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Ministry of Science and Technology

Department of Civil Engineering

CE 1022 Building Material and Construction
Sample Questions and Solutions
First Term Final Examination

February, 2009
Building Materials and Construction

Q. 1. Write a short note on the following:
(a) coarse aggregate and fine aggregate
(b) sand

A. 1.(a) Coarse Aggregate and Fine Aggregate
Aggregate which are inert material and act as filler material in cement concrete can be
divided into coarse aggregate and fine aggregate. Aggregate of size less than 4.75 mm are
usually considered as fine aggregate and these larger than 4.75mm, as coarse aggregate.
In concrete the aggregate occupy must of the volume of the hardened mass and the
more densely the aggregate can be packed, the better are the strength, weather resistance and
economy of concrete. For this reason the gradation of the particle sizes in the aggregate for
producing close packing is of considerable importance. It is also, important that the aggregate
has good strength, durability and weather resistance, that its surface be free from may weaken
the bond with cement paste and that no unfavorable chemical reaction takes place between it
and the cement.
Aggregates shall not contain any harmful material such as pyrites, coal, lignite, mica,
shale or similar. Laminated material, clay, alkali, soft fragments, sea shells and organic
impurities in such quantity, as to affect the strength or durability of the concrete. Aggregates
to be for concrete shall not contain any material liable to attack the steel reinforcement.
Aggregates which are chemically reactive with alkalis of cement are harmful as
cracking of concrete may take place.
For favourable aggregate are separated by sieving into two or three size groups of
sand (F.A) and several sizes groups of coarse aggregate. These can be combined according to
grading charts to result in a densely packed aggregate. The maximum size of coarse
aggregate depends on the nature of work. For reinforced concrete, the maximum size shall be
such as to easily fit into the forms between reinforcement bars.

A.1.(b). Sand
Sand is the result of natural disintegration of rock. Siliceous quartz sand is the most
suitable fine aggregate. Sand may be obtained from pits, rivers, lakes or sea shores. When
obtained from pits, it should be washed to free it from clay and silt. Sea shore sand may
contain chlorides, which may cause efflorescence and corrosion of reinforcement. It should
therefore be thoroughly washed before use. Angular grained sand has good interlocking
properties and is preferable to round – grained sand. Sometimes, however, properly graded
crushed sand, obtained from crushing of stones or gravels may also be used.

Q.2. Write a short note on the following:
(a) influence of properties of aggregates on properties of concrete
(b) properties of aggregate

A.2. (a). Influence of Properties of Aggregates on Properties of Concrete
It is also important that the aggregate has good strength, durability and weather
resistance, that its surface may be weaken the bond with cement paste, and that no
unfavorable chemical reaction takes place between it and the cement.
Aggregate shall not contain any harmful material such as pyrites, coal, lignite, mica,
shale or similar laminated material, clay, alkali, soft fragments, sea shells and organic
impurities in such quantity as to affect the strength and durability of the concrete. Aggregates
to be used for concrete shall not contain any material liable to attack the steel reinforcement.
Aggregates which are chemically reactive with alkalis of cement are harmful as cracking of
concrete may take place. The maximum content of chloride should be 0.02% and that of
sulphate 1% in the aggregate. Sugar is especially dangerous, as it hinders the binding of
Crushed stone and natural gravel are the common materials used as coarse aggregates
for concrete. Various types of Granites, Schists, Gneisses, crystalline hard Limestone and
good quality sand-stone may be crushed to obtain suitable type of coarse aggregates. Use of
flaky materials obtained from laminated rock such as slate should be avoided. The shape and
surface texture of aggregates have influence on the workability and binding properties of
concrete. Round aggregates with smooth surface will make the mixing and compacting
easier, while rough surface will increase the tension strength of concrete. The flexural (or
tension) strength is more affected than compressing strength, and the effects of shape and
texture are particularly significant in the case of high strength concrete.

A.2.(b). Properties of Aggregate
Since at least three – quarters of the volume of concrete is occupied by aggregate, it is
not surprising that its quality is of considerable importance. Not only may the aggregate limit
the strength of concrete, as weak aggregate cannot produce strong concrete, but the properties
of aggregate greatly affect the durability and structural performance of concrete.
Aggregate is cheaper than cement and it is, therefore, economical to put into the mix
much of the former and as little of the latter as possible. But economy is not the only season
for using aggregate it confers considerable technical advantages and concrete, durability than
the cement alone.

Q3. Write down the different types of cement and briefly explain them.

A3. Different Types of Cement
Portland cement may have several types, depending on the variations of the various
components in the cement. The different types of cement are-
(a) Normal Setting or Ordinary Cement
(b) Rapid Hardening Cement
(c) Low Heat Cement
(d) Air Entraining Cement
(e) Sulphate Resisting Cement
(f) Portland and Blast Furnace Slag Cement
(g) Portland and Pozzolona Cement
(h) High Alumina Cements
(i) Expansive Cement
(j) Hydrophobic Cement
(k) White and Coloured Cements

(a) Normal Setting or Ordinary Cement

(b) Rapid Hardening Cement
It is ground fines and has more C
S and less C
S contents than ordinary cement. The
main advantage of this type is that shuttering may be removed much earlier, thus saving
considerable time and expenses.

(c) Low Heat Cement
It has low C
A and C
S and relatively more C
S contents than ordinary cement. It has
low rate or strength gain even though the ultimate strength remains the same.

(d) Air Entraining Cement
It contains an air-entraining agent and is used in concrete exposed to severe frost
action, especially for outdoor structures and pavements.

(e) Sulphate Resisting Cement
In this type the quantity C
A is strictly limited and the cement is ground finer than
ordinary cement.

(f) Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement
It is an integrind of Portland cement clinker and granulated blast furnace slag with the
addition of a small amount of gypsum to control the set. The amount of slag usually varies
from 25 to 65 percent of the total cement.

(g) Portland Pozzolona Cement
It is a blended mixture of Portland cement and pozzolona, which is a nature or
artificial material containing silica in a reactive form. As a rule, pozzolona cements gain
strength sorry slowly but their ultimate strength is approximately the same as ordinary
Portland cement.

(h) High Alumina Cement
Unlike other cement, the raw materials used for its manufacture are chalk and bouxite,
which is a special clay of extremely high alumina content. This type attains high early
strength and has high heat of hydration and resistance to chemical attack. It is more expensive
to manufacture this cement than other cements.

(i) Expansive Cement
Unlike ordinary cement, this type of cement expands while setting and is used in
repair works of cracks. It contains an expanding medium and a stabilizing agent.

(j) Hydrophobic Cement
It contains water repelling agents and its deterioration in storage in the presence of
moisture is slower than in the case of ordinary cement.

(k) White and Coloured Cements
To obtain white cement, the ingredients must contain lowest amount of oxide, which
gives grey colour. Instead of limestone and clay, white chalk and china clay are used.
Coloured cement is manufactured by adding 5 to 10 percent of ground mineral pigments to
ordinary or white cements. Pigments usually used are Iron Oxide, Cobalt, Chromium Oxide,
Carbon and Manganese Dioxide for various colours. The production cost is higher than
ordinary cement and the strength is the same as that of ordinary cement.

Q.4. Briefly describes the following physical properties of cement:
(a). fineness of cement
(b). strength of cement
(c). setting and hardening of cement

A.4 (a). Finess of Cement
As the hydration starts at the surface of the cement particle the rate of hydration
depends on the finess of the cement particle and for a rapid development of strength high
finess is necessary. But the cause of binding to a higher finess is considerable and also the
finer the cement the more rapidly. It deteriorates on exposure to the atmospheres amount of a
paste of standard consistence is greater the finer the cement. Therefore British Standard
Institution (B.S.I) limited the maximum residue on B.S.S sieve No. 110 after 15min shaking
to 10% weight for ordinary and 5% for rapid highly Portland cement.

