhods have developed, and conlinue lo develop, as a resull ol groups
and individuals working logelher, and lhal biological science overcones nalional boundaries,
lhal lhe sludy and praclice ol biology are allecled and liniled by social, econonic, lechnological,
elhical and cullural laclors,
lhal lhe applicalion ol biological science nay be bolh helplul and harnlul lo lhe individual, lhe
connunily and lhe environnenl,
ol lhe inporlance ol using T lor connunicalion, as an aid lo experinenls and as a lool lor
inlerpreling experinenlal and lheorelical resulls.
6 Slinulale sludenls and give lhen a lasling inleresl in biology, so lhal lhey lind sludying biology lo be
enjoyable and salislying.
Syllabus ains and assessnenl objeclives
!2 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Canbridge nlernalional A Level Biology puls greal enphasis on underslanding and using scienlilic ideas
and principles in dillerenl silualions, including bolh lhose lhal are wellknown lo lhe sludenl and lhose
which are new lo lhen. Canbridge expecls lhal sludy progrannes based on lhis syllabus will include a
variely ol learning experiences designed lo develop sludenls skill and conprehension. This will prepare
candidales suilably lor assessnenl. l will also allow leachers and sludenls lo locus on developing
lranslerable lilelong skills lhal are relevanl lo lhe increasingly lechnological world in which we live.
4.2 Assessnenl objeclives
The lhree assessnenl objeclives in Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology are:
A: Knowledge wilh underslanding
B: Handling inlornalion and solving problens
C: Experinenlal skills and invesligalions.
A: Knowledge wilh underslanding
Candidales should be able lo denonslrale knowledge and underslanding ol:
! scienlilic phenonena, lacls, laws, delinilions, concepls and lheories,
2 scienlilic vocabulary, lerninology and convenlions (including synbols, quanlilies and unils,
3 scienlilic inslrunenls and apparalus used in biology, including lechniques ol operalion and aspecls ol
salely,
4 scienlilic quanlilies and lheir delerninalion,
5 scienlilic and lechnological applicalions, wilh lheir social, econonic and environnenlal inplicalions.
Oueslions lesling lhese objeclives will ollen begin wilh one ol lhe lollowing words: de!ine, s!a!e, nane,
describe, exp|ain (using ,our knov|edge and unders!anding) or ou!|ine (see lhe glossary ol lerns in
Seclion 7.
B: Handling inlornalion and solving problens
Candidales should be able lo handle inlornalion and solve problens, using oral, wrillen, synbolic, graphical
and nunerical lorns ol presenlalion. n parlicular, lo:
! locale, selecl, organise and presenl inlornalion lron a variely ol sources,
2 lranslale inlornalion lron one lorn lo anolher,
3 nanipulale nunerical and olher dala,
4 use inlornalion lo idenlily pallerns, reporl lrends and draw conclusions,
5 give reasoned explanalions lor phenonena, pallerns and relalionships,
6 nake prediclions and hypolheses,
7 apply knowledge, including principles, lo new silualions,
3 denonslrale an awareness ol lhe linilalions ol biological lheories and nodels,
9 solve problens.
Assessnenl objeclives lo do wilh handling inlornalion and solving problens cannol be specilied precisely
in lhe syllabus conlenl because queslions lesling lhese skills are ollen based on inlornalion lhal is
unlaniliar lo lhe candidale. n answering such queslions, candidales nusl use principles and concepls lhal
are wilhin lhe syllabus and apply lhen in a logical, reasoned or deduclive nanner lo a new silualion.
Syllabus ains and assessnenl objeclives
!3 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Oueslions lesling lhese objeclives will ollen begin wilh one ol lhe lollowing words: discuss, predic!,
sugges!, ca|cu|a!e, exp|ain (give reasoned exp|ana!ions and exp|ain !he processes o! using in!orna!ion and
so|ving prob|ens) or de!ernine (see lhe glossary ol lerns in Seclion 7.
C: Experinenlal skills and invesligalions
Candidales should be able lo:
! lollow a delailed sel or sequence ol inslruclions,
2 use lechniques, apparalus, neasuring devices and nalerials salely and elleclively,
3 nake and record observalions, neasurenenls and eslinales, wilh appropriale regard lo precision,
accuracy and unils,
4 inlerprel, assess and reporl on observalions and experinenlal dala,
5 assess inlornalion, and nake prediclions and hypolheses,
6 design, plan and carry oul experinenls and invesligalions, and idenlily any problens,
7 choose appropriale lechniques, apparalus, neasuring devices and nalerials,
3 assess nelhods and lechniques, and suggesl possible inprovenenls.
Full delails ol lhe praclical assessnenl are given laler in lhe syllabus.
4.3 veighling ol assessnenl objeclives
The weighling given lo lhe assessnenl objeclives is:
Assessment objective Weighting
(%)
Assessment components
A: Knowledge wilh underslanding 45 Papers !, 2 and 4
B: Handling inlornalion and solving problens 32 Papers !, 2 and 4
C: Experinenlal skills and invesligalions 23 Papers 3 and 5
The weighling lable gives a general idea ol how narks are allocaled lo assessnenl objeclives A and B in lhe
lheory papers. However, lhe balance on each paper nay vary slighlly. Candidales receive !5' ol lhe lolal
narks lor awareness ol lhe social, econonic, environnenlal and lechnological inplicalions and applicalions
ol biology. These narks are awarded wilhin lhe Knowledge wilh underslanding and lhe Handling
inlornalion and solving problens calegories. Teachers should nole lhal lhere is a grealer weighling ol 55'
lor skills (including handling inlornalion, solving problens, praclical, experinenlal and invesligalive skills,
conpared lo 45' lor knowledge and underslanding. Teachers should nake sure lhal lheir schenes ol work
and lhe sequence ol learning aclivilies rellecl lhis balance, so lhal lhe ains ol lhe syllabus are nel and lhe
candidales are suilably prepared lor lhe assessnenl.
Syllabus ains and assessnenl objeclives
!4 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
4.4 Addilional inlornalion
NomencIature
Synbols, signs and abbrevialions used in exaninalion papers will lollow lhe reconnendalions nade in
nslilule ol Biology (2009 Bio|ogica| Nonenc|a!ure (4lh edilion and in ASE (2000 Signs, S,nbo|s and
S,s!ena!ics. The AS Conpanion !o !6-!9 Science.
DecimaI markers
n accordance wilh currenl ASE convenlion, decinal narkers in exaninalion papers will be a single dol on
lhe line. Candidales are expecled lo lollow lhis convenlion in lheir answers.
odern biological sciences use nany concepls lron lhe physical sciences. By lhe end ol lhe course,
candidales should lherelore have enough knowledge ol lhe lollowing lopics lo help lhen undersland
biological syslens. No queslions will be sel direclly on lhen.
The eleclronagnelic speclrun
Energy changes (polenlial energy, aclivalion energy and chenical bond energy
olecules, alons, ions and eleclrons
Concenlralion and nolarily
Acids, bases, pH and bullers
solopes, including radioaclive isolopes
Oxidalion and reduclion
Hydrolysis and condensalion
Syllabus conlenl
!5 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
5. SyIIabus content
The subjecl conlenl ol lhe syllabus is divided inlo AS and A2. The A2 seclion includes a Core and an
Applicalions ol Biology seclion, bolh ol which are sludied by all A2 candidales. These are shown in boId
lype in lhe subjecl conlenl which is lisled according lo learning oulcones. The exan is designed lo assess
lhe candidales knowledge and underslanding ol lhese oulcones.
5.! Slruclure ol lhe syllabus
! Core syllabus
Canbridge nlernalional AS Level candidales will sludy and be assessed on lhe lirsl eleven seclions,
A lo K.
Canbridge nlernalional A Level candidales will sludy and be assessed on all sixleen seclions, A lo P.
A Cell Slruclure
B Biological olecules
C Enzynes
D Cell enbranes and Transporl
E Cell and uclear Division
F Cenelic Conlrol
C Transporl
H Cas Exchange
nleclious Disease
J nnunily
K Ecology
L Energy and Respiration
M Photosynthesis
N ReguIation and ControI
O Inherited Change (Cene lechnology now in seclion F
P SeIection and EvoIution
2 Applicalions ol Biology
Canbridge nlernalional AS Level candidales will nol be assessed on lhese seclions.
Canbridge nlernalional A Level candidales will sludy and be assessed on all live seclions, O lo U.
O Biodiversity and Conservation
R Gene TechnoIogy (includes sone nalerial originally in O
S BiotechnoIogy
T Crop PIants
U Aspects of Human Reproduction
Syllabus conlenl
!6 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
The Applicalions ol Biology seclion occupies aboul !2' ol lhe lull Advanced Level course. Canbridge
provides a booklel covering lhis seclion.
So lhal Canbridge can specily lhe syllabus as precisely as possible, and also lo enphasise lhe inporlance
ol skills olher lhan recall, Learning Oulcones have been used lhroughoul. Each parl ol lhe syllabus has a
briel Contents seclion lollowed by delailed Learning Outcomes. Canbridge hopes lhal lhis lornal will
be helplul lo leachers and sludenls. Please nole lhal lhe syllabus is nol inlended lo be used as a leaching
syllabus, nor is il inlended lo represenl a leaching order.
Teachers should include lhe social, environnenlal, econonic and lechnological aspecls ol biology wherever
possible lhroughoul lhe syllabus (see Aims 4 and 5 on Page 3. Sone exanples are included in lhe syllabus,
and leachers should encourage sludenls lo apply lhe principles ol lhese exanples lo olher silualions
inlroduced in lhe course. The nunber ol exanples in lhe syllabus has been liniled so lhal sludenls are nol
overloaded by laclual recall.
Aim 5.4 enphasises lhe inporlance ol nlornalion Technology in lhis biology course. Teachers should
encourage sludenls lo nake lull use ol T lechniques in lheir praclical work. Teachers nay also use T in
denonslralions and sinulalions.
Teachers should illuslrale concepls and conlenl wilh exanples laken lron a wide range ol organisns.
Everylhing lhal we know aboul biology has been learned lhrough praclical invesligalion. Sludenls also lind
praclical work nolivaling and inleresling, and il can help lhen lo undersland abslracl lheorelical concepls.
Canbridge expecls lhal praclical aclivilies will underpin lhe leaching ol lhe whole syllabus.
[PA] nexl lo lhe learning oulcones in lhe syllabus conlenl show parls ol lhe subjecl lhal are parlicularly
suilable lor praclical work.
To supporl Cenlres in leaching praclical skills, Canbridge has produced lwo delailed booklels. Each conlains
30 praclical exercises, wilh al leasl !0 given in delail, wilh lesson plans, sludenl worksheels and uselul
inlornalion lor leachers and lechnical supporl slall. The olher 20 are given in oulline, so lhal Cenlres can
develop lhen and so learn lron lhe experience. The booklels are:
Teaching AS Biology Praclical Skills (PSAS97000!05
Teaching A2 Biology Praclical Skills (PSA297000!05
Cenlres can order copies lron Canbridge publicalions, ! Hills Foad, Canbridge, CB! 2EU, UK, phone
+44 (0 !223 553553, lax +44 (0 !223 553553, enail info@cie.org.uk.
Syllabus conlenl
!7 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
5.2 Core syllabus
A Cell slruclure
Content
The nicroscope in cell sludies
Cells as lhe basic unils ol living organisns
Delailed slruclure ol lypical aninal and planl cells, as seen using lhe eleclron nicroscope
Oulline lunclions ol organelles in planl and aninal cells
Characlerislics ol prokaryolic and eukaryolic cells
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a [PA] use an eyepiece gralicule and slage nicroneler scale lo neasure cells and be laniliar wilh unils
(nillinelre, nicronelre, nanonelre used in cell sludies,
(b explain and dislinguish belween resolulion and nagnilicalion (see seclion 5, wilh relerence lo lighl
nicroscopy and eleclron nicroscopy,
(c describe and inlerprel drawings and pholographs ol lypical aninal and planl cells, as seen using lhe
eleclron nicroscope, recognising lhe lollowing: rough endoplasnic reliculun and snoolh endoplasnic
reliculun, Colgi body (Colgi apparalus or Colgi conplex, nilochondria, ribosones, lysosones,
chloroplasls, cell surlace nenbrane, nuclear envelope, cenlrioles, nucleus, nucleolus, nicrovilli, cell
wall, lhe large pernanenl vacuole and lonoplasl (ol planl cells and plasnodesnala.
(knowledge lhal ribosones occurring in lhe nilochondria and chloroplasls are 70S (snaller lhan lhose
in lhe resl ol lhe cell (30S should be included. The exislence ol snall circular DA in lhe nilochondrion
and chloroplasl should be noled,
(d oulline lhe lunclions ol lhe slruclures lisled in (c,
(e [PA] conpare lhe slruclure ol lypical aninal and planl cells,
(l [PA] draw and label low power plan diagrans ol lissues and organs (including a lransverse seclion ol
slens, rools and leaves,
(g [PA] calculale linear nagnilicalion ol drawings and pholographs,
(h [PA] calculale aclual sizes ol specinens lron drawings and pholographs,
(i oulline key slruclural lealures ol lypical prokaryolic cells (including: unicellular, !5n dianeler,
peplidoglycan cell walls, lack ol nenbranebound organelles, naked circular DA, 70S ribosones and
conpare and conlrasl lhe slruclure ol prokaryolic cells wilh eukaryolic cells (relerence lo nesosones
should nol be included,
(j use lhe knowledge gained in lhis seclion in new silualions or lo solve relaled problens.
Syllabus conlenl
!3 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
B Biological nolecules
Content
Slruclure ol carbohydrales, lipids and proleins and lheir roles in living organisns
valer and living organisns
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a [PA] carry oul lesls lor reducing and nonreducing sugars (including using colour slandards as a
seniquanlilalive use ol lhe Benedicls lesl, lhe iodine in polassiun iodide solulion lesl lor slarch, lhe
enulsion lesl lor lipids and lhe biurel lesl lor proleins,
(b describe lhe ring lorns ol oglucose and |glucose (candidales should be laniliar wilh lhe lerns
nononer, po|,ner and nacrono|ecu|e,
(c describe lhe lornalion and breakage ol a glycosidic bond wilh relerence bolh lo polysaccharides and lo
disaccharides including sucrose,
(d describe lhe nolecular slruclure ol polysaccharides including slarch (anylose and anylopeclin,
glycogen and cellulose and relale lhese slruclures lo lheir lunclions in living organisns,
(e describe lhe nolecular slruclure ol a lriglyceride and a phospholipid and relale lhese slruclures lo lheir
lunclions in living organisns,
(l describe lhe slruclure ol an anino acid and lhe lornalion and breakage ol a peplide bond,
(g explain lhe neaning ol lhe lerns prinar, s!ruc!ure, secondar, s!ruc!ure, !er!iar, s!ruc!ure and
qua!ernar, s!ruc!ure ol proleins and describe lhe lypes ol bonding (hydrogen, ionic, disullide and
hydrophobic inleraclions lhal hold lhe nolecule in shape,
(h describe lhe nolecular slruclure ol haenoglobin as an exanple ol a globular prolein, and ol collagen as
an exanple ol a librous prolein and relale lhese slruclures lo lheir lunclions (lhe inporlance ol iron in
lhe haenoglobin nolecule should be enphasised. A haenoglobin nolecule is conposed ol 2 alpha (
chains and 2 bela ( chains, allhough when describing lhe chains lhe lerns globin and globin nay be
used. There should be a dislinclion belween collagen nolecules and collagen libres,
(i describe and explain lhe roles ol waler in living organisns and as an environnenl lor organisns,
(j use lhe knowledge gained in lhis seclion in new silualions or lo solve relaled problens.
Syllabus conlenl
!9 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
C Enzynes
Content
ode ol aclion ol enzynes
Faclors lhal allecl enzyne aclion
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a explain lhal enzynes are globular proleins lhal calalyse nelabolic reaclions,
(b explain lhe node ol aclion ol enzynes in lerns ol an aclive sile, enzynesubslrale conplex, lowering
ol aclivalion energy and enzyne specilicily (lhe lock and key hypolhesis and lhe induced lil hypolhesis
should be included,
(c [PA] lollow lhe progress ol an enzynecalalysed reaclion by neasuring rales ol lornalion ol producls
(lor exanple, using calalase or rales ol disappearance ol subslrale (lor exanple, using anylase,
(d [PA] invesligale and explain lhe ellecls ol lenperalure, pH, enzyne concenlralion and subslrale
concenlralion on lhe rale ol enzynecalalysed reaclions,
(e explain lhe ellecls ol conpelilive and nonconpelilive inhibilors on lhe rale ol enzyne aclivily,
(l use lhe knowledge gained in lhis seclion in new silualions or lo solve relaled problens.
D Cell nenbranes and lransporl
Content
Fluid nosaic nodel ol nenbrane slruclure
ovenenl ol subslances inlo and oul ol cells
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a describe and explain lhe lluid nosaic nodel ol nenbrane slruclure, including an oulline ol lhe roles ol
phospholipids, choleslerol, glycolipids, proleins and glycoproleins,
(b oulline lhe roles ol cell surlace nenbranes,
(c describe and explain lhe processes ol di!!usion, !aci|i!a!ed di!!usion, osnosis, ac!ive !ranspor!,
endoc,!osis and exoc,!osis (lerninology described in lhe OBs publicalion Bio|ogica| Nonenc|a!ure
should be used, see also seclion 5, no calculalions involving waler polenlial will be sel,
(d [PA] invesligale lhe ellecls on planl cells and lhe ellecl on aninal cells ol innersion in solulions ol
dillerenl concenlralions ol solulions (wilh dillerenl waler polenlials,
(e use lhe knowledge gained in lhis seclion in new silualions or lo solve relaled problens.
Syllabus conlenl
20 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
E Cell and nuclear division
Content
Feplicalion and division ol nuclei and cells
Underslanding ol chronosone behaviour in nilosis
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a explain lhe inporlance ol nilosis in lhe produclion ol genelically idenlical cells, growlh, repair and
asexual reproduclion,
(b oulline lhe cell cycle, including growlh, DA replicalion, nilosis and cylokinesis,
(c [PA] describe, wilh lhe aid ol diagrans, lhe behaviour ol chronosones during lhe nilolic cell cycle and
lhe associaled behaviour ol lhe nuclear envelope, cell nenbrane, cenlrioles and spindle (nanes ol lhe
nain slages are expecled,
(d explain how unconlrolled cell division can resull in lhe lornalion ol a lunour and idenlily laclors lhal can
increase lhe chances ol cancerous growlh,
(e explain lhe neanings ol lhe lerns hap|oid and dip|oid (see seclion 5 and lhe need lor a reduclion
division (neiosis prior lo lerlilisalion in sexual reproduclion (nole: descriplions ol honologous
chronosones are nol required lor AS Level,
(l use lhe knowledge gained in lhis seclion in new silualions or lo solve relaled problens.
F Cenelic conlrol
Content
Slruclure and replicalion ol DA
Fole ol DA in prolein synlhesis
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a describe lhe slruclure ol FA and DA and explain lhe inporlance ol base pairing and lhe dillerenl
hydrogen bonding belween bases (includes relerence lo adenine and guanine as purines and lo
cylosine, lhynine and uracil as pyrinidines. Slruclural lornulae lor bases is nol required bul lhe
recognilion lhal purines have a double ring slruclure and pyrinidines have a single ring slruclure should
be included,
(b explain how DA replicales seniconservalively during inlerphase,
(c slale lhal a polypeplide is coded lor by a gene and lhal a gene is a sequence ol nucleolides lhal lorns
parl ol a DA nolecue and slale lhal a nulalion is a change in lhe sequence lhal nay resull in an
allered polypeplide,
(d describe lhe way in which lhe nucleolide sequence codes lor lhe anino acid sequence in a polypeplide
wilh relerence lo lhe nucleolide sequence lor HbA (nornal and HbS (sickle cell alleles ol lhe gene lor
lhe |globin polypeplide,
(e describe how lhe inlornalion on DA is used during lranscriplion and lranslalion lo conslrucl
polypeplides, including lhe role ol nessenger FA (nFA, lransler FA (lFA and lhe ribosones
(lor genelic diclionaries see seclion 5,
(l use lhe knowledge gained in lhis seclion in new silualions or lo solve relaled problens.
Syllabus conlenl
2! Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
C Transporl
Content
The need lor, and lunclioning ol, a lransporl syslen in nullicellular planls
The need lor, and lunclioning ol, a lransporl syslen in nannals
Slruclure and lunclioning ol lhe nannalian hearl
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a explain lhe need lor lransporl syslens in nullicellular planls and aninals in lerns ol size and surlace
area lo volune ralios,
(b deline lhe lern !ranspira!ion (see seclion 5 and explain lhal il is an inevilable consequence ol gas
exchange in planls,
(c [PA] describe how lo invesligale experinenlally lhe laclors lhal allecl lranspiralion rale,
(d [PA] describe lhe dislribulion ol xylen and phloen lissue in rools, slens and leaves ol dicolyledonous
planls,
(e [PA] describe lhe slruclure ol xylen vessel elenenls, phloen sieve lube elenenls and conpanion cells
and be able lo recognise lhese using lhe lighl nicroscope,
(l relale lhe slruclure ol xylen vessel elenenls, phloen sieve lube elenenls and conpanion cells lo lheir
lunclions,
(g explain lhe novenenl ol waler belween planl cells, and belween lhen and lheir environnenl, in lerns
ol waler polenlial (no calculalions involving waler polenlial will be sel,
(h describe lhe palhways and explain lhe nechanisns by which waler is lransporled lron soil lo xylen
and lron rools lo leaves (includes relerence lo lhe synplasl/synplaslic palhway and apoplasl/apoplaslic
palhway,
(i oulline lhe roles ol nilrale ions and ol nagnesiun ions in planls,
(j [PA] describe how lhe leaves ol xerophylic planls are adapled lo reduce waler loss by lranspiralion,
(k explain lranslocalion as an energyrequiring process lransporling assinilales, especially sucrose,
belween lhe leaves (sources and olher parls ol lhe planl (sinks,
(l explain lhe lranslocalion ol sucrose using lhe nass llow hypolhesis,
(n [PA] describe lhe slruclures ol arleries, veins and capillaries and be able lo recognise lhese vessels
using lhe lighl nicroscope,
(n explain lhe relalionship belween lhe slruclure and lunclion ol arleries, veins and capillaries,
(o [PA] describe lhe slruclure ol red blood cells, phagocyles (nacrophages and neulrophils and
lynphocyles,
(p slale and explain lhe dillerences belween blood, lissue lluid and lynph,
(q describe lhe role ol haenoglobin in carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide (including lhe role ol carbonic
anhydrase, lhe lornalion ol haenoglobinic acid and carbaninohaenoglobin,
(r describe and explain lhe signilicance ol lhe oxygen dissocialion curves ol adull oxyhaenoglobin al
dillerenl carbon dioxide concenlralions (lhe Bohr ellecl,
(s describe and explain lhe signilicance ol lhe increase in lhe red blood cell counl ol hunans al high
allilude,
(l describe lhe exlernal and inlernal slruclure ol lhe nannalian hearl,
(u explain lhe dillerences in lhe lhickness ol lhe walls ol lhe dillerenl chanbers in lerns ol lheir lunclions,
(v describe lhe nannalian circulalory syslen as a closed double circulalion,
(w describe lhe cardiac cycle (including blood pressure changes during syslole and diaslole,
Syllabus conlenl
22 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
