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Engine Principles

1 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Engine Principles
Chapter 1. What is the Engine?
1. What is the Engine?...............................
2. Kinds of Engine.....................................
3. Engine layout........................................
4. Expansive force & nertia !orce...............
". #eciprocal Engine..................................
$. Exhaust & nta%e &tro%e........................
'. (o)pression & (o)*ustion &tro%e........
+. Engine structure....................................
,. -iesel Engine........................................
1.. nternal (o)*ustion & /otor................
11. 0ean 1urn Engine................................
Chapter 2. Cylinder block and Moving parts
1. (ylinder 1loc%.......................................
2. (ylinder 0iner........................................
3. Water 2ac%et.........................................
4. Piston...................................................
". Piston #ing...........................................
$. (onnecting #od.....................................
'. (ran%shaft............................................
+. (ran% (ase...........................................
,. 2ournal 1earing.....................................
1.. !ly3heel..............................................
11. 1alance shaft4 1alancer for secondary
inertial force.......................................
Chapter 3. Cylinder Head
1. (ylinder 5ead........................................
2. (a) & (a)shaft...................................
3. -riving the (a)shaft.............................
4. nta%e & Exhaust 6alve..........................
". 6alve -riving &yste).............................
$. 6alve 7i)ing..........................................
'. 6aria*le 6alve 7i)ing.............................
+. /alfunction of 6alve..............................
,. 8verrun & #ed 9one..............................
Chapter 4. Intake yste!
1. Enhance the 6olu)e Efficiency...............
2. nta%e nertia Effect & Pulsation Effect....
3. 6aria*le nta%e &yste)..........................
4. nta%e &yste).......................................
". 7hrottle 6alve & /anifold.......................
Chapter ". E#ha$st yste!
1. Exhaust &yste)....................................
2. Exhaust nertia Effect & Pulsation Effect..
3. (o)ponent of Exhaust :as....................
4. ;ir<!uel #atio & Exhaust (o)ponent.......
". Exhaust Purification &yste)...................
$. 1lo3<*y :as #ecirculation -evice............
Chapter %. Charger
1. 7he Kind of (harger...............................
2. 7ur*ocharger.........................................
3. 1oost Pressure & (o)pression #atio.....
4. 7ur*o 0ag.............................................
". &upercharging &yste) & 5eat................
$. &upercharger........................................
Chapter &. '$brication yste!
1. #ole of Engine 8il..................................
2. 0u*rication /ethod................................
3. Parts of 0u*rication &yste)....................
4. Engine 8il.............................................
Chapter (. Cooling yste!
1. (ooling &yste).....................................
2. #adiator................................................
3. (ooling of the (ylinder 5ead..................
4. 8ver 5eat.............................................
Chapter ). *$el yste!
1. (ar*uretor............................................
2. /echanical !uel n=ection &yste)...........
3. Electrical !uel n=ection &yste)..............
4. !uel &upplying &yste)...........................
Chapter 1+. Ignition yste!
1. Point type gnition..................................
2. !ull 7ransistor type gnition.....................
3. -istri*utor<less gnition..........................
2 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
4. &par% Plug............................................
Chapter 11. Co!b$stion and Co!b$stion
1. (o)*ustion Process..............................
2. ;>! ratio & !la)e 6elocity......................
3. gnition 7i)ing.......................................
4. &3irl Effect...........................................
". Knoc%ing...............................................
$. ;*nor)al (o)*ustion............................
'. &hape of (o)*ustion (ha)*er..............
+. nta%e<Exhaust 6alve & (o)*ustion
,. Piston & (o)*ustion (ha)*er...............
Chapter 12. ,er-or!ance. *$el cons$!ption.
/oise. and 0ibration
1. #e?uired Perfor)ance..........................
2. What is 8utput?...................................
3. #epresenting /ethod for Po3er..............
4. What is 7or?ue?....................................
". 7o enhance Po3er.................................
$. &>1 ratio & 8utput................................
'. (o)pression #atio & 8utput..................
+. Enhancing 8utput *y 5igh rp)................
,. 7ransient (haracteristic & #esponse......
1.. (ylinder ;rray & Perfor)ance...............
11. !uel (onsu)ption #atio.......................
12. 8utput & !uel Efficiency.......................
13. !uel Efficiency of 6ehicle......................
14. 6i*ration of the Engine.........................
1". @oise of the Engine.......................................
3 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Chapter 1.
What is the engine?
1. What is the engine?
7his *oo% introduces a*out the auto)o*ile
engine especially the gasoline engine.
5o3ever4 it is very co)plicated to define a*out
the engine4 so called4 3hat the engine is. n
general concept4 the engine is 『the devices
driving so)ething *y changing the energy in the
natural source such as fire4 3ind or electric
)aterial to the )echanical energy
continuously』. 7here are )any types of the
engine and they are driven in different 3ays.
7herefore4 3e can define the gasoline engine4
as a %ind of co)*ustion device in other 3ord4
the 『device changing the heat ac?uired *y
co)*usting the gasoline to the )echanical
force for driving the vehicles』.
5o3 is the heat energy changed into the
)echanical energy? !or exa)ple4 the *ottle or
pot. ;s they are heated4 the covers )ove 3ith a
7he heat ac?uired fro) the gas or electric
energy *oils the 3ater so as to )a%e the 3ater
vapor pushing up the cover of the *ottle or pot.
7here is an i)portant thing. 7he )oving force is
not co)e fro) the heat energy4 *ut the hot air
or vapor *y the heat 3or%s.
7hat is4 the )edia is need for changing the
energy for). 7his )edia is the 3or%ing fluid in
the technical ter)inology. 7he 3or%ing fluid for
4 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
the gasoline engine is the air in<ta%en 3ith the
gasoline into the engine and then co)*usted
and exhausted.
5eat :eneration
;ir Expansion
Pressure :eneration
Piston /ove)ent
7he procedure for trans)itting the fuel to the
)echanical energy in the vehicle engine 3ill *e
explained in the follo3ing sections.
n this process4 the 3or%ing fluid is the air. f
there is no 3or%ing fluid4 the energy
transfor)ation shall not *e perfor)ed.
n contrary4 thin% a*out the transfor)ing the
)echanical energy to the heat energy. n the
vehicle4 the *ra%e is the represented exa)ple.
7he principle is the friction heat co)ing fro)
the ru**ing or stri%ing the t3o )aterials. We
can 3ar) our hands *y ru**ing each other4 that
is4 the )oving forceAru**ingB can easily
transfor) to the heat energyA3ar)ing handsB.
;t this ti)e4 there is no 3or%ing fluid. 7he force
is changed into heat directly.
5o3ever4 3hen the heat energy is transfor)ed
into the )echanical energy4 there )ust *e a
3or%ing fluid. 1eing the )edia for the
transfor)ing the energy4 there should *e a lot
of loss of energy4 at any case. 7herefore4 ho3
)uch energy of the heat can *e transfor)ed
into the )echanical energy4 the efficiency4 is an
i)portant factor in the engine.
2. 1inds o- engine
7here are )any %inds of the engines.
7he engines can *e classified *y the nu)*er of
cylinder4 the array style of the cylinder or the
e?uipped )ethod at the vehicle4 and so on.
;s you %no34 the engine )a%es the driving
force *y the reciprocal )ove)ent of the piston
in the cylinder so that the po3er is decided *y
the nu)*er of the cylinder.
7herefore4 the engine is )ainly classified *y the
nu)*er of the cylinder. 7he co))ercial
vehicles are classified into the 24 34 44 "4 $4 +4
and 12 cylinders. /ore displace)ent volu)e
has the )ore cylinders.
;ccording to the array of the cylinder4 there are
three types including the n<line type 3ith serial
arraying of the cylinder4 the 6 type 3ith 6<
shaped arraying of the cylinder and the
opposed type in 3hich the cylinders are arrayed
facing each other.
;ccording to the engine installation type4 there
are t3o typesC the one is the length3ise type
and the *readth3ise type. When the engines
are arrayed in length direction of the vehicle is
called as the length3ise type4 3hen the
engines are arrayed in 3idth direction of the
5 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
vehicle is called as the *readth3ise type.
0ength3ise type 1readth3ise type
!or exa)ple4 the !# type car having the engine
at front and driving the rear 3heels has the
length3ise type engine. 7he reason is that the
propeller shaft trans)itting the driving force to
the rear 3heels shall *e run underneath the
floor. n the case of !! type car4 the )ost s)all
car4 having the engine at front and driving the
front 3heels4 the engine is *readth3ise type
*ecause that the rotation axis of the engine
and the driving axis rotating the 3heels should
*e are parallel. 5o3ever4 3hen the !! type car
has the $<cylinder engine4 if the serial engine is
installed in 3idth direction4 then the 3idth of
the car is too 3ide. 7herefore4 in that case4 the
engine rather is the 6<type. n this )anner4
considered 3ith the displace)ent volu)e and
vehicle type4 the engine array type and the
installation type are selected for the *est
co)*ination in design.
3. Engine layo$t
!! D !ront Engine !ront -rive
!# D !ront Engine #ear -rive
/# D /idship Engine #ear -rive
## D #ear Engine #ear -rive
t is possi*le to assu)e that the engine 3ill *e
installed at the front of the car. 5o3ever4 the
all vehicles do not have their engine at front
side. n 1''.4 the origin of the car4 the engine
of the stea) car of (ugnot 3as located at the
front ends of the *ody. n 1++"4 the first car
e?uipped the gasoline engine4 the engine of the
-ai)lerEs car is located at the under the seat
and the front of the rear 3heel axis.
n the history4 )any researches had *een
perfor)ed to find the *est condition 3here the
engine 3as installed. n 1+,14 the !# Afront
engine rear driveB car 3as in !rance. 7he !#
type is that the engine 3as installed at the
front side and the rear 3heels 3ere driven.
;fter that4 this type 3ould *e the set as the
standard layout of the engine. Fntil no34 the
)ost large passenger cars and the sports cars
accept this type.
7he typical characteristics of the !# type car is
that the ca*in space is located to rear side4 the
steering is controlling the front 3heels and the
driving is contri*uted to the rear 3heels so that
the operation and 3eight load are evenly
divided to the front side and rear side and the
)ove)ent perfor)ance and passenger
convenience are *alanced as 3ell as the
vi*ration and noise are less than other types.
6 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
n the layout of the relatively s)all pu*lic car4
there had *een t3o *ig develop)ents for a*out
hundred years. 7he first one is the 6ol%s3agen
in 1,3$ having the engine at the rear side for
driving the rear 3heel. ;fter the World War 4
this type 3as leading the 3orld3ide design of
the )ainstrea) the passenger car of rear
engine and rear drive A##B type. 7he second
one is the /ini of England in 1,",. 7he /ini
accepted the front engine and front drive A!!B
type having the *readth3ise type engine at
front side for driving the front 3heels.
@o3adays4 this type is applied to the s)all
cars as 3ell as the )iddle siGed sedans.
7he !! type car has the engine and driving
devices at the front side so that it should not
applied to the car of 3hich 3eight is
concentrated to the front side. 7he defect of
this type is that it is not easy to steer the car.
5o3ever4 it has the relatively large space of
indoor and trun%4 and the safety is *etter than
other types. 7herefore4 it is the *est design for
the layout of the utility cars.
7he )idship engine and rear drive A/#B type is
focused on the perfor)ance rather than the
convenience of the passenger so that it is
)ainly applied to the sports cars. When the
)ain parts of the engine are located at front
side than the rear 3heel type4 it is called the
)idship type. When the )ain parts are located
at rear side4 it is called the rear engine type.
4. E#pansive *orce and Inertia *orce
;l)ost of the co))ercial gasoline engines for
the vehicles are the #ecipro<engines except for
the rotary engine of 3hich 3or%ing principle is
different. 7he 3ord H#eciproI co)es fro) the
H#eciprocatingI. 7he reciprocation is the
)echanical )ove)ent of go and *ac% so that
the #ecipro<engine is the device transfor)ing
the reciprocal )ove)ent to the rotational
)ove)ent using the cran% 3hich is the device
having the pro)inence and depression shape.
7 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine 0ayout & 6ehicle !eatures
Engine Principles
7he cross sectional vie3 of the #ecipro<engine
sho3s that there is a piston reciprocal )oving
in the cylinder at the upper side and there is a
cran%shaft at the lo3er side and the piston and
the cran%shaft are connected *y the connecting
7he gasoline engine uses the air as the )edia
of 3or%ing fluid for transfor)ing the heat
energy to the )echanical energy. 7he air is
)ixed 3ith the )ist of gasoline in the cylinder.
When the )ixture of air and gasoline are
co)pressed using the piston and co)*usted4
then the expansive gas 3ill press the piston.
7he expansive force pressing the piston shall
drive the car.
;t this ti)e4 except for the expansive force4
there is an inertia force 3hich 3e are
considering. 7his force is so)e3hat strange
*ecause it is not generated intentionallyC
ho3ever4 this force is follo3ed in the )oving
part of the engine naturally. 7herefore4 it can
affect to the perfor)ance of engine or is the
source of the vi*ration or noise.
(onsidering the reciprocal )ove)ent of the
piston4 the piston starts )oving fro) the halt
state at the highest position of the stro%e4 has
the )axi)u) speed at the )iddle of the
stro%e4 ;fter that4 the speed is reduced and
stops to the lo3est position of the stro%e4 and
then goes *ac% to the highest position again.
-uring perfor)ing these )ove)ents4 the inertia
forces shall *e generated 3hen the speed of
)ove)ents are changed. !or exa)ple4 fro) the
highest position of the piston to the )iddle of
the stro%e4 there is an ascending inertia force.
;fter that there is a descending inertia force
fro) the )iddle of the stro%e to the lo3est
position of the piston.
When this inertia force is resonated 3ith the
other inertia forces fro) the other pistons4
there )ay *e vi*rations or noises.
". 2eciprocal Engine
8 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
7he #ecipro<Engines are classified into t3o
types4 the 2<cycle type and the 4<cycle type.
;fter developed *y -ai)ler of :er)any in
1++34 the 4<cycle type 3hich had *een
co)pleted its standard syste) until 1,.. is
the )ainly used in the )ost of vehicles.
7he principle of the reciprocal engine is that the
)ixture of the air and the gasoline are in=ected
into the cylinder4 the )ixture is co)*usted
using the electric spar% to explode4 the
co)*ustion force drives the piston in reciprocal
)ove)ent4 and the reciprocal )ove)ent is
changed to the rotational )ove)ent *y the
3he operation o- the 44cycle engine is li%e
that. When the piston is at the highest
position4 the inta%e valve is opened. 1eing
do3n the piston4 the )ixtures of fuel gas is
in=ected into the cylinder and then the inta%e
valve is closed Jnta%e &tro%eK. @ext4 the piston
3ill go to up3ard to co)press the )ixtures of
gas J(o)pression &tro%eK. 7hen4 the
co)pressed )ixtures of gas 3ill *e *urnt *y an
electrical ignition J(o)*ustion &tro%eK. 7he
*urnt gas having the high pressure and
te)perature 3ill press the piston do3n3ard. ;t
this ti)e4 the exhaust valve shall *e open to
ta%e out the *urnt gas JExhaust &tro%eK. 7hese
stro%es are repeated.
;)ong these 4 stro%es4 only at the co)*ustion
stro%e4 the engine )a%es the po3er for 3or%.
7herefore4 there are needed the additional
forces4 for inta%e and exhausting the gas at the
inta%e and exhaust stro%e4 and for co)pressing
the )ixture at the co)pression stro%e. 7o do
so4 a fly3heel is installed to the cran%shaft to
)a%e these additional forces using the inertia
force to ensure the continuous rotational

3he 24cycle engine co)prises of the t3o
stro%es. 7he operation of this engine co)prises
the four co)ponents such as the inta%e4 the
co)pression4 the co)*ustion4 and the exhaust
as the 4<cycle engine.
(o)pression and Expansion
9 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Exhaust and nta%e
5o3ever4 *efore and ;fter the piston is located
at the highest position4 the co)pression and
co)*ustion operations are perfor)ed4 and
*efore and ;fter the piston is located at the
lo3est position4 the exhaust and inta%e
operation at the sa)e ti)e. &o4 through the
t3o stro%es4 the one cycle of engine operation
is co)pleted. 7he 4<cycle engine perfor)s the
co)*ustion stro%e at one ti)e per t3o cycles
of the cran%shaft4 *ut4 the 2<cycle engine
perfor)s the co)*ustion stro%e at every cycle
of cran%shaft. 7herefore4 the 2<cycle has higher
;dditionally4 it has no inta%e and exhaust
valves so that it has si)ple structure and lo3
cost. 5o3ever4 this )erit can *e a defect.
7he exhaust gas is exhausted *y the entering
ne3 )ixtures of gas 3hen the piston is located
at the lo3est position. 7herefore4 so)e ne3
)ixtures 3ill *e )ixed the co)*usted gas and
un*urned gases 3ill *e exhausted. t )a%es
the air pollutions and the large fuel
%. E#ha$st 5 Intake troke
7his content 3ill explain a*out the engine on
focusing the 4<cycle gasoline engine4 the )ost
used type.
7o understand the 4 stro%es4 the inta%e4 the
co)pression4 the co)*ustion4 and the exhaust4
it is helpful to refer the figures4 the indicator
diagra) AP<6 diagra)B4 sho3ing the process of
the engine operations.
t loo%s so)e3hat co)plicated4 *ut it is easy
to understand =ust follo3ing the figures.
10 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
7he indicator diagra) is the graph consisting of
the horiGontal axis representing the pressure of
the cha)*er and the vertical axis representing
the volu)e of the cha)*er. ;t the left ends of
the graph4 ( and !4 the piston is located at the
highest position of the cylinder4 and at the right
ends of the graph4 : and 54 the piston is
located at the lo3est position of the cylinder.
1y co)paring the lines of the graph to the 4
stro%es4 the line of ;<1 is the inta%e stro%e4 the
line of 1<( is the co)pression stro%e4 the line
of (<- is the co)*ustion stro%e and the line of
-<E is the exhaust stro%e.
n act4 the cycle of the stro%es is starting fro)
the inta%e stro%e. 7o understand the engine
operation4 it is easy to start fro) the exhaust
stro%e. 7o inhale )ore air as possi*le4 the
engine uses also the force fro) the exhausted
gas outgoing to the outside of the engine
through the exhaust port.