A.4 (b). Strength of Cement
The mechanical strength of hardened cement is the property of the material that is
required for structural use. Strength tests are not made on a cement paste because of
difficulties of moulding. Cement and mortor of prescribed proportions with specified material
under control conditions are used for the purpose of determining the strength of cement.
There are several forms of strength test, direct tension test, direct compression and flexure
since cement paste is considerably stronger in compression than in tension. The tensile
strength of cement is often of lesser interest than its compressive strength.

A.4 (c). Setting and Hardening of Cement
When Portland cement is mixed with water a paste is formed which passes, that is
became firm and then harden. Therefore, setting is known as solidification and hardening as
increase of strength. The setting and hardening are due to a chemical reaction call a hydration
between the cement and water.
The period of setting divided into two parts the beginning and setting are called the
initial and final set. The setting accomplished by temperature changes in the cement paste.
Initial set corresponds to a rapid raise in temperature and final set to the peak temperature.
The abnormal premature, stiffening of cement within in a few minute of mixing with
water is called false set. It is usually due to dehydration of gypsum when inderground with
too hot clinker.
After the cement paste has attained final set if further increase rigidity in strength.
This last process is for hardening. Setting usually takes places in a few hours (or) even
minute. Whereas hardening may proceed for months (or) years.

Q.5. Write a short note on the following:
(a). Determination of normal consistency of Portland cement.
(b). Determination of setting time of Portland cement.

A.5. (a). Determination of normal consistency of Portland cement
The objective of this testing of cement is to determine the amount of mixing water to
make cement of a given consistency. The cement past is of normal consistency when the
amount of mixing water is 0.78 of the required to give a paste which will permit the Vicat
plunger to penetrate to a point 5 to 7 mm, from the bottom of the Vicat mould.
Firstly, cement 400 gms with 28% of water were mixed in the following manner.
The cement was placed on a non – absorbent surface, which has not been moistened.
From a crater and the water was poured in to it, the material was turned on the outer edge
towards the center with the trowel. After an interval for the absorption of the water the
operation was complete and continuous vigorous mixing squeezing and kneading with the
From the paste quickly into a ball with the hands with the ball resting in the plam of
one hand. The paste was pressed into the larger end of the mould hold in the other hand. The
mould was placed with plate and the excess paste was removed at the smaller end with a
single stroke of the trowel. Smooth the top of necessary. The elapsed time from the moment
of adding water to the dry cement to completing the filling of the mould shall not be more
than 5 min.
The sample was placed under the plunger. The plunger was brought into contact whit
the surface of the paste and relapsed quickly, allowing it to sink into the sample.
If the first trial does not give the desired penetration, the test was repeated using now
batch of cement with a different amount of mixing water. It was repeated until desired
consistency is obtained

A.5. (b). Determination of setting time
The objective of this testing of cement is the rate of setting of a neat cement paste. For
purpose of testing, this is determined at two arbitrary points, the first know as initial set the
second as final set.
The required apparatus are pan, beaker, trowel, graduated cylinder, balance and
weights, Moist closet, Vicat apparatus and mould, glass plate 4 in
, watch.
The procedure is in the following:
(1). A paste of 0.85 standard consistency, using 400 gm of cement was prepared. The mould
was filled with the paste.
(2). The specimen was placed in a moist closet immediately after the molding.
(3). At the end of 30 min the specimen was removed from the moist closet and placed under
the Vicat apparatus, the needle was brought into contact with the surface of the paste and
released quickly. Initial set occurs when needle does not pierce it by about 5 mm from the
bottom of the mould. This should not occur in less than 30 min.
(4). After reasonable interval, it is tried for final set. The Vicat needle was replaced with one
with an annular attachment. This final set occurs when the needle makes an impression while
the attachment fails to do so. This should take place within 10 hours.

Q.6. Write down the anatomy of exogenous trees.

A.6. Anatomy of Exogenous Trees
If a cross – section of the stem of an exogenous tree is examined the following is
noticeable in most woods without the aid of a magnesia fying glass.
(a) Heartwood
(b) Sapwood
(c) Medullary rays
(d) Annual rings
(e) Cambium layer
(f) Bark or cortex

Fig. Cross – section of a tree

(a). Pith
The soft portion in the center of a tree, varying size and shape according to the
species, is called the pith. Usually, young stems and twigs have a proportionately larger pith
than mature trees.

(b). Heartwood and sapwood
The central portion surrounding the path, which is usually dark coloured in most
woods, is the heartwood. The heartwood, in reality, is dead and does not take an active part in
the life of a tree, except to give it rigidity. The portion, however, is more durable. In some
woods, heartwoods contains gums and resins which serve as preservatives of the wood. It is
also called duramen.
Sap wood is of more recent growth and contains sap. It is usually lighter in colour
and reaches as far as the bark. It is also known as laburnum.

(c). Bark or cortex
This is the outermost protective layer outside the sapwood consisting of tissues dead
living. The outer bark often shows fissures and cracks.

(d). Medullary rays
These are groups of horizontally arranged cells radiating from the centre towards the
band. Their function is to store and conduct food materials from the sap to the vessels in the
interior of the tree radially.
(e). Annual rings
These are approximately concentric, innumerable rings consisting of closed cells (and
not longitudinal tubes) of wood firbre and cellular tissue, indicating the grown of the tree.
These are called ‘annual’ because each one of then shows a year’s increase or growth. As a
general rule, the number of rings in a tree may be taken as indicating its age in years. But this
is not strictly true as the recurrence of exceptionally warm of moist weather may produce a
second ring in the same year.
(f). Cambium layer
Cambium layer is the soft ring surrounding the outermost ring of sapwood and is
protected by the inner living and outer dead bark.

Q.7. Briefly describes the seasoning of timber.
A.7. Seasoning of Timber
By the term ‘Seasoning’ is meant the drying of wood to a moisture content which is in
equilibrium with the atmospheric conditions of the locality where is to be used.
Freshly – felled trees contain a large amount of moisture part of which if free water
hold in the cavities of the cells and another part is hold as absorbed by the cell walls. It may
be compress to a tube of plotting paper filled with water with both ends closed. It is
comparatively easy to remove the free water in the cavities, but to remove the water absorbed
by the cell walls by evaporation is difficult and takes a long time. The limit at which all the
free water is removed and only the absorbed water remains inside is called fiber saturation
point. Wood starts shrinking rapidly only after the point is reached. Further, the strength and
other mechanical properties do not vary up to that point, but there is a rapid increase in
strength as the moisture content goes below this point.
Soon after a tree is felled, evaporation of moisture starts from whatever surface is
exposed. If the bark is not immediately removed, and the end sections only are exposed, it is
possible that excessive shrinkage there might result in heart and cup shakes. Even removing
of the bark is not sufficient. The best method is to convert the log as soon as possible after
felling and stack the sawn timber under shelter for airing.
Air Seasoning
The method of natural seasoning consists in stacking the sawn timber in a dry place,
about a foot above floor level with longitudinal and cross pieces arranged one upon another,
leaving a space of a few inches between, for free circulation of air. The stack should be
protected from the direct sun by a roof and form drying winds by some screens or wells.
There are some species which are liable to excessive splitting and cracking such as sal , sain
(Ain) etc, which required to be stacked in a room closed on all sides. Such timbers take a
longer time to season.
It is the practice in Myanmar to take a cut round the trees to be felled at the bottom,
about 6 in wide and 2 to 3 in. deep, and the tree is left standing in that condition for 2 or 3
years. During the interval, the tree dies and the moisture is slowly expelled before the tree is
felled. This process is called ‘girdling’ and is applied only to teak and such other trees which
are resistant to the attack of fungi. The timber of such girdled trees also requires to be
seasoned, though for a short time.
Kiln Seasonings
For this, the stack of timber is made just in the same way as for air seasoning, but it is
done inside a chamber. Air, fully saturated with moisture and heated to a little above 100ºF is
forced inside by means of fans kept at the bottom and allowed to circulate freely round the
pieces. Since full humidity is maintained, evaporation from the surface of timber is prevented
in spite of heat which gradually reaches inside the timbers.
After this the humidity is gradually reduced and the temperature raised till the desired
moisture content is left in them.
Since the temperature, humidity and the circulating air are all under control, the
seasoning is done thoroughly well and in the shortest time. However, it is very costly.