(x explain how hearl aclion is inilialed and conlrolled (relerence should be nade lo lhe sinoalrial node, lhe
alriovenlricular node and lhe Purkyne lissue,
(y use lhe knowledge gained in lhis seclion in new silualions or lo solve relaled problens.
H Cas exchange and snoking
Content
The gas exchange syslen
Snoking and snokingrelaled diseases
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a [PA] describe lhe slruclure ol lhe hunan gas exchange syslen, including lhe nicroscopic slruclure ol
lhe walls ol lhe lrachea, bronchioles and alveoli wilh lheir associaled blood vessels,
(b [PA] describe lhe dislribulion ol carlilage, cilialed epilheliun, goblel cells and snoolh nuscle in lhe
lrachea, bronchi and bronchioles,
(c describe lhe lunclions ol carlilage, cilia, goblel cells, nucous glands, snoolh nuscle and elaslic libres in
lhe gas exchange syslen,
(d describe lhe process ol gas exchange belween air in lhe alveoli and lhe blood,
(e describe lhe ellecls ol lar and carcinogens in lobacco snoke on lhe gas exchange syslen,
(l describe lhe signs and synplons lhal enable diagnosis ol lung cancer and chronic obslruclive
pulnonary disease (COPD (enphysena and chronic bronchilis,
(g describe lhe ellecls ol nicoline and carbon nonoxide on lhe cardiovascular syslen,
(h explain how lobacco snoking conlribules lo alherosclerosis and coronary hearl disease (CHD,
(i evaluale lhe epideniological and experinenlal evidence linking cigarelle snoking lo disease and early
dealh,
(j discuss lhe dillicullies in achieving a balance belween prevenlions and cure wilh relerence lo coronary
hearl disease, coronary bypass surgery and hearl lransplanl surgery,
(k use lhe knowledge gained in lhis seclion in new silualions or lo solve relaled problens.
nleclious disease
Content
Cholera, nalaria, luberculosis (TB, HV/ADS, snallpox and neasles
Anlibiolics
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a deline lhe lern disease (see seclion 5 and explain lhe dillerence belween an in!ec!ious disease and
noninleclious diseases (liniled lo sickle cell anaenia and lung cancer, see seclion 5,
(b slale nanes and lypes ol causalive organisn ol each ol lhe lollowing diseases: cholera, nalaria, TB,
HV/ADS, snallpox and neasles (delailed knowledge ol slruclure is not required. For snallpox (Variola
and neasles (orbillivirus nanes ol genus only is needed,
(c explain how cholera, neasles, nalaria, TB and HV/ADS are lransnilled,
(d discuss lhe laclors lhal need lo be considered in lhe prevenlion and conlrol ol cholera, neasles, nalaria,
TB and HV/ADS (a delailed sludy ol lhe lile cycle ol lhe nalarial parasile is not required (an apprecialion
ol social and biological laclors and how econonic laclors can allecl lhese should be included,
Syllabus conlenl
23 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
(e discuss lhe laclors lhal inlluence lhe global pallerns ol dislribulion ol nalaria, TB and HV/ADS and
assess lhe inporlance ol lhese diseases worldwide,
(l oulline lhe role ol anlibiolics in lhe lrealnenl ol baclerial inleclious diseases (knowledge ol specilic
anlibiolics and lheir node ol aclion is not required,
(g use lhe knowledge gained in lhis seclion in new silualions or lo solve relaled problens.
J nnunily
Content
The innune syslen
Vaccinalion
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a [PA] recognise phagocyles and lynphocyles under lhe lighl nicroscope,
(b slale lhe origin and describe lhe node ol aclion ol phagocyles (nacrophages and neulrophils,
(c describe lhe nodes ol aclion ol Blynphocyles and Tlynphocyles,
(d explain lhe neaning ol lhe lern innune response, naking relerence lo lhe lerns anligen, sell and
nonsell (see seclion 5,
(e explain lhe role ol nenory cells in longlern innunily,
(l relale lhe nolecular slruclure ol anlibodies lo lheir lunclions,
(g dislinguish belween ac!ive and passive, na!ura| and ar!i!icia| innuni!, and explain how vaccina!ion can
conlrol disease (see seclion 5,
(h discuss lhe reasons why vaccinalion progrannes have eradicaled snallpox bul nol neasles,
luberculosis (TB, nalaria or cholera,
(i use lhe knowledge gained in lhis seclion in new silualions or lo solve relaled problens.
K Ecology
Content
Levels ol ecological organisalion
Energy llow lhrough ecosyslens
Fecycling ol nilrogen
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a deline lhe lerns habi!a!, niche, popu|a!ion, connuni!, and ecos,s!en and be able lo recognise
exanples ol each (see seclion 5,
(b explain lhe lerns au!o!roph, he!ero!roph, producer, consuner and !rophic |eve| in lhe conlexl ol lood
chains and lood webs (see seclion 5,
(c explain how energy losses occur along lood chains and discuss lhe elliciency ol energy lransler
belween lrophic levels,
(d describe how nilrogen is cycled wilhin an ecosyslen, including lhe roles ol nilrogenlixing bacleria
(e.g. Fhizobiun and nilrilying bacleria (Ni!rosononas and Ni!robac!er,
(e use lhe knowledge gained in lhis seclion in new silualions or lo solve relaled problens.
Note: An ecos,s!en shou|d be s!udied in re|a!ion !o an area !ani|iar !o !he candida!es.
Syllabus conlenl
24 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
L Energy and respiralion
Content
The need for energy in Iiving organisms
Respiration as an energy transfer process
Aerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration
The use of respirometers
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a outIine the need for energy in Iiving organisms, as iIIustrated by anaboIic reactions, active
transport, movement and the maintenance of body temperature,
(b describe the structure of ATP as a phosphoryIated nucIeotide,
(c describe the universaI roIe of ATP as the energy currency in aII Iiving organisms,
(d expIain that the synthesis of ATP is associated with the eIectron transport chain on the
membranes of the mitochondrion,
(e outIine gIycoIysis as phosphoryIation of gIucose and the subsequent spIitting of hexose
phosphate (6C) into two triose phosphate moIecuIes, which are then further oxidised with a smaII
yieId of ATP and reduced NAD,
(l expIain that, when oxygen is avaiIabIe, pyruvate is converted into acetyI (2C) coenzyme A, which
then combines with oxaIoacetate (4C) to form citrate (6C),
(g outIine the Krebs cycIe, expIaining that citrate is reconverted to oxaIoacetate in a series of smaII
steps in the matrix of the mitochondrion (no further detaiIs are required),
(h expIain that these processes invoIve decarboxyIation and dehydrogenation and describe the roIe
of NAD,
(i outIine the process of oxidative phosphoryIation, incIuding the roIe of oxygen (no detaiIs of the
carriers are required),
(j expIain the production of a smaII yieId of ATP from anaerobic respiration and the formation of
ethanoI in yeast and Iactate in mammaIs, incIuding the concept of oxygen debt,
(k expIain the reIative energy vaIues of carbohydrate, Iipid and protein as respiratory substrates,
(l define the term !"#$%!&'(!) +,('%"-' (RO) (see section 5),
(n [PA] carry out investigations, using simpIe respirometers, to measure RO and the effect of
temperature on respiration rate,
(n use the knowIedge gained in this section in new situations or to soIve reIated probIems.
Syllabus conlenl
25 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Pholosynlhesis
Content
Photosynthesis as an energy transfer process
The investigation of Iimiting factors
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a expIain that energy transferred as Iight is used during the Iight-dependent stage of
photosynthesis to produce compIex organic moIecuIes,
(b describe the photoactivation of chIorophyII resuIting in the photoIysis of water and in the transfer
of energy to ATP and reduced NADP (cycIic and non-cycIic photophosphoryIation shouId be
described in outIine onIy),
(c describe the uses of ATP and reduced NADP in the Iight-independent stage of photosynthesis,
(d describe, in outIine, the CaIvin cycIe invoIving the Iight-independent fixation of carbon dioxide by
combination with a 5C compound (RuBP) to yieId two moIecuIes of a 3C compound GP (PGA),
and the conversion of GP into carbohydrates, Iipids and amino acids (the regeneration of RuBP
shouId be understood in outIine onIy, and a knowIedge of CAM pIants or the biochemistry of C4
pIants is not required),
(e [PA] describe the structure of a dicotyIedonous Ieaf, a paIisade ceII and a chIoropIast and reIate
their structures to their roIes in photosynthesis,
(l [PA] discuss Iimiting factors in photosynthesis and carry out investigations on the effects of Iight
intensity and waveIength, carbon dioxide and temperature on the rate of photosynthesis,
(g [PA] discuss the roIe of chIoropIast pigments in absorption and action spectra, and separate them
using chromatography,
(h use the knowIedge gained in this section in new situations or to soIve reIated probIems.
Fegulalion and conlrol
Content
The importance of homeostasis
Excretion
ControI of water and metaboIic wastes
Nervous and hormonaI communication
Response to changes in the externaI environment
ReguIation of the internaI environment
Communication and controI in fIowering pIants
PIant growth reguIators
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a discuss the importance of homeostasis in mammaIs and expIain the principIes of homeostasis in
terms of receptors, effectors and negative feedback,
(b define the term "./!"'%(- (see section 5) and expIain the importance of removing nitrogenous
waste products and carbon dioxide from the body,
Syllabus conlenl
26 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
(c [PA] describe the gross structure of the kidney and the detaiIed structure of the nephron with
the associated bIood vesseIs (candidates are expected to be abIe to interpret the histoIogy of the
kidney, as seen in sections using the Iight microscope),
(d expIain the functioning of the kidney in the controI of water by ADH (using water potentiaI
terminoIogy) and in the excretion of metaboIic wastes,
(e outIine the need for communication systems within mammaIs to respond to changes in the
internaI and externaI environment,
(l outIine the roIe of sensory receptors in mammaIs in converting different forms of energy into
nerve impuIses,
(g describe the structure of a sensory neurone and a motor neurone and outIine their functions in a
refIex arc,
(h describe and expIain the transmission of an action potentiaI in a myeIinated neurone and its
initiation from a resting potentiaI (the importance of sodium and potassium ions in the impuIse
transmission shouId be emphasised),
(i expIain the importance of the myeIin sheath (saItatory conduction) and the refractory period in
determining the speed of nerve impuIse transmission,
(j describe the structure of a choIinergic synapse and expIain how it functions (reference shouId be
made to the roIe of caIcium ions),
(k outIine the roIes of synapses in the nervous system in determining the direction of nerve impuIse
transmission and in aIIowing the interconnection of nerve pathways,
(l expIain what is meant by the term "-0(/!%-" 12&-0 (see section 5),
(n [PA] describe the ceIIuIar structure of an isIet of Langerhans from the pancreas and outIine the
roIe of the pancreas as an endocrine gIand,
(n expIain how the bIood gIucose concentration is reguIated by negative feedback controI
mechanisms, with reference to insuIin and gIucagon,
(o outIine the need for, and the nature of, communication systems within fIowering pIants to
respond to changes in the internaI and externaI environment,
(p describe the roIe of auxins in apicaI dominance,
(q describe the roIes of gibbereIIins in stem eIongation and in the germination of wheat or barIey,
(r describe the roIe of abscisic acid in the cIosure of stomata,
(s use the knowIedge gained in this section in new situations or to soIve reIated probIems.
Syllabus conlenl
27 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
O nheriled change
Content
Passage of information from parent to offspring
Nature of genes and aIIeIes and their roIe in determining the phenotype
Monohybrid and dihybrid crosses
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a [PA] describe, with the aid of diagrams, the behaviour of chromosomes during meiosis, and the
associated behaviour of the nucIear enveIope, ceII membrane and centrioIes (names of the main
stages are expected, but not the sub-divisions of prophase),
(b expIain how meiosis and fertiIisation can Iead to variation,
(c expIain the terms 2(/,#, &22"2", 0(3%-&-', !"/"##%4", /(0(3%-&-', 5(3(6)1(,#, 5"'"!(6)1(,#,
$5"-(')$" and 1"-(')$" (see section 5),
(d use genetic diagrams to soIve probIems invoIving monohybrid and dihybrid crosses, incIuding
those invoIving sex Iinkage, codominance and muItipIe aIIeIes (but not invoIving autosomaI
Iinkage or epistasis),
(e use genetic diagrams to soIve probIems invoIving test crosses,
(l [PA] use the chi-squared test to test the significance of differences between observed and
expected resuIts (the formuIa for the chi-squared test wiII be provided),
(g expIain, with exampIes, how mutation may affect the phenotype,
(h expIain, with exampIes, how the environment may affect the phenotype,
(i expIain how a change in the nucIeotide sequence in DNA may affect the amino acid sequence in a
protein and hence the phenotype of the organism,
(j use the knowIedge gained in this section in new situations or to soIve reIated probIems.
P Seleclion and evolulion
Content
NaturaI and artificiaI seIection
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a expIain how naturaI seIection may bring about evoIution,
(b expIain why variation is important in seIection,
(c expIain how aII organisms can potentiaIIy overproduce,
(d expIain, with exampIes, how environmentaI factors can act as stabiIising or evoIutionary forces of
naturaI seIection,
(e describe the processes that affect aIIeIe frequencies in popuIations with reference to the gIobaI
distribution of maIaria and sickIe ceII anaemia,
(l expIain the roIe of isoIating mechanisms in the evoIution of new species,
(g describe one exampIe of artificiaI seIection,
(h use the knowIedge gained in this section in new situations or to soIve reIated probIems.
Syllabus conlenl
23 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
5.3 Applicalions ol Biology
Teachers will lind il helplul lo reler lo Canbridges App|ica!ions o! Bio|og, book when leaching lhis seclion.
This is available lron lhe Canbridge Teacher Supporl websile and lron Canbridge Publicalions, and
provides a guide lo lhe level ol delail required. The Applicalions ol Biology seclion ol lhe syllabus lorns
approxinalely oneeighlh ol lhe A Level nalerial exanined.
O Biodiversily and conservalion
Content
CIassification
Conservation issues
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a [PA] outIine the five-kingdom cIassification to iIIustrate the diversity of organisms (cross reference
to SyIIabus Section A (c) and A (g), a knowIedge of phyIa within the kingdoms is not required),
(b discuss the meaning of the term biodiversity,
(c discuss the reasons for the need to maintain biodiversity,
(d describe the reasons why one named species has become endangered, and use this information
in the context of other endangered species,
(e discuss methods of protecting endangered species, incIuding the roIes of zoos, botanic gardens,
conserved areas (nationaI parks) and seed banks,
(l use the knowIedge gained in this section in new situations or to soIve reIated probIems.
F Cene lechnology
Content
Gene technoIogy for insuIin production
Markers for genetic engineering
Benefits and hazards of gene technoIogy
DNA sequencing and genetic fingerprinting
Cystic fibrosis
Genetic screening and genetic counseIIing
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a describe the steps invoIved in the production of bacteria capabIe of synthesising human insuIin:
identifying the human insuIin gene
isoIating mRNA and making cDNA using reverse transcriptase
cIoning the DNA using DNA poIymerase
inserting the DNA into a pIasmid vector using restriction enzymes and DNA Iigase
inserting the pIasmid vector into the host bacterium
identifying geneticaIIy modified bacteria using antibiotic resistance genes
cIoning the bacteria and harvesting the human insuIin,
(b expIain the advantages of treating diabetics with human insuIin produced by gene technoIogy,
(c expIain why promoters need to be transferred aIong with desired genes in gene technoIogy,
Syllabus conlenl
29 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
(d expIain why and how genes for enzymes that produce fIuorescent or easiIy stained substances
are now used instead of antibiotic resistance genes as markers in gene technoIogy,
(e describe the benefits and hazards of gene technoIogy, with reference to specific exampIes,
(l discuss the sociaI and ethicaI impIications of gene technoIogy,
(g [PA] outIine the principIes of eIectrophoresis as used in:
genetic fingerprinting
DNA sequencing,
(h describe the causes and outIine the symptoms of cystic fibrosis (CF) as an exampIe of a recessive
genetic condition (reference shouId be made to CFTR protein). Issues reIated to CF wiII need to be
handIed with sensitivity,
(i describe the progress towards successfuI gene therapy for CF,
(j discuss the roIes of genetic screening for genetic conditions and the need for genetic counseIIing,
(k use the knowIedge gained in this section in new situations or to soIve reIated probIems.
S Biolechnology
Content
IndustriaI appIications of microorganisms
Batch and continuous cuIture
PeniciIIin as an antibiotic
ImmobiIisation of enzymes
MonocIonaI antibodies
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a outIine the use of microorganisms in the extraction of heavy metaIs from Iow grade ores,
(b expIain what is meant by the terms 7&'/5 /,2',!" and /(-'%-,(,# /,2',!" (see section 5),
(c compare the advantages and disadvantages of batch and continuous cuIture with reference to
the production of secondary metaboIites (e.g. peniciIIin), enzymes (e.g. protease) and biomass
(e.g. mycoprotein),
(d describe, for peniciIIin as an exampIe of an antibiotic:
the mode of action on bacteria and why it does not affect viruses
causes and effects of antibiotic resistance,
(e [PA] immobiIise an enzyme in aIginate and compare the ease of recovering the enzyme and ease
of purification of the product compared to the same enzyme that has not been immobiIised,
(l expIain the principIes of operation of dip sticks containing gIucose oxidase and peroxidase
enzymes, and biosensors that can be used for quantitative measurement of gIucose,
(g outIine the hybridoma method for the production of a monocIonaI antibody
(h evaIuate the use of monocIonaI antibodies compared to conventionaI methods for diagnosis and
treatment of disease, and testing for pregnancy,
(i use the knowIedge gained in this section in new situations or to soIve reIated probIems.
Syllabus conlenl
30 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
T Crop planls
Content
Crop pIant reproduction
Crop adaptations
Methods to improve crops
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a [PA] describe and expIain the structuraI features of a named, wind-poIIinated pIant,
(b compare the outcomes of seIf-poIIination and cross-poIIination in terms of genetic variation,
(c [PA] describe the structure of the fruit in maize and expIain the function of the endosperm,
(d expIain the significance of the grains of cereaI crops in the human diet,
(e [PA] expIain how the anatomy and physioIogy of the Ieaves of C4 pIants such as maize or
sorghum are adapted for high rates of carbon fixation at high temperatures in terms of:
the high optimum temperatures of the enzymes invoIved
the spatiaI separation of initiaI carbon fixation from the Iight-dependent stage
(biochemicaI detaiIs of the C4 pathway are not required),
(l [PA] expIain how sorghum is adapted to survive in arid environments,
(g [PA] expIain how rice is adapted to grow with the roots submerged in water in terms of toIerance
to ethanoI and presence of aerenchyma,
(h outIine the foIIowing exampIes of crop improvement by conventionaI breeding techniques:
hybridisation Ieading to poIypIoidy in wheat
inbreeding and hybridisation in producing vigorous, uniform maize,
(i outIine the foIIowing exampIes of crop improvement by genetic modification and incIude any
associated detrimentaI effects on the environment or economy:
herbicide-resistant oiI seed rape
insect-resistant maize and cotton
Vitamin A enhanced rice,
(j use the knowIedge gained in this section in new situations or to soIve reIated probIems.
Syllabus conlenl
3! Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
U Aspecls ol hunan reproduclion
Content
Gametogenesis
RoIes of hormones in the menstruaI cycIe
ControIIing human reproduction
Learning Outcomes
Candidales should be able lo:
(a [PA] describe the histoIogy of the mammaIian ovary and testis,
(b outIine gametogenesis in a maIe and femaIe human as a process invoIving mitosis, growth,
meiosis and maturation,
(c expIain the roIe of hormones in maintenance of the human menstruaI cycIe, and Iink this to the
changes in the ovary and uterus during the cycIe,
(d outIine the bioIogicaI basis of the effect of oestrogen]progesterone contraceptive piIIs,
(e discuss and evaIuate the bioIogicaI, sociaI and ethicaI impIications of the use of contraception
(l outIine the technique of in-vitro fertiIisation (IVF) and discuss its ethicaI impIications,
(g use the knowIedge gained in this section in new situations or to soIve reIated probIems.
Delinilions
32 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
6. Definitions
This seclion conlains delinilions and laclual inlornalion lor supporling leaching, learning and assessnenl
ol biology wilhin lhis syllabus. The inlornalion is sel oul in lhe lorn lhal lhe exaniners believe besl rellecls
currenl underslanding ol biology. This inlornalion will be rellecled in selling lhe exan papers.
As a specilic exanple: lhere are a variely ol ways ol presenling lhe genelic code (here lerned gene!ic
dic!ionaries. This glossary delines lhe genelic diclionaries lhal will be used in selling any exan queslion
lor lhe papers lo which lhis syllabus relers. Candidales are expecled lo be laniliar wilh lhe use ol lhese
diclionaries ralher lhan olhers, and are nornally expecled lo give answers in lerns ol lhese diclionaries.
l a candidale uses a dillerenl diclionary in an answer lo a queslion, lhey will be given credil, provided lhal
lhe candidale nakes il clear lo lhe exaniner which diclionary lhey used, and provided lhal lhe answers are
correcl.
Active immunity: innunily resulling lron exposure lo an anligen. During lhe subsequenl innune
response, anlibodies are produced by plasna cells and lhe body nakes nenory cells lhal provide ongoing
longlern innunily. There is a delay belore lhe innune response is conplele, so innunily lakes sone
days lo build up.
AIIeIe: one ol lwo or nore allernalive nucleolide sequences al a single gene locus, so alleles are varianl
lorns ol a gene. For exanple, lhe alleles ol lhe ABO blood group gene are lound al a locus on chronosone
9, wilh lhe alleles including
A
,
B
and
O
. Diploid body cells conlain lwo copies ol each honologous
chronosone, so have lwo copies ol chronosone 9, and so have lwo copies ol lhe gene. These nay be lhe
sane allele (honozygous, lor exanple
A