7he exhaust stro%e is for pushing the
co)*usted gas to outside of the cha)*er *y
)oving the piston fro) the lo3est position to
the highest position 3ith *eing opened exhaust
valve. n principle4 it is thin% that the exhaust
valve 3ill *e opened 3hen the piston is
reaching at the lo3est position.
Exhaust stro%e
5o3ever4 actually4 the exhaust valve prefers to
*e opened *efore the piston reaches to the
lo3est position4 that is4 at the position of - in
the dra3ing. #e)aining the pressing force of
the *urent gas4 the exhausting the used gas is
)ore effective *y opening the exhaust valve in
advance. ;fter that4 the piston 3ill push out the
re)ained used gas thoroughly to finish the
exhaust stro%e.
;t the inta%e stro%e4 the inta%e valve is
opened4 and the piston goes do3n fro) the
highest position to the lo3est position so that
the )ixtures of fuel gas and the air are inhaled
into the cylinder fro) the inta%e port. ;t that
ti)e4 the inta%e valve shall *e opened =ust
*efore the piston reaches the highest position4
that is4 the E in the dra3ing. -oing so4 the
inta%e operation is enhanced so)e3hat
*ecause of the exhausting force of the used
gas 3ill pull the inta%e gases.
nta%e stro%e
11 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
With the sa)e )anner4 the inta%e valve shall
*e closed 3hen the piston is at the 1. -oing
so4 )ore )ixtures of gas shall *e inhaled into
the cylinder *y the inertia force of the inta%e
gas. 7o inhale air into the engine is perfor)ed
*y the difference of air pressure. When the
piston goes do3n4 the air pressure in the
cylinder is lo3er than that of the outside of the
cylinder4 so that the air around the inta%e valve
shall *e inhaled to the cylinder. 7he opening
ti)ing of the valve is different fro) the stro%e
position is to use this force to inhale )ore air
as possi*le
&. Co!pression and Co!b$stion troke
;t the co)pression stro%e4 the )ixtures of gas
are co)pressed *y the piston4 so that the
pressure is increased and the te)perature is
high *y adia*atic co)pression. 7herefore4 the
gasoline is vaporiGed *y the co)pressive heat
of the air4 ready to *e co)*usted. 7he in=ected
gasoline in the cylinder li%e the )isty 3ith the
air is vaporiGed to *e gas state *y the heat
fro) the adia*atic co)pression. 7hen it is
ready to *e co)*usted easily. 7his space for
co)*ustion is called the co)*ustion cha)*er.
7he reason of that it is hard to start the engine
in 3inter is that it is hard for the gasoline to *e
vaporiGed. 7o solve this pro*le)4 one )ethod
is to )ix )ore gasoline 3ith the air. ;nother
pro*le) is thatC 3hen the gasoline is vaporiGed4
the a)*ient heat is used to the vaporiGation4
so the te)perature of the cha)*er is lo3ered
so)e3hat. t )ay decrease the fuel efficiency
of the engine. 7o prevent fro) lo3ering the fuel
efficiency4 the a)ount of the gasoline is
reduced. 5o3ever4 to do so4 the te)perature of
the cha)*er is so high that the co)*ustion
)ay *e perfor)ed prior to the ignition4 so
called the a*nor)al co)*ustion.
7he )ost i)portant fact fro) the inta%e stro%e
to the co)pression stro%e is the flo3 of the
)ixtures of the gasoline and the air. t is not
proper that the flo3 is too strong to *e ignited.
7he little particles of gasoline should *e )ixed
3ith air to *e the )ixtures. 7herefore4 )any
)anufacturers research and develop the shape
of the inta%e port and flo3 pattern of the
)ixtures so that the strength and the pattern of
the )ixture flo3 are )aintained until the
co)*ustion stro%e for the *est efficiency of the
(o)pression stro%e
;s processing the co)pression stro%e4 the
piston reaches the highest position. When the
piston is at the ( of the dra3ing4 the ignition
3ill *e perfor)ed *y the electric spar%
generated fro) the spar% plug. 7he ti)ing to
)a%e the spar% is very i)portant. 7he )ixture
12 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
is not fully co)*usted at the ignition ti)e4 *ut
the co)*ustion is started fro) the ignition. t is
needed so)e ti)e interval *et3een the ti)e of
the ignition and the ti)e to *e )axi)u)
pressure of the cha)*er.
(o)*ustion stro%e
7he ignition ti)ing is deter)ined *y considering
that the co)*ustion shall *e co)pleted
*et3een the highest position and the al)ost
half position of the co)*ustion cha)*er.
;dditionally4 this co)*ustion speed is
proportion to the rotational speed of the engine
so that the ignition ti)ing should *e ad=usted
3ith the engine speed.
1eginning the co)*ustion4 the vaporiGed
)ixtures are co)*usted in a short ti)e so that
the pressure and the te)perature are
increased. ;t this ti)e the expanded gas *y the
co)*ustion shall press the piston. 7his
pressing force should *e stronger as possi*le.
7he ti)e period of co)*ustion is prefera*le to
*e short to strength the force. f the ti)e
period for co)*ustion is longer4 then the
co)*ustion force is not leading the pressing
the piston *ut follo3ing the piston. 7herefore4
the engine efficient is 3orst. 7he co)*ustion
ti)e period is affected *y flo3 of the )ixtures
defined *y the siGe and shape of the
co)*ustion cha)*er and the co)ponent of the
)ixture and so on.
(. Engine str$ct$re
7he gasoline engine is a co)plicated )achine
having co)prising of parts. 0oo% into ho3 the
engine is structured.
7he engine is si)ilar 3ith the 3 floors *uilding.
7he first floor is the cran% case including the
cran%shaft transfor)ing the reciprocal
)ove)ent to the rotational )ove)ent. 7he
second floor is the cylinder *loc% including the
cylinder of 3hich a piston is )oving 3ith
reciprocal )ove)ent. 7he third layer is the
cylinder head.
n this structure4 the )oving parts of the first
layer and the second layer are called as the
!ain !oving part. t includes the piston4 the
cran%shaft and the connecting rod.
n the third layer4 there are the valves
controlling the inta%e and exhaust of the
)ixtures gas and the used gas and the
ca)shaft operating the valves. 7hese are
called the cylinder head syste!.
8n the cylinder head4 there are inta%e )anifold
sending the gasoline and the air to the cylinder
and the exhaust )anifold ta%ing out the *urnt
13 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
gas. 7hese are called the intake4e#ha$st
syste!. 7he )anifold consists the H)anyI and
the HfoldI4 that is4 )any )aterials are
co)*ined. n actual4 they are )any *ranched
pipes distri*uting the air and gasoline to each
cylinder or )erging the exhausted gases in one
7here is the -$el syste! including the fuel
pu)p ta%ing the gasoline fro) the fuel tan%
and the car*uretor or fuel in=ector to )a%e a air
fuel )ixture.
7here is the l$brication syste! including the
oil pu)p supplying the oil for reducing the
frictions and the oil filter for filtering the oil.
;lso there is the cooling syste! including the
radiator and 3ater pu)p for )aintaining the
te)perature of the engine properly.
7o drive the engine4 the electric po3er is
needed. 7here are electric devices including
igniting spar% plug4 the alternator generating
the electric po3er and the start )otor supplying
the initial )ove)ent to the engine.
;dditionally4 there are the a$#iliaries such as
the oil pu)p for the po3er steering the air<con
co)pressor and so on.
,. 6iesel Engine
7he diesel engine has si)ilar shape and
structure 3ith those of the gasoline engine. 7he
different point is the ignition )ethod. 7he
gasoline engine ignites the )ixture of fuel 3ith
the electric spar%. (ontrary4 in diesel engine4
the fuel is in=ected into the co)pressed air
having the high te)perature. When the air is
co)pressed4 the te)perature of co)pressed
air is increased. 7he gasoline engine
co)presses the )ixture of fuel gas up to 1>1.
of the initial volu)e.
14 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
7he diesel engine co)presses the air a*out
1>2. of the initial volu)e to increase the
te)perature of the air over $..L4 and in=ects
the fuel co)pressed 3ith over 1.. at) at the
in=ection pu)p during 1>1...M2>1...
seconds. 7he output shall *e controlled *y the
a)ount of in=ected )ixtures of fuel and air for
the gasoline engine. 8n the other hand4 the
output of the diesel engine can *e controlled *y
the a)ount of the in=ected fuel 3ithout
controlling the air Athe fixed a)ount of the airB.
7o co)*ust the fuel perfectly *y increasing the
te)perature of the air4 the co)pression ratio
shall *e increased. 5o3ever4 doing so4 the
expansion po3er 3ill *e increased also.
7herefore4 the engine should *e stronger to
endure the increased force. ;dditionally4 the
high ?uality of fuel in=ecting pu)p )ay *e
needed. 7hen the engine is heavier and the
cost is expensive. &o diesel engine is not
proper to apply to the passengerEs car.
n the diesel engine4 *ecause al)ost constant
a)ount of the air a*out the volu)e of the
cylinder is inhaled4 the load applying to the
engine is relatively light. When the fuel a)ount
is s)all at the lo3 speed4 the fuel shall *e
al)ost perfectly co)*usted. 5o3ever4 3ith the
full load4 the diesel engine needs )ore a)ount
of fuel so that the air a)ount is respectively
s)all. 7herefore4 it )ay exhaust a lot of *lac%
n the gasoline engine4 the ignition is
perfor)ed *y the electric spar% to the )ixture
so the co)*ustion ti)e period is very short.
5o3ever4 in the diesel engine4 the fuel diesel is
sprayed into the co)pressed air4 so it needs
so)e ti)e period to *e vaporiGed. 7herefore4
the )axi)u) speed of engine is li)ited
relatively lo3er and the output shall *e lo3er
than the gasoline engine.
(o)pared 3ith the gasoline engine4 the
expansion force and the inertia force of the
)oving part are *igger so it )a%es *igger noise
and )ore vi*ration. t has )erits of easy
)aintenance resulted fro) not having the
delicate parts such as the ignition syste) and
of good fuel efficiency so that it is used for
co))ercial or *usiness purpose rather than
passengerEs car.
1.. Internal Co!b$stion 5 Motor
7he force of the 4<cycle gasoline engine4 as one
of the internal co)*ustion4 is changed
according to the #P/ A#evolutions Per /inuteB
of the engine co)pared *y the electric )otor or
the stea) engine. &o4 it is i)possi*le to drive
3ith the lo3er revolutions than certain #P/
value. 7herefore4 the clutch and the
trans)ission should *e e?uipped 3hen the
gasoline engine is used for vehicles.
!or the 4<cycle engine4 using the four stro%es4 it
)a%es )oving force *y co)*usting the )ixture
of fuel and air in the cylinder. t is very different
3ith the electric )otor used in electric vehicles
3hich can start =ust *y applying the electric
po3er. f the )ixtures are not supplied into the
cylinder at idle condition4 the engine can not
continue to run. n order that the engine should
*e operating continuously 3hen the vehicle is
stopped4 the device for connecting or
disconnecting the )oving force of the engine to
15 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
the 3heels such as clutch should *e e?uipped.
n general4 the vehicles needs larger po3er
3hen it is started or accelerated4 *ut 3hen it is
driven in constant speed4 it does not need
larger po3er. !or the )otor4 it outputs larger
force 3hen it rotates 3ith lo3er #P/4 and 3hen
the #P/ is increased4 the output 3ill *e lo3er.
7herefore4 the electric )otor can *e applied to
the engine of the vehicles 3ithout any
trans)itting device.
5o3ever4 for the gasoline engine4 the po3er is
deter)ined according to the #P/ of the engine.
7he range of the #P/ is li)ited 3ithin certain
ranges. !or exa)ple4 the #P/ of the gasoline
engine is a*out '..M'... revolutions per
)inute4 and the #P/ for getting the )axi)u)
po3er Ator?ueB is a*out 4... revolutions.
7herefore4 3hen the vehicles are running 3ith
various speeds4 it is necessary to control the
speed and po3er of the vehicle *y inserting a
trans)ission *et3een the engine and the
;t si)ple sight4 the )otor )ay *e the *est
engine for the vehicles. 7he i)portant thing is
the fuel4 the source of po3er. 7he gasoline is
easy to store during operating the engine4 *ut it
is hard for the )otor to store the electric po3er
7o develop the electric vehicles4 it is essential
to develop the *atteries having the high
efficiency for charging and )aintaining the
rechargea*le *atteries in e?uivalent state.
/any co)panies are trying developing the
)ethod for )aintaining the rechargea*le
*atteries. Even though the *asic perfor)ance
has *een developed in field test4 the
)anufacturing cost is very high. 5o3ever there
are *eing suggested so)e patents and
technologies for utiliGing.
11. 'ean 7$rn Engine
7he exhaust purification syste) using the 33ay
catalysts has the characteristics of )aintaining
the actual air<fuel ratio to the ideal valve to
perfor) the oxidation and reduction of the
har)ful co)pounds si)ultaneously. 7o do so4
the purification of the exhausted gas 3ill *e
li)ited4 and the fuel a)ount used for the
engine is decided *y the engine driving status.
7herefore4 the engine shall not *e developed
no )ore to get higher driving force 3ith less
a)ount of the fuel.

7he lean *urn syste) is developed for
enhancing the fuel efficiency 3ith the good
purification of exhaust gas. 7o enhance the fuel
efficiency is )ost i)portant point for future.
7he lean *urn engine is one of the )ost
attracted pu*lic attention technologies.
With the high ;>! ratio *y reducing the gasoline
in the )ixture4 ho3 are the three )a=or har)ful
)aterials4 car*on )onoxide4 hydrogen car*on4
and nitrogen oxide. 7he oxygen is )ore plentiful
than fuel4 so the a)ount of car*on )onoxide
3ill *e less or the )ost car*on )onoxide 3ill
*e changed into car*on dioxide4 har)less gas.
7he hydro car*on 3ill also *e co)pletely
co)*usted and changed into car*on dioxide
and 3ater. @o3 3e 3ill concern only the last
one4 nitrogen oxide.
f the ;>! ratio is higher4 then the te)perature
3ill *e increase *y the plentiful of the oxygen
and the a)ount of the nitrogen oxide 3ill *e
16 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
increased. ;t a*out 1$ of ;>! ratio4 the
nitrogen oxide 3ill *e )axi)iGed. f the ;>!
ratio is higher than 1$4 then the co)*ustion
te)perature 3ill *e do3n so the tor?ue is also
do3n. f the ;>! ratio is higher and higher4 the
co)*ustion is not sta*le4 and tor?ue is very
unsta*le4 finally co)*ustion 3ill not *e
; )anufacturer focused on the tor?ue
variations according to the lean *urn. 1y
adapting the co)*ustion pressure sensor
detecting the co)*ustion pressure in the
cylinder4 the engine is operated 3ith the ;>!
ratio =ust *efore the tor?ue variation is
occurred. 7herefore4 they can )a%e next
generation lean *urn engine having the lo3 fuel
consu)ption and the less a)ount of nitrogen
oxide. n that syste)4 the lean *urn is
perfor)ed at the condition in 3hich the driving
is not hindered *y the lo3 tor?ue at lo3 load.
When the vehicle in accelerating or high load4
the co)*ustion is perfor)ed 3ith the
theoretical ;>! ratio and the exhaust gas is
purified *y 33ay catalyst. /any )anufacturers
continue to research for enhancing the fuel
consu)ption *y focusing on the inta%e syste)
and co)*ustion cha)*er 3ith 1$M2. of ;>!
ratio. /any ne3 engines satisfying this
co)*ustion re?uire)ent and having less
exhaust gas pro*le) are sho3n )ore and
17 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Chapter 2.
Cylinder 7lock 5 Moving parts
1. Cylinder block
7he cylinder *loc% is the *asic part of the
engine. t is )ade of cast iron or alu)inu). t
co)prises of the cylinder in 3hich the piston
shall *e )oving reciprocally4 the 3ater =ac%et
for circulating the cooling 3ater )aintaining the
te)perature of the cylinder4 and the cran%shaft
installed underneath.
7he role of cylinder is for guiding the reciprocal
)ove)ent of the piston accepting the force
and high te)perature fro) the co)*ustion of
the )ixtures4 for cooling the cylinder properly4
and for supporting the cran%shaft. ;s the *asis
of the engine4 it should have enough strength
for enduring the supporting the attached all
parts of engine.
!or these purposes4 the cylinder is generally
)ade of cast iron *ecause that the iron is easy
to *e processed )echanically and has the
characteristics of good resistance against the
3are and corrosion.
#ecently4 instead of the cast iron4 the
alu)inu) alloy is )ore popular. 7he alu)inu)
is lighter and trans)itting the heat easier than
steel so that it is dee)ed as the ideal )aterial
for engine. t is not easy to apply the alu)inu)
to the engine *ecause it has different heat
expansion coefficient 3ith the steel4 the )ain
)aterial of other parts and it is co)plicated to
design the engine structures4 as 3ell as it is
)ore expansive than steel.
!or the passengerEs car4 the 3eight of the
engine is a*out 1.M1"N of the total 3eight of
the car. 7he 1"M2.N of the engine 3eight is
co)e fro) the cylinder *loc%. t is very
i)portant to *e light )aintaining the strength
of it as possi*le. 7herefore4 the s%eleton
structure of the cylinder *loc% has different
thic%ness such that the thic%ness is thic%er of
the portion applied heavy force or having
possi*ility of defor)ation and the thic%ness is
thinner of the other portions. 7o design the
cylinder *loc% regarding these factors4 the
structure analysis is perfor)ed *y the finite
ele)ent )ethod in 3hich the engine is divided
into triangular or rectangular cells and the each
ele)ent is esta*lished in si)ultaneous
e?uations to calculate *y nu)erical analysis
using co)puter.
n side of the *loc%4 there should *e the 3ater
=ac%et for circulating the cooling 3ater so it
should *e precisely )anufactured for the
co)plicate structure. 7o prevent fro) crac%ing
at the *ottle nec% point of different thic%ness or
to enhance the resistance against 3ear4 it
should *e heat treated.