Q.8. Describe the defects in timber:
(a). defects due to abnormal growth.
(b). defects due to rupture of tissues.

A. 8. (a) Defects due to abnormal growth
(I) Knots are portions at the base of branches enclosed or embedded in the wood of the stem.
When a branch dies or is lopped the portion receives for several years nourishment from the
stem until it is completely covered by layers of wood which from a knot. Knots in conifers
not only make the sawing and planning very difficult but also they weaken the scantlings. A
knot is a serious defect in a railway sleeper, especially in portions where spikes are driven.
(II) Twisted fibers: This defect is due to the tree being twisted when young by the force of
wind. This causes unequal deposit of tissues to be made inside the trunk. If a plank is cut
straight from end to of such a tree, it has layers of different age density direction of grain and
the result is that even while being sawn it warp and twist. Twisted fibers makes the wood
suitable only for fuel purpose, unless it is used as masts or pole in unsown condition on which
case the twisted fibers give them even extra strength.

Fig. (I) Knot Fig. (II) Twist fiber

A.8. (b). Defect due to rupture of tissue
Wood shrinks when it dries and this shrinking causes a rupture of wood tissues
resulting in splits and cracks. These ruptures known as ‘shakes’ are classified under the
following heads.
(I). Heart and star shakes
(II) Radial shakes
(III). Cup shakes
(I). Heartshake is a crack in the center starting from the pith and extending in the direction of
the medullary rays in one or opposite directions. If there is more than one such crack,
radiating from the pith it is called a star shake. There are found mostly in trees past maturity
but sometimes they may be caused by quick drying of the central part of the tree, if a tree
nearing maturity is felled left unbarked for a long time.
(II). A radial shake starts at the outside of a stem and runs radially towards the center and is
caused by shrinkage of outer tissues drying faster than the inner ones. Radial shakes may be
caused during seasoning by sudden and excessive heat of a hot sun.
(III). Cup and ring shake: these are formed by the rupture of tissues in a circular direction
across the cross – section of a log, usually along annual rings. When the rupture extends only
a part round it is called a cup shake and when the whole way round or almost so a ring shake.

Q. 9. Write a shirt note on the following:
(a). Constituents of earth for god bricks
(b). Characteristics of good bricks
(c). Two types of bricks
(i) Cement bricks
(ii) Clay bricks
A.9. (a). Constituents of earth for good bricks
1. Alumina 25% - 30%
2. Silica 50% - 75% (free and combined silica)
3. Lime small portion
4. Iron Oxide
5. Magnesia
Alumina gives the plasticity of earth for moulding but excess of it because the raw
brick to shrink and warp while drying.
Silica, if free, prevents the raw brick from shrinking, warping and cracking that is at
pressure the edges and shaped of the bricks. Sand stone influsible but in the presence of lime
and iron oxide, it slightly fuse and service as hard cementing material in burnt brick. The
durability of the brick is due to the silica but excess of silica causes the brick brittle.
Lime helps preventing the shrinking of the raw brick as sand does it also act as a flux
and causes the sand to fuse and bind the particles together but excess of lime cause the brick
to melt and run out of shape lumps of lime become quick lime after burning and when the
brick is in water or absorbs moisture from air, the quick lime slakes, expands and causes the
brick to split into pieces.
A very small percentage of iron oxide is helpful in causing the sand to fuse slightly at
low temperature and giving a good colour to the burnt brick.
Magnesia in small quantition gives the brick a yellow colour but in excess it cause the
brick to decay.

A.9.(b). Characteristics of good brick
Good brick should be truly rectangular in shape, hard, sound, well burnt and compact
in texture. They should give a metallic sound when struck. They should be free from holes,
lump stones and particles of uncombined – lime. A good brick should not break when struck
against another, brick or when dropped flat from height of 3 ft from the ground. It should not
absorb more than 20% of its own weight of water.

A.9.(c). Two Type of bricks
(i). Cement bricks
Cement bricks are made from Portland cement, selected aggregates, and water by a
process similar to that used for concrete blocks. There are two types of cement bricks. Like
concrete blocks, type I is moisture – controlled and type II is not moisture – controlled. There
are also two grades: grade N is an all – purpose quality, whereas grade S is less resistant to
moisture penetration, resulting in less of a freeze thaw challenge. Both types I and II are
available in grades N and S.
(ii). Clay bricks
Clay bricks must be laid in place with care to obtain a secure bond with the mortar.
These bricks, unlike concrete masonry units, are not delivered at the job site conditioned to
the humidity of the surroundings. They absorb water from the mortar by capillary attraction
and, thus, dehydrate the mortar. To avoid this problem, the bricks are soaked with water and
lift to dry to the ambient humidity conditions. If the surface is still wet, the bricks will float
and fail to form an acceptable bond. Over time clay bricks will expand, while under the same
conditions, concrete will shrink. Both of these stress conditions can result in crack or poor
bonding. The solution is to provide expansion joints for brick structures.

Q.10. Briefly describes the manufacture of bricks;
(a). Preparation of raw materials
(b). Making processes
(c). Drying
(d). Burning and cooling

A.10. Manufacture of bricks
(a)Preparation of raw materials
From the storage bins, clay passes to crusher which reduce it to relatively small pieces
2" & smaller. It them passes to grinder where it is ground very fine and thoroughly mixed.
The ground clay passes over vibrating screen which pauses only the material which have
been enough. The coarse particles are returned to the grinder for further processing, while the
fine material is elevated to storage.

(b) Making processes
The first step in the forming process is tempering, the mixing of clay with water in a
pug mill. The amount of water use depends on the method being used to form units. There are
three principle methods in use.
(1) Stiff mud process
(2) Soft mud process
(3)Dry-press process
In the stiff mud process, only enough water is used to produce plasticity, usually from
12% to 15% by weight. The clay is then forced by an anger through the die, producing a
continuous column of clay of the desired size and shape. The column passes through an
automatic cutter which cut off units of proper length.
The soft mud process is used for making brick only and is employed with clay which
contain too mud natural water for the stiff mud process 20% to 30% of water is used in
tempering and the bricks are formed in moulds.
The dry press process use the least water in tempering the maximum being about
10%. The relative dry mix is fed to machine which the bricks in steel moulds under high

(c) Drying
When the units come from the forming machine, they contain 7% to 30% of water,
most of which is removed in drier kilns. Drier Kilns temperature range from 100ºF to 400ºF
and the drying time range from 24 to 48 hours depending on the type of clay. Heat is usually
provided by the exhaust heat form the burning kiln. Heat and humidity are carefully regulated
to too rapid shrinkage. Which cause excessive cracking. When bricks are to be glazed it is
usually done at the end of the drying process.

(d) Burning and Cooling
Burning is a very importance step in manufacture of brick. The time required varies
from 40 to 150 hours depending on the type of clay, type of glazed if any, type of kiln and
other variables.
Mainly two different type of Kiln are in use. They are tunnel Kiln dried brick pass
through various temperature zones and special ears. In periodic Kiln the temperature is
carried periodically.
Bricks are set on the Kiln ears or in the Kiln in a presented pattern which allow free
circulation of hot Kiln gas. Fuel may be natural gas, oil or coal.
Cooling taken 48 hours to 72 hours depending on the type of Kiln, it must be carefully
controlled because the rate of cooling has a direct effect on colour and because too rapid
cooling will cause cracking in the brick.