A
, or
B

B
or
O

O
, or lhey nay be dillerenl alleles (helerozygous,
lor exanple
A

B
, or
A

O
or
B

O
. The gene lor producing lhe haenoglobin |polypeplide has a nunber ol
alleles. Two ol lhese are lhe nornal allele Hb
A
and lhe sickle cell allele, Hb
S
, giving Hb
A
Hb
A
and Hb
S
Hb
S
as
honozygous genolypes and Hb
A
Hb
S
as a helerozygous genolype.
Antibody: A glycoprolein secreled by a plasna cell. An anlibody binds lo lhe specilic anligen lhal lriggered
lhe innune response, leading lo deslruclion ol lhe anligen (and any palhogen or olher cell lo which lhe
anligen is allached. Anlibodies have regions lhal vary in shape (variable regions lhal are conplenenlary lo
lhe shape ol lhe anligen. Sone anlibodies are called anliloxins and prevenl lhe aclivily ol loxins (prevenl
lhe aclivily ol is sonelines called neulralise, which does not nean lhal lhis is anylhing lo do wilh pH.
Antigen: a prolein (nornally - sone carbohydrales and olher nacronolecules can acl as anligens lhal is
recognised by lhe body as loreign (so as nonsell and lhal slinulales an innune response. The specilicily
ol anligens (which is a resull ol lhe variely ol anino acid sequences lhal are possible allows lor responses
lhal are cuslonised lo specilic palhogens.
ArtificiaI immunity: innunily lhal is acquired by a person as a resull ol nedical inlervenlion. This includes
arlilicial passive innunily lollowing injeclion ol anlibodies (lor exanple nonoclonal anlibodies, lo lreal
acule lilelhrealening inleclions, such as lelanus or rabies. l also includes lhe longlern innunily lhal
resulls lron lhe injeclion ol anligens (such as lhose allached lo killed or weakened palhogens where
nenory cells are nade.
Batch cuIture: a nelhod ol culluring organisns in which all lhe conponenls are added al lhe beginning.
A balch cullure uses a conlainer wilh a growing populalion ol organisns (lor exanple ol nicroorganisns
suspended in a lernenler or lish in a pond where lhere is a liniled supply ol raw nalerials. Populalion
growlh lollows a signoid pallern and lhere is a lolal harvesl ol lhe conlenls ol lhe conlainer.
Delinilions
33 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Codominant: alleles lhal are bolh expressed il lhey are presenl logelher in a helerozygous person. For
exanple, alleles
A
and
B
ol lhe ABO blood group gene are codoninanl. Therelore, in a helerozygous person,

A

B
, bolh alleles are expressed and lhe blood group is AB. n lhe case ol lhe haenoglobin |polypeplide
gene, codoninance neans lhal lhe phenolype ol a person who has Hb
A
Hb
A
is unallecled by sickle cell
disorder, lhe phenolype ol a person who has Hb
A
Hb
S
is lhe less severe sickle cell lrail and lhe phenolype ol
a person who has Hb
S
Hb
S
is lhe nore severe sickle cell anaenia.
Community: all ol lhe populalions ol all ol lhe dillerenl species wilhin a specilied area al a parlicular line.
Confidence Iimit: lhe range in which a populalion value is likely lo lall. This is usually laken as 95' ol lhe
line a neasurenenl will lall in lhis range. n a nornally dislribuled populalion, lhe observed value lalls in
lhe niddle ol lhe conlidence linils.
Consumers: helerolrophic organisns lhal gel energyrich organic conpounds by ealing or deconposing
olher organisns. They exisl al lhe second (e.g. herbivore or higher (e.g. carnivore lrophic levels in lood
chains.
Continuous cuIture: a nelhod ol culluring organisns using a conlainer wilh a growing populalion ol
organisns (lor exanple ol nicroorganisns suspended in a lernenler or lish in a pond lhal is conlinuously
supplied wilh new raw nalerials and conlinuously harvesled in order lo keep lhe cullure in exponenlial
populalion growlh.
Decomposers: saprolrophic organisns lhal leed on dead organisns and organic wasle (such as dead leaves
or laeces, releasing nulrienls lor reuse and so playing an inporlanl role in lhe carbon and nilrogen cycle.
Dependent variabIe: lhe variable in an experinenl or invesligalion lhal is neasured.
Diffusion: lhe nel novenenl ol parlicles such as nolecules lron a region where lhey are al a higher
concenlralion lo a region wilh a lower concenlralion, using energy lron lhe randon novenenls ol
parlicles. This includes dillusion ol snall nonpolar nolecules (such as oxygen and carbon dioxide lhrough
lhe cell nenbranes, as well as dillusion ol lalsoluble nolecules (such as vilanin A lhrough lhe cell surlace
nenbrane.
DipIoid: a eukaryolic cell or organisn conlaining lwo conplele sels ol chronosones (lwo copies ol each
honologous chronosone, shown as 2n, such as a hunan body (sonalic cell.
Disease: an abnornal condilion allecling an organisn, which reduces lhe ellecliveness ol lhe lunclions ol
lhe organisn.
Dominant: an allele wilh a phenolype lhal is expressed even when presenl wilh an allele lhal is recessive
lo il. For exanple, in lhe ABO blood group gene,
A
is doninanl lo
O
. Therelore a person wilh lhe genolype