2. Cylinder 'iner
7he inside 3all of the cylinder *loc% is the
frictional face 3ith the piston 3ith a lu*ricant
oil there<*et3een. 7herefore4 it satisfies the
strict re?uire)ents that it endures at the high
te)perature and 3ear4 that its changes of the
di)ension *y the heat expansion coefficient
shall *e 3ithin the tolerance4 and that it should
18 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
not *e adhesive 3ith each other *y the high
:enerally4 3hen the *loc% )aterial is the steel4
this part is )ade *y polishing the cast iron
cylinder4 so called as the linerless type. When
the *loc% )aterial is the alu)inu) alloy4 the
inside 3all of the cylinder having a cylinder liner
)ade of cast ion for preventing the 3are of the
side 3all. 7he liner is the thing 3hich is
attached the inside of the cylinder. 7he cylinder
liner )ay *e )ade 3ith the cylinder *loc% or
separately and =oined after that 3ith the
!or the alu)inu) cylinder *loc%4 the cast iron
is used. t is heavier than the alu)inu) alloy
as 3ell as it has the lo3er heat trans)ission
ratio than the alu)inu). 7herefore4 for the
engine of racing car or high efficiencies4 the
special liner )ade of the silicon alloy *ased on
the alu)inu) or having special treat)ent on
the alu)inu) surfaces are utiliGed.
7hese special liners are so expensive and hard
to )anufacture. ;lso4 there are so)e tries to
develop the linerless cylinder 3ith alu)inu)
alloy cylinder *loc%. Even though the linerless
cylinder is )ore expensive4 the engine can *e
lighter and co)pacted so that it is )ainly
accepted to the high perfor)ance engines.
7he gap *et3een the cylinder liner and the
piston is depended on the )aterial. When the
liner is the cast iron and the piston is the
alu)inu) alloy4 considering that the heat
expansion ratio of the alu)inu) is al)ost
t3ice than that of the steel so that the gap 3ill
*e reduce at the high te)perature of the
engine4 the gap shall *e 3.M4. )icrons
A...3M...4))B at the roo) te)perature. f
the liner and the piston are all the alu)inu)4
then the gap shall *e 1. )icrons *ecause
there is no difference of the heat expansion
*et3een the).
7he around of the cylinder liner is for)ed as a
shape of path for cooling 3ater4 the 3ater
=ac%et4 to )aintain the te)perature of the
engine to certain value *y a*sor*ing the heat
energy co)e fro) the re)ained energy of the
3. Water 8acket
When casting the cylinder *loc%4 the cylinder is
surrounded *y the core )ade of sand to for)
vacant spaces. 7hese spaces are the 3ater
=ac%et for circulating the cooling 3ater to ta%e
do3n the te)perature of the cylinder head and
cylinder to the proper te)perature for
7he 3ater circulating inside the 3ater =ac%et
goes into the engine fro) the lo3er outlet port
of the radiator cooling the heated 3ater. 7he
3ater flo3s fro) the lo3er part of the engine to
the upper part of the engine. ;fter cooling the
cylinder head4 the heated 3ater is ta%en out
fro) the engine and goes into the upper inlet
port of the radiator. -uring circulating inside
the 3ater =ac%et4 it is i)portant to cool do3n
the each cylinder e?uivalently. 7he design of
the 3ater =ac%et is focused on the flo3 )ethod
to spread the 3ater s)oothly over the all parts
3ith s)aller volu)e of the 3ater as possi*le.
7he heated 3ater is cooled in the radiator and
then return to the 3ater =ac%et again. n 3inter4
the heated 3ater selectively flo3 into the
another radiator for heating the ca*in.
19 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
:enerally4 the 3ater =ac%et is surrounding the
cylinder thoroughly. n order to reduce the path
length along to the cylinder array4 the 3ater
=ac%et is surrounding the out side of the
cylinder so that the 3ater does not flo3 into the
ad=acent space the cylinders. 7his type is
called the &ia)ese type. 0i%e the &ia)ese
t3ins4 so)e portions of the =ac%et surrounding
the each cylinder are )erged into one *ody.
7he conventional =ac%et is called the full =ac%et
!or the engine having the liner4 the type is
divided into t3o %inds *y 3hether the 3ater is
contacting 3ith the liner or not. When the
cylinder liner is surrounded *y the 3all of the
cylinder *loc% so that the outside of the liner
can not contact 3ith the cooling 3ater4 it is
called the dry type liner. When the )ost
portions of the liner contact 3ith the cooling
3ater directly4 it is called the 9et type liner.
7he 3et liner has *etter cooling efficiency. t
should *e sealed 3ith an 8<ring *et3een the
liner and *loc% to prevent lea%ing the cooling
3ater. n K;4 the )ost engines having the liner
are e?uipped 3ith the dry type liner *ecause
K; have not any pro*le) co)e fro) the heat
adhesive of the engine yet and 3e 3orry a*out
the lea%ing the cooing 3ater.
4. ,iston
7he piston )oving inside the cylinder
reciprocally trans)its the 3eight force of 3O4
tons A" tons for diesel engineB according to the
co)*ustion of the fuel )ixture gas having over
te)perature of 2...L at the co)*ustion
stro%e to the connecting rod. 7he first thing to
*e considered in design of the piston is that
the piston should *e )ade of light )aterials to
reduce the inertia force of the reciprocal
)ove)ent. 7he next point is that its )aterial
should have the strength enough to endure the
co)*ustion force. ;nd then4 the )aterial of the
piston shall have the good heat<trance and not
*e distorted or defor)ed *y the high
;t first4 the alu)inu) or alu)inu) alloy can *e
considered for lightening and strengthening.
7hen4 for enhancing the heat resistance to
prevent fro) changing in di)ension4 the heat
treat)ent shall *e perfor)ed.
20 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
7he upper part of the piston is called as the
piston head or the piston cro3n. t is very
i)portant part for)ing the co)*ustion cha)*er
*et3een the cylinder head. 7o enhance the
co)*ustion efficiency *y co)*usting the fuel
)ixture instantly4 the shape of piston head
prefer to *e flat. 7o enhance the co)pression
ratio4 the )iddle portion )ay *e upraised or
there are so)e recessed positions4 the valve
recess4 to ta%e the inta%e and exhaust valves
not to touch 3ith the piston. 7he under portion
of the piston is the piston s%irt sta*iliGing the
reciprocal )ove)ent of the piston. 7he so)e
front portions of the s%irt loo%s li%e *eing cut
out *ecause that the *alance 3eight is passing
these areas 3hen the piston goes do3n.
7here is a gap *et3een the piston and the
cylinder. 7his gap shall *e sealed 3ith the
piston ring. When the piston is )oving in
reciprocal4 so)e portions of the s%irt )ay *e
touching the cylinder 3all. 7o reduce this touch4
the shape of the s%irt shall *e changed. 7he
shorter length of the s%irt has fe3er noises
fro) the friction 3ith the piston and lighter
3eight. 5o3ever4 it is prefera*le for designing
the s%irt to *e *alanced 3ith the siGe of the
7he piston is connected 3ith the connecting
rod *y a piston pin. &o4 the )ost forces of
co)*ustion are applied to this pin. ;s the
piston pin is the shape of hollo3 cylindrical
structure4 the larger of outer dia)eter4 in a
sa)e 3eight4 is the )ore strength against the
*ending force. 5o3ever4 3hen the dia)eter of
the piston pin is enlarged4 the piston pin *oss
shall *e also enlarged. 7herefore4 the
co)pression height4 the length fro) the pin to
the piston head4 is also longed so the 3eight of
the engine is heavier. &o4 the dia)eter should
*e designed *y considering the *alance 3ith
the piston siGe.
". ,iston 2ing
7he )ain roles of the piston ring4 the 3heel
shaped steel surrounding the head part of the
piston4 are to prevent fro) lea%ing the gas *y
sealing *et3een the piston and the cylinder4 to
prevent fro) re)aining the lu*ricant oil in the
co)*ustion cha)*er *y gathering the oil do3n
fro) the cylinder 3all and to prevent fro)
trans)itting the heat fro) the piston to the
:enerally4 the piston ring co)prises of three
rings. 7he t3o rings near to the piston head are
called the co)pression rings4 and the one ring
near to the s%irt is the oil ring. 7he top ring of
the co)pression rings is used for sealing the
gas4 the oil ring is used for re)oving the
lu*ricant oil4 and the second ring of the
co)pression rings is used for helping the
sealing and for controlling the thic%ness of the
lu*ricant oil fil).
&o)e piston co)prises of the t3o rings4 the
co)pression ring and the oil ring. n this case4
the roles of rings are so)e3hat loss4 *ut the
fuel efficiency can *e enhanced *y reducing the
loss of force fro) the friction *et3een the
piston ring and cylinder 3all. &o)e racing cars
accept the t3o ring syste) for shortening the
piston height to reduce the engine 3eight.
21 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
7he co)pression ring is )ade of the spring
steel *y casting iron4 and the surface should *e
heat treated to reduce the friction and to
enhance the lu*ricant of the piston. 7o insert
the ring into the grooved portion of the piston
and to ensure the tensile force for co)pressing
to the cylinder4 one portion of the ring shall *e
opened. 7his open portion is called the end
gap. 7he co)*usted gas is lea%ed out through
this end gap a little. 7his *lo3<*y gas is
returned to the co)*ustion cha)*er *y the
returning device not to lea% out.
7he grooved portion of piston for the
co)pression ring has slightly lager then the
3idth of the rings. When the piston is )oving
up and do3n4 the rings are rotating to prevent
the end gap of the three rings fro) *eing
aligned each other. f the rings have not
enough strength4 the rings are fluttering 3ithin
the grooves at the high speed of the engine so
it cannot seal the gas properly.
7he cross section of the oil ring has the shape
of reversed H(I. 7he gathered oils *y the rings
are returned to the inside of the piston through
the hole located at the lo3er portion of the (<
shaped ring. When the engine has high speed4
the ring can not gather the oil only 3ith the its
tensile force4 so an additional spring4 the
expander4 shall *e attached to enforce the
co)pressing force of the ring to the cylinder.
%. Connecting 2od
7he connecting rod is the rod for connecting
the piston and the cran%shaft. t transfers the
reciprocal )ove)ent to the rotation )ove)ent.
7he connecting rod )oves very co)plicatedly
3ith s3ing )ove)ent a*out the piston pin and
the linear )ove)ent up and do3n. &o4 there is
a *alance 3eight to control the inertia force
generated *y the co)plicating )ove)ents.
7he contri*ution ratio of the connecting rod
3eight to the inertia force is a*out 2 to the one
reciprocal )ove)ent. 7o lightening the load to
the *earing and the vi*ration *y reducing the
inertia force4 the connecting rod should *e light
as possi*le. 5o3ever4 it has enough strength
to trans)it the co)*ustion force to the
7he connecting rod is )ade of the special steel
*y casting or forging. 7he forging is prefera*ly
used for ensuring the strength. !or the racing
cars4 the expensive *ut very light and strong
)aterial4 titaniu) alloy4 is used also.
7he types of the rod can *e divided into t3o
types according to the cross sectional shape of
22 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
the rod4 type and 5 type.
f the strength is sa)e4 then the <type is lighter
than 5<type. 7herefore4 general cars accept the
<type rod. 7he 5<type has stronger structure
against the *ending force to the direction of the
pin axis.
;s the (onnecting rod is longer4 the lateral
vi*ration is s)aller. 7he reason is that4
considering the force applied to the piston at
the rotation of the cran% *y divided into lateral
direction and longitudinal direction4 the longer
connecting rod can reduce the ratio of the force
to the lateral direction than the shorter
connecting rod so that the vi*ration and friction
also shall *e reduced. 5o3ever4 if the
connecting rod is so long4 the engine 3eight is
heavier so it is not prefera*le. :enerally4 the
length fro) the center of the piston pin to the
cran% pin4 is a*out t3ice than the length of the
7he end portion of the connecting rod to the
piston side is called as the s)all end4 and the
end portion to the cran% pin side is called as
the *ig end. 7he s)all end is connected to the
piston 3ith the piston pin4 and the *ig end is
attached to the cran% pin *y inserting a
&. Cranksha-t
7he cran% )eans the 『*ended handle』 as the
transfer fro) the reciprocal )ove)ent to the
rotational )ove)ent as have )entioned until
no3. ;t the early ti)e of the vehicles history4
the engine is started 3ith the cran%. ;fter the
electric )otor 3as used for the starting the
engine4 until 1,".s4 &o)e cars had have a
cran% at the front of the engine for e)ergency
device at the )alfunction of the )otor.
7he cran%shaft connects the cran%s of each
cylinder. 7he )ain shaft is called the cran%
=ournal and the attaching part to the *ig end of
the connecting rod 3ith the cran% is called the
cran% pin. 7he other side4 the attaching part to
the s)all end of the connecting rod 3ith the
piston is called the piston pin. 7he connector
connecting the cran% =ournal and the cran% pin
is called the cran% ar). 7he sector for)ed
pendulu) at the front of the cran% ar) is called
the counter 3eight or the *alancing 3eight.
23 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
7he reason of the shape of the counter 3eight
*eing spreading fro) the center ArootB to the
circu)ferential portion Aouter portionB is that it
can have larger inertial force 3hen it rotates
a*out the root partC even the counter 3eight
has the sa)e 3eight density.
n the reciprocal engine4 the piston is press the
cran% =ournal 3ith the connecting rod at every
co)*ustion stro%e. 7he cran%shaft affected *y
the co)plicated *ending and distorting force.
7herefore4 the cran% =ournal shall have strength
enough to endure these forces so it is )ade of
the casting or forging steel. !or the high
perfor)ance engine or the racing car engine4
the forging steel is )ost used for ensuring the
strength. !or the co))ercial or general
purpose vehicle4 the casting steel is used
*ecause the forging process is )ore expensive.
Even though the casting steel has less strength
than forging steel4 it is not so critical point
*ecause that it is possi*le to )anufacture the
counter 3eight precisely.
7he counter 3eight *alances the 3eights force
*et3een fro) the reciprocal )ove)ent of the
piston and fro) the rotational )ove)ent of the
cran%shaft. &i)ply thin%4 to *alance the 3eight
is to )atch the inertia forces fro) the piston
and the counter 3eight as the ratio of 1D1. 7he
counter 3eight should *e s)all as possi*le
3ithin the re?uire)ent load range of the =ournal
in order to reduce the 3eight of the cran%shaft.
(. Crank Case
7he cran%case is the part covering fro) the
cylinder of the cylinder *loc% to the cran%shaft.
n the cran%case4 there are so)e auxiliary
devices such as the alternator Athe alternative
current generatorB4 generating the electric
po3er4 the co)pressor of the air conditioner
and the oil pu)p for the po3er steering. ;nd
the engine )ount *rac%ets installing the engine
to the vehicle *ody are also attached to the
cran%case. ;s the cran%case is one part of the
cylinder *loc%4 it is al3ays vi*rated *y the
reciprocal )ove)ent of the piston and the
rotational )ove)ent of the cran%shaft.
7herefore4 the )aterial of the cran%shaft
should satisfy the re?uire)ent of the resistant
against the shoc%ing force and vi*ration.
7he types of the cran%case are divided into t3o
types according to the covering range over the
cran%shaft4 the half s%irt type and the deep
s%irt type. n the half s%irt type4 the front
portion of the cran%case is covering to the
center of the cran%shaft. n the deep s%irt type4
the cran%case is covering over the *earing cap.
24 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
1ecause the half s%irt type has the short
length4 it is possi*le for the *loc% to )a%e *e
light. 5o3ever4 the =oint strength shall *e
3ea%er than the deep s%irt type4 *ecause the
=oining area is s)all 3hen the trans)ission is
attached to the engine. t is easy to )a%e
so)e vi*rations so that it is necessary to *e
assisted *y supporters. ;dditionally4 the space
for attaching the auxiliary devices shall *e
7o secure the cran%shaft to the cylinder *loc%
and to reinforce the strength of the *loc%4 a
supporting device )ight *e for)ed 3ith the
*earing of the cran%shaft at the lo3er part of
the cran%case. ;ccording to the type of this
supporting device4 there are the ladder fra)e
style and *earing *ea) style.
;t the lo3er part of the cylinder *loc%4 an oil
pan is attached also. 7his is for gathering the
oil co)pleting the lu*ricating and cooling role.
t is )ade of a pressed steel sheet and
attached *y ru**er pac%ing li%e the head cover.
7he oil pan is easy to )a%e a noise so that it is
)ade of the vi*ration resistance steel plate.
7he vi*ration steel plate is )anufactured *y
inserting a resin plate *et3een the t3o steel
plates to prevent fro) vi*rating.
). 8o$rnal 7earing
7he *earing is for helping the s)ooth rotation
of the rotating axis and supporting the rotation
axis. 7here are various types of the *earing
including the plain *earing supporting the axis
3ith the flat and 3ide side4 and the *earing
supporting the axis and the around of the axis
3ith *alls or rollers. :enerally4 for the
cran%shaft of the engine4 the plain *earing is
)ore used.
7he reason that the roller *earing type is not
applied to the cran%shaft is that the load can
*e concentrated at the contacting portions of
the *all or roller in a point or linear type. n the
plain *earing the load is applied on the
lu*ricated side4 the larger contacting area than
the *all or roller *earing so that the plain
*earing can support large force.
;s the plain *earing is also called as a sliding
*earing4 the shaft is sliding on the *earing 3ith
the lu*ricant oil. Even if the surface of the solid
)etal *ody is applied the s)oothing surface
treat)ent precisely and carefully4 it should
have roughness so)e3hat. 7herefore4 3hen
the t3o solid *odies are directly contacted4 they
25 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
should *e 3orn.
7he lu*ricant oil inserting *et3een the plain
*earing and the axis can )a%e the rough
surface of these t3o solid *odies to *e
s)oothly. 7he t3o solid *odies are not
contacted directly even they are so closed.