Q.11. Write a short note on the following.
(a) Lime
(b) Mortar
(a) Plaster

A.11. (a) Lime
Lime is a general term referring to calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, or even
hydraulic lime. These forms of lime have distinctly different properties. Calcium oxide (CaO)
is known as quicklime or unslaked lime. Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH
)] is known as slaked
lime or hydrated lime. Hydraulic lime, and impure form of calcium oxide, is obtained by
burning hydraulic limestone. Calcium oxide chemically combines with water to form
calcium hydroxide with the evolution of considerable heat. Each one of these limes is
irritating to the skin, but calcium oxide is classified as strong irritant. Therefore calcium
hydroxide should be used, whenever possible, to avoid the danger of using calcium oxide.
Hydrated lime provides the needed plasticity to improve workability of mortar.

(b) Mortars
Mixture in varying proportions of binding materials like cement, lime and an inert
material like sand. Use as
(1) A binding material in stone brick and concrete
(2) A coasering material to walls in the form of plaster to provide a smooth hard and
decorative surface.
(c) Plaster
Plaster, applied by hand or by machinery, refers to the finished cementitious coating
used on the exterior and interior walls of building to provide a smooth, finished appearance.
This section is concerned with Portland cement plaster, although lime or gypsum is
sometimes used as the cementitious base of a plaster for wood structures.
Composed of cement and a plaster grade aggregate and, as an option, slaked lime
plaster should have a consistency appropriate to its method of application, have good
durability, and withstand most kinds of weather. As in mortar, the slaked lime provides
plasticity and the needed workability. To avoid cracks, the plaster must contain and aggregate
of sand with a particle size less than 0.32 cm (1/8 inch) in diameter. The gradation in size of
the sand is also important.
An external cement plaster, called stucco, is much used in mild climates. Plaster is as
strong and durable as concrete and can be considered a modified form of concrete mortar. If
used to cover wood, a metal screen or lath is attached to the wood surface to hold the plaster
coating in place.
To avoid the need for papering to painting, the plaster may contain a mineral pigment
or have a textured surface.

Q.12. Write a short note on the following:
(a) Different types of lime
(b) Physical properties of mortar.

A.12. (a) Different types of lime
The different types of lime are in the following.
(1) Agricultural lime – either ground quicklime or hydrated lime whose calcium and
magnesium content is capable of neutralizing soil acidity.
(2) Air- slake lime – the product containing various proportions of the oxides,
hydroxides, and carbonates of calcium and magnesium which results from the
exposure of quicklime to the air in sufficient quantity to show physical signs of
hydration ( difficult to determine visually in pulverized quicklime).
(3) Available lime – those constituents of a lime which enter into a desired reaction
under the conditions of a specific method or process.
(4) Building or construction lime – a lime whose chemical and physical characteristics
and method of processing make it suitable for the ordinary or special construction
uses of the product.
(5) Chemical lime – a quicklime or hydrated lime whose chemical and physical
characteristics and method of processing make it suitable for one or more of the
many and varied chemical and industrial uses of the product.
(6) Finishing hydrated lime – hydrated lime suitable for use in the finish coat of plaster.
(7) Fluxing lime – a term referring to quicklime used as an agent in the manufacture of
steel or glass etc..

(b) Physical properties of mortar
In some ways the properties of mortar are more critical than those for concrete.
Compressive strength is one of the main affects of cured concrete. In addition to compressive
strength, mortar must have adequate bond strength, shear strength, and durability. Successful
performance depends on its workability and its skillful application.
Workability, one of the most essential properties of mortar, determines the success of
its application. This is provided by slaked lime, careful gradation of aggregates, and the
proper amount of water. Slaked lime provides water retention, elasticity, and workability, and
in its absence the mortar is stiff and difficult to use. Because of the subjective nature of
workability, it is challenging to define but is easily recognized by a skilled mason.
Mortar must have a strong bonding strength, which requires that the mortar be able to
flow into crevices and small voids. For the mortar to set properly, it needs water retention to
avoid too much water being sucked out of the mortar gel by the porosity of the masonry unit.
These essential properties are usually provided by the slaked lime.
Such inorganic materials as mortar can contain several forms of water, such as water
of hydration, water contained in a gel-like paste, and free water. Water of hydration is part of
the compound. Partially Gypsum (CaSO
O) is an example of such a compound. Partially
dehydrated gypsum (plaster of paris) is often used in patching grout and mortar. An example
of bound water is the gel-like structure formed by the hydration of cement. An example of
excess (free) water is the water that can be squeezed from mortar to ‘float’ the masonry unit.
This excess water is to be avoided as it reduces the bond strength holding the masonry unit in
place. Mortar should have just enough water to form a workable paste.

Q. 13. Briefly describe the mixing of concrete.
A. 13. Mixing of Concrete
The principal purpose of mixing is to produce an intimate mixture of cement, water,
fine and coarse aggregates, and possible admixtures, of uniform consistency throughout each
batch. This is achieved in machine mixers of the revolving – drum type. Mixing for less than
1¼ min produces an appreciably more variable concrete, but prolonging the mixing time
beyond these values results in no significant improvement in uniformity. The average
strength of concrete increases also with an increase in mixing time. The rate of increase falls
rapidly beyond about one minute and is not significant beyond two minutes. Within the first
minute, however, the influence of mixing time on strength is of considerable importance.
Batches of 1 cu.yd. or less should be mixed for not less than 1 min. The mixing time shall be
increased 15 sec for each cubic yard or fraction there of additional capacity. At least three –
quarters of the required mixing time all take place after the last of the mixing water has been
added. The mixing time is reckoned from the time when all the solid materials have been put
in the mixer. In high speed pan mixers the mixing time can be as short as 35sec. On the other
hand, when lightweight aggregate is used the mixing time should not be continued for at least
1½ min. after all materials are in the drum. Mixer blades shall be replaced when they have
lost 10 percent of their original height.
Concrete shall be mixed only in quantities for immediate use. Concrete which has not
be retempered, i.e. adding water to restore workability, but shall be discarded. When concrete
arrives at the project with slump below that suitable for placing, water may be added only if
neither the maximum permissible water – cement ratio nor the maximum slump is exceeded.
The water shall be incorporated by additional mixing equal to at least half of the total mixing
required. An addition of water above that permitted by the limitation on water – cement ratio
shall be accompanied by a quantity of cement sufficient to maintain the proper water –
cement ratio.
Mixing can be continued for considerable time without adverse effect. Intermittent
remixing up to about 3 hours, and in some cases upto 6 hours, is harmless as far as strength
and durability are concerned, but the workability falls off with time unless loss of moisture
from the mixer is prevented. Adding water to restore workability, known as retempering, will
lower the strength of concrete.
Tilting drum mixers are preferable for mixes of low workability and those containing
large size aggregates. Pan mixers are particularly efficient with stiff and cohesive mixers and
are, therefore, often used in the manufacturing of precast concrete. They are also suitable,
because of the scraping arrangement, for mixing very small quantities of concrete, such as in
the laboratory. In the drum – type mixers, no scraping of the sides takes place during mixing
so that at the beginning of concreting the first mix would leave a large portion of its mortar
behind and this initial batch should be discarded. As an alternative, a certain amount of
mortar may be introduced into the mixer prior to the commencement of concreting a
procedure known as buttering the mixer. A convenient and simple way is to charge the mixer
with the usual quantities of cement, water and fine aggregate, simply omitting the coarse
material. The mix in excess of that stuck in the mixer may be used elsewhere. The necessity
of buttering should not be forgotten in laboratory work.
If the quantity mixed represents only a small fraction of the capacity of the mixer the
resulting mix may not be uniform.
No general rules on the order of feeding the ingredients into the mixer can be given as
they depended on the properties of the mix and of the mixer. Generally, a small amount of
water should be fed first followed by all the solid materials, preferably fed uniformly and
simultaneously into the mixer. If possible, the greater part of the water should also be fed
during the same time, the remainder of the water being added after the solids. With some
drum mixes, however, where a very dry mix is used it is necessary to feed first some water
and the coarse aggregate, as otherwise its surface does not become sufficiently wetted. With
small laboratory pan mixes and very stiff mixes it has been found convenient to feed first
sand, a part of the coarse aggregate, cement, then the water the finally the remainder of the
coarse aggregate so as to break up any modules of mortar.
There may be occasions when concrete has to be mixed by hand and, because in this
case uniformity is more difficult to achieve, particular care and effort and necessary. The
aggregate should be spread in a uniform layer on a hard, clean and non-porous base; cement
is then spread over the aggregate, and the dry materials are mixed by turning from one end of
the tray to another and ‘cutting’ with a shovel until the mix appears uniform. Turning three
times is usually required. Water is then gradually added so that neither water by itself nor
with cement can escape. The mix is turned over again, usually three times, until it appears
uniform in colour and consistency.