A

O
has blood group A because only lhe doninanl allele is expressed.
EcoIogy: lhe sludy ol lhe inlerrelalionships belween organisns and all living (biolic and nonliving (abiolic
conponenls ol lheir environnenl.
Delinilions
34 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Ecosystem: a unil nade up ol biolic and abiolic conponenls inleracling and lunclioning logelher, including
all lhe living organisns ol all lypes in a given area and all lhe abiolic physical and chenical laclors in lheir
environnenl, linked logelher by energy llow and cycling ol nulrienls. Ecosyslens nay vary in size bul
always lorn a lunclional enlily: lor exanple, a deconposing log, a pond, a neadow, a reel, a loresl, or lhe
enlire biosphere.
Endocrine gIand: a gland conlaining specialised secrelory cells lhal release a hornone inlo lhe blood
slrean al a dislance lron lhe hornones largel organ.
Endocytosis: uplake ol nalerials inlo cells by inward loldings ol lhe cell nenbrane lo lorn sacs ol
nenbrane lhal separale lron lhe cell nenbrane lo lorn vesicles wilhin lhe cyloplasn, using energy lron
ATP lo nove lhe cyloplasn around. The process nay involve liquid solulions/suspensions (pinocylosis or
solid nacronolecules or cells (phagocylosis.
Environment: lhe exlernal condilions, resources and slinuli wilh which organisns inleracl, allecling lheir
lile, developnenl and survival.
Excretion: lhe elininalion lron lhe body ol wasle conpounds produced during lhe nelabolisn ol cells,
including, lor a hunan, carbon dioxide (excreled lhrough lhe lungs and urea (excreled lhrough lhe kidneys
in urine.
Exocytosis: secrelion ol nalerials oul ol cells by cyloplasnic vesicles lusing wilh lhe cell nenbrane and
releasing lhe conlenls ol lhe vesicle inlo lhe lluid around lhe cell, using ATP lo nove lhe cyloplasn.
FaciIitated diffusion: lhe dillusion ol ions and polar (walersoluble nolecules lhrough cell nenbranes
using specilic prolein channels or carriers, down a concenlralion gradienl (lron regions where lhey are al
higher concenlralion lo regions where lhey are al lower concenlralion.
Genetic dictionary: a lisl ol lhe parlicular base sequences lhal correspond wilh parlicular anino acids.
This will vary depending on whelher nFA, lFA or eilher ol lhe lwo DA base sequences is given.
Delinilions
35 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Candidales should be able lo lranscribe DA lriplel codes lo nFA codons and lo lranslale nFA
codons lo lFA anlicodons and on lo anino acid sequences, using provided excerpls ol nFA and DA
diclionaries, which use abbrevialed nanes ol anino acids as shown below. Candidales do not need lo recall
specilic codes or nanes ol anino acids.
The genelic diclionaries lhal will be used are given below:
mRNA genetic dictionary
2nd base
!
s
l

b
a
s
e
U C A C
U
UUU Phe
UUC Phe
UUA Leu
UUC Leu
UCU Ser
UCC Ser
UCA Ser
UCC Ser
UAU Tyr
UAC Tyr
UAA S!op
UAC S!op
UCU Cys
UCC Cys
UCA S!op
UCC Trp
C
CUU Leu
CUC Leu
CUA Leu
CUC Leu
CCU Pro
CCC Pro
CCA Pro
CCC Pro
CAU His
CAC His
CAA Cln
CAC Cln
CCU Arg
CCC Arg
CCA Arg
CCC Arg
A
AUU le
AUC le
AUA le
AUC el
ACU Thr
ACC Thr
ACA Thr
ACC Thr
AAU Asn
AAC Asn
AAA Lys
AAC Lys
ACU Ser
ACC Ser
ACA Arg
ACC Arg
C
CUU Val
CUC Val
CUA Val
CUC Val
CCU Ala
CCC Ala
CCA Ala
CCC Ala
CAU Asp
CAC Asp
CAA Clu
CAC Clu
CCU Cly
CCC Cly
CCA Cly
CCC Cly
Delinilions
36 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
The DA genelic diclionaries lhal are available consisl ol lwo lypes, depending on which slrand ol DA is
reporled. any researchers and leachers use a diclionary lhal includes DA codes lhal are conplenenlary
lo lhe nFA codons shown above. During lranscriplion, il is lhis slrand lhal is used as a lenplale lo nake
lhe nFA. All Canbridge publicalions (including lhis syllabus and lhe exan queslions associaled wilh il
use lhis DA diclionary. l is shown below.
DNA genetic dictionary (showing lriplel codes lhal are conplenenlary lo nFA codons
2nd base
!
s
l

b
a
s
e
A C T C
A
AAA Phe
AAC Phe
AAT Leu
AAC Leu
ACA Ser
ACC Ser
ACT Ser
ACC Ser
ATA Tyr
ATC Tyr
ATT S!op
ATC S!op
ACA Cys
ACC Cys
ACT S!op
ACC Trp
C
CAA Leu
CAC Leu
CAT Leu
CAC Leu
CCA Pro
CCC Pro
CCT Pro
CCC Pro
CTA His
CTC His
CTT Cln
CTC Cln
CCA Arg
CCC Arg
CCT Arg
CCC Arg
T
TAA le
TAC le
TAT le
TAC el
TCA Thr
TCC Thr
TCT Thr
TCC Thr
TTA Asn
TTC Asn
TTT Lys
TTC Lys
TCA Ser
TCC Ser
TCT Arg
TCC Arg
C
CAA Val
CAC Val
CAT Val
CAC Val
CCA Ala
CCC Ala
CCT Ala
CCC Ala
CTA Asp
CTC Asp
CTT Clu
CTC Clu
CCA Cly
CCC Cly
CCT Cly
CCC Cly
Sense/anlisense will not be used in lhis syllabus in lhe conlexl ol DA and nFA because lhese lerns
have becone anbiguous.
Genotype: lhe parlicular alleles ol a gene al lhe appropriale locus on bolh copies ol lhe honologous
chronosones ol ils cells (lor exanple,
A

B
. l is sonelines described as lhe genelic conslilulion ol an
organisn wilh respecl lo a gene or genes.
Habitat: lhe parlicular localion and lype ol local environnenl occupied by a populalion or organisn,
characlerised by ils physical lealures or by ils doninanl producers (such as rocky shore or sugar cane lield.
HapIoid: a eukaryolic cell or organisn conlaining only one conplele sel ol chronosones (only one ol each
honologous chronosone, shown as n, such as a hunan spern or secondary oocyle.
Heterozygous: a lern describing a diploid organisn lhal has dillerenl alleles ol a gene al lhe genes locus
on bolh copies ol lhe honologous chronosones in ils cells (e.g. Hb
A
Hb
S
and lherelore produces ganeles
wilh lwo dillerenl genolypes (0.5 Hb
A
and 0.5 Hb
S
. A helerozygole is an organisn lhal is helerozygous.
Delinilions
37 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Homozygous: a lern describing a diploid organisn lhal has lhe sane allele ol a gene al lhe genes locus
on bolh copies ol lhe honologous chronosones in ils cells (e.g. Hb
A
Hb
A
and lherelore produces ganeles
wilh idenlical genolypes (all Hb
A
. A honozygole is an organisn lhal is honozygous.
Immune response: lhe conplex series ol reaclions ol lhe body lo an anligen, such as a nolecule on lhe
oulside ol a bacleriun, virus, parasile, allergen or lunour cell.
The innune response begins wilh an innale lirsl response, carried oul by phagocylic while blood cells,
which can deslroy and engull (by phagocylosis/endocylosis nany dillerenl loreign organisns.
Al lhe sane line, lhe prinary phase ol lhe adaplive innune syslen response begins, in which specilic
clones ol Blynphocyles and Tlynphocyles divide and dillerenliale lo lorn anlibodysecreling plasna
cells (lron Blynphocyles and T helper cells and T killer cells (lron Tlynphocyles lhal are specilic lo
lhe anligen, conlribuling lo ils deslruclion or prevenling ils aclivily.
This leads inlo lhe secondary phase ol lhe adaplive innune syslen response, where nenory cells
relain lhe capabilily lo secrele anlibodies or acl as T helper or T killer cells as soon as lhe specilic
anligen is delecled again.
Independent variabIe: lhe variable in an experinenl or invesligalion lhal is nanipulaled or changed.
Infectious disease: a disease caused by a palhogen lhal can be lransnilled lron one hosl organisn lo
anolher.
Locus: lhe posilion ol a gene or olher specilic piece ol DA (such as a narker on a chronosone. The sane
gene is always lound al lhe sane locus ol lhe sane chronosone (unless lhere has been a nulalion. The
locus is designaled by lhe chronosone nunber, ils arn, and ils place. For exanple, lhe gene associaled
wilh ABO blood groups is al locus 9q34, neaning lhe gene is lound on chronosone 9, on lhe long arn (q
al region 34. The gene associaled wilh sickle cell anaenia is al locus !!p!5.5, neaning chronosone !!,
shorl arn (p, region !5.5.
Magnification: lhe size ol an inage ol an objecl conpared lo lhe aclual size. l is calculaled using lhe
lornula = /A ( is nagnilicalion, is lhe size ol lhe inage and A is lhe aclual size ol lhe objecl, using lhe
same units lor bolh sizes. This lornula can be rearranged lo give lhe aclual size ol an objecl where lhe size
ol lhe inage and nagnilicalion are known: A = /.
NaturaI immunity: innunily lhal is acquired by lhe individual as a nalural parl ol lheir lile. This includes
nalural passive innunily lollowing lransler ol nalernal anlibodies inlo a lelus lhrough lhe placenla and inlo
a newborn inlanl in lhe lirsl nilk (coloslrun. l also includes lhe nalural aclive innunily lhal lollows nalural
inleclion by a palhogen involving lhe produclion ol nenory cells (lor exanple, nalural inleclion wilh chicken
pox, giving longlern proleclion lron lhis virus.
Niche: lhe lunclional role or place ol a species ol organisn wilhin an ecosyslen, including inleraclions wilh
olher organisns (such as leeding inleraclions, habilal, lilecycle and localion, adding up lo a descriplion ol
lhe specilic environnenlal lealures lo which lhe species is well adapled.
Non-infectious disease: a disease wilh a cause olher lhan a palhogen, including genelic disorders (such as
sickle cell anaenia and lung cancer (linked lo snoking and olher environnenlal laclors.
Non-seIf: proleins (nornally, bul see antigen lhal conlain sequences ol anino acids lhal are nol lhe
sane as any sell proleins and lhal can be recognised by innune syslen cells and can lrigger an innune
response in lhe body. Sonelines lhese are lerned nonsell anligens. vhen cells are inlecled by an anligen,
or becone cancerous, sone ol lheir anligens nay be changed lron sell lo nonsell.
Delinilions
33 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Osmosis: lhe dillusion ol waler nolecules lron a region where waler is al a higher waler polenlial lhrough
a parlially perneable nenbrane lo a region wilh a lower waler polenlial.
Passive immunity: innunily involving lhe lransler ol anlibodies (already nade in lhe body ol anolher
organisn or in vi!ro inlo lhe body where lhey will bind lo lheir specilic anligen il il is presenl. This gives
inslanl innunily bul does nol lead lo lhe developnenl ol nenory cells, so lhe innunily only lasls lor a
lew weeks.
Pathogen: a biological agenl (such as a virus, bacleriun, lungus or proloclisl lhal causes disease.
A palhogen causing hunan diseases will have, as parl ol ils slruclure, proleins lhal are dillerenl lron lhose
ol lhe hunan hosl and are lherelore anligens.
Phenotype: lhe physical, deleclable expression ol lhe parlicular alleles ol a gene or genes presenl in
an individual. l nay be possible lo see lhe phenolype (e.g. hunan eye colour or lesls nay be required
(e.g. ABO blood group. vhen lhe phenolype is conlrolled by a snall nunber ol alleles ol a parlicular gene,
il nay be genelically delernined (e.g. hunan eye colour, giving rise lo discontinuous variation. vhen
lhe phenolype is conlrolled by lhe addilive ellecls ol nany genes (polygenic, il nay be allecled by lhe
environnenl as well as genes (e.g. hunan heighl, giving rise lo continuous variation.
PopuIation: all ol lhe organisns ol one parlicular species wilhin a specilied area al a parlicular line, sharing
lhe sane gene pool and nore or less isolaled lron olher populalions ol lhe sane species.
Producers: aulolrophic organisns, al lhe lirsl lrophic level in lood chains, which can use sinple inorganic
conpounds (such as carbon dioxide and inorganic nilrogen plus energy lron lighl (pholosynlhesis or
oxidalion ol inorganic chenicals (chenosynlhesis lo nanulaclure energyrich organic conpounds.
Recessive: an allele wilh a phenolype lhal is nol expressed when an allele lhal is doninanl lo il is presenl.
For exanple,
O
is recessive lo
A
, so a person wilh lhe genolype
A

O
has blood group A, and a person can
only be blood group O il lhey are honozygous recessive,
O