7he thic%ness of the oil fil)4 that is the gap
3ith the *earing4 is changed *y the load or heat
expansion. When it is so s)all4 it )ay *e
adhered *y friction heat4 other3ise4 3hen it is
so *ig4 it )ay )a%e vi*rations and noise.
7he *earing is )ade *y 3elding the *earing
alloy having light 3eight and good fatigue
resistance such as the copper or alu)inu). 8n
the surface4 a special )etal *asis on the lead
is coated. 7he *earing has the oil hole and oil
groove for supply the lu*ricant oil to lu*ricate
the contact portion *et3een the connecting rod
and the cran% pin and *et3een the cran%shaft
and the cran%case.
7he cran% =ournal4 the rotational axis of the
cran%shaft4 is attached at the lo3er part of the
cylinder *loc% *y the *earing cap 3ith the plain
*earing. !or the serial engine4 this *earing
should *e attached at the front side and rear
side of the cylinder. f it is the 4<cylinder4 it has
" *earings and if it is the $<cylinder4 it has '
*earings4 that is4 it called as "<*earing and the
'<*earing4 respectively. (ertain old style engine
of 4<cylinder )ight have 3<*earing structure.
7his type is not used *ecause the cran%shaft is
easy to *e *ent and )a%e vi*rations.
1+. *ly9heel
7he fly3heel is e?uipped to the trans)ission
side of the cran%shaft to )aintain the s)ooth
rotation using inertia force and to reduce the
irregularity of the rotational force. 7he
cran%shaft is rotated t3ice per one of the
co)*ustion. ;t the other stro%es4 the reversed
directional force shall *e needed for the
co)pression4 the inta%e and exhaust. f there
is no fly3heel4 then the rotational force of the
cran%shaft shall *e reduced at these stro%es.
7herefore4 3hen the intervals of the each
co)*ustion stro%e are long li%e in the idling
state4 the engine )ay *e stopped.
;round the fly3heel4 a ring gear is attached to
26 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
rotate the cran%shaft *y *eing teethed 3ith the
pinion gear. 7he clutch dis% can attach to the
flat side of the fly3heel *y the spring to
trans)it the driving force to the trans)ission.
7he )agnitude of the tor?ue is calculated *y
)ultiple the )agnitude of the force to the
distance *et3een the center of the axis to the
point at 3hich the force is applied. 7he
)agnitude of the force is proportional to the
inertia )ass so that if the fly 3heel is heavy
and the outer dia)eter is large4 or if the outer
portion is heavy4 then the force of the fly3heel
)ight *e large.
n general engine4 the half of the total inertia
)ass is distri*uted at the fly3heel. 7herefore4
3hen the rotation of the engine is lo3 or 3hen
the engine is in the idling state4 the inertia
)ass of the fly3heel should *e large to rotate
the engine regularly. 5o3ever4 3ith the large
inertia )ass of the fly3heel4 the rotation of the
engine can not *e changed easily. t is hard to
increase the engine rotation *y pressing the
accelerator4 or to ta%e the engine *ra%e *y
releasing the accelerator. 7hat is4 the engine
response 3ill *e 3orse. &o4 the fuel efficiency
shall *e 3orst too.
&o)e engines use the 3.N of the tor?ue
generated fro) the engine to increase the
rotation of engine itself 3hen the accelerating
is perfor)ed 3ith the lo3er speed shift. 7he
siGe and the 3eight of the fly3heel are decided
*y the purpose of the vehicles. !or exa)ple4
the engine for the racing car uses s)all siGe
one4 and that of the fa)ily car uses large siGe
one. !or the general purpose4 the fly3heel is
)ade of the cast iron4 and for the special
purpose such as the racing car4 it is )ade *y
cutting the steel )aterial having high strength.
11. 7alance sha-t. 7alancer -or the secondary
inertial -orce
7he piston4 the (onnecting rod and the cran%
)a%e inertia force according to the reciprocal
and rotational )ove)ent. !or this reason4 if the
one<cylinder engine has not the counter 3eight
for *alancing *et3een the inertial force and the
3eight of the piston4 the connecting rod and
the cran%4 then the engine )ay *e severely
vi*rated *y the un*alancing.
!or the serial 4<cylinder engine4 the four pistons
are connected to the cran%shaft 3ith *eing
paired the first4 forth and the second 4 third4 in
facing each other. When the cran%shaft is
rotating4 the inertial forces are offset so that
the counter 3eight )ight *e not needed.
n actual )ove)ent structure of the piston<
cran% syste) of the 4<cylinder engine4 the
inertia force shall not *e offset. 7his is co)e
for) the structure in 3hich the piston in
27 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
reciprocal )ove)ent is connected to the cran%
in rotational )ove)ent 3ith the connecting rod.
!or exa)ple4 in the half rotation of the
cran%shaft 3hen the piston )oves fro) the
highest point A7-(4 7op -ead (enterB to the
lo3est point A1-(4 1otto) -ead (enterB4 the
piston has the )axi)u) speed at the near of
the highest point of the stro%e rather than at
the )iddle of the stro%e. 7he rotation of the
cran% is regular so that the inertia force of the
cran% of each cylinder Athe first inertia forceB is
easily offset. 5o3ever4 the inertial force of the
piston is not. !or exa)ple4 the upper inertia
force generated 3hen the first and forth pistons
are )oving fro) the highest point to the lo3est
point is larger than the lo3er inertia force
generated 3hen the second and third pistons
are )oving fro) the lo3est point to the highest
1y representing these relationship on the graph
3ith the inertia force at the vertical axis and the
rotation angle of the cran%shaft at the
horiGontal axis4 3hen the upper inertia force of
the first and fourth pistons is )axi)u) value4
the lo3er inertia force of the second and third
pistons is )ini)u) value4 and vice versa after
the cran%shaft 3ith 1+.P. !ro) this
relationship4 3e %no3 that the inertia force is
generated 3ith the ratio of 2 ti)es per one
rotation of the cran%shaft. 7his inertia force is
called as the secondary inertia force. t is easy
to *e generated 3hen the engine is in the idling
7he four<cylinder engine is e?uipped in the
s)all passenger car generally. !or the
convenience of the passengers4 a *alance
shaft having the half circle shape in the cross
sectional vie3 shall *e attached at the *oth
side of the engine to reduce the vi*ration fro)
the secondary inertia force. 7his *alance shaft
is designed to rotate 3ith t3o ti)es of speed in
reverse direction against the cran%shaft. 7he
additional inertia force generated fro) the
*alance shaft 3ill offset the vi*ration fro) the
secondary inertia force.
28 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Chapter 3.
Cylinder Head
1. Cylinder Head
7he cylinder head is attached on the cylinder
*loc% 3ith *eing inserting a gas%et to prevent
fro) lea%ing the co)*usted gas. 7he *otto) of
the cylinder head is also the roof of the
co)*ustion cha)*er. 7herefore4 the shape of
the cylinder head is very co)plicated. 7he
rectangular *ox shaped portion located upper
position has the valve driving syste) inhalation
the )ixture of fuel to the engine and
exhausting the co)*usted gas4 and the ignition
plug so that the shape and operation of this
part can decide the engine perfor)ance such
as the co)*ustion of the )ixture of fuel.
7he structure of the cylinder head is various
according to the type of engine. 7he )ost
cylinder head has the co))on structure as
this. ;t the upper part4 there is the valve driving
syste) in 3hich the intake port inhaling the
)ixture of fuel into the co)*ustion cha)*er
and e#ha$st port ta%ing out the co)*usted
gas in the longitudinal direction. nside the
cylinder head4 there is a 3ater =ac%et circulating
the cooling 3ater fro) the cylinder *loc%.
7he co)*ustion cha)*er is very i)portant part
to decide the engine perfor)ance. &o the
shape and the siGe are the i)portant factors. f
the co)*ustion cha)*er is *ig4 the ti)e
interval for co)*usting the )ixture of fuel is
long even the )ixture can *e co)pressed
enough. &o the *igger po3er cannot *e
ensured. 7herefore4 it is prefer for the siGed of
the co)*ustion cha)*er to *e co)pact.
;dditionally4 the shape of the co)*ustion
cha)*er has less uneven surfaces as possi*le
to enhance the co)*ustion of the )ixtures. f
the shape of the co)*ustion cha)*er is
co)plicated4 then the heat fro) the
co)*ustion shall *e easily lost *ecause the
surface of the cha)*er is too large a*out the
volu)e of it. &o4 the force pressing the piston
shall *e lo3ered.
7he inta%e port is also i)portant part *ecause
that the flo3 of the )ixture is defined *y the
siGe and the shape of it. (onsidering =ust a*out
the flo34 the s)oother inner surface is *etter
for reducing the resistance against the flo3 and
the straight shape of port is the *etter.
5o3ever4 the shape of the port is helpful for
the inhaling )ixture into the cylinder to *e for)
the s3irled flo3 in order to *e co)*usted at
the co)*ustion stro%e as 3ell as possi*le.
7he 3ater =ac%et 3ill a*sor* the re)ained heat
after the co)*ustion until finishing the exhaust
stro%e as fast as possi*le to prevent fro)
increasing the te)perature of the next
inhalation )ixtures. Especially4 the around
portions having the high possi*ility of
increasing the te)perature such as the
exhaust valve and spar% plug should *e cooled
)ainly to prevent fro) )a%ing a trou*le *y the
over heat.
;t the cylinder head4 there is *earing for
29 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
supporting the valve driving syste) including
the ca) shaft. 7he *earing is lu*ricated and
cooled *y the engine oil.
2. Ca! and Ca!sha-t
7he ca) drives the valves operation opening
and closing the inta%e port for inhaling the
)ixture of fuel into the co)*ustion cha)*er
and the exhaust port for ta%ing out the
co)*usted gas. !or the 85( or -85( engine4
the ca) is attached at the ca)shaft installed
at the )iddle part of the cylinder head.
7he ca)shaft has the ca)s 3ith the sa)e
nu)*er of the valves for inta%e and exhaust
3hich are arranged 3ith angles according to the
ti)ing of the opening and closing. !or the 4<
cycle engine4 the opening ratio of the inta%e
and exhaust valves is one a*out the t3o
revolutions of the cran%shaft. 7herefore4 the
ca)shaft revolves 3ith the ratio of one turn
a*out the t3o revolutions of the cran%shaft.
7he extrusion portion of the ca) is called as
the ca! nose or the ca! robe. 7he height is
called ca! li-t. 7he HliftI )eans that the ca)s
lift the valve so that the opening status is
deter)ined *y the ca! pro-ile. 7he opening
and closing ti)ing of the valves are deter)ined
*y the operation angle4 the angle fro) the start
point to the end point of the nose.

When the valve is closed to the valve seat4 it is
preferred that the i)pact shall *e little as
possi*le4 so that the cross sectional shape of
the ca) is the egg shape.
7he valve is al3ays applied a force in the
closing direction *y the valve spring. 1y
pressing the spring 3ith the ca) nose4 the
valves 3ill *e opened. f the ca) velocity
*eco)es fast to enlarge the inertia force of the
valve4 the reciprocal )ove)ent of the valve is
not *alanced 3ith the rotational )ove)ent of
the ca). 7he engine speed generated *y this
li)ited speed of the valve opening and closing
is the )axi)u) speed of the engine. &o the
ca) profile is very i)portant.
7he ca) nose should *e treated special
surface treat)ent to ensure the strength for
enduring fro) the frictions 3ith the valve lift
and roc%er ar) installed at the valve. 7o do so4
the ca)shaft is )ade of cast iron and the ca)
nose should *e treated 3ith a cooling
treat)ent such as the chilling )ethod to
strength the textures of the surface4 3hen it is
30 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
&)all ca) lift 1ig ca) lift
7here are t3o )ethods for supplying the
lu*ricant oil to the ca) =ournal supporting the
ca) nose and the ca)shaft4 fro) outside and
fro) inside. n the outside supplying )ethod4
the oil 3ill *e supplied fro) the =ournal. n the
inside supplying )ethod4 the ca)shaft has a
hole for supplying the lu*ricant oil fro) the
)iddle portion of the =ournal. n addition4 the
ca)shaft is )ade *y hollo3 tu*e type and the
lu*ricant oil )ay *e supplied through the hollo3
3. 6riving the Ca!sha-t
!or the 85( engine4 the cran%shaft is located
under the cylinder *loc% and the ca)shaft is
located on the cylinder head4 so there should
*e a chain or *elt for transfor)ing the
rotational )ove)ent of the cran%shaft to the
ca)shaft. ;s the driving for the inta%e and
exhaust valves should *e exactly ti)ed 3ith the
rotation of the cran%shaft4 for so)e case such
as racing car4 a gear is used for transfor)ing
the rotational )ove)ent exactly.
n the chain syste) for transfor)ing4 the tooth
3heel for the chain is called the sprocket. 7he
one attached at the cran%shaft is the
cranksha-t sprocket4 and the other attached at
the ca)shaft is the ca!sha-t sprocket.
n the syste) in 3hich the ca)shaft is driven
*y the chain4 the ratio the teeth nu)*ers
*et3een the cran%shaft sproc%et and the
ca)shaft sproc%et is 1D2. n order to )aintain
the tension of the chain4 a chain tensioner is
attached4 and the chain g$ide prevents fro)
sha%ing the chain during rotating.
f this )ethod is applied to the -85( engine4
the sproc%et shall have the large dia)eter
according to the nu)*er of teeth ratio.
7herefore4 the gap of ca)shaft and gap of
valves of inta%e and exhaust 3ill *e enlarged.
(onse?uently4 this )ethod is not applied to the
co)pact type engines. 7o solve this pro*le)4
an additional sproc%et is inserted there
*et3een to trans)it the rotational )ove)ent to
the ca)shaft sproc%et.
7he ti!ing belt type uses belt having toothed
surface and pulley instead of the chain and the
sproc%et4 respectively. n this type4 the
31 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
sproc%et and pulley attached at the end of the
ca)shaft have the ti)ing )ar% indicating the
opening and closing ti)ing of the valve. &o 3e
use the ter) of Hti)ingI to the na)e of the
parts. 7he pulley attached at the cran%shaft is
the cranksha-t ti!ing p$lley and the one
attached at the ca)shaft is the ca!sha-t
ti!ing p$lley. ;s 3ell as the chain type4 in this
type4 there are direct reduction type and dou*le
reduction type.
Even though the 85( engine can accept the
long chain to drive the ca)shaft4 the *elt
driving )ethod is )ainly used. 7he reason is
that the long chain can )a%e )is)atching the
ti)ing and *ig noises4 and the chain syste)
needs the lu*ricating e?uip)ent. 5o3ever4 the
*elt is )ade of fi*er and ru**er so it can *e
easily *ro%en *y the heat or oil. t is prefer that
it should *e exchanged at every ,.4...%)
4. Intake and E#ha$st 0alve
7he cylinder head includes the inta%e port
inhaling the )ixture of fuel to the cylinder and
the exhaust port ta%ing out the *urnt gas. 7he
valves at the ports are the inta%e valve and the
exhaust valve4 respectively. ;ccording to the
valve shape of )ushroo)4 3e call poppet
7he poppet valves consist of the valve head
and the valve ste). 7he valve ste) supports
the valve guide and the valve spring. 7he valve
is opened *y the pressing operation of the ca)
nose4 and closed *y the elastic force of the
valve spring.
7he co)*ustion te)perature is over 2...L4
and the te)perature of the *urnt gas passing
through the valve is over 1...L. 7herefore4
the te)perature of the exhaust valve is over
+..L and that of the inta%e valve is over
3..L. &o the )aterial of the valve should *e
heat resistance steel.
7he valve siGe is represented *y the dia)eter
of the head portion. 7he inta%e valve is larger
than the exhaust valve. #epresenting *y the
area of the head portion4 3hen the inta%e valve
is 1..4 the exhaust valve is a*out '"M+". 7his
difference in their siGes is for *alancing of the
gas flo3. 7he inta%e is perfor)ed *y the
decreased pressure resulting fro) the do3ning
32 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
of the piston4 on the other hand4 the exhaust is
perfor)ed *y the high pressure resulting fro)
the co)*ustion. 7o *alance the flo3 of the
inta%e and exhaust4 the inta%e valve siGe )ay
*e larger than exhaust valve.
7he valve ste) is designed4 considering the
flo34 such as that of the inta%e valve is thinner
as possi*le to reduce the flo3 resistance and
that of the exhaust valve is thic%er as possi*le
to trans)it the heat fro) the extrude portion to
the ste). 7he heat is transferred through the
path of the valve ste) Q the valve guide Q
the cylinder head Q the cooling 3ater. &o)e
high perfor)ance engine uses the hollo3 ste)
securing sodiu) for enhancing the valve
7he portion of the port contacting 3ith the valve
face is called as the valve seat. f the cylinder
head is casting iron4 then the valve seat has
dou*le structure. f the cylinder head is )ade
of alu)inu) alloy4 then the seat is )ade of
heat resistance steel.
3he valve spring al3ays press the valve to
attach to the ca) so that the valve spring is
prefera*le to *e soft to reduce the frictional
resistance generated 3hen the ca) nose
presses the valve. ;dditionally4 in order to
enlarge the a)ount of inta%e and exhaust gas4
the valve )ay *e enlarged and the lift of the
ca) )ay *e extended as 3ell as the valve
spring )ay *e softened to operate faster. 7hen4
it )ay )a%e the surging pro*le) and it is hard
to *e *alanced.
". 0alve 6riving yste!
;s the valve controls the gases for inhaling into
and the ta%ing out fro) the cylinder4 its driving
)ethod can give an i)portant affects on the
engine perfor)ances. 7here are various type of
valve driving syste). t has *een developed
fro) the side valve type4 8564 85( to the
-85( type.
&ide valve type
In the side valve type. the ca)shaft installed
near the ca)shaft presses the long valve
syste) to open and close the valve. 7he
co)*ustion cha)*er is large and it has long
ti)e interval for co)*usting the )ixture of fuel
so that it can not )a%e high output po3er.
@o3adays this type is not used.
856 A8ver head valveB type
In the :ver Head 0alve ;:H0< type. the valve
li%e in the side valve type is attached on the
cylinder to open and close the valve using a
long rod4 the push rod. 7he shape and structure
is si)ilar 3ith that of engines used no3 to
enhance the perfor)ance.