Q.14. Write a short note on the following:
(a) Field control of concrete
(b) Advantages of quality control

A.14.(a) Field control of concrete
The field control, i.e. inspection and testing, play a vital role in the overall quality
control plan. Inspection could be of two types, quality control inspection and acceptance
inspection. For repeated operations early inspection is vital, and once the plant has stabilized,
occasional checks may be sufficient to ensure continued satisfactory results. The operations
which are not of repetitive type would require, on the other hand, more constant scrutiny.
Apart from the tests on concrete materials, concrete can be tested both in the fresh and
hardened stages. Of these two, the tests on fresh concrete offer some opportunity for
necessary corrective actions to be taken before it is too late. These include test on
workability, unit weight or air content (where air-entrained concrete is used), etc. Accelerated
strength tests by which a reliable idea about the potential 28 day strength can be obtained
within few hours, are effective quality control tools. In contrast to this, the usual 28 day
strength test is in fact a post modern of concrete which has become history by then. It is,
therefore, only acceptance tests, which help the decision-maker decide whether to accept or
reject the concrete.

A.14. (b) Advantages of quality control
The general feeling the quality control means extra cost is not correct, the advantage
due to quality control offset the extra-cost. Some of the advantages of quality control are:
(i) Quality control means a rational use of the available resources after testing their
characteristics and reduction in the materials costs.
(ii) In the absence of quality control there is no guarantee that over-spending in one-area will
compensate for the weakness in another, e.g. an extra bag of cement will not compensate for
incomplete compaction or inadequate curing. Proper control at all the stages is the only
(iii) In the absence of quality control at the site, the designer is tempted to overdesign, so as
to minimize the risks. This adds to the overall cost.
(iv) Checks at every stage of the production of concrete and rectification of the faults at the
right time expedites completion and reduces delay.
(v) Quality control reduces the maintenance cost.
It should be realized that if the good quality concrete is made with cement, aggregates
and water, the ingredients of bad concrete are exactly the same. The difference lies in the few
essential steps collectively known as quality control.

Q.15. Write a short note on curing of concrete:
(a) curing period
(b) curing methods

A.15. Curing of concrete
(a) The curing period
The last step, and exceedingly important one in the manufacture of concrete, is the
curing. As hydration of cement takes place only in the presence of moisture and at favorable
temperatures, these conditions must be maintained for a suitable time interval allowed the
curing period.
At the time concrete is mixed, sufficient water is added to give workability. The
amount of mixing water actually used is ordinarily in excess of 50 percent of the weight of
the cement, while the amount of water required for reasonably complete hydration of the
cement is considerably less than 50 percent. Therefore, if the original water can be retained,
there is more than sufficient for curing purposes. Curing may be said to consist of preventing
the evaporation of the mixing water.
Concrete gains strength most rapidly at early ages, so that the greatest benefit from
curing is secured during this period, and each additional day is of lesser importance than the
proceeding one. The desired strength of concrete is usually not developed with the curing
period specified for most concrete J obs, but it is not generally considered worth the cost to
keep the concrete wet for longer periods. Furthermore, since it requires many days for
partially hardened concrete of ordinary thickness to lose its water by evaporation,
considerable hydration will occur after the stated curing period.
Specifications usually require that the surfaces of concrete be protected to prevent loss
of moisture for at least 7 days where normal cement is used, and some specifications require
curing for 14 days or more. Where high-early-strength cements are used, the curing period
may be reduced about half, while for slow-hardening cements the time should be longer than
for normal cements.

(b) Curing methods
A common method of preventing loss of moisture from exposed surfaces of concrete
is to keep the surfaces continually damp by frequent sprinkling, ponding with water, or
covering with continuously wetted burlap or its equivalent. Other methods for preventing loss
of moisture involve the use of liquid seal coats, or tight covers such as light-colored water
proof paper or an impervious plastic film.
The rapid drying of exposed surfaces before they have hardened sufficiently to stand
sprinkling with water or covering with damp burlap may result in serious checking and
crazing of the concrete. To prevent such rapid drying some specifications require that
concrete be protected from drying winds and direct rays of the sun for the first day after
placement, until adequate curing is begun. Plastic-shrinkage cracks may occur even before a
surface is finished. In this case covering of surfaces with plastic films during the interval
between placing and finishing is helpful. Alternate drying with rewetting of slabs during
curing must be avoided as to results in hairline cracking of the surface.
Forms, if used on structures in which the concrete will not be cured after removal of
the forms, should be left in place as long as possible to protect the surface and aid in delaying
the loss of moisture in the concrete. Such protection is desirable, as other types of curing are
not always applicable to structures using forms. Wetting wooden forms periodically serves to
prevent their shrinkage and opening of cracks between boards, and thus further aids the
retention of moisture in the concrete. Ordinarily, buildings are not kept wet after removal of
the forms because of the difficulty involved and the inconvenience to workers, although the
quality of concrete is unquestionably lower than it might otherwise be, because of the
resulting lack of moisture.
If the concrete surface can be cured properly after removal of the forms, then it is
desirable to remove them as soon as possible, as forms made of narrow boards are not fully
effective in preventing loss of moisture form the concrete. Furthermore, early form removal
permits better repairs, if any patching or other repairs are necessary, as then the concrete is
still green, i.e., in the early stage of hydration, so that repairs bond to it more readily.

Q.16. Write down the properties of cast iron.

A.16. The properties of cast iron
It is a brittle non-malleable and non-castile metal which cannot be forged rolled
drawn or welded under a hammer. It cracks when subjected to shocks. It can be cast into
moulds. The carbon (2 to 5 percent) present in it may be partially free (graphitic) and
partially combined with it. When the percentage of free or graphite carbon is high its fracture
shows a coarse crystalline texture grey in colour and it is then called grey cast iron, which is
softer and suitable for machine. When, on the other hand, the percentage of combined carbon
is high, the fracture shown a finer grained texture and the colour is white. It is known as
white cast iron. The latter is much harder. The hardness and white colour are also due to the
excess of manganese present in it.
Grey cast iron is a very important engineering material. Its use in industry is second
only to steel. It gives properties many of which are not obtainable in other materials, at the
same cost. Thus it is superior to steel in cheapness and the case with which it can be cast into
moulds of intricate shapes. It offers good rigidity, high compressive strength, and excellent
machinability. The normal grey cast iron has rather a low tensile strength but it can increase
by certain processes to as high as 60000 lb/ All gray irons retain their tensile strength at
temperatures up to 235°F and some upto 315°F. They respond very well to heat treatment,
and also be welded, provided the parts are preheated. Their compressive strength is better
than that of any non-ferrous alloy, greater than that of the usual normallised cast steel, on par
with alloy steel that has not been heat treated. This property makes it very suitable for bodies
of machines which should be free from vibrations and have high rigidity.
Low cost of production and case of casting into moulds of any desired shapes are the
two great advantages which cast iron possesses over steel. But it is weak in tension and shock
absorbing power. However, by certain processes it can be made hard and malleable, any by
alloying with nickel and chromium, it can also be made as strong as steel.