O
.
ReIiabiIity: reliable resulls are repealable by lhe sane sludenl and reproducible by olhers.
ResoIution: abilily ol a nicroscope lo dislinguish lwo objecls as separale lron one anolher. The snaller and
closer logelher lhe objecls lhal can be dislinguished, lhe higher lhe resolulion. Fesolulion is delernined
by lhe wavelenglh ol lhe radialion used lo view lhe specinen. l lhe parls ol lhe specinen are snaller
lhan lhe wavelenglh ol lhe radialion, lhen lhe waves are nol slopped by lhen and lhey are nol seen. Lighl
nicroscopes have liniled resolulion conpared lo eleclron nicroscopes because lighl has a nuch longer
wavelenglh lhan lhe bean ol eleclrons in an eleclron nicroscope.
Respiratory quotient, RO: lhe volune ol carbon dioxide produced divided by lhe volune ol oxygen used
during respiralion.
l can also be delernined lheorelically by calculalion:
RQ
O used
CO produced
2
2
=
e.g. lor a carbohydrale: C
6
H
!2
O
6
+ 6O
2
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O RQ
6
6
1 = =
e.g. lor a lipid: 2C
57
H
!!0
O
6
+ !63O
2
!!4CO
2
+ !!0H
2
O RQ
163
114
0.7 = =
Delinilions
39 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
SeIf: lhe producls ol lhe bodys own genolype, which conlain proleins (nornally, bul see antigen lhal do
nol lrigger an innune response in lhe bodys own innune syslen. nside lhe body lhal produced lhen,
sell proleins do nol acl as anligens (and so do nol slinulale an innune response bul, il inlroduced inlo
anolher body, lhey becone nonsell.
Species: a group ol organisns lhal are reproduclively isolaled, inlerbreeding lo produce lerlile ollspring.
Organisns belonging lo a species have norphological (slruclural sinilarilies, which are ollen used lo
idenlily lo which species lhey belong.
Standardised (controIIed) variabIes: lhe variables in an experinenl or invesligalion lhal are kepl lhe sane
so lhey do nol inlluence lhe neasurenenl ol lhe dependenl variable.
Standard deviation: lhe spread ol a sel ol dala lron lhe nean ol lhe sanple is a neasure ol lhe variabilily
ol a populalion lron a sanple. A snall slandard devialion indicales lhal lhe dala is nore reliable.
Standard error: an eslinale ol lhe reliabilily ol lhe nean ol a populalion sanple. A snall slandard error
indicales lhal lhe nean value is close lo lhe aclual nean ol lhe populalion.
Transpiration: lhe process lhrough which waler vapour is losl lron lhe aerial parls ol planls. l occurs
as lhe resull ol evaporalion ol waler al lhe surlace ol nesophyll cells inlo lhe airspaces wilhin lhe leal,
lollowed by dillusion ol waler vapour oul ol lhe leal, nainly lhrough slonala, down a waler polenlial
gradienl lron lhe surlace ol spongy nesophyll cells via airspaces in lhe leal lo lhe alnosphere.
Trophic IeveI: a posilion in a lood chain, indicaling lhe nunbers ol energylransler sleps lo lhal level.
Producers are al lrophic level !, herbivores are al lrophic level 2, and so on, up lo lrophic level 5 lor sone
large predalors such as polar bear and orca.
Vaccination: lhe nedical giving ol nalerial conlaining anligens, bul wilh reduced or no abilily lo be
palhogens, in order lo give longlern aclive innunily as a resull ol lhe produclion ol nenory cells.
VaIidity: valid resulls are reliable and successlul al neasuring lhe inlended dependenl variable.
Praclical assessnenl
40 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
7. PracticaI assessment
7.! nlroduclion
Candidales should have opporlunilies lo praclise experinenlal skills lhroughoul lheir course ol sludy.
As a guide, candidales should spend al leasl 20' ol lheir line doing praclical work individually or in snall
groups. This 20' does nol include lhe line spenl observing leacher denonslralions ol experinenls and
sinulalions. The praclical work lhal candidales carry oul during lheir course should:
provide learning opporlunilies so lhal candidales develop lhe skills lhey need lo carry oul experinenlal
and invesligalive work,
reinlorce lhe lheorelical subjecl conlenl ol lhe syllabus,
inlroduce an underslanding ol how experinenl and lheory inleracl in scienlilic nelhod,
be enjoyable, conlribuling lo candidales nolivalion.
Candidales experinenlal skills are assessed in Papers 3 (Advanced Praclical Skills !/2 and 5. n each ol
lhese papers, lhe exaniners are nol slriclly bound by lhe subjecl conlenl ol lhe syllabus when linding
conlexls lor selling queslions. vilhin unlaniliar conlexls, candidales are lold exaclly whal lo do and how
lo do il. vilhin laniliar conlexls lisled in lhe syllabus, lhe candidales are expecled lo know how lo use
lhe lechniques. Knowledge ol lheory and experinenlal skills will only be drawn lron wilhin lhe syllabus.
Exanples ol unlaniliar conlexls nighl include:
lollowing inslruclions lo sel up and use unlaniliar equipnenl such as a sinple respironeler,
naking nicroscopic observalions, drawings and nagnilicalion calculalions lron unlaniliar slruclures ol
specinens,
lollowing inslruclions lo use unlaniliar biochenical procedures.
Praclical assessnenl
4! Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
7.2 Paper 3 - Advanced Praclical Skills !/2
n sone exaninalion series, lwo versions ol lhe Advanced Praclical Skills paper will be available, idenlilied
as Advanced Praclical Skills ! and Advanced Praclical Skills 2. These papers will conlain dillerenl queslions,
bul will be equivalenl in lhe skills assessed and in lhe level ol denand. Each candidale should lake one ol
lhese papers.
vhere lwo versions ol lhe paper are ollered, sone schools nay wish lo divide lheir candidales so lhal
sone are enlered lor Advanced Praclical Skills ! and lhe olhers are enlered lor Advanced Praclical Skills 2,
olher schools nay wish lo enler all ol lheir candidales lor lhe sane paper.
Paper 3 (Advanced Praclical Skills !/2 is a linelabled, laboralorybased praclical paper lhal locuses on lhe
lollowing experinenlal skills:
nanipulaling apparalus,
dala presenlalion,
analysis and evalualion.
Each paper:
has lwo or nore queslions,
has lwo roughly equal parls so lhal Cenlres can provide nicroscopes lor hall ol lhe candidales al a line,
includes an experinenl or experinenls requiring candidales lo collecl quanlilalive or qualilalive dala, lo
draw up lables, charls, graphs and olher appropriale neans ol presenling lhe dala, and lo analyse il lo
nake appropriale conclusions,
requires candidales lo nake observalions ol specinens, lo display lheir observalions approprialely
and lo nake appropriale analyses, including naking calculalions, deduclions and conclusions lron lhe
observalions,
includes queslions sel in dillerenl areas ol AS Biology, and nay include nalerial lron unlaniliar conlexls
(see above.
Praclical assessnenl
42 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
7.2.! ark schene lor Paper 3 (Advanced Praclical Skills !/2
Paper 3 is narked using lhe nark schene shown in lhe lable. The seclions lollowing lhe lable lisl lhe
expeclalions lor each nark calegory.
SkiII TotaI marks Breakdown of marks
anipulalion,
neasurenenl and
observalion
(O
!6 narks Successlully collecling dala and
observalions
3 narks
aking decisions aboul neasurenenls
or observalions
3 narks
Presenlalion ol dala
and observalions
(PDO
!2 narks Fecording dala and observalions 4 narks
Displaying calculalions and reasoning 2 narks
Dala layoul 6 narks
Analysis, conclusions
and evalualion
(ACE
!2 narks nlerpreling dala or observalions and
idenlilying sources ol error
6 narks
Drawing conclusions 3 narks
Suggesling inprovenenls 3 narks
Praclical assessnenl
43 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
7.2.2 Developnenl ol skills in invesligalions:
anipulalion, neasurenenl and observalion O- decisions aboul variables and risk assessnenl in
invesligalions and colleclion ol resulls
Presenlalion ol resulls PDO- recording resulls, display ol calculalions lron dala wilh reasoning and dala
layoul (graphs
Analysis, conclusions and evalualion ACE - analysis and inlerprelalion ol resulls and idenlilying sources
ol error, drawing conclusions and suggesling inprovenenls or nodilicalions lo exlend lhe invesligalion
MMO - ManipuIation (use of experimentaI techniques) Measurements and Observations:
O decisions, wilhin a given invesligalion lhe procedure should allow candidales lo learn lo:
(a denlily lhe independenl and dependenl variables in invesligalions carried oul by candidales. vhere
appropriale, invesligalions should idenlily lhe independenl and dependenl variables.
(b Describe how lhe independent variabIe has been changed wilhin a suilable range lo provide accurale
resulls.
(i decide lhe range and how lo change an independenl variable, including:
concenlralion - lron naxinun provided lo suilable nininun
lenperalure - praclical range above lreezing and up lo !00C by nainlaining walerbalhs -
lhernoslalically conlrolled or using cold waler and healing or nixing cold and hol waler.
pH - using bullers in a suilable range
lighl inlensily - using dislance ol lanp
windspeed - using dislance ol lan
hunidily - using plaslic bag or calciun hydroxide
(ii decide nunber ol values al which neasurenenls are recorded:
This nay be eilher al leasl 5 values (ideally, or nay require repeals or replicales or nore
neasurenenls around a parlicular value
(iii decide inlervals - even inlervals or nore in one region, including:
concenlralion - using serial dilulion by hall or laclor ol len or by sinple dilulion using regular
inlervals, e.g. !0', 3', 6', 4', 2'.
lenperalure - change by 5C or !0C or nore lenperalures around expecled oplinun
pH - whole nunbers belween pH 3 and pH !0 or 0.5 changes or closer around a parlicular pH lo
oblain an oplinun
(iv decide how lo idenlily lhe presence and eslinale lhe qualily ol biological nolecules using
biochenical lesls
(c Describe a conlrol il appropriale.
(i use ol zero concenlralion ol a nolecule and replace wilh lhe sane volune wilh waler
(ii enzyne conlrol - denalure enzyne by boiling or renove enzyne and replace wilh equal volune ol
dislilled waler
(iii renove planl and replace wilh porous pol
Praclical assessnenl
44 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
(d Decide which variables have been slandardised and describe how lo slandardise each variable lo provide
accurale resulls.
(i lor a parlicular invesligalion decide which variables have been slandardised because lhey nay
change lhe resulls il lhe variable changes during lhe invesligalion
(ii volune - describe praclical volunes lo use in apparalus, lor exanple lesllubes or beakers
(iii concenlralion
(iv lenperalure
(v pH - bullers
(vi biological nalerial, lor exanple planl nalerial - dillerenl phenolype or genolype, age, slorage
condilions, line ol year, nass, volune, posilion in, e.g. polalo, or aninal nalerial, phenolype or
genolype, age, sex, nass
(vii windspeed/draughls: enclose apparalus or sensible suggeslion
(viii hunidily: in enclosed environnenl
(ix apparalus - lesllube sizes, airlighl.
(e Using lhe skills, knowledge and underslanding ol lhe AS Biology syllabus, decide and describe how lhe
dependenl variable has been neasured lo oblain accurale and reliable resulls.
Use a variely ol lechniques lo neasure dependenl variables, lor exanple:
(i release ol gases: counl nunber ol bubbles, neasure volune ol displaced waler or collecled in a gas
syringe, change in dislance ol a liquid in a nanoneler or capillary delivery lube, change in indicalor/
lilnus paper colour or renoval ol colour in indicalor or cloudiness, conparison lo colour slandard or
charl or colorineler
(ii absorplion ol gases, change in dislance ol a liquid in a nanoneler or capillary delivery lube, change
in indicalor/lilnus paper colour or renoval ol colour in indicalor, conparison lo colour slandard or
charl or colorineler
(iii lenglh - nn ruler, 2 nn graph paper vernier callipers
(iv colour changes lor exanple in biochenical lesls: colour slandards ol known concenlralions,
colorineler, or indicalor colour changes
(v use ol a nicroscope lor counling or recording plasnolysed cells or use ol grid/haenocyloneler
Decide on:
(i lrequency ol neasurenenl, lor exanple inilial rale ol reaclion should be conducled as quickly as
possible
(ii how long lo leave running, lor exanple, rale ol reaclion nighl be expecled lo be conslanl over
several ninules or colour changes nay lake several ninules lo occur, in which case leaving lo run
lor as long as possible nay be appropriale
(iii reaching an endpoinl invesligalion needs lo run long enough lo reach lhis endpoinl
(iv repeal or replicale readings, lor exanple lo oblain a nean or lo repeal an anonalous resull or lo
provide a nore accurale eslinale
(v how lo counl a large nunber by sanpling or in grid (counl lhose louching lop and lell ignore lhose
louching bollon and righl
(vi how lo neasure area using a grid, counling lhose hall or nore wilhin grid as one whole square and
lhose squares less lhan hall are nol counled.
Praclical assessnenl
45 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
MMO coIIection - within a given investigation the procedure shouId aIIow candidates to Iearn to:
(a Follow inslruclions or diagrans lo collecl resulls and assess lhe risk ol a procedure.
Use a range ol invesligalions lo collecl resulls.
Fisk assessnenl:
Low risk: use ol low risk apparalus and chenicals lor exanple use ol polonelers and culling shools
or slains such as nelhylene blue.
ediun risk: use ol healing ol walerbalhs and chenicals which nighl be harnlul or irrilanl lor
exanple odine in polassiun iodide, Benedicls solulion, Biurel reagenl(s, dilule hydrochloric acid.
High risk: use ol high concenlralions ol acids and alkalis.
(b ake readings using a range ol apparalus lo oblain accurale and reliable resulls or observalions.
Ouanlilalive resulls lron readings ol, lor exanple:
(i lhernonelers, e.g. lenperalure changes wilh line
(ii nn ruler, e.g. dislance wilh line
(iii slop clock/slop walch, e.g. line lor change/colleclion ol a sel volune
(iv lally counls ol nunbers, e.g. bubbles in a ninule
(v prolraclors, e.g. angle ol bend
(vi balances, e.g. lo 0.! g nass
(vii neasuring cylinders or dillerenl sizes ol syringes, e.g. volunes ol solulions
(viii grids or nicroscope slides, e.g. nunbers ol planls in an area or plasnolysed cells
vhen recording dala and observalions, il a candidale gives one neasurenenl ol lenglh lo lhe
nearesl nillinelre in a colunn ol raw dala, lhen lhey should give all lhe lenglhs in lhal colunn lo
lhe nearesl nillinelre. The degree ol precision should be appropriale lor lhe neasuring inslrunenl
used. A candidale should nol record a dislance neasured on a nillinelre scale as 2 cn. vhere lhe
calibralion narks on a neasuring inslrunenl are widely spaced, lhe candidale nay need lo inlerpolale
belween lhe narks. vhere lhe calibralion narks are close logelher, lhen lhe candidale should lake
lhe reading lo lhe nearesl calibralion nark. Cenlres can lind nore inlornalion on neasurenenl al
www.rsc.org]images]RSCmeasurements_teacher_tcm18-189111.pdf
Oualilalive resulls lron observalions ol:
(viii clear descriplion ol colour changes, lor exanple blue or orange or purple. vhere line
discrininalion is required, lhen use ol pale or dark
Use ol dillerenl nunbers ol +++ or \\\ wilh a key lo represenl degrees ol colour/cloudiness or
a nunber scale ! lo 5 lor inlensily ol colour wilh a key.
Praclical assessnenl
46 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
7.2.3 PDO - Presenlalion ol Dala and Observalions:
PDO recording - within a given investigation, the procedure shouId aIIow candidates to Iearn to
(a Fecord quanlilalive resulls and qualilalive observalions in a lable.
Tables should have clearly ruled cells wilh no unils in lhe body ol lhe lable.
(i Ouanlilalive resulls:
heading lor independenl variable in lell colunn or lop row wilh appropriale unils
heading lor dependenl variable wilh unils
record lo sane level ol precision dependenl on lhe neasuring inslrunenl used, e.g. using
a nn scale should record in nn nol cn and lo 0.5 nn. All readings should be lo lhe sane
level ol precision, lor exanple il neasured in whole nn lhen all readings lo whole nn.
ore inlornalion www.rsc.org]images]RSCmeasurements_teacher_tcm18-189111.pdf
(ii Oualilalive observalions:
heading lor independenl variable, lor exanple solulions or sanples
heading lor dependenl variable, lor exanple observalion ol colour.
(b Fecord calculaled values (processed resulls and deduclions in a lable (wilh raw resulls
Selecl, il appropriale:
lo include processed resulls in lhe lable wilh lhe raw resulls, e.g. nean ol repealed or replicaled
resulls
lo include a separale lable lo show independenl variable wilh processed resulls, e.g. concenlralion
wilh rale.
PDO dispIay within a given investigation or from given data aIIow candidates to Iearn to
(c Display calculalions showing all lhe sleps in lhe calculalion (lhe answer is nol always inporlanl
Calculale using raw resulls or given dala, showing all lhe sleps in lhe calculalion:
(i nean
(ii percenlage
(iii change in nass or lenglh
(iv percenlage change, gain or loss
(v rale ol reaclion.
(d Use lhe correcl nunber ol signilicanl ligures lor calculaled quanlilies.
Calculaled quanlilies should be given lo lhe sane nunber ol signilicanl ligures as lhe neasured
quanlily lhal has lhe snallesl nunber ol signilicanl ligures. For exanple, il line is neasured lo !
signilicanl ligure and volune lo 2 signilicanl ligures, lhen lhe calculaled rale should be lo ! signilicanl
ligure, nol 2 or nore.
Cenlres can lind nore inlornalion aboul signilicanl ligures al
www.rsc.org]images]RSCmeasurements_teacher_tcm18-189111.pdf
Praclical assessnenl
47 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
PDO Iayout within a given investigation the procedure shouId aIIow candidates to Iearn to:
(i Selecl whelher dala should be shown as a graph or charl and presenl clearly and accuralely.
Craphs or charls should be drawn wilh:
Orien!a!ion: independenl variable on lhe xaxis, clearly labelled (as lron lhe lable heading wilh
unils where appropriale and dependenl variable (as lron lhe lable heading on lhe ,axis labelled
wilh unils, where appropriale
Sca|es: bolh axes should use nosl ol a grid and allow lhe graph lo be read easily lo hall a 2 nn
square, such as !, 2, or 5 unils lo a 20 nn
P|o! all poinls or bars accuralely. Poinls should be drawn wilh a sharp pencil, bul nusl be visible,
a cross (drawn wilh lwo lines less lhan 2 nn in lenglh each or a snall (no nore lhan ! nn
dianeler dol in a circle should be used and lhe inlerseclion ol lhe cross or cenlre ol lhe dol
nusl be exaclly al lhe required poinl
Bars should be drawn exaclly along lhe horizonlal lines wilh a line ruled line
Line - lollow lhe nslilule ol Biology guidelines - decide based on dala provided whelher a
slraighl line or line ol besl lil, or snoolh curve or il lhere is nol enough dala lhen join lhe poinls
wilh ruled slraighl lines. Do nol exlrapolale lhe graph unless lhis can be assuned lron lhe dala.
Lines should be clear, sharp and unbroken (aboul 0.5 nn lhick
Char! - consider whelher lhe bars should be separale (lor nonquanlilalive dala on xaxis
or joined (lor quanlilalive, e.g. heighls or lenglhs on xaxis. Lines should be clear, sharp and
unbroken (aboul 0.5 nn lhick and bars unshaded.
7.2.4 ACE Analysis, conclusions and evalualion
ACE AnaIysis (interpretation of data or observations)
vilhin a given invesligalion lhe procedure should allow candidales lo learn lo:
(a Calculale correclly olher quanlilies lron dala or a graph.
Calculale correclly using quanlilalive resulls or provided dala, lo include:
nean
percenlage
change in nass or lenglh
percenlage change, gain or loss
rale ol reaclion using resulls or using lhe gradienl ol a line graph.
(b Find an unknown value by using coordinales or axis inlercepls on a graph or qualilalive resulls lor
idenlilicalion ol known solulions:
unknown concenlralions where a calibralion curve has been drawn
values lor 50' plasnolysis
zero changes in nass in osnosis invesligalions
rale ol enzyne reaclion lron line as !/line = s
-!
or lron gradienl ol a line
eslinale unknown concenlralions lron resulls lor known concenlralions
idenlily unknown solulions using biological nolecule lesls.
(c denlily anonalous resulls.
Check lor anonalous resulls and renove any anonalous readings when calculaling, lor exanple, neans.
(d Describe lhe pallerns and lrends shown by lables and graphs.
Overall lrends should be described and dala quoled when a change occurs.
Praclical assessnenl
43 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
ACE concIusions
vilhin a given invesligalion, lhe procedure should allow candidales lo learn lo:
(e draw conclusions
lron lhe pallerns and lrends in dala
on whelher experinenlal dala supporls a given hypolhesis
lron resulls, including eslinaling an unknown concenlralion lron known concenlralions
(l nake scienlilic explanalions, using skills, knowledge and underslanding ol lhe AS Biology syllabus, ol
dala
observalions
calculaled values
described conclusions
inlornalion provided in unlaniliar conlexls.
ACE EvaIuation
vilhin a given invesligalion, lhe procedure should allow candidales lo learn lo:
(g denlily lhe signilicanl sources ol error in a parlicular invesligalion.
Any variable lhal nakes lhe resulls less accurale or reliable and lhal nay change during lhe recording ol
resulls.
For a range ol invesligalions, consider carelully, lor exanple, whelher evaporalion or lenperalure are
likely lo vary signilicanlly during lhe line lhal resulls are recorded.
ole: Conlaninalion is nol considered a signilicanl source ol error - washing correclly should renove
conlaninalion.
(h Eslinale quanlilalively, by calculaling lhe aclual error, lo evaluale lhe uncerlainly in quanlilalive
neasurenenls and evaluale lhe conlidence in lhe accuracy ol resuls (how close lhey are lo lhe lrue
value.
Aclual error is laken lo be hall lhe value ol lhe snallesl division on lhe apparalus used, lhen consider
whelher lhe neasurenenl involves uncerlainly al each end.
For exanple, aclual error ol:
a lhernoneler - where lhe snallesl division is 0.2C lhen lhe slarl lenperalure has an uncerlainly
ol hall 0.2 = 0.!C and lhe nexl reading also has an uncerlainly ol 0.!C, so an aclual error ol +/-
0.2C.
a syringe - as long as lhe volune is all released lhen lhere is only one uncerlainly - so il lhe
snallesl division on lhe syringe is 0.2 cn
3
, lhen lhe uncerlainly is 0.2/2 = +/- 0.! cn
3
.
vhere a parlicular neasurenenl is given, lhen a percenlage error can be calculaled using lhe
uncerlainly above.
For exanple:
il lhe lenperalure rise is !5C and lhe uncerlainly is 0.2C, lhen lhe percenlage error is
0.2/!5 !00 = !.3'
il lhe volune neasured in lhe syringe is 0.3 cn
3
, lhen lhe percenlage error is 0.!/0.3 !00 = !3'.
Praclical assessnenl
49 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Candidales should be used lo looking al experinenls and assessing lhe relalive inporlance ol errors in
neasurenenl or in naking observalions so lhal lhey can judge which sources ol error are nosl inporlanl.
Candidales should be laniliar wilh sinple neans ol eslinaling error, such as lhe errors buill in lo neasuring
devices (see www.chemistry-react.org]go]TutoriaI]TutoriaI_4428.htmI or in lhe observers abilily lo
observe, or in experinenls where lhe nelhods linilalions inlroduce errors (such as heal loss when lrying
lo assess lhe energy conlenl ol biological nalerials. They should be able lo express lhese errors in slandard
lorns (such as lenglh = 73 nn ! nn, or lenperalure increase = !4 C 4 C.
(i Evaluale lhe ellecliveness ol lhe slandardisalion ol variables and lhus lhe conlidence wilh which
conclusions nighl be drawn.
Consider whelher lhe slandardised variables had an ellecl on lhe general lrend or pallern and lherelore
lhe conlidence in lhe conclusion.
ACE EvaIuation
vilhin a given invesligalion, lhe procedure should allow candidales lo learn lo suggesl inprovenenls lo lhe
procedure or nodilicalions lo lhe invesligalion or exlend lhe invesligalion.
Consider syslenalic or randon errors.
Syslenalic errors, lor exanple a lhernoneler which reads ! C higher lhan lhe aclual lenperalure.
Fandon errors nay be due lo variabilily ol biological nalerial or randon varialions in lhe lenperalure ol a
roon.
(j Suggesl nodilicalions lo a procedure lhal will increase lhe accuracy ol lhe experinenl or accuracy ol
lhe observalions lhal can be nade, including use ol allernalive nelhods or slralegies lo invesligale lhe
queslion.
Suggeslions lo include, how lo:
slandardise relevanl variables
use a neasurenenl nelhod which is nore accurale and reliable
collecl nore dala by repeals or replicales lo oblain a nean.
(k Suggesl ways in which lo exlend lhe invesligalion lo answer a new queslion and describe such
nodilicalions clearly in words or diagrans.
Suggeslions lo include, how lo:
change a dillerenl independenl variable
slandardise all olher variables
use an accurale and reliable nelhod lo neasure lhe dependenl variable.
Praclical assessnenl
50 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
7.2.5 Developnenl ol skills used in sludying organisns involving nicroscopy:
anipulalion, neasurenenl and observalion - decisions on how lo use lhe lighl nicroscope, nake and
slain slides ol specinens, calibrale and use an eyepiece gralicule and colleclion ol observalions and
neasurenenls ol specinens
Presenlalion ol observalions - recording delailed observalions ol specinens on nicroscope
slides, display ol calculalions wilh reasoning using neasurenenls lron eyepiece gralicule and
pholonicrographs and dala layoul (plan diagrans and drawings
Analysis, conclusions and evalualion - analysis ol neasurenenls and conparison ol observalions,
drawing conclusions and evalualion ol neasurenenls
O anipulalion (use ol experinenlal lechniques, easurenenls and
Observalions
MMO decisions
Using a lighl nicroscope:
(a Decide how lo sel up a lighl nicroscope lo view and observe specinens, in order lo nake plan
diagrans lo show lissue dislribulion and in order lo show delails ol cells.
To include how:
lo adjusl lhe lighl
lo lind lhe specinen using low power (x!0 objeclive lens as wider lield ol view, lo locus by having
objeclive lens close lo slide (nol looking lhrough lhe nicroscope lhen lurning lens away lron slide
lo posilion specinen in cenlre ol lield ol view
lo change objeclive lens lo higher power (x40 lo reduce lield ol view and increase nagnilicalion and
use line adjuslnenl lo locus lens away lron slide.
Decide on:
an appropriale objeclive lens
lighl level - reducing lighl lo view nore lransparenl specinens by closing iris.
(b denlily naned lissues in planl and aninal specinens.
Decide on:
regions ol lissues presenl in a specinen
labels.
(c Decide how lo slain and nake a slide ol a specinen.
Decide how lo:
oblain lhe lissue or cells
nounl onlo a glass/nicroscope slide and add an appropriale slain
lower a coverslip onlo lhe specinen
renove excess slain/liquid.
(d Decide how lo calibrale an eyepiece gralicule using a slage nicroneler.
Use a slage nicroneler and decide where eyepiece gralicule scale lines up wilh slage nicroneler
scale.
Praclical assessnenl
5! Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
(e Decide how lo oblain aclual sizes ol lissues or cells using eyepiece gralicule.
Use and decide:
lhe appropriale objeclive lens lo neasure lissues or cells
lhe correcl unils lor calculaling sizes using lighl nicroscope
how nany neasurenenls lo lake lo oblain a nean.
(l Decide how lo counl cells or cell organelles.
use sanples lron lhe whole slide or lield ol view
use a grid/haenocyloneler.
MMO coIIection
Using a lighl nicroscope and prepared slides and pholonicrographs:
(g Collecl observalions, by drawing plans, ol lhe dislribulion ol lissues in a specinen.
plan diagrans ol whole specinen or parl ol a specinen lo show lhe dislribulion ol lissues ,wilh no
cells drawn and correcl proporlions ol lissues, using lhe (uncalibraled eyepiece gralicule scale.
(h Collecl observalions by drawing lhe observable lealures ol lissues or cells in a specinen.
Drawings nusl have lhe:
correcl proporlions, lor exanple ol layers in a plan diagran or dinensions ol cells or lhicknesses ol
cell walls
correcl cells in delail, wilh correcl shapes, relalive sizes and lhicknesses ol cell walls where
appropriale (using (uncalibraled eyepiece gralicule scale
planl cell walls are drawn wilh lwo lines wilh a niddle lanella belween adjacenl cells
only observable lealures are recorded, lor exanple appropriale cell conlenls.
(i Collecls correcl nunber ol eyepiece gralicule divisions lo slage nicroneler divisions and neasures
accuralely lissues or cells.
(j Collecls correcl observalions lron specinens.
To include:
nunbers ol cells or cell organelles using sanpling or a grid or lally counls
slained lo nonslained cells
sinilarilies and dillerences belween lwo specinens.
Praclical assessnenl
52 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
7.2.6 PDO Presenlalion ol dala and observalions
PDO recording
(a Fecord line delails ol lhe specinen.
To include:
drawing ol delailed shapes ol layers or oullines ol specinens in plan diagrans
drawing ol lhe shape and posilion ol observable cell organelles in cells.
PDO dispIay
(b Display calculalions.
Calculale, showing all lhe sleps in linding:
lhe calibralion ol lhe eyepiece gralicule
aclual size using
eyepiece gralicule
nagnilicalion
scale bar
nagnilicalion
nunber, e.g. slonala per unil ol area, e.g. lield ol view
a nean neasurenenl ol lenglh or nunber
lind a ralio which is expressed as larger whole nunber lo snaller whole nunber, lo lhe lowesl
connon denoninalor, lor exanple il ligures are 24 lo !2 lhen should be laken lo 2 : ! bul il 35 lo !5
lhen only rounds down lo 7 : 3.
(c Use lhe correcl nunber ol signilicanl ligures lor calculaled quanlilies.
Calculaled quanlilies should be given lo lhe sane nunber ol signilicanl ligures as lhe neasured
quanlily lhal has lhe snallesl nunber ol signilicanl ligures. For exanple, il a line is neasured using a
nn ruler lhen lhe neasurenenl should be lo 0.5 nn.
agnilicalion should be a whole nunber only.
PDO Iayout
(d ake drawings using a sharp pencil lo give linely drawn lines wilh no kinks or breaks.
Drawings should:
have clear, sharp, unbroken lines
be unshaded
use nosl ol lhe available space lo show all lhe lealures observed in lhe specinen.
(e Organise conparalive observalions ol specinens ol biological nalerial.
lealure specinen X specinen Y
sinilarilies
Praclical assessnenl
53 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Organisalion lor lwo specinens should have a lable wilh lhree colunns:
lhe lirsl colunn headed lealure
second and lhird colunn wilh lhe lwo specinens
Sinilarilies should have a clear heading across colunns lwo and lhree and lhe cells nerged below
lhe heading.
7.2.7 ACE Analysis, conclusions and evalualion
ACE AnaIysis (interpretation of data or observations)
(a Calculale correclly olher quanlilies lron dala.
Calculale:
lhe calibralion ol lhe eyepiece gralicule scale
aclual size ol a specinen, using
a calibraled eyepiece gralicule
a nagnilicalion
a scale bar
lhe nagnilicalion ol a specinen
lhe nunber in a lield ol view, e.g. nunber ol slonala per unil ol area.
(b Conpare observable lealures ol specinens ol biological nalerial.
Sinilarilies and dillerences should be observed and recorded, lor exanple belween nicroscopic slides
ol specinens and pholonicrographs ol nicroscopic specinens.
ACE concIusions
(c ake scienlilic explanalions ol lhe observalions or calculaled values, using lhe skills, knowledge and
underslanding acquired lron lhe AS Biology syllabus:
observalions ol specinens
calculaled values
how a specinen is adapled lor a parlicular lunclion or lo survive in a parlicular habilal.
ACE evaIuation
(d Eslinale quanlilalively lhe uncerlainly in quanlilalive neasurenenls.
Aclual error is laken lo be hall lhe value ol lhe snallesl division on lhe apparalus used, lhen consider
whelher lhe neasurenenl involves uncerlainly al each end ol a scale.
For exanple - aclual error ol a nn ruler (where 0 is nol al lhe end will have an uncerlainly al 0 end
ol 0.5 nn and an uncerlainly where lhe neasurenenl is laken ol 0.5 nn so lhe lolal uncerlainly is
0.5 + 0.5 = !.0 nn and lor each neasurenenl lhe aclual error is +/- !.0 nn
vhere a parlicular neasurenenl is given lhen a percenlage error can be calculaled using lhe
uncerlainly above.
For exanple
il lhe lenglh neasured is 6 nn and lhe aclual error is +/- !.0 nn lhen lhe percenlage error is
!.0 6.0 !00 = !7'.
Praclical assessnenl
54 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
7.2.3 Adninislralion ol lhe praclical lesl
Delailed regulalions on lhe adninislralion ol Canbridge praclical exaninalions are conlained in lhe
Canbridge Handbook.
A docunenl called lhe Con!iden!ia| ns!ruc!ions will be despalched lo Cenlres, several weeks belore lhe
dale ol lhe exaninalion. The Con!iden!ia| ns!ruc!ions will delail lhe apparalus lhal will be required and how
il should be provided lor candidales. Cenlres should conlacl lhe Despalch Deparlnenl al Canbridge il lhey
believe lhe Con!iden!ia| ns!ruc!ions have nol been received.
Access to the question paper itseIf is not permitted in advance of the examination.
l is essenlial lhal absolule conlidenlialily be nainlained in advance ol lhe exaninalion dale: lhe conlenls ol
lhe Con!iden!ia| ns!ruc!ions nusl nol be revealed eilher direclly or indireclly lo candidales.
The Con!iden!ia| ns!ruc!ions conlain a Supervisors Feporl Forn. Cenlres nusl conplele lhis lorn and
enclose a copy in each envelope ol scripls. A sanple sel ol resulls nay also be helplul lo lhe exaniners,
especially il lhere was any local dillicully wilh apparalus. A nissing reporl can delay lhe narking process.
l lhere is any doubl aboul lhe inlerprelalion ol lhe Con!iden!ia| ns!ruc!ions docunenl or lhe suilabilily ol
lhe apparalus available, enquiries should be senl lo lhe Producl anager lor Biology al Canbridge, using
eilher enail (info@cie.org.uk or lax (+44 !223 553553 or lelephone (+44 !223 553554.
3.2.9 Apparalus required lor Paper 3 (Advanced Praclical Skills !/2
The apparalus required lor Paper 3 (Advanced Praclical Skills !/2 will vary lron paper lo paper. The
Conlidenlial nslruclions will include a conplele lisl ol apparalus and nalerials required lor each queslion.
Cenlres should lollow lhe Conlidenlial nslruclions very carelully.
To give sone variely in lhe queslions sel, lhe exaniners nay require unusual ilens or equipnenl. The lisl ol
praclical apparalus and nalerials in Seclion 7.2 gives delails ol lhe ilens lhal are nosl lrequenlly required.
Candidales should be laniliar wilh using lhese.
icroscopes provided lor candidales use in Paper 3 nusl be lilled wilh:
Eyepiece lens, !0 (equal lo !6 nn or
3
2