33 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
856 A8ver 5ead (a)shaftB type
;fter that4 the :HC ;:ver Head Ca!sha-t< type
is developed. ;s %no3 fro) the na)e4 the
ca)shaft is located over the head4 exactly to
say4 in the )iddle of the cylinder head. n the
85( type4 there are t3o types4 the one is the
in4line type in 3hich the inta%e valve and the
exhaust valve are alternatively arrayed along
the linear direction4 and the other is the 04
shaped arrange type in 3hich the inta%e valve
and the exhaust valve are faced each other in
opposite side to for) the 6<shape. 7he later
has )ore enhanced efficiencies and higher
-85( A-ou*le 8ver 5ead (a)shaftB type
-eveloping this 6<shaped arrange type )ore
and )ore4 the 6:HC ;6o$ble :ver Head
Ca!sha-t< type. in 3hich the inta%e valve and
the exhaust valve are independently driven *y
the different ca)shaft4 is )ainly used
no3adays for the high perfor)ance engine. ;s
3e see fro) the na)e4 there are t3o
ca)shafts so 3e call it as the t9in ca!
syste) also. ;dditionally4 in the 6<type engine4
it has t3o cylinder head so the ca)shaft shall
*e four.
-irect type &3ing ar) type #oc%er ar) type
7he driving )ethod for the inta%e and exhaust
valves is divided into the direct type4 in 3hich
the ca) directly drives the valves4 and the
roc%er ar) type4 in 3hich the ca) drives the
valve using a lever. 7he roc%er ar) )eans the
lever connecting the leverage point and the
ca). Fsing the lever4 it can drive the valve
faster than the ca) lift.
7he direct type has less co)ponents and high
strength. Fsing the oil pressure for the
hydraulic tappet4 the valve can trace the ca)
profile al3ays.
%. 0alve 3i!ing
7he valve ti)ing is the ti)e at the opening and
closing the inta%e and exhaust valve. Each ti)e
indicating 3hen the valve starts opening and
3hen the valve finishes closing is represented
*y the rotational angle of the cran%shaft a*out
the highest point or the lo3est point of the
piston as the standard ti)e.
34 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
;s si)ply saying a*out the opening and closing
the valves4 the exhaust valve 3ill open 3hen
the piston is at the lo3est point. ;fter ta%ing
out the gas4 3hen the piston is at the highest
point4 the exhaust valve 3ill *e closed. ;t the
sa)e ti)e4 the inta%e valve 3ill *e opened to
ta%e in the )ixture of fuel. When the piston is
at the lo3est point4 the inta%e valve 3ill *e
5o3ever4 this is =ust concept for the operation
of valves. 7he )ixture of fuel and the used gas
have )ass so the flo3 of the )ixture or gas is
not co)pleted at a )o)ent *ut need so)e
ti)e intervals. !urther)ore4 the valves can not
open and close at an instant )o)ent4 too. !or
exa)ple4 the inta%e valve need so)e ti)e
interval to open fully4 and the )ixture is not
inhaled at a )o)ent into the cylinder *ut
inhaled during so)e ti)e interval *y the inertia
of flo3.
7herefore4 the inta%e valve shall open prior that
the piston is reached at the highest point.
When the piston starts to go do3n4 then the
valve is already little opened to ta%e into the
)ixture of fuel into the cylinder. 1y that the
inta%e open little early4 the valve 3ill *e fully
opened 3hen the piston is reached at the
lo3est point4 so that the )ixture of fuel can *e
inhaled enough.
nta%e valve ti)ing
When the piston is passed the lo3est point4
the inta%e valve is not closed thoroughly. 7o do
so4 the )ixture 3ill *e )ore inhaled into the
cylinder *y the inertia of the flo3 of the )ixture.
;t the end of the co)*ustion stro%e4 the
exhaust valve 3ill *e open =ust *efore the
piston is reached at the lo3est pointA1-(B.
Exhaust valve ti)ing
t is for exhausting the co)*usted gas as fast
as possi*le *y the re)ained expansion force in
the cylinder. n the sa)e )anner of the inta%e
valve4 even the piston is passed the highest
pointA7-(B4 the valve is still opened to exhaust
the *urnt gas fully using the inertial of
exhausting flo3.
35 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
;ccording to these operating process of the
valves4 there is so)e period in 3hich the inta%e
valve and the exhaust valve are opened at the
sa)e ti)e4 *ecause the exhaust valve is
closed after passing through the highest
pointA7-(B and the inta%e valve is opened
*efore reaching to the highest pointA7-(B. ;t
this ti)e4 the vacuu) inertia force generated
fro) the exhausted gas can accelerate the
inhalation of the fuel )ixtures. 7his period is
called the valve overlap.
&. 0ariable 0alve 3i!ing
6aria*le ca)shaft angle type
1eing overlapped in the opening ti)e of inta%e
and exhaust valve4 the enhanced inta%e
efficiency of the )ixtures is as high as the
enhanced exhaust efficiency of the used gas4
that is4 the rotation of the engine. 8n the other
hand4 3hen the engine is in the rotating state
3ith lo3 speed such as the idling state4 the
engine efficiency )ay *e lo3ered *y the
lo3ered gas flo3.
Especially4 for so)e high perfor)ance engine
having large overlap4 in the lo3 speed4 the
inta%e valve 3ill open 3ith large a)ount of
*urnt gas so that the *urnt gas 3ill *e adhered
to the inta%e port. 7herefore4 the co)*ustion
3ill *e unsta*le or inco)pletely co)*usted. n
the 4<valve engine4 if the valve overlap is too
large4 then the engine 3ill *e easily unsta*le at
the idling state. &o4 the overlap ti)e for the 4<
valve engine shall *e very short4 or so)e cases
have the Gero overlap ti)e4 that is4 the inta%e
valve is opened according that the exhaust
valve is closed.
36 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
&elective ca)shaft<lo*e type
;s 3e )entioned4 the valve ti)ing is different
according to the rotation speed of the engine.
7hat is4 the inta%e valve should *e opened 3ith
little lately at the lo3er rotation4 and 3ith little
early at the higher rotation. &o4 an additional
s3itch operated *y oil pressure is installed at
the inta%e ca) sproc%et in order that the
ca)shaft can *e rotated so)e3hat 3hen the
engine is rotating over certain #P/ so that the
ca) presses the inta%e valve early. 7his is the
variable valve ti!ing syste!.
n the varia*le valve ti)ing syste)4 the ca)
shape is not changed4 so the valve shall *e
also closed early 3hen it is opened early. Early
closing the valve4 the a)ount of the inhaled
)ixture is reduced. 7herefore4 the choice of the
valve ti)ing is decided *y not only the rotation
speed of the engine *ut also the load of the
(onse?uently4 the ca) syste) 3ill include the
t3o %inds of ca)s4 the one for the lo3 speed of
the engine and the other for the high speed of
the engine. !or the lo3 speed ca)4 the valve
3ill *e opened lately and closed early4 and the
lift 3ill *e s)all and then the inhaled )ixture of
fuel 3ill *e reduced so that the fuel efficiency
can *e enhanced. !or the high speed ca)4 the
valve 3ill *e opened early and closed lately and
the lift 3ill *e large to inhaled )ore )ixtures so
that the engine output shall *e enlarged. 7his
syste) also called varia*le valve ti)ing syste)
*ut this syste) controls the valve lift also. t is
)ore advanced syste).
(. Mal-$nction o- the 0alve
7he valve is opened *y the ca) *ut closed *y
the spring. ;ctually4 the valve attached *y the
spring to the valve seat is opened 3ith the
pressing *y the ca) nose. ;t that ti)e4 the
force rotating the ca)shaft is rather s)all as
possi*le. &o the soft spring is )ore proper.
5o3ever4 for so)e high perfor)ance engine
having large siGe of valve or lift4 the spring shall
*e harder and the *alance of the spring
strength is i)portant factor.
Even not occurring in the nor)al driving
situation4 the hardness of the spring 3ith the
3eight and the strength of the valve can )a%e
an a*nor)al operation such as the valve =u)p4
the valve *ounce or the valve surge4 3hen the
engine is rotating over the li)itation rp).
3he valve =$!p is that the inertial force of the
valve is too large so that the ca) can not press
the spring and then the valve is =u)ped up fro)
the ca) nose 3hen the ca)shaft is rotating
3ith high speed. 7he valve can return *ac% to
the original position *ut the other dyna)ic
co)ponents including ca)4 roc%er ar)4 valve
lifter4 etc are da)aged *y friction each other.
37 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
3he valve bo$nce is that the valve face is not
contacted to the valve seat Acontacted portion
3ith the valveB *ut *ounced fro) the valve seat
3hen the valve is closed *y the spring. 7he
dyna)ic co)ponents shall *e da)aged *y this
*ouncing. ;s increasing the rotation of the
engine4 the *ouncing is occurred over than
li)ited rp). 7his li)ited rp) is called as the
crush speed or li)it rp) of the engine.
3he valve s$rge is the a*nor)al vi*ration of
the spring. ;s the natural fre?uency of the
spring is corresponding 3ith to the elastic
ti)ing *y the ca)4 the spring can )a%e a high
)ove)ent *y the self<excited vi*ration. When
the engine is rotated in force. f it is continued
then the spring shall *e *ro%en.
7hese a*nor)al operations of valve can *e
easily )ade 3hen the valve is heavy and the lift
is large. When the )ost used engine 3as the 2<
valve 85( engine4 they 3ere )ain pro*le)s in
engine. ;fter the 4<valve -85( engine is )ainly
used4 these pro*le)s are scarcely occurred. ;s
the 2<valve syste) *eca)e to the 4<valve
syste)4 the valve area 3ould *e enlarged so
the inta%e and exhaust flo3 3ould *e
s)oother. 7herefore4 the lift has not to *e
enlarged. !urther)ore4 the valve is to *e
lightened so that the spring has not to *e
strengthened even if the rp) is increased.
). :verr$n and 2ed >one
n the tacho)eter of the engine4 there is
certain rp) range colored in red called as the
red Gone. &o)e )eter has the yello3 Gone =ust
*efore the red Gone.
7he rp) at the *eginning of the red Gone is the
)axi)u) allo3a*le rp) decided *y the
characteristics and endurance re?uire)ent of
the dyna)ic co)ponents including valve and
valve spring and the )ain syste) co)ponents
including piston and connecting rod 3hen the
engine is operated 3ith the )axi)u) speed
having the )axi)u) output.
7o operate the engine over the )axi)u)
allo3a*le rp) is called as the overrun or over<
revo )eans the revolution. 7he over<revo )ay
occur 3hen the shift is do3n to the lo3er speed
gear at the driving 3ith high speed. When the
engine is in the idling state4 if the rp) is
increased in force4 then the engine 3ill *e
overrun state.
When the engine is overrun4 the valve shall *e
a*nor)ally operated such as the valve surge4
=u)p or *ounce. n this case4 the valve and
spring )ay *e da)aged or in so)e cases4 the
piston )ay *e da)aged *y *u)ping 3ith the
head of the piston and the valve. n order to
prevent *u)ping *et3een the piston and valve4
a recessed portion is )ade at the piston.
5o3ever4 if the piston is =u)ped up over the
recessed portion4 then the piston 3ill *e
*u)ped to the valve.
f the average speed of piston )ove)ent is
a*nor)ally fasted *y the overrun4 the gap
*et3een the piston ring and the cylinder 3ill *e
38 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
da)aged and the oil fil) of the *earing at the
piston pin and the cran%shaft 3ill *e *ro%en so
that the te)perature 3ill *e increased or so)e
parts 3ill *e adhered *y this heat. When the
engine is operating 3ith high speed4 the
co)*ustion speed is also fast and the around
te)perature of the co)*ustion cha)*er 3ill *e
increased. &o4 these pro*le)s )ight *e easily
occurred4 so it needs to *e careful.
;dditionally4 *y the overrun4 the engine has the
increased inertia force *eing results of the
a*nor)al vi*ration. 7he parts shall *e *ro%en
or crac%ed.
7he )axi)u) allo3a*le rp) is set 3ith
3..O13.. rp) higher than the )axi)u)
output rp). n so)e engine4 in the red Gone the
fuel in=ection 3ill *e cut to prevent the rp) fro)
increasing over the )axi)u) rp) and to
prevent fro) )a%ing pro*le)s *y the overrun.
39 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Chapter 4.
Intake yste!
1. Enhance the 0ol$!e E--iciency
7he pressure of the fuel )ixture at the end of
the inta%e stro%e is lo3er than the a)*ient
pressure *ecause of the resistance against the
flo3 of the air cleaner and duct.
;nd the te)perature of the fuel )ixture is high
*ecause that it contacts 3ith the hot valve and
cylinder 3all 3hen it is inhaled. ;s the density
of the air *eco)es lo3 3hen the pressure
*eco)es lo3er or the te)perature *eco)es
7he vol$!etric e--iciency is used for indicating
the inta%e a*ility of the )ixture. ;s indicating
the a)ount of the inhaled air in rate a*out the
engine displace)ent4 the volu)etric efficiency
is calculated fro) dividing the 3eight of the
inhaled air *y the 3eight of the air a)ount 3ith
the displace)ent at the sa)e te)perature and
the sa)e pressure. n another )ethod for
indicating the efficiency of the inta%e stro%e4
the charging e--iciency can *e used also. 7his
is the volu)e efficiency 3hen the te)perature
and the pressure is in the standard condition
A2"L4 ,,%PaB.
n order to enlarge the )axi)u) output of the
engine4 this volu)e efficiency should *e as
high as possi*le. 7he )ethod for enhancing the
volu)e efficiency is li%e the follo3ings.
R 7he a)*ient air shall *e inhaled into the
)anifold 3ith not high te)perature as
possi*le. !or the engine having the
tur*ocharger4 it should *e e?uipped 3ith
the intercooler to prevent fro) increasing
the te)perature of the inhaled air.
S #educe the flo3 resistance of the inhaled
gas *y increasing the nu)*er of valves4
and enlarging the siGe and the *ending
radius of the duct and )anifold.
T Enlarge the dia)eter of the valve and the
height of the ca) lift4 and *alance the
valve ti)ing properly.
40 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
U (hoose a long inta%e )anifold at the lo3er
speed 4 and choose a short one at the
higher speed to use the inertia and
pulsation effect of the air.
V Enlarge the inta%e gas pressure *y installing
the tur*ocharger.
Fntil no34 3e )entioned a*out the enhancing
)ethod for volu)e efficiency related to the
inta%e stro%e. t is i)portant to exhaust
perfectly the *urnt gas at the exhaust stro%e as
possi*le in order to enhance the volu)e
efficiency. t is possi*le to apply the A2B O A4B of
a*ove )entioned )ethods applied to the
inta%e syste) except A1B and A"B to the exhaust
syste). !or exa)ple4 the Hflo3 resistance of
the inhaled gasI of A2B is too% place 3ith the
Hflo3 resistance of the exhausted gasI4 and the
Hinertia energy of airI of A3B is too% place 3ith
the Hexhausting inertiaI. !urther)ore4 the
exhaust interference shall *e )ini)iGed as
possi*le. ;dditionally4 a tur*ocharger shall
increase the inta%e resistance.
1y tuning up the engine4 it can *e effective for
increasing output even it is very difficult to tune
up the engine.
2. Intake Inertia E--ect and ,$lsation E--ect
n order to inhaling air having high density to
the engine4 to use the inertia of the air flo3 is
called the inertia e--ect4 and to use the
characteristics of the longitudinal 3ave such as
sound 3ave according to the density of the air
is called the p$lsation e--ect. n the inertia
effect4 as the high density air is inhaled into
the engine using a inertia energy of air. t is
called as the inertia s$percharging.
7he air into the engine has the flo3 inertia as a
gas and is a )edia for trans)itting the
pressure 3ave. 7he air flo3 in the inta%e
)anifold is periodically intercepted *y the
valve4 so the )anifold pressure has variations
fro) the difference of pressures *et3een high
density portion and lo3 density portion.
6alve open Anhaled airB
41 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
6alve close A5igh density air at valveB
6alve open Anhaled high density airB
7herefore4 the inta%e inertia effect and the
pulsation effect could *e )ade. When this
pressure variation affects to the inta%e stro%e
at the cycle generating the 3ave directly4 it is
called as the inertia effect. When the pressure
variation is not reduced and then affects to the
next cycle4 it is called as the pulsation effect.
5o3ever4 it is not distinguished *et3een the)
exactly. We4 here4 3ill call as the inertia effect
3hen the air flo3 inertia is )ainly governed and
as the pulsation effect 3hen the pressure 3ave
is )ainly governed.
;s the first exa)ple4 assu)e that the inta%e
valve is closed during the fuel )ixture is
inhaled into the cylinder. ;s the fuel )ixture
has the flo3 inertia4 the )ixture flo3 in the
inta%e )anifold can not stop instantly =ust at
the closing the valve4 *ut pretends to flo3
continuously. 7herefore4 the air =ust *efore the
valve 3ill *e pressed *y inertia energy of inta%e
air. (onse?uently4 the air density at the port
portion 3ill *e increased. ;t that ti)e4 if the
valve is opened in ti)e4 then the air of high
density can *e inhaled into the cylinder. 7his is
the inertia effect.
6alve close A5igh density air at valveB
-ensity of follo3ing air is lo3 & pressure 3ave
are reflected *y surge tan%
5igh density air *y reflection of pressure 3ave
is inhaled
When the air density near the port is increased4
the density of the follo3ing air is lo3
respectively. &o4 the *oundary portion )a%es
the pressure variations4 that is4 noise. 7his air
density variation passes through the )anifold
3ith the speed of sound. t reflects to the end
of the )anifold4 and then it returns to the port.
When the high density air is *ac% to the port4 if
the port is opened4 then the high density air
can *e in=ected into the cylinder. 7his is the
pulsation effect.
;s these effects are co)*ined4 it is hard to
separate fro) each other. 5o3ever4 in order to
)axi)iGe the effect4 it is prefer to )a%e the
pressure 3ave in the )anifold to )a%e high air
density near the port 3hen the valve is opened.
42 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
7o do so4 the dia)eter and length the inta%e
)anifold and the shape of the inta%e port shall
*e controlled.