Q.17. Write a short note on the following:
(a) wrought iron
(b) properties of wrought iron

A.17. (a) Wrought Iron
Wrought iron is the purest iron and is produced by removing most of the carbon,
manganese, silicon, phosphorus, and sulphut from pig iron by the process of what is called
‘piddling’ in a reverberate furnace. The maximum quality of carbon present in wrought iron
does not exceed 0.15 per cent. The reverberate furnace is rectangular in shape and has a
chimney stack on one side. The fuel may be soft coal or coke, but is burnt in a grating
situated on the side, opposite to that of the chimney stack, and only the flames of the
producer gas (CO) heat the metal in the shallow hearth. The bottom of the hearth consists of
cast iron plate 1 ½ in. thick, supported on dwarf brick walls which allows which allows free
circulation of air below the plates. The latter are in consequence cooled. In addition to this
hollow casting are provided on sides through which water is circulated. A lining of molten
slag is given with a top layer of rich iron ore before the charge of high grade pig iron is fed
through the door. The hearth is shaped like a saucer.

(b) properties of wrought iron
Wrought iron is a very malleable and ductile material and can also be forged. Above
900°C, it becomes soft and can be easily welded under hammer, but not by fusion, except at a
very high (about 1650°C) temperature. The melting point of pure iron is 1535°C and wrought
iron melts just below that temperature. A fracture shows a fibrous structure due to about two
percent slag still remaining. It resists corrosion or rusting better than mild steel. It can not be
hardened or tempered like high carbon steel, but can be case-hardened. It has a tensile
strength of 18 to 20 tons per and compressive strength of 20 to 30 tons. It stretches
about 20 percent before it breaks. It buckles and twists, if subjected to great heat as in a con
flagration. Its greatest disadvantages is that it is costly. It cannot be melted and cast into
moulds like cast iron or cast steel, but can forged or rolled.

Q.18. Explain the rules for bonding.

A.18. Rule for bonding
To ensure good bonding the following rules should be observed.

(i) The amount by which the bricks in one course overlap the bricks in the course
below should be minimum ¼ brick along the length of the wall and ½ brick across
the thickness of the wall.
(ii) The vertical joints in the alternate courses should fall in plumb (vertical) line from
the top of the wall to its base whether on the face or in the interior of wall.
(iii) Bats should be used as sparingly as possible.
(iv) The bricks should be uniform in size and the proportion of length to breadth be
such that length equals twice the width plus one joint. Good bond is impossible
other wise the lap would not be uniform.
(v) The bricks in the interior thickness of the wall should be laid with their length
across the wall, as it is termed header-wise.
(vi) It is also recommended that every sixth course on both sides of the wall should be
a header course or there should be at least on full header every 510 of wall.
In walls 1 ½ brick thick or more header shall overlap headers to provide
continuous tie throughout the wall.

Q.19. (a) Explain the double Flemish bond and to draw the 20 cm thick wall.
(b) Explain the single Flemish bond and to draw the 30 cm thick brick wall.

A.19. (a) Double Flemish Bond
This is made up of alternate header and stretcher in the same course (see fig). The
entire course for facing, backing and hearting or filling is laid in this style. The following
point about this bond are worth mentioning:
(a) The headers and stretchers appear in the same course alternately on the front and
the back faces.
(b) A header in any course is in the center of a stretcher in the course above or below
(c) Closers are inserted in alternate courses next to the quoin header for breading the
vertical joints in successive courses.



20 cms

Fig. Plan of alternate courses of one brick (Double Flemish bond)

(b) Single Flemish Bond:
This consists of a facing of Flemish bond with a backing of English bond is each
course (see fig). The advantages of this are:
(a) The strength of English bond as well as the appearance of Flemish bond is partly
(b) Cheaper bricks can be used as a backing, whereas good bricks can be employed
for face work which is to be done in Flemish bond.
The disadvantages of this bond are:
(a) This cannot be used for walls less than 1 ½ brick in thickness.
(b) A long continuous joint occurs in the vertical direction for some portions and thus
weakens the wall.

30 cms

Fig. Plan of alternate courses of 1-1/2 brick (Single Flemish bond)

Q.20. Define the following terms:
(a) Chamfer (b) Bevel (c) Moulding (d) Rebating (e) Mitring

(a) Chamfer: Arris (edge) of timber plained off flat to form an angle usually 45°.
(b) Bevel: If the angle of chamfer is not 45°. It is called bevel.
(c) Moulding: Process of shaping various units of construction by hand or machine to
produce a moulded section.
(d) Rebating: cutting rectangular portion from a plank to receive another plank similarly
(e) Mitring: J oining two boards at an angle.

Q.21. Define the following terms:
(a) Notching (b) Cogging (c) Halving (d) Dove tailing (e) Housing (f) Mortice and

(a) Notching: One member may be cut and the other fitted with it. The shoulders thus
created help in the prevention of any displacement of the joint. If both the members are
cut, double notching is formed.
(b) Cogging: When the entire depth of the timber is to be utilized, the members are to be
(c) Halving: Timbers that cross each other and are required to be flush on one or two faces
are cut to meet.
(d) Dove-tailing: Wedge shaped pieces are cut from members and the timbers are fitted into
the projections of each other.
(e) Housing: When the entire end or thickness of a member fits into the notch of another a
housed joint is formed.
(f) Mortice and Tenon: In the ordinary type of this joint, the end of timber is cut so as to
form a projection which is called Tenon. The other member is morticed to correspond to
the dimensions of the tenon and the latter fitted into the former. This joint is commonly
used. The two members may further be prevented from displacement by driving wedges
or pins into the joint.

Q.22. (a) Explain the combined footing.
(b) Explain the cantilever footing.
A.22. (a) Combined footing
Combined footings are essential whenever the projections of columns are not possible
on one side due to limited available space. In such a case, the footing of the exterior column
can be combined with the footing of the interior column. This enables very small projections
to be provided for the footing of the exterior column. Combined footings are proportioned in
a manner that the center of gravity of the resultant area is in line with the center of gravity of
the loads. Hence these footings have a trapezoidal shape. Footings of two or three columns
may be combined with the exterior column. These can also have rectangular shape if the load
on the interior column is heavier than the other and the inward projection of the footings can
be adjusted. Combined footings are built of reinforced concrete.

. .
. .
. .
. .

. .
. .
. .
. .
.. .
. . .
........ .. .
. . .

Fig. Combined R.C.C footing

(b) Cantilever footings
This type of the foundation is useful when it is impossible to place a footing directly
beneath a column of other load because of limitations of adjacent buildings or eccentric
loading conditions. A load from the outer column is balanced by the load from the inner
column acting about a fulcrum. The product of the load in the interior column multiplied by
its corresponding level arm should be at least 50% greater than the load on the exterior
column multiplied by its level arm under all types of loading conditions. In case the interior
column load is not available a suitable huge concrete block can be built to act as an
anchorage. The foundation of the interior column has to be built as strong as possible and
must have suitable connecting reinforcement with its base.


Fig. Cantilever footing

Q.23. Explain pile and pier foundation.