Lowpower objeclive lens, !0 (equal lo !6 nn or


3
2

Highpower objeclive lens, 40 (equal lo 4 nn or


6
1

Eyepiece gralicule lilled wilhin lhe eyepiece and visible in locus al lhe sane line as lhe specinen.
To avoid conlusion, Canbridge requesl lhal only lhe lenses specilied above are lilled in lhe nicroscopes lo
be used in lhe exaninalion. Any lenses which are nol !0 or 40 should be renoved or replaced.
Praclical assessnenl
55 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
7.3 Paper 5
Paper 5 is a linelabled, wrillen paper locusing on lhe lollowing higherorder experinenlal skills:
planning,
analysis and evalualion.
This exan paper does nol need laboralory lacililies. However, Centres shouId note that candidates
cannot be prepared properIy for this paper without carrying out a Iarge amount of Iaboratory work
during their course of study. n parlicular, candidales can only learn how lo plan experinenls elleclively il
lhey are required, on nany occasions:
lo plan an experinenl,
lo carry oul lhe experinenl according lo lheir plan,
lo evaluale whal lhey have done.
Cenlres nusl allow lor nany hours ol laboralorybased work, and nusl nake sure lhal leachers give carelul
supervision lo nake sure lhal candidales carry oul experinenls wilh due regard lo salely. l is assuned
lhal candidales have developed skills as parl ol lhe AS course and are able lo use lhose in nore conplex
invesligalions and lo inlerprel dala in a variely ol ways.
The paper has lwo or nore queslions wilh a lolal ol 30 narks available. Candidales nusl design an
experinenlal invesligalion lor a given problen. Candidales nay be asked lo answer using exlended,
slruclured wriling, and use appropriale diagrans and lables as illuslralions. Candidales nay have lo express
a prediclion as a wrillen hypolhesis linking independenl and dependenl variables, or as a graph showing lhe
expecled resull. Sone aclivilies require lhe candidale lo nake analyses, evalualions and conclusions. For
lhese queslions, lhe candidales are given sone experinenlal dala and candidales nay be asked lo decide
lor lhenselves how lo analyse and evaluale lhe dala, and whal conclusions lo nake.
The exaniners nay sel sone queslions on lhis paper lhal cannol easily be invesligaled experinenlally
in school laboralories, eilher because ol lhe cosl ol equipnenl (such as colorinelers or large lernenlers
or because ol lhe sanples and nalerials nol being easily available (such as living individuals ol rare
species, or radioaclive nalerials lo be used as narkers. All queslions can be answered using lheory and
equipnenl lron lhe AS and A2 syllabus. The exaninalion paper provides any inlornalion lhal candidales
are nol expecled lo know aboul lheory or equipnenl, il lhe candidales need lhis inlornalion lo answer lhe
queslion. The anounl ol inlornalion included in a queslion is sullicienl lor lhe candidales have enough line
lo read and consider lhal inlornalion.
Praclical assessnenl
56 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
7.3.! ark schene lor Paper 5
Paper 5 is narked using lhe nark schene shown in lhe lable. The seclions lollowing lhe lable lisl lhe
expeclalions lor each nark calegory.
SkiII TotaI marks Breakdown of marks
Planning !5 narks Delining lhe problen 5 narks
elhods !0 narks
Analysis, conclusions and evalualion !5 narks Dealing wilh dala 3 narks
Evalualion 4 narks
Conclusion 3 narks
7.3.2 Planning
Defining the probIem
Candidales are provided wilh a scenario and background inlornalion lo give lhe conlexl wilhin which lhey
nusl deline lhe problen. They should be able lo use lhis inlornalion lo work oul lhe key variables in lhe
invesligalion.
Candidales should be able lo:
Express lhe ain ol lhe experinenl or invesligalion as a prediclion or hypolhesis. This should be a
quanlilalive, leslable, lalsiliable prediclion ol lhe likely oulcone, based on lhe inlornalion given in lhe
queslion and on lheir knowledge and underslanding ol lhe lopic being considered. The hypolhesis nay
be expressed in words or in lhe lorn ol a skelch graph showing lhe expecled resull.
denlily lhe independenl variable in lhe experinenl or invesligalion as lhe laclor(s lhal is nanipulaled or
changed. An experinenl nay incorporale changes in lwo independenl variables, e.g. lhe ellecl ol lighl
inlensily al lwo or nore concenlralions ol carbon dioxide on pholosynlhesis.
denlily lhe dependenl variable as lhe laclor lhal is measured directIy during lhe experinenl or
invesligalion. The dependenl variable responds lo lhe changes in lhe independenl variable. n sone
cases lhere nay be nore lhan one dependenl variable neasured in an experinenl, e.g. bolh lhe carbon
dioxide release and oxygen uplake nay be neasured in respiralion experinenls. n sone invesligalions,
lhe hypolhesis or ain nay be slaled in lerns ol a variable lhal cannol be neasured direclly, e.g. rale ol
lranspiralion. To lind lhe rale, a measurabIe aspecl ol lranspiralion is used, such as nass loss, dislance
noved by waler in a capillary in a specilied line.
denlily which variables nusl be slandardised. They nusl give a lisl ol key variables lo conlrol in order lo
lesl lhe hypolhesis elleclively. They should only include variables lhal are likely lo have sone ellecl on
lhe nalerial involved (e.g. concenlralion ol lesl solulions, bul nol lhose likely lo have a very snall ellecl
(e.g. using lhe sane lesllube.
Praclical assessnenl
57 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Methods
The candidale should produce a nelhod where lhey could collecl lhe necessary dala wilhoul dillicully il lhe
apparalus were used as described. Candidales should be able lo:
describe lhe nelhod lhey would use lo vary lhe independenl variable, and lhe ways in which lhey would
nake sure lhal lhey had neasured ils values accuralely,
describe how lhey would neasure lhe dependenl variable. The neasuring inslrunenls chosen should
neasure lhe correcl quanlily lo a suilable precision. This nay include lhe use ol noniloring devices and
conpuler lechnology lo record changes,
describe how lhey would slandardise each ol lhe olher key variables. The nelhods chosen should
be suilable lo lhe apparalus being used and lhe nalure ol lhe invesligalion, e.g. a lhernoslalically
conlrolled waler balh is nol suiled lo nainlaining lhe lenperalure ol bacleria growing on Pelri dishes,
explain how lhey would use any conlrol experinenls lo nake sure lhal il is lhe independenl variable lhal
is allecling lhe dependenl variable and nol sone olher laclor. Conlrol experinenls can be ol lhe lype
where all laclors are idenlical lo lhe experinenlal lrealnenl excepl lhal lhe value ol lhe independenl
variable is zero, e.g. waler is used inslead ol a lesl solulion, or lhey nay be ol lhe lype used lo conlirn
lhal, lor exanple, il is an organisn lhal is causing a parlicular ellecl, by leaving oul or replacing lhe
organisn by nonliving nalerial, e.g. slerile glass beads inslead ol an insecl in a respironeler,
describe how lo use apparalus and lhe sleps lhal lhey would use in lhe procedure. Candidales should
use words and labelled diagrans lor describing lhe apparalus and how lo use il,
suggesl appropriale volunes and concenlralions ol reagenls, and explain how dillerenl concenlralions
would be prepared.
Candidales should be able lo explain how lo nake up solulions:
in ' (w/v, lor exanple by adding a known nass ol solule lo a snall volune ol solvenl, nixing unlil
lully dissolved and lhen naking up lo lhe linal volune wilh solvenl,
in nol dn
-3
, by dissolving lhe nolar nass ol solule and lhen naking up lo ! dn
3
wilh solvenl,
by using serial dilulion, by naking lhe sane dilulion slep over and over, using lhe previous dilulion as
lhe inpul lo lhe nexl dilulion in each slep. Since lhe diIution-factor is the same in each step, lhe
dilulions are a geonelric series, i.e. a conslanl ralio belween any adjacenl dilulions, e.g. a slock solulion
ol a known concenlralion is nade and ! cn
3
is added lo 9 cn
3
ol solvenl (usually waler, naking a !0
-!