3. 0ariable Intake yste!
;t lo3 speed
;t high speed
7he air flo3 in the inta%e )anifold is not
unifor)ed *ut varia*le according to the engine
speed. When the high density air flo3 reaches
at the port4 if4 ideally4 the inta%e speed is
)axi)u) =ust *efore the closing the valve4
then the inta%e inertia effect 3ill *e )axi)iGed.
7he air pulsation fre?uency is decided *y the
dia)eter and the length of the )anifold. When
the dia)eter is sa)e4 the fre?uency of the long
length )anifold is s)all. t is the sa)e that the
sound has the lo3er fre?uency 3hen the
distance *et3een the hole and the )outh piece
of the recorder is larger.
:enerally4 the length of the )anifold is already
decided4 so if the engine is running 3ith certain
velocity4 the inta%e inertia is effective. 5o3ever4
if it is rotating 3ith varia*le speed4 then the
lo3er density air can reach at the port 3hen the
valve is opened so4 the charging of air )ay *e
(onse?uently4 the )ethod for varying the length
of )anifold is developed according to the rp)
of the engine. When the engine has high rp) in
3hich the valve is fre?uently opened and
closed 3ithin the sa)e ti)e interval4 the short
length )anifold is chosen to )a%e the cycle *e
short. (ontrarily4 3hen the rp) is lo34 the long
)anifold is chosen to )a%e the cycle *e long.
&o4 it is possi*le to get the inta%e inertia effect
43 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
in 3ide range of rp). ;s *eing the varia*le
inta%e syste)4 it is called as the variable
inertia charging syste! or the variable intake
control syste!.
7here are )any types to control the length of
the inta%e )anifold. /ainly4 the t3o types are
used. 7he one type is that the separated t3o
)anifold groups are connected together. When
the engine is high speed4 the path is divided
each other4 and 3hen the engine is lo3 speed4
the t3o )anifold groups are lin%ed each other
to elongate the length of the total )anifold.
7he other is to attach a *ypass at the )anifold
syste) in 3hich the air pass through the
*ypass 3hen the engine is lo3 speed4 and the
path to the *ypass is closed to reduce the
length of )anifold at the high speed.
n case of lin%ing so)e )anifolds4 the
resonance )ay *e occurred *et3een the
)anifolds. 7his co)es fro) the pressure
vi*ration having the sa)e fre?uency in the
separated )anifold. n this case4 the inertia
charging effect can not *e expected even at the
high speed. 7his pheno)enon can *e inhi*ited
*y enlarging the volu)e of the inta%e collector
connecting to the )anifold. When the
resonance is occurred4 at the )iddle and lo3
speed4 the inertia supercharging effect
*eco)es high so the charging efficiency 3ill *e
increased. 7his is called as the resonance
s$percharging e--ect.
4. Intake yste!
7he inta%e syste) ta%es the air to )ix 3ith the
gasoline and inhales the )ixtures into the
cylinder. :enerally4 the inta%e syste)
co)prises the air cleaner filtering the dust in
the inhaled air4 the carb$retor )ixing the air
and the gasoline4 and the intake !ani-old Aor
inlet !ani-oldB inhaling the )ixture into the
cylinder4 at the head portion of the cylinder.
@o3adays4 the electrical controlled unit for fuel
in=ecting to the inta%e )anifold directly is 3idely
used4 so the design of the inta%e syste) is
changed very )uch.
(ar*uretor inta%e syste)
44 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
/P inta%e syste)
;t first4 the air inlet port 3hich 3as near the
cylinder head is )oved to the front grill to
inta%e the a)*ient air having lo3er
te)perature than the air around the engine
;s *eing lo3 te)perature air4 the air has high
density4 therefore4 the )uch a)ount of oxygen
3ill *e contained into the inlet air. With the
sa)e volu)e of the inlet air4 the lo3er
te)perature of the air is the )ore prefer. !or
exa)ple4 in su))er of 3.L te)perature4
3hen the air conditioner is 3or%ing at the lo3
speed such as at the rush hour in the city4 the
te)perature of the engine roo) could *e over
+.L. n this case4 *y calculation4 the a)ount
of the oxygen in the air around engine roo) is
1"N less than that of the a)*ient air.
7he inlet air to the front grill is inhaled into the
inta%e )anifold through the long duct via the
air cleaner4 resonance cha)*er and throttle
n the car*uretor syste)4 the dish type air
cleaner 3as loo%ing on the car*uretor4 *ut
no3adays4 the *ox type air cleaner is installed
at one corner of engine roo). 7he air cleaner
not only cleans the air going into the cylinder
*ut also reduces the noise fro) the inta%e
operating. 7he air cleaner ele)ent should *e
)aintained periodically.
3he resonance cha!ber is a s)all *ox
*ranched fro) the duct as the device for
reducing the inta%e noise4 and it is called as
the regenerator cha)*er or the side *ranch.
;ccording to the opening and closing the inta%e
valve4 the vi*ration of the air inside the air
cleaner *ox or the duct can )a%e a large inta%e
noise or hinder the inta%e operation. Fsing the
resonance effect *y installing a resonance
device4 this vi*ration 3ill *e ter)inated.
". 3hrottle 0alve and Mani-old

1utterfly type4 slide type throttle valve
7o rise up the engine rp)4 3e press the
accelerator pedal4 and to lo3er do3n the rp)4
3e release the accelerator pedal. ;s the
accelerator pedal is lin%ed to the throttle valve
*y the 3ire and lin%age4 3hen the pedal is
pressed the throttle valve 3ill *e opened to
inta%e the air into the cylinder. 7hat is4 the
45 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
car*uretor or the electronic control syste) for
fuel in=ection auto)atically chec%s the a)ount
of the air to supply the a)ount of gasoline
proper to the driving situation.
n the car*uretor syste)4 the throttle valve is
e?uipped 3ith the car*uretor. n the electronic
control syste)4 it is installed at the )iddle of
the throttle *ody Athrottle cha)*erB separately
installed in the inta%e syste) and *eing 3ith
the air flo3 sensor detecting the air flo3
a)ount and the throttle position sensor
chec%ing the status of the throttle valve
n the throttle valve type4 there are a *utterfly
valve in 3hich dis% plate having the shape of
the *utterfly 3ing is attached at the axis inside
the pipe to control the air a)ount *y rotating
the axis4 and a slide type in 3hich an alu)inu)
plate controls the a)ount the air 3ithout any
hindrance at opening the throttle valve4
especially for racing engine.
7he air passing through the throttle *ody and
the )ixture )ixed 3ith gasoline at the
car*uretor are distri*uted into the cylinder *y
the inta%e )anifold. 7he fuel in=ection is
perfor)ed *efore distri*uting the air at the
)anifold4 or at each cylinder as the )ixture.
7he i)portant thing is that the inta%e )anifold
should inhale the )ixture into the cylinder as
s)oothly as possi*le4 so that the )anifold
should have less *ent portions and s)ooth
inside faces.
7he )ixed gasoline in the car*uretor is inhaled
into the cylinder as the foggy state in the air.
When the te)perature is lo3 such as =ust
*efore starting the engine4 this foggy particle of
the fuel can attach to the )anifold 3all during
*eing inhaled. 7herefore4 the )ixture is leaned
so the co)*ustion is not enough. 7o solve this
pro*le)4 using the heat fro) the exhaust
)anifold or fro) the cooling 3ater for the
engine4 the inta%e )anifold should *e heated
7he )ethod for heating the inta%e syste) using
the exhaust te)perature is only used for the
counter flo3 type engine in 3hich *oth the
inta%e and the exhaust )anifolds are installed
at the sa)e side of the engine. 7he )ethod for
heating the inta%e syste) using the cooling
3ater is accepted in the cross flo3 type engine
in 3hich the )anifolds are installed at the
opposite side of engine each other.
46 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Chapter ".
E#ha$st yste!
1. E#ha$st yste!
1y opening exhaust port of the cylinder head4
the co)*usted gas is exhausted through the
exhaust )anifold4 the exhaust pipe gathering
the co)*usted gas fro) each cylinder4 the
catalyst converter purifying the used gas and
the silencer A)ufflerB reducing co)*ustion
7he )ost i)portant thing in the exhaust
syste) is the s)ooth path also. 7he exhausted
gases fro) each cylinder are *u)ped at the
exhaust pipe gathering the each exhaust
)anifolds. &o4 it is i)portant to prevent fro)
hindering each flo3 or to increase the exhaust
efficiency using the exhaust inertia effect
having the sa)e principle in the inta%e inertia
effect. 5o3ever4 it is hard to *alance *et3een
the increasing the exhaust efficiency and the
enhancing the engine perfor)ance4 *ecause
there are )any 3ea% points fro) the engine to
the )uffler.
7he exhaust )anifold is )ade of the casting
iron having high heat resistance4 or the
alu)inu) alloy. ;lso the exhaust gas
te)perature is high. &o4 it is need to )a%e the
exhaust syste) 3ith the )aterial having *etter
heat resistance or to cool the exhaust syste)
3ith the 3ind.
3he catalyst converter is used for purification
of the exhausted gases. 7here are a )anifold
catalyst installed near the )anifold and a
under catalyst installed under the floor. 7he
)anifold catalyst is )ore effective *ecause the
exhaust te)perature is higher than the other
syste). 5o3ever4 it can *e easily aged *y the
high te)perature so usually t3o pieces are
used. 7he under catalyst is not easily
degraded4 ho3ever it has high perfor)ance of
3he !$--ler is e?uipped for reducing the
te)perature and pressure of the exhausted gas
as 3ell as the co)*ustion and exhausting
sound. :enerally4 the )uffler has )any sector
3alls to )a%e the inside space into )aGe path
for flo3ing the exhaust gas4 so it called as the
!a?e type. 7here is also a straight !$--ler type
in 3hich a tu*e having )any holes on the
surface and silencer such as glass 3ool inside
the tu*e. 7he )aGe type )uffler has )ore
effective sound a*sorption a*ility *ut has larger
47 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
flo3 resistance. 7he straight )uffler has )ore
enhanced output *ut has louder sound.
n so)e cases4 these t3o )uffler types are
si)ultaneously e?uipped using separated t3o
pipes so that the )aGe type )uffler is only
used 3hen the engine is 3or%ing in lo3 speed4
and the straight type )uffler 3ill *e additionally
used 3hen the engine is 3or%ing in high speed
and load.
2. E#ha$st Inertia E--ect and ,$lsation E--ect
7he )ost i)portant thing deter)ining the
perfor)ance of the exhaust )anifold is the
s)oothness in the exhausting. 7he exhaust
interference is the )ain pro*le) hindering the
s)oothing exhaust. !ro) the each cylinder4 the
co)*usted gas is exhausted according to the
order of ignition. ;s they are )erged into the
)anifold4 if the exhaust syste) is not 3ell
arranged and co)*ined4 then one exhausted
gas passing through the )anifold can *e
collided 3ith another exhausted gas fro)
another cylinder or the pressure in the )anifold
3ill *e increased4 so that the exhaust gas can
not *e exhausted 3ell.
7he exhaust interference can *e overco)e *y
elongating the distance *et3een the exhaust
valves to the collection portion of each cylinder
gas or *e )a%ing the angle of collecting portion
into an o*tuse angle to ensure the 3ell flo3. ;s
increasing the nu)*er of cylinder4 it is hard to
ensure the 3ell exhaust flo3 *y co)*ining the
increased )anifolds.
n the serial $<cylinder tur*o engine4 3ith not
*eing fully closed the first exhaust valve4 the
fifth exhaust valve is opened4 and 3ith not
*eing fully closed the fifth exhaust valve4 the
third valve is opened. &o4 if the all $ exhaust
)anifolds are gathered into one collecting pipe4
then the se?uentially exhausted gases can *e
collided each other. 7herefore4 the )anifolds
are divided into t3o groupsC the one includes
the first4 the second and the third )anifolds
and the other includes the fourth4 the fifth and
the sixth )anifolds. Each group has o3n tur*o
charger to eli)inate the exhaust interference
and to enhance the engine output.
7he inertia effect and pulsation effect are
utiliGed to exhaust the re)ained co)*ustion
gases in the co)*ustion cha)*er. ;s *eing the
sa)e 3ith the inta%e syste)4 3hen the exhaust
valve is closed4 the gas density around the
valve shall *e reduced to accelerate the
exhausting gases fro) the cha)*er effectively.
When the exhaust valve is open4 the
co)*usted gas having the high pressure is
exhausted through the exhaust valve and the
48 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
re)ained gases 3ill *e exhausted *y the
follo3ing co)pressing pressure of the piston at
the exhaust stro%e and then the exhaust valve
is closed. 7herefore4 the exhausted gas flo3
has high density portion and lo3 density portion
in the )anifold.
;s 3e )entioned in a*ove chapter4 3hen a gas
flo3 has a difference in density4 then pressure
3ave is generated. 7herefore4 this difference is
trans)itted during the )anifold 3ith sound
velocity. 7his is called the exhaust pulsation.
2ust *efore the exhaust valve is closed4 if it is
possi*le that the density around the valve is
lo3er than other portions4 then it is accelerated
that the re)ained gas in the cha)*er shall *e
too% out as 3ell as the fuel )ixture shall *e
inhaled fro) the inta%e valve.
3. Co!ponent o- the E#ha$st @as
7he exhaust gas fro) engine and fuel syste)
to at)osphere co)prises of the *urnt gas fro)
the exhaust pipe4 the *lo3 *y gas fro) the
cran% roo)4 and the vapor gas fro) the fuel
tan% *y the hot 3eather and hot te)perature of
the 3or%ing engine. ;s these gases include
har)ful )aterials conta)inating the
at)osphere4 a purification syste) should *e
Especially4 the exhaust gas is the )ost
i)portant gas.
f the fuel is co)*usted perfectly4 then any
har)ful )aterial is not included in the exhaust
gases. 7he fuel4 gasoline4 consists of
hydrocar*on4 the co)pound of the car*on and
the hydrogen. n the cha)*er4 the fuel is
changed into the car*on dioxide A(8
B and
3ater A5
8B 3ith )a%ing heat energy.
n actual che)ical reaction4 the hydrocar*on
and the oxygen are not changed at a )o)ent
into the car*on gas and 3ater vapor. 7his
che)ical reaction is very co)plicated. !or
exa)ple4 the hydrocar*on 3ould *e divided into
a s)all unsta*le )aterial *y the heat and
reacts 3ith the oxygen4 or the results particles
are reacting each other4 and so on.
;)ong the gases generated during this
co)plicated reaction4 the car*on )onoxide4
hydrocar*on gas and the nitrogen oxide are the
)a=or har)ful )aterials. 3he carbon !ono#ide
A(8B is the unsta*le )aterial having one car*on
and one oxygen so that it can *e easily
changed into the car*on dioxide4 the sta*le and
har)less )aterial4 if additional oxygen and
heat are supplied. f 3e *reath the car*on
)onoxide4 then it 3ill catch the oxygen
delivered *y the he)oglo*in in the *lood to *e
car*on dioxide4 )ore sta*le )aterial. &o4 our
*ody is lag of oxygen.
49 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
3he hydrocarbon gas A5) (n D here )4 n are
integer nu)*erB is co)e fro) the fuel not
co)*usted or the inter)ediated )aterial during
the che)ical process of co)*ustion. t is co)e
fro) the *lo3 *y gas or the vaporiGed fuel fro)
the fuel tan%.
f this gas is revealed at the at)osphere4 then
it 3ill react 3ith the oxygen and hydrogen and
change into the aldehyde4 the har)ful )aterial
having strong sti)ulus.
3he nitrogen o#ide A@8xB is co)e fro) the
reaction *et3een the nitrogen A'+N of the airB
and the oxygen in the air *y the high
te)perature of 2...L in the cha)*er. ;s the
nitrogen oxide is )ade *y the difference
)echanis) 3ith the car*on )onoxide or
hydrocar*on gas4 it 3ill *e increased 3hen the
car*on )onoxide and hydrocar*on are reduced
*y al)ost perfect co)*ustion. When the
co)*ustion te)perature is lo34 the nitrogen
oxide 3ill *e lessC ho3ever4 the co)*ustion
efficiency 3ill *e 3orse. &o4 the nitrogen oxide
shall *e treated at the exhaust syste).
4. Air4*$el 2atio and E#ha$st Co!position
;s the har)ful )aterial in the exhaust gas is
the product fro) the co)*ustion4 one of
che)ical reactions4 the a)ount of it is decided
*y the air<fuel ratio4 e.g. the ratio *et3een the
a)ount of air and the gasoline4 the co)*usting
te)perature and the gas flo3 status. When the
air<fuel ratio is lo3er than theoretical value
A&toichio)etricB4 that is rich fuel4 the
co)*ustion is not co)pletely perfor)ed4 so
that )ore hydrocar*on gas and car*on are
(ontrarily4 if the air<fuel ratio is higher than the
theoretical value A&toichio)etricB4 that is lean
fuel4 then the gasoline shall *e co)*usted
co)pletely. &o4 the a)ount of the car*on
)onoxide and the hydrocar*on gas 3ill *e less4
ho3ever4 the a)ount of the nitrogen oxide 3ill
*e increase *ecause the co)*ustion
te)perature is high. Especially4 3hen the
te)perature is over 2...L4 the nitrogen oxide
3ill *e a*ruptly increase. Even the nitrogen and
the oxygen are not react in the roo)
te)perature4 in the high te)perature4 they are
changed into the nitrogen )onoxide and then
changed into nitrogen dioxide ;fter exited fro)
the exhaust syste).