A.23. Pile and Pier Foundation
Pile and Pier foundation is intended to transmit structural loads through the upper
zone of poor soil to a depth where the earth is capable of providing the desired support. This
type of foundation is utilized where it is necessary to provide resistance to uplift or where
there is a possible loss of ground or erosion due to flowing water. Piles are slender foundation
units driven into place. Pier units are formed in place by excavating an opening to the desired
depth where concrete is poured. Naturally, such foundations are large enough to allow an
individual to enter and inspect the exposed earth layer.
A clear distinction between pile and pier type foundation is not definite because of the
change and innovations in construction or installation methods. The developing practice
classify all deep slender foundation units simply as pile type foundation with term such as
driven, bored, or drilled and pre-cast or cast in place to indicate the method of installation and

Q.24. Explain quality and durability of piles.

A.24. Quality and Durability of Piles
Piles must be in good condition with the following resistive quality:
(1) To resist crushing under vertical load
(2) To resist crushing during the process of driving
Timber piles does not have the capability to withstand high stresses caused by
hard driving which requires a desirable penetration on a highly resistive layer. In driving
piles, it is important to consider the selection of the right type of hammer and the number
of blows to prevent breakage and damage on the pile head.
Piles driven by steam hammer at 15,000 ft pound (20,340 joules) energy should
not exceed three to four blows per inch penetration to prevent breakage or brooming of
the piles. The normal resistance of pile is form 6 to 8 blows per inch which is commonly
(3) To resist handling stresses. Timber piles shall be capable of resisting breakage or
other damages that may result from handing, hauling and impact in loading and
(4) To resist tension from uplift forces, heaving of soil or rebound in the process of
driving. Timber pile should be strong enough to counteract the uplift forces and
expansion of soil including the rebound action received in the process of driving.
(5) To resist horizontal and eccentric forces that may cause bending when applied on
(6) To resist curvature bending and column action for the portions not receiving
lateral support from the ground when freely standing in air, water or a very liquid mud.

Q.25. Write down about the following boards.
(a) Fiber boards
(b) Gypsum wall boards
(c) Hard boards
(d) Asbestos cement boards
(a) Fiber boards
Fiber boards are made from masses of cane or wood fibbers by pressing them into
sheets or boards with thicknesses from 1/4 in. to 1in. or more. The usual widths are 4ft., and
lengths up to 12ft are available. The fibbers are rather loosely compressed. The surface is
usually fibrous, but boards are available veneered with walnut. mahogany. or other woods.
Others have and imitation wood finishes. Some boards are divided into tile or given other
surface design by bevel scoring. Strips called plans are made 6in. to 16in. wide and up to
12ft. long. Sheets are cut into individual tile of many sizes, with a variety of colours. The
large unfinished sheets are sometimes called building boards. Fiberboards are used for
exposed interior wall and ceiling surfaces, for outside wall sheathing, and for heat insulation
and sound absorption. They may be obtained coated with asphalt for production against
moisture when used for sheathing. Boards of any thickness are made by cementing thinner
boards together with special cement. Some boards have an aluminum-coated back to serve as
reflective insulation.

(b) Gypsum Wallboard
Gypsum wallboard or gypsum board consists of a gypsum core to the surfaces of
which are bonded sheets of heavy paper and is intended for use without plaster coatings. The
boards are usually 4ft. wide, 6 to 12ft. long, and 1/4 to 5/8 in. thick. They are fastened to
wood studs, furring strips over masonry and ceiling joists with flat head nails which penetrate
the supports at least one inch.
Gypsum wallboard is the most widely used interior wall covering used in dry wall
construction. Which is often used for residences. The J oints may be covered with panel strips
battens or beads or they may be concealed. In the latter case, boards with tapered edges are
used. The depressions made available in this manner are filled with cement in which a tape is
embedded. The surface of the cement covering the joint is made flush with wallboard
surfaces. After this cement has set the joint is finished by sanding. Nail head depressions are
filled with cement and sanded.
The exposed surface may be painted or covered with wallpaper; and boards are
available with wood-grain patterns and other decorative treatments so that no additional
decoration is required.
Gypsum board is also used for sheathing.

(c) Hard boards
Standard hardboard is made by subjecting masses of specially treated and separated
wood fibers to heat and very high pressure to form a dense, and impervious board. Other
materials may be added during manufacture to improve certain of its properties. Many
species of wood are used depending of their availability to the manufacturer. Tempered
hardboard is made form standard hardboard by the addition of certain chemicals and further
heat treatment to increase its strength and abrasion resistance and decrease its rate of water
Hardboard is manufactured with both surfaces smooth or one surface smooth and the
other with screen back or reverse impression of a screen, on the back. It is also available with
special finishes such as striated or rigid, grooved embossed, or marked into tiles, as well as
prefinished, prime-coated and wood-grained patterns. The color varies for blond to dark
brown depending on the process used.
The width of the sheets or panels is usually 4ft., although sheets 5ft. wide are
available in some types. The maximum length is 16ft. The thicknesses vary from 1/12 to 3/4
Hardboard is used for interior and exterior wall panels, ceilings, siding, table and
counter tops, underlayment for resilient floor coverings, concrete forms, and many other

(d) Asbestos-cement board
This type of board is made from asbestos fiber and Portland cement molded under
pressure to form a dense hard-surfaced sheet usually 1/8, 3/16, and 1/4 in. thick, 4ft. wide,
and up to 8ft. long. The exposed surface is finished smooth. One type is made in the natural
cement color and other decorative colors, which extend through the sheet. The sheets may be
paling or scored resemble tile 4 in square. Other boards are available with various backed on
colored and marbleized surface finishes divided into tile. The tile joints may be cut with a
narrow abrasive wheel or be molded. The joints and edges are usually covered with specially
designed chromium, aluminium or stainless-steel moldings. The sheets can be cut with a
wood saw, and other operations can be performed with woodworking tools.

Q. 26. Explain in detail about the plywood.

A.26. Plywood
Plywood consists of thin layers or plies of wood glued and presses together, with the
grain direction of adjacent plies at right angles to each other, to for large rigid panels
commonly form 3/16 in. to 13/16 in. thick with widths up to 4ft. and lengths up to 8 and 10ft.
The number of piles is 3, 5, or 7, the odd number being necessary to avoid warping. The
outside piles are called faces or face and back. The intermediate piles with grain parallel to
the grain of the faces are called cores, and those with grain at right angles to that of the faces
are called crossbands. The plies are made by softening logs, steaming and placing them in
lathes, which are arranged with a cutter to slice off, or rotary-cut sheets of veneer in a manner
similar to unrolling paper. Douglas fir plywood is available in the moisture-resistant type, the
exterior type, and the highly moisture-resistant type, depending upon the moisture resistance
of the glue used.
Plywood is made from many different species of wood, the most common being
Douglas fir Plywood is available with faces of Douglas fir, gum, birch, and whit oak.
Philippine mahogany, African mahogany, black walnut, and many other woods.
The faces of plywood may be good, which means practically clear, all-heart veneer:
the faces may be sound, having neatly made patches, sapwood, and stain, but must be smooth
and suitable for painting or natural finish: or the faces may be classed as utility, and contain
knots, splits, pitch pockets. etc. Which will not interfere with the use of the panels. A sheet
may have two good faces, designated G2S: one good face and one sound face, G1S: or two
sound faces, S2S.
Plywood with highly water-resistant glue is used for concrete forms, which can be
reused 10 to 15 times. Exterior plywood is made by the hot-pressed synthetic-resin-bonded
process and is intended for permanent exterior use. It is generally considered to have a
waterproof, rather than water-resistant glue bond. It is used for outside paneling and siding of
Some of the thicker plywood, with a lumber core rather than the thin piles, are
available, for use as cupboard doors, table tops, counter fronts, etc. Either the separate
veneers themselves or two-ply panels 1/8in. thick can be furnished for bending to form
curved surfaces.
For decorative effects, the surface of plywood may be finished natural, stained, or
painted Wallpaper may be applied to plywood over building felt or muslin.
Various moldings are available for covering the joints of interior plywood, or a V-
joint can be made by beveling the edges.
Some of the advantages of plywood are the large sizes available; its freedom form
warping shrinking, or cracking; and the availability of decorative hardwood and plastic face
Plywood is available with one surface veneered with various species of decorative
woods and with a variety of colored plastics.