or, !0 dilulion, or ! in !0, or !0 lold. For lhe nexl dilulion, ! cn
3
ol lhe !0
-!
solulion is renoved and
added lo 9 cn
3
ol solvenl, naking a !0
-2
or, !00 dilulion or, ! in !00 or, !00 lold dilulion. The process
ol renoving ! cn
3
ol a solulion and adding lo 9 cn
3
ol solvenl lo nake a dilulion is conlinued unlil lhe
required nunber ol dilulions is oblained,
using proporlional dilulion, by adding a unil volune ol a solulion ol a known concenlralion lo a
solvenl lo oblain lhe required concenlralion, e.g. lo dilule a slock solulion by 5, ! cn
3
ol lhe slock
solulion is added lo 4 cn
3
ol solvenl. This gives a !:5 dilulion. To nake a slandard volune ol a specilic
concenlralion a lornula V
!
C
!
= V
2
C
2
can be used. V
!
is lhe volune ol lhe slock solulion, C
!
lhe
concenlralion ol lhe slock solulion and V
2
is lhe volune ol lhe required solulion, C
2
is lhe concenlralion
ol lhe required solulion, e.g. a slock solulion conlains !00 ng cn
-3
(C
!
and need lo nake !0 cn
3

(V
2
ol a solulion wilh a concenlralion ol 25 ng cn
-3
(C
2
. The volune ol slock solulion needed is
V
!
= !0 cn
3
(V
2
25 ng cn
-3
(C
2
/ !00 ng cn
-3
(C
!
. Cancelling unils, V
!
= !00 cn
3
(V
2
25 (C
2
/ !00
(C
!
= 2.5 cn
3
,
describe how lhey would ensure lhe reliabilily ol resulls by considering any anonalous resulls and lhe
spread ol resulls by inspeclion and by using slandard devialion, slandard error or 95' conlidence linils.
Fesulls are reliable il lhey are repealable by lhe sane sludenl and reproducible by olhers,
describe how lhey would ensure lhe validily ol lhe resulls by considering bolh lhe reliabilily and lhe
success al neasuring lhe inlended dependenl variable,
Praclical assessnenl
53 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
assess lhe risks ol lheir proposed nelhods. Candidales should be able lo carry oul a sinple risk
assessnenl ol lheir plan, idenlilying lhe areas where an accidenl or injury is nosl likely lo happen and
lhe areas where il would be nosl serious,
describe precaulions lhal lhey would lake lo keep risks as low as possible. They should be able lo
suggesl appropriale salely precaulions specilically relaled lo lhe risks lhal lhey have idenlilied. For
exanple, lhey nighl poinl oul lhal soda line used lo absorb carbon dioxide is corrosive and poses a
parlicular risk il lhey cone in conlacl lo lhe skin and cornea. vearing gloves and eye proleclion would
lherelore be an appropriale precaulion.
7.3.3 Analysis, conclusions and evalualion
DeaIing with data
Candidales should be able lo:
work oul which calculalions are necessary lor naking conclusions lron provided dala, including lhose
designed lo assess error levels, conlidence linils, slalislical lesls and neans ol presenlalion ol dala,
use calculalions lo sinplily or explain dala,
use appropriale slalislical lesls lo assess lhe variabilily ol dala or lhe slalislical dillerences belween
sanples,
use lables and graphs lo poinl oul lhe key poinls in quanlilalive dala, including lhe variabilily ol dala.
Candidales should know how lo choose and carry oul calculalions needed lor sinplilying dala and naking
il conparable. These calculalions nay include lhe nean, nedian, node, percenlage and percenlage gain or
loss.
Candidales should be able lo skelch or draw suilable graphs displaying lhe independenl variable on lhe
xaxis and lhe dependenl variable on lhe ,axis, and salislying lhe crileria laid oul in Paper 3 (Seclion 6.
n addilion, lhey should include conlidence linil error bars, calculaled using slandard error.
Candidales should know how lo choose and carry oul lhe key sleps ol slalislical nelhods designed lo
assess variabilily in dala including
range
inlerquarlile range
slandard devialion
slandard error.
Candidales should be able lo choose and use (when given suilable equalions slalislical lesls designed lo
lind lhe dillerences belween sanples:
chi squared lesl
slandard error
!lesl.
Candidales should be able lo give reasons lor a choice ol slalislical lesl in relalion lo lhe lype ol dala
collecled and be able lo slale a null hypolhesis lor a slalislical lesl. l is expecled lhal candidales can use
ligures wilh slandard devialion or slandard error, or graphs wilh slandard error bars, lo delernine whelher
dillerences in nean values are likely lo be slalislically signilicanl. Candidales should also be able lo calculale
lhe degrees ol lreedon lor a slalislical lesl and use a probabilily lable lo delernine lhe signilicance ol a
calculaled value lor lhe !lesl and lhe chisquared lesl.
Praclical assessnenl
59 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Candidales should be able lo:
dislinguish belween dillerenl lypes ol variable and lhe dillerenl lypes ol dala lhey collecl,
Type of variabIe Type of data
OuaIitative
calegoric noninal, i.e. values or observalions belonging lo il can be sorled according lo
calegory, e.g. colour ol llowers, gender
ordered ordinal, i.e. values lhal can be placed in an order or rank, lhe inlerval belween
lhen nay nol be equal, e.g. lhe order in which lesllubes conlaining slarch
and iodine becone colourless aller adding anylase
Ouantitative
conlinuous inlerval, lhal can have any value wilhin a specilic range lhal can be a whole
nunber, lraclion or a decinal. l can be counled, ordered and neasured,
e.g. body nass, leal lenglh
discrele inlerval, lhal can have only a liniled nunber ol values lhal is a whole
nunber, e.g. lhe nunber ol seeds in a bean pod, nunber ol yeasl cells in a
haenocyloneler grid
Furlher Notes on the use of statistics in bioIogy can be lound in Seclion 7.4.
EvaIuation
Candidales should be able lo:
idenlily anonalous values in provided dala and suggesl how lo deal wilh such anonalies. n a lable
or graph ol dala, candidales should be able lo idenlily values lhal are clearly anonalous, and suggesl
slralegies lor dealing wilh such anonalies, including repealing lhe experinenl unlil consislenl resulls
are oblained or leaving oul lhe allecled dala,
wilhin laniliar conlexls, suggesl possible explanalions lor anonalous readings. vhere invesligalions
use laniliar conlexls, which lhe candidales have explored during lhe course (lhose narked [PA] in lhe
syllabus conlenl, candidales can be asked lo suggesl possible causes lor such anonalies (above and
beyond invesligalor error, e.g. answers laken lron lheir own experience ol problens buill in lo lhe
parlicular invesligalion,
assess whelher lhe provided readings have been replicaled sullicienlly, and describe lhe adequacy
ol lhe range ol dala given. Candidales nusl know why replicaling dala is inporlanl and lhe praclical
linils on replicalion. Candidales nusl be able lo show inslances where lhe invesligalor should have
laken readings al lower or higher values ol lhe independenl variable in order lo give a conplele range ol
values. They nusl also be able lo poinl oul silualions where lhere are gaps in lhe range lhal reduce lhe
inlornalion lhal lhe invesligalion can give, e.g. around a key lurning poinl. Candidales should be able
lo assess whelher lhe nelhod ol neasuring is appropriale lor lhe dependenl variable, e.g. using a pH
neler is nore likely lo give nore accurale and reliable resulls lhan using an indicalor and a colour charl
lo neasure changes in pH,
use lhe inlornalion given lo assess whelher selecled variables have been conlrolled elleclively.
Candidales nay be given inlornalion lhal will help lhen lo assess lhe exlenl lo which a parlicular
Praclical assessnenl
60 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
variable has been elleclively conlrolled (e.g. lhe lenperalure recorded wilhin each ol a nunber ol
sanples in which il is supposed lo be lhe sane,
use lhese evalualions and lhe inlornalion given lo nake inlorned judgenenls aboul how nuch
conlidence can be pul in any conclusions. Candidales should be able lo bring all lhis inlornalion
logelher and so lo nake inlorned judgenenls aboul lhe validily ol lhe invesligalion and how nuch il
can be lrusled lor lesling lhe hypolhesis.
ConcIusions
Candidales should be able lo:
draw conclusions lron an invesligalion, giving a delailed descriplion ol lhe key lealures ol lhe dala
and analyses, and considering whelher experinenlal dala supporls a given hypolhesis. The candidales
should give key poinls ol lhe raw dala, processed dala, graphical represenlalions ol il and slalislical lesl
resulls, including quoling relevanl ligures. They should clearly show lhe slrenglh or weakness ol any
supporl lor or againsl lhe hypolhesis. n parlicular, lhey should be able lo show whelher lhe hypolhesis
has been lully supporled or nol supporled by lhe dala,
give delailed scienlilic explanalions ol lhe dala and ol lheir conclusions, using lhe skill, knowledge
and underslanding lhal lhey have gained lron lheir sludies ol lhe AS and A2 syllabus. The conclusions
should include delailed scienlilic explanalions and lhese should play an inporlanl parl in lhis higher
order praclical skill assessnenl. The candidales nusl reler lo knowledge and underslanding gained in
lhe lheory parl ol lhe course lo give explanalions ol lheir praclical conclusions. For exanple, candidales
should nake relerence lo lhe rale ol elleclive collisions belween enzyne nolecules and subslrales lo
explain lhe conclusions nade aboul an enzynerelaled hypolhesis,
nake lurlher prediclions, ask inlorned and relevanl queslions and suggesl inprovenenls. vhere
appropriale, candidales should have lhe chance lo ask queslions based on lheir conclusions and so lo
derive lurlher prediclions and hypolheses. vilhin laniliar conlexls and in relalion lo lhe evalualions lhey
have nade, candidales nay have lhe chance lo suggesl how lhe invesligalion could be inproved lo
increase lhe conlidence in drawing conclusions.
Appendix
6! Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
8. Appendix
3.! Salely in lhe laboralory
Cenlres are responsible lor salely nallers. The lollowing UK associalions, websiles, publicalions and
regulalions nay be helplul.
Associalions
CLEAPSS is an advisory service, which provides supporl in science and lechnology lor a nunber ol local
aulhorilies and lheir schools, including schools lor pupils wilh special needs. nlernalional schools, posl
!6 colleges, leacherlraining eslablishnenls, curriculun developers and olhers can apply lor associale
nenbership: see www.cIeapss.org.uk]secmbfr.htm
vebsiles
www.ncbe.reading.ac.uk]NCBE]SAFETY]menu.htmI
www.microbioIogyonIine.org.uk]safety.htmI
Publicalions
ASE (2006 Sa!eguards in !he Schoo| Labora!or,, !!lh edilion
ASE (200! Topics in Sa!e!,, 3rd edilion
CLEAPSS (updaled 2005 Labora!or, Handbook (only available lo CLEAPSS nenbers
CLEAPSS (2005 updale ol !995 edilion Hazcards (only available lo CLEAPSS nenbers
DlES (!996 Sa!e!, in Science duca!ion (HSO
SSEFC (!997 Hazardous Chenica|s anua|
SSEFC (2002 Hazardous Chenica|s. An n!erac!ive anua| !or Science duca!ion (CD
UK Fegulalions
Conlrol ol Subslances Hazardous lo Heallh Fegulalions (COSHH 2002, available al
www.opsi.gov.uk]SI]si2002]20022677.htm
A briel guide can be lound al www.hse.gov.uk]pubns]indg136.pdf
Fesources are also lisled on Canbridges public websile al www.cie.org.uk. Please visil lhis sile on a
regular basis as lhe Fesource lisls are updaled lhrough lhe year.
Access lo leachers enail discussion groups, suggesled schenes ol work and regularly updaled resource
lisls nay be lound on lhe Canbridge Teacher Supporl websile al http:]]teachers.cie.org.uk. This websile is
available lo leachers al regislered Canbridge Cenlres.
Appendix
62 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
3.2 Laboralory equipnenl
This is a lisl ol basic nalerials and apparalus lhal a wellequipped biology laboralory would conlain. any ol
lhese ilens are regularly used in lhe praclical lesl. The lisl is no! exhauslive. Olher ilens nay be required lo
allow lor variely in lhe queslions sel.
n accordance wilh lhe COSHH (Conlrol ol Subslances Hazardous lo Heallh Fegulalions, operalive in lhe
UK, a hazard appraisal ol lhe lisl has been carried oul.
The lollowing codes have been used where relevanl.
C = corrosive subslance F = highly llannable subslance
H = harnlul or irrilaling subslance O = oxidising subslance
T = loxic subslance
GeneraI:
Tesllubes and large lesllubes (boiling lubes - sone lesllubes should be heal resislanl
Tesllube holders or sinilar neans ol holding lubes
Tesllube racks or sinilar places in which lo sland lubes
Bungs lo lil lesllubes/boiling lubes
Bungs wilh delivery lube lo lil lesllubes/boiling lubes
Specinen lubes wilh corks
A neans ol healing - Bunsen burners or sinilar (candidales should be laniliar wilh selling up and
nainlaining a waler balh
Thernonelers
easuring cylinders
eans ol neasuring snall volunes, such as syringes (various sizes
Plaslic lubing or rubber lubing lo lil syringes
Teal pipelles (plaslic or glass
Beakers (various sizes
Tripod slands and gauzes
Filler lunnels and liller paper
Pelri dishes (plaslic or shallow conlainers lo hold snall volunes (e.g. 20 cn
3