50 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
7he a)ount of the nitrogen oxide 3ill *e
)axi)iGed at a*out 1$ air<fuel ratio higher than
the theoretical ratio A14.'B. With lo3er ratios
than 1$4 the nitrogen oxide a)ount 3ill *e
reduced *ecause the co)*ustion te)perature
is lo3ered. When the air<fuel ratio is over 1+
3ith less fuel4 the fuel can not co)*usted
properly so that the hydrocar*on 3ill *e
7o reduce the har)ful )aterial4 it is i)portant
ho3 to decide the air<fuel ratio. n so)e cases4
the air<fuel ratio can *e controlled *y inhaling
the co)*usted gas into the )ixturesC it is
called the exhaust gas recirculation device
3he e#ha$st gas recirc$lation device is called
as E:# as an a**reviation. t is the device for
returning so)e a)ount of the exhaust gas
*ac% to the cylinder. -oing so4 the actual
a)ount of fuel is reduced and the co)*ustion
speed is slo34 and then the )axi)u)
te)perature of the co)*usting cha)*er 3ill *e
lo3ered and the a)ount of the nitrogen oxide
3ill *e also reduced. 1ut4 if the a)ount of the
re<circulated exhaust gas is too )uch4 then the
engine output and fuel efficiency 3ill *e 3orse4
so it is i)portant to control the a)ount of E:#.
n the car*uretor syste)4 the a)ount of the re<
circulated exhaust gas is controlled *y the
reverse pressure of the inta%e )anifold. n the
E(/ syste)4 the a)ount 3ill *e deter)ined in
opti)iGing the vehicle status *y the sensing
and calculating 3ith the te)perature of )ixture
and cooling 3ater4 the vehicle speed4 and the
". E#ha$st ,$ri-ication yste!
-evices for reducing the har)ful )aterial fro)
the exhaust gas are the exhaust oxidation
device co)*usting the car*on )onoxide and
car*on and the 33ay catalysts device treating
the exhaust gas using oxidation and de<
oxidation reaction *y the three catalysts for
car*on )onoxide4 hydrocar*on4 and nitrogen
;s the car*on )onoxide and the hydrocar*on
gas are co)e fro) the inco)plete co)*ustion
of the hydrocar*on and oxygen4 the oxidation
device supply additional air to the exhaust port
to )a%e oxidation the inco)plete co)*usted
gas included in the exhaust gas. &o it is called
as the secondary air device. n so)e syste)4
in the )iddle of the exhaust pipe4 a oxidation
catalyst coveter4 the vessel including the
oxidation catalyst )ay *e e?uipped for
converting the car*on )onoxide and the
hydrocar*on into the car*on dioxide and 3ater4
51 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
7he electronic control engine uses the 33ay
catalysts device4 generally.
n the nitrogen oxidation4 there are nitrogen
)onoxide consisting of one nitrogen and one
oxygen4 and nitrogen dioxide consisting of one
)ore oxygen. f the oxygen is re)oved fro) the
nitrogen oxidation4 e.g. de<oxidation reaction4
then it *eco)es nitrogen gas. f the ac?uired
oxygen fro) de<oxidation reaction of the
nitrogen oxidation is supplied to the car*on
)onoxide and hydrocar*on to oxide the)4 then
the three har)ful gases can *e si)ultaneously
!ro) this idea4 the cha)ical action is
perfor)ed the de<oxidation reaction on the
nitrogen oxide and the oxidation reaction on the
car*on )onoxide and the hydrocar*on *y
controlling air<fuel ratio to eli)inate the oxygen
in the co)*usted gas co)pletely. 7he catalyst
is the )aterial accelerating certain che)ical
reaction. 7he catalyst used in this purification
is called the 39ay catalysts. 7here are the
pellet type covering a fil) of platinu) and
rhodiu) on the particle alu)ina and the honey
co)* type.
;s the theoretical air<fuel ratio4 the ratio of
co)plete co)*ustion is 14.'. 1ecause the
33ay catalyst is not 3or% properly 3hen the
oxygen is re)ained4 it is necessary to )aintain
the air<fuel ratio 3ith the theoretical value. 7o
do so4 an o#ygen sensor is used for detecting
the oxygen. f oxygen is detected in the exhaust
gas4 then the co)puter 3ill calculate the
a)ount of inta%e air and E:# gas to )aintain
the fuel ratio to the theoretical value.
$. 7lo94by @as 2ecirc$lation 6evice
7he *lo3<*y gas is the lea%ed gas to the
cran%case through the end gap of piston ring at
the co)*ustion stro%e. t includes vaporiGed
engine oil4 too. 7he old type engine or so)e
racing engine exhausts this gas into the
at)osphere. When you stand near the racing
car4 you can s)ell li%e so)e oil *urning result
fro) the *lo3<*y gas.
7he co)ponents of this gas are the fla))a*le
gas of '"M+.N and the co)*usted gas of
2.M2"N. ;s they are the )ain causes of air
pollution4 the perfect co)*ustion syste) *y
recirculation of this gas should *e e?uipped *y
la3. 7his device is called as the *lo3<*y gas
recirculation device or the positive cran%case
ventilation4 P(6 in a**reviation.
n the 1W of *lo3<*y gas4 ...4M..."g of the
52 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
strong acid )oistures are included4 so that the
inside of the engine can *e easily corroded and
the engine oil can *e easily oxidiGed. 7herefore4
it is i)portant to treat the *lo3<*y gas for
)aintenance the engine.
7he *lo3<*y gas a)ount 3ill *e increased as
the pressure difference *et3een the cylinder
and the cran%case is large. 7he pressure inside
the cran%case is not changed so )uch even
the engine is running 3ith high speed. &o4
3hen the engine speed and load is increased4
the *lo3<*y gas 3ill *e increased. 7he *lo3<*y
gas treating should *e perfor)ed in t3o steps
according to the engine load.
7he *lo3<*y gas recirculation device co)prise
of hoses4 one is connected *et3een the roc%er
cover and the surge tan%4 the other is
connected *et3een the roc%er cover and the
inta%e duct *efore throttle *ody for fresh air.
;lso there is an air passage *et3een the
cran%case and the roc%er cover.
When the engine is 3or%ing4 the pressure in the
inta%e )anifold is al3ays negative pressure so
that the *lo3<*y gas 3ill *e flo3 fro) the
cran%case to the )anifold.
7he *lo3<*y gas in the inta%e )anifold is
inhaled into the cylinder. 7he *lo3<*y gas 3ill
*e treated *y these )ethods.
53 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Chapter %.
1. 1inds o- charger
7he *asic of increasing the engine po3er and
tor?ue is 『5o3 )ore oxygen can *e inhaled into
the engine』. !or exa)ple4 if the density and
a)ount of inlet air is high4 then the po3er and
tor?ue shall *e high.
;dditionally4 *y developing the inta%e syste)
and co)*ustion cha)*er4 it is possi*le to
inta%e )ore air. 8ne of possi*le )ethods is 『to
co)press the air and to inhale』4 that is4 to use
auxiliary device4 the charger.
7here are so)e types in the chargers. 7ypically4
there are a 3$rbocharger type in 3hich the
charger is driven *y the exhaust tur*ine4 and a
$percharger type in 3hich the supercharger is
driven in )echanically using driving force of
so)e part Asuch as cran%shaft rotationB.
7he 7ur*ocharger is4 as the H7ur*ine driving
chargerI4 a syste) co)pressing air *y the
co)pressor rotating a tur*ine using the
exhaust gas flo3. t is possi*le to get high
po3er output using a s)all device. 5o3ever4
3hen the engine is rotating 3ith lo3 speed4 the
tur*ine can not rotate 3ith high speed4 so the
co)pressing po3er is not enough and the
acceleration 3ill *e delayed.
7herefore4 even the accelerator is pressed the
engine rotation )ay not *e response
54 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
i))ediately4 that is 3$rbo 'ag. 7he lag )eans
the ti)e delay.
;s driven *y the interloc%ing )echanis) 3ith
the cran%shaft4 the &upercharger4 the
)echanical supercharger4 has the 3ell
response. 5o3ever4 in the lo3 engine speed4
the engine efficiency 3ill *e 3orse *y
increasing lea% air through the gap *et3een the
rotor and the housing. n the high engine
speed4 the driven force loss )ay *e increased.
7o recover these defects4 the structure of
supercharger syste) )ay *e changed or a the
7ur*ocharger and the &upercharger )ay *e
co)*ined to ne3 syste).
7he engine 3ithout such supercharger is called
as the naturally aspirate engine or @; engine.
2. 3$rbocharger
;s the tur*ocharger is a co)*ined 3ord of
tur*o Atur*ineB and charger4 it co)prises of a
tur*ine and a co)pressor directly lin%ed4 so
that the tur*ine 3heel is rotated *y the exhaust
gas energy and the inlet air 3ill *e co)pressed
*y the rotation of the tur*ine 3heel.
7he *ody of tur*ocharger co)prises of tur*ine
3heel4 co)pressor 3heel and axis4 and
attached near the exhaust )anifolds.
7he heated air *y the co)pressing is cooled *y
the intercooler and supplied into the engine via
the throttle valve. 7he exhaust gas passes to
the tur*o charger to rotate the tur*ine 3heel. n
order to prevent the over *oosting at high
speed4 3hen the *oost pressure is over the
predeter)ined pressure4 a 3aste gate valve
Aexhaust *ypass valveB of the W:7 A3aste gate
tur*ochargerB 3ill *e opened.
7he tur*ine 3heel is rotated 1..4... rp) O
1$.4... rp) 3ith hot exhaust gas a*out
,..L at high speed4 the tur*ine 3heel is
)ade of light )aterial having high heat
resistance such as cera)ics.
7he s)aller and lighter tur*ocharger is *etter
for the engine response such as acceleration
and deceleration *ut 3orse po3er at high
speed. 8n the contrary4 the *igger tur*o
charger has a high po3er at high speed *ut
55 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
slo3 response. 7herefore4 it is i)portant to
select the siGe of tur*o 3heel according to the
displace)ent volu)e of the engine. :enerally4
the co)pressor 3heel is )ade of alu)inu) to
)a%e lighter tur*ocharger.
!or the supporting of the high speed rotor
shaft4 lots of the engine oil is supplied to the
shaft for the lu*rication and the cooling. f the
engine is stopped fro) the high speed a*ruptly4
the tur*ocharger is rotated 3ithout the oil *y
inertia force of tur*ocharger until self stopping.
&o4 the rotor shaft )ay *e adhered. !or this
reason4 the tur*o engine should *e stopped
after idling.
3. 7oost ,ress$re and Co!pression 2atio
7he air pressure 3hich is pressuriGed *y the
tur*ocharger is the 1oost pressure. f the *oost
pressure is increased4 the inta%e air a)ount
into the cylinder is also increased and the
po3er output 3ill *e increased. 5o3ever4 the
*oost pressure can not *e increased 3ithout
li)itation. ;s increasing the *oost pressure4
the actual co)pression ratio is also increased4
so %noc%ing shall *e occurred at high
co)pression pressure. 7he actual co)pression
ratio represents ho3 the inlet air into the
cylinder co)pressed actually is. &o4 the *oost
pressure is regulated *y 3aste gate valve.
7he %noc%ing is the self ignition pheno)ena
3hile the fla)e is spreading after the ignition of
the spar% plug4 the un<*urn )ixture can *e
easily self<ignited at high te)perature condition
*y high co)pression. &o4 the %noc%ing is
occurred as )uch as the actual co)pression
ratio high.
1y this reason4 the co)pression ratio of the
tur*o engine in specification is s)aller than
that of the @; engine. !or exa)ple4 if the
engine having the represented co)pression
ratio of 1. is supercharged 3ith 1 at)4 then
the air a)ount 3ill *e 2 ti)es and the actual
co)pression ratio 3ill *e 2. and then %noc%ing
3ill suddenly *e occurred. :enerally4
co)pression ratio of the co))ercial tur*o
engine is set lo3er than that of the @; engine
*alancing 3ith the po3er4 tor?ue and fuel
7he %noc%ing can *e prevented *y controlling
the ignition ti)ing in the @; engine *ut the
%noc%ing control *y the ignition ti)ing in tru*o
engine is not easy *ecause the %noc%ing is
affected *y the *oost pressure.
7he )axi)u) po3er and fuel efficiency is
)ade =ust *efore the %noc%ing is occurred
56 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
*ecause the co)*ustion speed is )ost fast at
this situation. 1y sensing the %noc%ing noise4
the ignition ti)ing can *e fully advanced *y
E(/ Aelectronic control )oduleB until the
%noc%ing is occurred. 7he sensor for detecting
the shoc% noise is the %noc% sensor.
7he %noc% sensor converts the vi*ration a*out
' %5G into an electrical signal. 1y attaching at
the cylinder *loc%4 this signal is treated *y
co)puter 3ith the engine rp)4 cran% angle4 and
the inta%e air a)ount to control the ignition
ti)ing for preventing the %noc%ing
4. 3$rbo 'ag
7he tur*o charger is an air co)pressor for 『ho3
)uch air is supplied』. 1y using the negative
pressure ac?uired 3hen the piston goes do3n
and the flo3 inertia for inta%e air4 the @;
engine can )a%e the charging efficiency of
$"M,"N. n the tur*o charger4 charging
a)ount is 1.2M1." ti)es higher than @;
engine if the displace)ent volu)es are sa)e.
7herefore4 it is possi*le to )a%e s)aller engine
than @; engine if the po3er and the tor?ue are
5o3ever4 it has a defect4 so called the tur*o
lag. 7he tur*o lag is the ti)e delay fro)
starting the acceleration to the actual rp)
increasing of the engine. Especially4 it is
occurred 3hen the car is started4 accelerated
suddenly4 or speed up fro) the lo3 speed.
7he process is li%e thatC at first4 the throttle
valve is opened4 then the air a)ount is
increased4 then the co)*usted gas is
increased and the exhaust gas te)perature is
increased. ;fter that4 the rp) of the tur*ine is
increased *y the increasing exhaust gas4 so
that the supplied air a)ount *y the co)pressor
is increased. 1y this process4 the inta%e air
a)ount is increased )ore. ;ccording to this
process4 the engine acceleration is delayed
fro) the starting of acceleration to the actual
rp) increasing of the engine.
7o )ini)iGe the tur*o lag4 there are )any
researches and develop)ents. !or exa)ple4 as
the si)plest )ethod4 there is a )ethod for
increasing the exhaust speed pushed into the
tur*ine 3heel. 1y reducing the dia)eter of
noGGle of exhaust pipe4 as the exhaust speed
can *e increased 3ith the sa)e displace)ent
volu)e4 the tur*o lag can *e )ini)iGed.
5o3ever4 in this case4 the )axi)u) po3er is
7o attach s)all t3o tur*o instead of large one4
it is possi*le to reduce the tur*o lag. !or
exa)ple4 in the $<cylinder engine4 one tur*o is
attached at each 3<cylinder. -oing so4 it is
possi*le to prevent the exhaust interference as
3ell as to increase the po3er. 7his )ethod is
called as the t9in t$rbo type. 8n the other
hand4 the t9o 9ay t9in t$rbo type also
accepts the t3o tur*o4 *ut =ust one tur*o 3ill *e
driven at the lo3 speed to )aintain *etter
response and t3o tur*o 3ill *e driven at the
57 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
high speed for enhancing tor?ue.
5y*rid tur*o
!or another exa)ple4 there is a hybrid t$rbo
type in 3hich the supercharger is used for the
lo3 speed4 and the tur*ocharger is used for
high speed.
n the electronic control engine4 0@3 A6aria*le
:eo)etry 7ur*ochargerB is used to reduce the
tur*olag and to increase the tor?ue of the
7he 0@3 uses a set of ad=usta*le vanes4 or
noGGles4 to direct flo3 into the tur*ocharger
tur*ine. When the vanes are closed4 flo3 is
directed tangentially into the tur*ine 3heel.
7his i)parts )axi)u) energy into the tur*ine4
causing the tur*ocharger to spin faster.
(onversely4 3hen the vanes are opened4 they
direct flo3 into the tur*ine in a )ore radial
6:7 A6aria*le :eo)etry 7ur*ochargerB
7his reduces the angular )o)entu) of the flo3
going into the 3heel4 producing less tur*ine
3or% and ulti)ately slo3ing do3n the
". $percharging yste! and Heat
7he tur*ine shaft of tur*ocharger is supplied
lots of engine oil to cool and to lu*ricate.
7herefore4 engine oil in the tur*o engine is
deteriorated easier than @; engine.
;s co)*usting )ore )ixture4 the charging
syste) can not avoid increasing te)perature of
co)*ustion cha)*er.
;s the tur*ocharger perfor)s the *oosting
using the exhaust gas energy4 the *oosting
efficiency 3ill *e *etter at the higher
te)perature of exhaust. !or exa)ple4 *y
adopting the heat resistance )aterial to the
parts such as the exhaust valve 3ith natriu)
and the stainless exhaust )anifold4 and
)a%ing the supercharger of high heat
resistance )aterial4 the perfor)ance shall *e
7he inlet air should have as lo3er te)perature
as possi*le. 1ecause the air density is lo3ered
as the te)perature is higher4 the actual
58 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
co)pression ratio 3ill *e decreased as the
te)perature is increased 3ith the sa)e volu)e
and the oxygen a)ount 3ill also *e decreased.
f the inlet air is hot4 the co)press )ixture at
the co)pressing stro%e has higher te)perature
easy to )a%e a %noc%ing.
When the air is co)pressed the te)perature is
increased. 7his is the sa)e in the charging
process. &o4 the *oosting effect is reduced as
the a)ount of increased te)perature.
7herefore4 the heated air should *e cooled
using a radiator *efore it reaches at the throttle
valve. 7his cooling device is the intercooler.
7here are t3o types in the intercooler4 air
cooling and 3ater cooling syste).
;ir cooling type
Water cooling type
3he air type intercooler cools the inlet air
te)perature using the 3ind get fro) the
running of the vehicle. 7he intercooler is
attached at the front or side of the radiator.
7he structure of intercooler is si)ilar 3ith the
radiator4 *ut the flo3 is not the 3ater *ut the
co)pressed air *y the charger.
3he 9ater type intercooler cools the
co)pressed hot air using an additional cooling
3ater separated fro) the engine cooling 3ater.
7he 3ater has higher heat capacity than air4 so
the 3ater type is )ore effective than air type4
*ut it has high cost for parts and )aintenance.
$. $percharger
7he supercharger drives the *lo3er and
co)pressor to *oost using the engine po3er. t
can )a%e higher tor?ue and not )a%e any
response delay such as the tur*o lag. 5o3ever4
the driving force for supercharger is fro) the
rotation of the cran%shaft4 so the engine po3er
shall *e consu)ed. 7he )axi)u) po3er
output is lo3er than tur*ocharger.