Q.27. Write down about the following.
(a) Steel Beams
(b) Open Web Beams
(c) Beam to Beam Connection
(d) Columns
(e) Column and Beam Connection

(a) Steel Beams
Beams include girders, lintels, etc. A simplest beam would consist of a single rolled
steel joint section or an angle section for carrying little loads. Whenever a beam has to take
greater loads, compound sections are used. Compound beams consist of two or more single
steel joists connected together through bolts and separator which hold them in position.
Separators are placed at 1 ½ to 2 m, apart.
For still heavier beams or girders, two channels may be used back to back or spaced
apart and their flange area increased by the addition of one or more plates at top and bottom.
Plate girders are used when very large loads have to be carried. A plate girder is a
built up beam consisting of top and bottom flanges made up of angles and plates. The web
consists of one or more steel plates. All the individual pieces are rivetted or welded together.

(b) Open Web Beams
Beams carrying light loads and where the shearing forces are not excessive open web
beams are used. These consist of small T-sections acting as flanges connected together by a
bent iron bar to keep them at the desired distance apart.
The following points should be noted about steel beams:
(i) It is always economical to use as deep beams as possible since they can take
higher loads.
(ii) The cost of the beam may increase while economizing in weight, e.g., if lattice
girder is used for a solid section plate girder, the cost of fabrication, etc., may
be more in the case of the lattice type.
(iii) The deflection of steel beams under the usual loads should not exceed 1/360th
of the span or in exceptional cases 1/240th of the span.
(iv) Stiffness of the web is essential wherever excessive forces on account of
compression in flanges are created due to the lesser widths of the flanges.
(v) To distribute the concentrated loads of the beams on the bearing walls,
suitable bed plates of stones or concrete should be used.

(c) Beam to Beam Connection
It is necessary to transfer the loads from one beam to the other in a framed building or
from beams to girders in the usual cases. The various types of connections, generally
adopted, are:
Undergirder flange: In this case the beam is accommodated below the top flange of
the girder. Small iron angle cleats are rivetted to the beams as well as to the girder so as to
form a strong connection.
Top-flush: In this type of connection the top flange of the beam and a portion of the
web is cut off so as to accommodate the top flange of the girder. Angle cleats are rivetted to
the beam and girder for making the joint.
Blocked connections: This is used when a beam at a lower level is to be connected to
a girder at a higher level. The lower flange of the beam is cut off to accommodate the lower
flange of the girder, the webs of the two being connected with angle cleats.
Blocked and elevated: This type of connection is suitable for beams meeting at higher
levels with the girders. A suitable recess to fit in the top flange of the girder is cut from the
beam and the beam is rested on an angle cleat which in turn is bolted to the girder.
Hanger connections: These are used to connect beams and girders at different levels.
The connection is made with the aid of a plate and angle cleats or bolts and rods may be used.

(d) Columns
Individual small columns may consist of rolled steel joist or a rolled steel joist with
two flange plates. Bigger columns can be made by rivetting together two or three rolled steel
joists so as to form a compound column. Other forms of compound columns commonly used
are a combination of rolled steel joists and channels, two angles, channels with flange plates
or lattice bracing, four angles and a web plate and four angles joined together with lattice
braces. Whenever angles or channels or joists more than one in number are used without
flange plates, it is necessary to inter connect them with the help of lacings and batten plates
which make the column to act as a combined unit.
The types of lacings used are:
(a) Single Lacing: These consist of small flat iron rivetted to the column components in a
zigzag manner.
(b) Batten Plates: These are thin plates or flat sections rivetted at suitable intervals at
right angles to the axis of the columns.
(c) Double Lacing: This consists of small flat iron riveted to the column components in a
cross manner.
(d) Z- Type Lacing: This consists of small angle sections rivetted to the column, one in
the horizontal position and the other inclined.
Generally for light loads, four small angles with proper lacings are used, but for
heavier loads single I-Beam or compound I-Beam sections are used.

(e) Column and Beam Connections
Generally two types of connections are used, the framed connection type and the
seated type. In the framed connection type, two angles are rivetted to the beam and column.
These angles are connected to the web of the girder or beam and the flange of the column. A
small angle may be added at the bottom of the beam to seat the same on the column while
erecting it. In the seated type of connection, two more angle sections are used to connect the
beams with the columns. They are riveted to the top and bottom flange of the girders. For
bigger column sections stiffners in the form of two small angles rivetted to the column flange
are fitted beneath the beams.

Q.28. Explain in detail about the fabrication of steel work.

A. 28. Fabrication of Steel Work
This means preparing steel work for erection and includes all work necessary to
layout, cut, drill, rivet or weld the steel sections. Most of the work is carried out in the
fabrication shop and the work at field is to be reduced as much as possible.
The first stage is to prepare the template according to the shape of the final job.
Templates may be made of wooden strips showing location of all holes and cuts. For gusset
plates, card board, templates may be used.
As steel is procured from the mill, it is stored in a stock-yard. All materials should be
straight and if necessary they are straightened by pressure unless they have to be curvilinear
Cutting is affected by shearing cropping or sawing. Gas cutting by mechanically
controlled area is also used for mild steel. For high tensile steel, gas cutting is permitted
under special care so as to remove all hardened material later on by machining. Plates and
angles are cut in one stroke by shearing. Beams and channels are usually cut to the desired
lengths in factories but if shearing is to be resorted to at least 2.5cm. of the material is wasted.
A better method is to cut the beams with saws or in exceptional cases, gas cutting may be
resorted to.
The next step is to lay out all the material which includes marking the steel either with
the aid of templates or directly. The centres of the holes to be drilled are marked with a
punch. Holes are drilled, punched or bored. All holes should generally be drilled for better
work as they are true circles are accurately centered and cause less damage to the surrounding
metal. Holes are always drilled whenever thick sections are encountered. Drilled holes are
generally not more than 2mm, larger than the nominal diameter of the rivet or the bolt when
punching is resorted to the holes should be punched 6mm, less in diameter than the final
desired value and pneumatic reamers are used for making the holes to proper size.
When the components of a member are ready, they are assembled and held in position
temporarily by shop bolts. These are longer than necessary and have packing washers to save
time in tightening. At least two bolts should be put in one part of a member. All parts
assembled should be in close contact and all bearing stiffners should beat tightly at top and
bottom. No drifting should be permitted except to draw the parts together and no drift should
be larger than the normal diameter of the rivet. Drifting should not distort the metal or
enlarge the holes.
The assembled parts are then rivetted. All rivetting should be done by hydraulic or
pneumatic pressure. Bigger rivets are heated. Heaters commonly used in the fabrication shops
burn oil and give a steady flame. Electric heaters are also sometimes used. Rivets of diameter
less than 10mm may be driven cold. Each rivet should completely fill the hole and form a
head of standard size. All loose, burnt or badly formed rivets should be cut out and replaced.
Column splices, butt-joints of struts and compression members depending upon
contact and stress transmission should be accurately machined and close butted over the
whole section. Whenever sufficient gussets and rivets are provided to transmit the entire load,
the column ends need not be machined.
The whole steel work with the exception of rivets, bolts, nuts and machine face after
being thoroughly cleaned should be given one coat of red lead paint. All machined faces
should be coated with a mixture of while lead and tallow. Surfaces which are to be held in
contact by rivetting or bolting should be painted before assembly and the parts brought
together while they are still wet. All portions of steel work which are inaccessible after
rivetting should be given two coasts of red lead paint.
The steel work should be temporarily shop erected so that accuracy of fitness may be
checked before despatch. All parts are inspected for defects, if any.
TU (Meikhtila)