vhile liles or olher suilable surlaces on which lo cul


Spolling lile or sinilar wilh space lor !2 separale drops
Class slides and coverslips
Conical llasks
Clanp (relorl slands and bosses
Visking (dialysis lubing or suilable allernalive
Capillary lubing
Soda glass lubing
Paper lowelling or lissue
Collon wool
Solid glass rods
Spalulas
Black paper/aluniniun loil
Appendix
63 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
eans ol wriling on glassware (walerresislanl narkers
Hand lenses (nol less lhan x6, prelerably x3
Forceps
Scissors
ounled needles
Culling inplenenl, such as solidedged razor blade/knile/scalpel
Fulers in nn (ideally clear plaslic
orlars and peslles
Salely speclacles or olher suilable eye proleclion
icroscope and lanp/inbuill illuninalion wilh highpower and lowpower objeclive lenses
(! each or ! belween 2 see a|so sec!ion 6 !or speci!ica!ions
Eyepiece gralicules and slage nicroneler scales
icroscope slides and glass coverslips
Haenocylonelers
Bench lanp wilh llexible arn
Balance (lo 0.! g
valer balhs (lhernoslalically conlrolled or neans lo supply hol waler
Cork borers
Slopclock/liner showing seconds
Sinple respironeler - can be honenade
Pipe cleaners/olher suilable aid lo denonslrale nilosis and neiosis
Cullure bollles, auloclave
noculaling loops/wires
Tape lor sealing dishes
Cullures ol live yoghurl
Appropriale cullures ol nicroorganisns, such as scherichia co|i, Baci||us sub!i|is
Appendix
64 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Stocks of:
H - odine in polassiun iodide solulion
H - Benedicls solulion
C - Biurel reagenl/polassiun hydroxide and copper sullale solulion
F - Elhanol (lor lals lesl
F - elhylaled spiril (lor exlraclion ol chlorophyll
Sucrose (use Analar (AF lor nonreducing sugar lesl. Sone lypes ol lable sugar do nol conlain glucose.
Clucose
Slarch
Albunen (or egg while
C - Polassiun hydroxide
C - Sodiun hydroxide
Sodiun chloride
H - Dilule hydrochloric acid
Hydrogen carbonale indicalor (wilh air punp lo equilibrale lo alnospheric carbon dioxide
Sodiun bicarbonale/sodiun hydrogen carbonale
H - Linewaler
H - Hydrogen peroxide
Dislilled/deionised waler
Universal ndicalor paper and charl
Lilnus paper
Eosin/red ink
H - elhylene blue
Vaseline/pelroleun jelly (or sinilar
DCPP (dichlorophenolindophenol
Ascorbic acid (vilanin C
Draslix/Clinislix lor lesling glucose concenlralion
H - Enzynes: anylase, lrypsin (or baclerial prolease
alerials lor preparing innobilised enzynes: calciun chloride, sodiun alginale
Planl sources ol calalase, e.g. sweel polaloes, nung beans, polaloes
vheal, barley or sinilar as a source ol slarch
onconpelilive enzyne inhibilor (e.g. H - copper sullale - hydraled
Slains lor preparing slides lo show nilosis - e.g. acelic carnine
H - Feulgen slain (Schills reagenl
Apparalus/chenicals lor waler cullures lo show ellecl ol g and on growlh
ulrienl brolh, nulrienl agar and lechnical agar (nol nulrienl
Appropriale disinleclanls
Appendix
65 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Apparatus for sampIing animaIs:
Bealing lray (honenade
Pooler (honenade
Sweeping nel (nuslin
Planklon nel and dip nel (il aqualic environnenl is being sanpled
Pillall lrap/jan jar, suilable cover lo prevenl waler enlry
Trays lor hand sorling
SIides of:
For Cambridge InternationaI AS LeveI
ilosis
TS slen, TS rool and TS leal ol, lor exanple, dicolyledonous nesophyle (such as Ligus!run or Prunus or
local equivalenl, naize, rice, sorghun, wheal, xerophyle leaves
LS slen, LS rool lo show xylen vessel elenenls and sieve lube elenenls and conpanion cells
TS lrachea, TS bronchus, TS bronchioles
TS lungs lo show alveoli
TS arlery, TS vein
Blood snear
Aninal and planl cells, Proloclisls (e.g. Anoeba, ug|ena or local equivalenls, lor exanple lron a cullure
nade wilh waler and hay lo slinulale single cell organisns
For Cambridge InternationaI A LeveI
eiosis
TS anlher, TS ovule
Pollen
Slanen and sligna ol windpollinaled and inseclpollinaled planls
VS naize lruil
TS pancreas
TS kidney
TS spinal cord
TS ovary, TS leslis
Exanples ol organisns represenling lhe lhree kingdons, Proloclisla (e.g. Anoeba, ug|ena or locally
available equivalenls, Prokaryolae (e.g. baclerial snear, cyanobacleria, Fungi (e.g. yeasl, Penici||iun
Appendix
66 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
3.3 alhenalical requirenenls
Al AS, candidales should be able lo:
recognise and use expressions in decinal and slandard lorn
use a calculalor lor addilion, sublraclion, nulliplicalion and division, and lor linding lhe arilhnelical nean
and lo lind and use x
2
,
1
x
, x , log
!0
x
lake accounl ol accuracy in nunerical work and handle calculalions so lhal signilicanl ligures are neilher
losl unnecessarily nor carried beyond whal is appropriale lor lhe queslion
nake eslinalions ol lhe resulls ol calculalions (wilhoul using a calculalor
recognise and use ralios
calculale percenlages correclly, express changes or errors as percenlages, and express percenlages as
changes or errors
undersland and use lhe synbols <, >, A, ~, /, , E
calculale lhe areas ol righlangled and isosceles lriangles, lhe circunlerence and area ol circles, lhe
areas and volunes ol reclangular blocks and cylinders
lranslale inlornalion belween graphical, nunerical and algebraic lorns
conslrucl and inlerprel lrequency lables and diagrans, pie charls and hislograns
choose appropriale variables and scales lor graph plolling, using slandard 2nnsquare graph paper
lor linear graphs, calculale lhe rale ol change
recognise when il is appropriale lo join poinls on a graph wilh slraighl rules lines and when il is
appropriale lo use a line ol besl lil
choose, by inspeclion, a slraighl line lhal will serve as lhe besl slraighl line lhrough a sel ol dala poinls
presenled graphically
undersland, draw and use lhe slope ol a langenl lo a curve as a way lo oblain lhe rale ol change
undersland and use lhe prelixes giga (C, nega (, kilo (k, nicro ( and nano (n.
Al A2, candidales should also be able lo:
undersland probabilily well enough lo undersland genelic ralios
undersland lhe principles ol sanpling as lhey apply lo biological silualions and dala
undersland lhe inporlance ol chance when inlerpreling dala
use sinple slalislical lesls such as _
2
lesl and !lesl.
Appendix
67 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
3.4 oles on lhe use ol slalislics in biology
(Canbridge nlernalional A Level only
Candidales should know how lo apply a !lesl, chisquared lesl, slandard devialion and slandard error. n
biology, !lesls are valuable lor lesling lor lhe signilicance ol dillerences belween sanples. The chisquared
lesl allows lhe resulls ol breeding experinenls and ecological sanpling lo be assessed. Slandard devialion
is uselul lor expressing lhe varialion lron lhe nean. Slandard error is uselul lor expressing how reliable an
eslinale ol lhe nean is, and lor pulling error bars on graphs. Delails ol each ol lhese lesls can be lound in
nany books on slalislics lor biology.
Candidales are not expecled lo renenber lhe lollowing equalions and synbols. They are expecled lo be
able lo use lhe equalions lo calculale slandard devialions, lo pul error bars on graphs, lo lesl lor signilicanl
dillerences belween lhe neans ol lwo snall unpaired sanples and lo perlorn a chisquared lesl on suilable
dala lron genelics or ecology. Candidales will have access lo lhe equalions, lhe neanings ol lhe synbols,
a !lable and a chisquared lable.
slandard devialion
2
1
) (

=
n
x x
s
!lesl

\
|
|
|
.
|
+

=
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
n
s
n
s
x x
t v = n
!
+ n
2
- 2
_
2
lesl _
2
=
( )
2
O E
E

v = c - !
slandard error
n
s
S
= M
Ie, !o s,nbo|s
s = slandard devialion x = nean
M
S = slandard error c = nunber ol classes
= sun ol
n = sanple size (nunber ol observalions O = observed value
x = observalion v = degrees ol lreedon = expecled value
Candidales should nole lhal, on sone calculalors, lhe synbol nay appear inslead ol lhe synbol s.
Candidales are nol expecled lo undersland lhe dillerence belween s
n
(
n
and s
n-!
(
n-!
. _
2
lesls will only be
expecled on one row ol dala. Candidales should have a basic underslanding ol whal is neanl by lhe lern
norna| dis!ribu!ion and should undersland levels ol signilicance. (Tables will be provided.
Papers 4 and 5 nay include queslions involving lhe use ol slandard devialion, slandard error, a !lesl or a
_
2
lesl. Candidales will not be expecled lo carry oul all ol lhe sleps in lhese calculalions during an exan,
bul lhey nay be given parlly conpleled calculalions lo linish.
Candidales are allowed lo use eleclronic calculalors in lhe exan, as long as lhey are pernilled by lhe
Canbridge general regulalions.
Appendix
63 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
3.5 Clossary ol lerns
Canbridge hopes lhal lhe glossary (which is relevanl only lo Biology will be helplul lo candidales as a
guide, allhough il does nol cover every connand word lhal nighl be used in Biology exans. ve have
deliberalely kepl lhe glossary briel, bolh in nunbers ol lerns included and also in lhe descriplions ol lheir
neanings. Candidales should be aware lhal lhe neaning ol a lern nusl depend, in parl, on ils conlexl.
!. De!ine (lhe lern(s.: only a lornal slalenenl or equivalenl paraphrase is required.
2. Vha! do ,ou unders!and b,/Vha! is nean! b, (lhe lern(s.: a delinilion should be given, logelher wilh
relevanl connenl on lhe signilicance or conlexl ol lhe lern(s, especially where lwo or nore lerns are
included in lhe queslion. The nark value lor lhe queslion will show how nuch supplenenlary connenl
should be given.
3. S!a!e: give a concise answer wilh lillle or no supporling argunenl (lor exanple, a nunerical answer lhal
can easily be oblained by inspeclion.
4. Lis!: give a nunber ol poinls, generally each ol one word. Do nol give nore poinls lhan lhe nunber
specilied.
5. (a xp|ain: lhis nay inply reasoning or sone relerence lo lheory, depending on lhe conlexl. l is
anolher way ol asking candidales lo give reasons !or. The candidale needs lo nake sure lhal lhe
exaniner is lold why sonelhing happens.
(b Give a reason/Give reasons: lhis is anolher way ol asking candidales lo explain why sonelhing
happens.
6. (a Describe: slale in words lhe key poinls lhal can be lound lron lhe dala or inlornalion given in a
graph, lable or diagran. vhere possible, lhe candidale should reler lo nunbers laken lron lhe
nalerial.
(b Describe a process: give a slep by slep descriplion ol whal happens during lhe process.
Describe and exp|ain nay be used logelher, as nay s!a!e and exp|ain.
7. Discuss: lhe candidale should give a crilical accounl ol lhe poinls involved in lhe lopic.
3. Ou!|ine: lhe candidale should be briel, reslricling lhe answer lo giving essenlials, wilhoul supporling
delails.
9. Predic!: lhe candidale should produce lhe required answer by naking a logical conneclion belween
olher pieces ol inlornalion. The queslion nay provide lhis inlornalion, or lhe inlornalion nay depend
on answers calculaled in an earlier parl ol lhe queslion. The answer should be concise, wilh no
supporling slalenenl required.
!0. Deduce: lhe candidale should lollow lhe guidance lor predic!, bul a supporling slalenenl is also
required: lor exanple, relerence lo a law, a principle or lhe necessary reasoning should be included in
lhe answer.
!!. (a Sugges!: lhis nay inply lhal lhere is no single correcl answer (lor exanple, in biology, lhere are a
nunber ol laclors lhal nighl linil lhe rale ol pholosynlhesis in a planl in a glasshouse.
(b Sugges!: lhis nay also inply lhal lhe candidale nusl apply lheir general knowledge and
underslanding ol biology lo a novel silualion, one lhal nay nol lornally be in lhe syllabus. any
dalaresponse and problensolving queslions are ol lhis lype.
!2. Find: a general lern lhal can be inlerpreled as ca|cu|a!e, neasure, de!ernine, elc.
!3. Ca|cu|a!e: a nunerical answer is required. n general, working should be shown, especially where lwo or
nore sleps are involved. The candidale should give suilable unils where possible.
!4. easure: lhis inplies lhal a suilable neasuring inslrunenl will give lhe quanlily in queslion: lor
exanple, lenglh, using a rule, or nass, using a balance. The candidale should give suilable unils where
possible.
Appendix
69 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
!5. De!ernine: lhis ollen inplies lhal lhe quanlily in queslion cannol be neasured direclly bul nusl be
lound by calculalion, placing neasured or known values ol olher quanlilies inlo a slandard lornula.
l nay also be used when lhe candidale nusl carry oul a procedure lo lind a nunerical answer.
For exanple, lhe candidale nighl be asked lo lind lhe energy absorbed by a planl and calculale ils
elliciency.
!6. s!ina!e: lhe candidale should give a reasoned order ol nagnilude slalenenl or calculalion ol lhe
quanlily in queslion, naking any necessary sinplilying assunplions aboul poinls ol principle and aboul
lhe values ol quanlilies nol olherwise included in lhe queslion.
!7. Shov: lhe candidale nusl nake an algebraic deduclion lo prove a given equalion. The candidale nusl
nake sure lo slale clearly lhe lerns being used.
!3. (a Ske!ch, vhen app|ied !o graph vork: lhis inplies lhal lhe shape and/or posilion ol lhe curve only
needs lo be qualilalively correcl. However, lhe candidale should be aware lhal, depending on lhe
conlexl, sone quanlilalive aspecls nay be looked lor, such as passing lhrough lhe origin or having
an inlercepl, asynplole or disconlinuily al a parlicular value. On a skelch graph, lhe candidale nusl
show clearly whal is being plolled on each axis.
(b Ske!ch vhen app|ied !o diagrans: lhis inplies lhal sinple, lreehand drawing is allowed. However,
lhe candidale should lake care over proporlions and should show inporlanl delails clearly.
!9. Conpare: lhe candidale nusl give both lhe sinilarilies and dillerences belween lhings or concepls.
20. Fecognise: lhe candidale should idenlily lacls, characlerislics or concepls lhal are relevanl and/or
appropriale lo underslanding a silualion, evenl, process or phenonenon.
2!. C|assi!,: lhe candidale should group lhings based on connon characlerislics.
n all queslions, the number of marks are shown on lhe exaninalion paper and candidates shouId use
these as a guide to how much detaiI to give. vhen describing a process, lhe candidale should use lhe
nunber ol narks lo decide how many steps lo include. vhen explaining why sonelhing happens, lhe
candidale should use lhe nunber ol narks lo decide how many reasons lo give, or how nuch delail lo
give lor each reason.
Olher inlornalion
70 Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
9. Other information
Equalily and inclusion
Canbridge nlernalional Exaninalions has laken greal care in lhe preparalion ol lhis syllabus and
assessnenl nalerials lo avoid bias ol any kind. To conply wilh lhe UK Equalily Acl (20!0, Canbridge has
designed lhis qualilicalion wilh lhe ain ol avoiding direcl and indirecl discrininalion.
The slandard assessnenl arrangenenls nay presenl unnecessary barriers lor candidales wilh disabililies
or learning dillicullies. Arrangenenls can be pul in place lor lhese candidales lo enable lhen lo access lhe
assessnenls and receive recognilion ol lheir allainnenl. Access arrangenenls will nol be agreed il lhey
give candidales an unlair advanlage over olhers or il lhey conpronise lhe slandards being assessed.
Candidales who are unable lo access lhe assessnenl ol any conponenl nay be eligible lo receive an award
based on lhe parls ol lhe assessnenl lhey have laken.
nlornalion on access arrangenenls is lound in lhe Canbridge Handbook which can be downloaded lron
lhe websile www.cie.org.uk
Language
This syllabus and lhe associaled assessnenl nalerials are available in English only.
Crading and reporling
Canbridge nlernalional A Level resulls are shown by one ol lhe grades A', A, B, C, D or E, indicaling
lhe slandard achieved, A' being lhe highesl and E lhe lowesl. Ungraded indicales lhal lhe candidales
perlornance lell shorl ol lhe slandard required lor grade E. Ungraded will be reporled on lhe slalenenl ol
resulls bul nol on lhe cerlilicale. The lellers O (resull pending, X (no resulls and Y (lo be issued nay also
appear on lhe slalenenl ol resulls bul nol on lhe cerlilicale.
Canbridge nlernalional AS Level resulls are shown by one ol lhe grades a, b, c, d or e, indicaling lhe
slandard achieved, a being lhe highesl and e lhe lowesl. Ungraded indicales lhal lhe candidales
perlornance lell shorl ol lhe slandard required lor grade e. Ungraded will be reporled on lhe slalenenl ol
resulls bul nol on lhe cerlilicale. The lellers O (resull pending, X (no resulls and Y (lo be issued nay also
appear on lhe slalenenl ol resulls bul nol on lhe cerlilicale.
l a candidale lakes a Canbridge nlernalional A Level and lails lo achieve grade E or higher, a Canbridge
nlernalional AS Level grade will be awarded il bolh ol lhe lollowing apply:
lhe conponenls laken lor lhe Canbridge nlernalional A Level by lhe candidale in lhal series included all
lhe conponenls naking up a Canbridge nlernalional AS Level
lhe candidales perlornance on lhese conponenls was sullicienl lo neril lhe award ol a Canbridge
nlernalional AS Level grade.
For languages olher lhan English, Canbridge also reporls separale speaking endorsenenl grades
(Dislinclion, eril and Pass, lor candidales who salisly lhe condilions slaled in lhe syllabus.
Olher inlornalion
7! Canbridge nlernalional AS and A Level Biology 9700. Syllabus lor exaninalion in 20!5.
Enlry codes
To na inlain lhe securily ol our exaninalions we produce queslion papers lor dillerenl areas ol lhe world,
known as adninislralive zones. vhere lhe conponenl enlry code has lwo digils, lhe lirsl digil is lhe
conponenl nunber given in lhe syllabus. The second digil is lhe localion code, specilic lo an adninislralive
zone. nlornalion aboul enlry codes, exaninalion linelables and adninislralive inslruclions lor your
adninislralive zone can be lound in lhe Canbridge Guide !o aking n!ries.
!"#$%#$$$%&!
Canbridge nlernalional Exaninalions
! Hills Foad, Canbridge, CB! 2EU, Uniled Kingdon
Tel: +44 (0!223 553554 Fax: +44 (0!223 553553
Enail: inlo@cie.org.uk www.cie.org.uk
CCSE is lhe regislered lradenark ol Canbridge nlernalional Exaninalions
Canbridge nlernalional Exaninalions 20!3