7here are so)e %inds in the supercharger4
typically4 the #oots 1lo3er and the 0yshol)
3he 2oots 7lo9er has *een used in vehicle
engine. 7he *oost control is perfor)ed *y
co)puter. t is operated 3hen the high output
is needed such as for accelerating and driving
in high speed.
59 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
#oots *lo3er
7he structure of the roots *lo3er is4 to send
the air fro) one side to other side *y rotating
t3o elliptical shaped alu)inu) rotors coated
3ith special resin4 in the oval housing. f the
*oost pressure is over charged4 the valve is
opened to return so)e a)ount of the charged
0yshol) co)pressor
3he 'yshol! co!pressor had *een used in
industrial field not in vehicle engine. 7he
structure is that t3o rotors including 3 and "
scre3 *lades respectively are co)*ined in the
elliptical shaped housing. t is driven *y a 6 *elt
lin%ed 3ith the engine. 7he rotor is )ade of
alu)inu) alloy coated 3ith resin of teflon.
When it is rotating4 airs supplied fro) one side
is accu)ulated and trans)itted to other side
so the air is co)pressed. (onse?uently4 the
inta%e air is co)pressed up to 2 ti)es.
n the supercharger4 the roots *lo3er is not a
co)pressor *ut a fan as %no3 fro) the na)e.
n the @; engine4 the air is charged *y the
negative pressure generated 3hen the piston
goes do3n4 *ut the supercharger is additionally
e?uipped the *lo3er for enhancing the charging
efficiency *y positively sending the air. 7he
0yshol) co)pressor is a co)pressor so that it
can send the co)pressed air li%e the
60 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Chapter &.
'$brication yste!
1. 3he 2ole o- Engine :il
7he )ain role of the engine oil is to )ove the
dyna)ic syste) such as the piston in the
cylinder and the cran%shaft s)oothly. 7o do so4
the oil for)s a oil fil) at the )etal surface to
reduce the friction *et3een the )etal surfaces.
;t the sa)e ti)e4 the engine oil can secure the
co)*usted gas not to lea% to the cran%case4
cools the piston and valve4 and reduce the
shoc% trans)itted fro) the piston to the
cran%shaft as 3ell as clean the engine inside.
;s the lu*rication is already )entioned in the
section of 『2ournal 1earing』4 here4 3e 3ill
explain the other roles of the oil. 7he first is the
sealing role in 3hich the engine oil *et3een the
piston ring and cylinder prevents the lea%ing
the co)pressed air or co)*ustion air.
8il =et
7he cylinder head and the piston cro3n directly
contacts 3ith the hot co)*usted gas. 7he
cylinder head is cooled not only *y the cooling
3ater *ut also *y the oil at the dyna)ic
syste). 7he heat of piston cro3n is trans)itted
to the cylinder 3all via the piston ring. ;lso the
piston cools do3n *y spraying the engine oil.
;nother i)portant role of the oil is to reduce
the shoc%. 7he co)*ustion force is very strong
up to several tons 3eight force. 7his force is
trans)itted fro) the piston to piston pin4 to
(onnecting rod4 to cran% pin and to cran%shaft.
n that process4 the oil a*sor*s shoc% at the
piston pin and the cran% pin.
61 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Except that4 the engine oil can 3ipe out the
foreign )aterials such as car*on particle
generated *y *urned oil and )etal particles
fro) the 3ear of )etal surfaces.
7he oil also prevents inside of the engine fro)
*eing rusted *y che)icals fro) the
2. '$brication Method
n old style engine4 the lu*rication )ethod 3as
so called the plash type in 3hich the *ig end
of connecting rod hit and sprayed the oil
contained in the oil pan under the connecting
rod. @o3adays4 the lu*rication oil is sent to
necessary portion *y the oil pu)p and collects
to the oil pan. ;ccording to the oil circulation
)ethod4 there are the dry<su)p type and the
3et<su)p type. 7he lu*rication device consists
of the oil pan containing oil4 the oil filter
purifying the oil4 the oil pu)p sending the oil to
each portion.
3he 9et4s$!p is e?uipped in )ost car. 7he oil
contained in the oil pan is filtered *ig foreign
)aterials using the oil strainer consisting of
steel )eshes and sent to the oil -ilter *y oil
pu)p to eli)inate any tiny foreign )aterials.
7here is a oil gallery in the engine *loc%4 it is a
oil passage for each dyna)ic parts such as
cran%shaft4 cylinder head4 connecting rod and
cylinder 3all.
Wet<su)p type
-ry<su)p type
7he oil is returned to the oil pan fro) the
piston4 connecting rod4 cran%shaft and cylinder
head. When the car is turned rapidly or
accelerated or decelerated a*ruptly4 the oil in
the oil pan is leaned one side so it can not *e
pu)ped 3ell. &o)e engines have a separator4
a %ind of partition in the oil pan to prevent the
oil fro) leaning. !or the special engine for
racing car4 the cavenging p$!p ta%es the oil
62 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
and air together4 and the oil and air are
separated *y a separator and then oil is
contained to the separated oil tan%. 7his is the
dry4s$!p type.
;s the dry<su)p )ethod does not contain the
oil in the pan4 the oil pan can *e thinner. &o4
the lo3er part of engine is s)aller and the
engine is designed to have lo3er 3eight center.
5o3ever4 the device should *e co)plexed. t is
applied only to the special case for e?uipping
the opposed engine. &o)e engine e?uips a
se)i<dry<su)p type having the oil pu)p for
collecting the oil in the oil pan.
3. ,arts o- '$bricant yste!
7he 3 )ain parts consisting of the lu*ricant
syste) are oil pu)p4 oil filter and the oil cooler
cooling the heated oil.
7here are )any %inds in the oil p$!p ta%ing up
the oil in the oil pan. 7he passenger car uses a
gear pu)p co)*ined 3ith toothed 3heel and
lin%ed to the cran%shaft directly.
3he gear p$!p co)prises of a driven gear in
the pu)p *ody and the drive gear lin%ed 3ith
the tooth of the driven gear. When the drive
gear is rotating4 the driven gear is also rotating.
5o3ever4 the centers of each gear are
departing each other so the oil *et3een the)
is pu)ped fro) the inlet port to outlet port.
;ccording to the tooth shape4 there is an
nvolute type4 the 3rochoidal type4 and so on.
:ear type oil pu)p
7he oil sending a)ount *y the oil pu)p is
proportional to the engine rp). ;t the high
rotation of the engine4 the oil pressure is too
high. ;t the lo3 te)perature4 the degree of
viscosity of oil is increased so the oil pressure
is too high. 7he device for )aintaining the oil
pressure should *e e?uipped. t is called the
press$re reg$lator or the relie- valve.
7he oil -ilter purifying the oil fro) the car*on or
)etal particles. ; folded filter paper is inserted
into the cleaner case. 7here are t3o types for
the replace)ent the ele)ent type and the
cartridge type. 7he cartridge type is replaced
the filter 3ith case4 the ele)ent type is
replaced only filter ele)ent 3hen the filter is
7he proper 3or%ing te)perature of the engine
oil is a*out +.L. f the te)perature is too lo34
the friction *eco)es high *ecause of high
viscosity. f the te)perature is too high4 the oil
pressure is lo3ered so lu*ricating a*ility 3ill *e
degraded and also the oil in the high
perfor)ance engine can *e easily deteriorated.
63 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
&o the oil cooler is re?uired for the high
perfor)ance engine.
3he kinds o- oil cooler are divided into the
3ater type and the air type. 3he 9ater type oil
cooler )aintains the oil te)perature using the
engine cooling 3ater4 and the air type oil
cooler uses the running 3inds.
7he air type has si)pler device4 *ut the cooling
efficiency is lo3er than the 3ater type. 7he
3ater type is )ore co)plicated4 *ut it ensures
the )ore sta*le cooling efficiency.
4. Engine :il
;s 3e have )entioned4 the engine oil 3or%s for
reducing the 3ear4 cooling the piston and the
cylinder head4 sealing the gap *et3een the
piston and cylinder4 releasing the shoc%4
cleaning the engine inside4 preventing the
%noc%ing and so on.
7he re?uired characteristics of the engine oil
are as follo3s4
< Proper viscosity at 3or%ing condition
< :ood lu*ricant perfor)ance
< 5igh heat and corrosion resistances
< ;nti<*u**le
7he )ost i)portant characteristic is the
viscosity. 7herefore4 the engine oil is classified
*y t3o aspects4 the viscosity or the ?uality.
7he co))ercial engine oil is sold in case of
1W4 4W or 2.W. ;t the case4 there are na)e of
)anufacturer4 *rand na)e and oil na)e 3ith
the viscosity class and the ?uality class.

n the viscosity classification4 according to the
standard *y &;EA&ociety ;uto)otive
EngineersB4 the lo3er viscosity has lo3er
nu)*er and higher viscosity has higher
nu)*er. !or cold 3eather4 letter HWI is added.
!or exa)ple4 certain classification li%e that the
nu)*er 3. is for general purpose4 and the
nu)*er 2. is for 3inter4 is the single grade
using one nu)*er syste) only. ;nother
classification li%e that a range is represented
such as "W<3. or 1.W<3.4 is the !$lti grade.
n this case4 *y co)paring the "W<3. 3ith the
1.W<3.4 the "W<3. has lo3er viscosity than
1.W<3. at lo3 te)perature4 *ut has higher
viscosity at the high te)perature.
:enerally4 3hen the te)perature is increased4
the viscosity of oil 3ill *e decreased. 7o
indicate ho3 the viscosity is changed4 the
viscosity inde# is used. f the viscosity is not
easily changed4 then the viscosity index of the
oil is high. 7he higher viscosity index is easier
to use.
n the B$ality classi-ication4 the standard *y
the ;PA;)erican Petroleu) nstituteB is used.
64 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
!or gasoline engine4 the letter H&I follo3ed fro)
other alpha*et letters is assigned. !or the
diesel engine4 the letter H(I follo3ed fro) other
alpha*et letters is assigned. !or exa)ple4
letters fro) &- to &: are assigned for the
gasoline engine.
7he %ind of engine oil and replacing period are
decided *y type of engine4 driving condition and
a)*ient te)perature4 so please refer to the
)anual carefully to select the engine oil. 7he
replacing running ti)e is a*out 1.4...%) for
&-4 and 1"4...%) for &E4 and &! 1"4...%)
for gasoline engine roughly. !or tur*o engine4
the engine oil should *e replaced at every
"4...%) running ti)e *ecause the driving
condition is very tough. 7he )aintenance
intervals for each engines are varies4 refer the
)anuals for the each engine.
65 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Chapter (.
Cooling yste!
1. Cooling syste!
8f the total heat energy generated *y the
co)*ustion of fuel )ixture in gasoline engine4
a*out 3.N is converted into the %inetic energy
to push the piston4 another a*out 3.N is
3asted 3ith exhaust gas4 another a*out 3.N
is trans)itted to coolant through the piston
and the other a*out 1.N is lost *y friction.
;)ong the)4 if the heat trans)itted to the
co)*ustion cha)*er 3all is not eli)inated as
?uic%ly as possi*le4 the piston or the cylinder
3ill *e defor)ed *y this heat or the fil) of
lu*ricant oil 3ill *e *ro%en.
f this heat is cooled excessively4 the )uch
heat energy 3ill *e trans)itted to the coolant
so that the heat efficiency 3ill *e degraded.
7herefore4 cooling syste) should *e controlled
to )aintain the proper te)perature according
to the driving situation.
7he cooling syste) for vehicle engine is
classified into the 9ater4cooling syste! and
the air4cooling syste!. 7he air<cooling syste)
is hard to cool unifor)ly and easy to )a%e a
loud noise4 so no3adays al)ost this syste) is
not used in the vehicle.
;ccording to the flo3 type of 3ater cooling
syste)4 there are the C4t$rn -lo9 type flo3ing
fro) one side of the engine to the sa)e side4
and the cross -lo9 type flo3ing fro) one side
to the opposite side. ;dditionally4 according to
the flo3 direction4 it can *e classified into the
longit$dinal -lo9ing type flo3ing along to the
longitudinal direction of the engine4 and the
lateral -lo9ing type along to the lateral
direction of the engine.
n the 3ater<cooling syste)4 the cooling 3ater
is circulated *y 9ater p$!p fro) lo3er portion
of the 3ater =ac%et to the radiator. -uring
running4 strong 3inds can cool the radiator4
ho3ever4 3hen the car is stopped or slo3ly
driven4 a -an should send 3inds in force. 7he
cooled 3ater shall *e returned to the 3ater
=ac%et *y the pu)p. 1y installing a ther!ostat
*et3een the 3ater =ac%et and the radiator for
sensing the cooling 3ater te)perature4 if the
cooling 3ater has too lo3 te)perature4 the
ther)ostat *loc%s the 3ater passage. 7he
)ost used ther)ostat is the 3ax type in 3hich
66 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
a 3ax is secured *et3een capsules4 and the
3ax opens and closes the valve using the
expansion and shrin%ing *y heat. 7he
ther)ostat 3or%ing te)perature is a*out +"L.
2. 2adiator
7he radiator is a *ody radiating heat4 in this
case4 it is a device for radiating the heat into
the at)osphere. ;s the heater is called also as
radiator4 the cooling device in a car is called as
radiatorC especially this is called as heat core.
7o enhance the efficiency of radiator4 the area
should *e large as possi*le. :enerally4 the
radiator co)prises a radiator core
)anufactured *y 3elding )any )etal fins
around a tu*e flo3ing cooling 3ater therein and
t3o tan%s containing the cooling 3ater at *oth
sides of the core.
7he tan%s are attached at the upper portion
and lo3er portion of the heat core to flo3 hot
3ater to upper tan% and cold 3ater to lo3er
tan% using the convection principle.
-o3n flo3 type
(ross flo3 type
F<turn flo3 type
t is the )ost used type so called the do9n
-lo9 type. 7here is the cross -lo9 type in 3hich
the tan%s are attached at the left and right side
to flo3 in horiGontal. n the cross flo3 type4 the
height of radiator can *e lo3ered and the
67 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
design of front grill can *e freely changed.
5o3ever4 it has larger flo3 resistance. !or
another exa)ple4 there is an C4t$rn -lo9 type
in 3hich the radiator core is divided in up and
do3n at the center portion4 and the cooling
3ater flo3s into the one side of the upper core
and returned fro) the lo3er core side.
7he alu)inu) )aterial is )ore used in *oth
the tu*e flo3ing 3ater and the fin colliding 3ith
3ind. 7o )a%e *e lighter4 the resin tan%
including nylon 3ith glass fi*er instead of *rass
or alu)inu) is )ore used.
5igh te)perature
0o3 te)perature
7he radiator is e?uipped 3ith a radiator cap to
supple)ent the cooling 3ater. (onventionally4
this cap is =ust a cover so the cooling 3ater can
contact outer at)osphere directly. @o3adays4
the cap secures the inside of the radiator that
is the press$ri?ed radiator cap. n the
at)ospheric pressure4 the 3ater is *oiling at
1..L and not increasing the *oiling point. 1y
pressuring the cooling 3ater4 the pressure is
increased and the *oiling point of 3ater 3ill *e
higher so the difference 3ith the outer
te)perature is larger. 7herefore4 the cooling
effect shall *e increased.
;t the press$ri?ed radiator cap4 a press$re
valve and a vac$$! valve are attached4 When
the cooling 3ater is a*out 11.M12.L and the
inside pressure is high4 then the pressure valve
3ill *e open to ta%e out the cooling 3aterC 3hen
the te)perature is lo3 and the pressure is
lo3ered4 then the vacuu) valve 3ill *e open to
suc% the cooling 3ater to the radiator. &o the
pressure of cooling 3ater is )aintained
3. Cooling o- the Cylinder Head
7he )ost heated part of the engine is the
co)*ustion cha)*er. 7he cylinder and the
cylinder head are cooled *y the cooling 3ater4
the piston is cooled *y the engine oil.
7his heat affects to the te)perature of fuel
)ixture4 the co)*ustion condition4 and the
te)perature of exhaust gas4 that is4 to the
engine perfor)ances. 5o3 to cool the cylinder
head is the )ost i)portant thing.
7he )ost cylinder head parts are )ade of
alu)inu) alloys *ecause it has high heat
conductivity and light 3eight. ;s the inta%e port
having the si)ilar te)perature of outer
at)osphere and the exhaust port ta%ing out the
68 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
so hot exhaust gas are nearly installed4 they
)ay defor)ed *y the difference of the heat
expansion. 7herefore4 it is very i)portant to
cool 3ith *alancing the each part te)perature.
7he cooling 3ater is too% into the cylinder head
fro) the 3ater =ac%et at the cylinder *loc%4 and
flo3n around the exhaust port heated *y the
exhaust gas4 and then too% out via the inta%e
port. -oing so4 the te)perature difference
a)ong the cylinder head4 the exhaust port and
the inta%e port can *e )ini)iGed. t is possi*le
to prevent the engine parts fro) *eing
defor)ed or distorted *y the difference of the
heat expansion.
;dditionally4 the each te)perature around each
cylinder head in the series of cylinder should
not have *ig difference. &o the te)perature of
each cylinder should *e si)ilar as possi*le.
!or exa)ple4 if the cylinders are se?uentially
cooled fro) the front to the end4 then the later
cylinder can not *e effectively cooled *ecause
the cooling 3ater is already heated. n so)e
cases4 the cooling 3ater is distri*uted to each
cylinder at the *eginning of the cooling to *e
cooled e?uivalently.
7he oil can *e used for cooling the cylinder
head. 5o3ever4 the portions of the cooling
effect *y the oil is a*out 2.N4 the )ost cooling
is perfor)ed *y the cooling 3ater.
4. :verheat
7he 3ater te)perature of the engine is decided
*y the *alance *et3een the generated heat
capacity fro) engine and the radiated heat
capacity fro) radiator. f the cooling is not
enough4 then the cooling 3ater can *e *oiled.
(onse?uently4 3ater vapor can *e e=ected fro)
the radiator cap. 7his is called overheat. f the
car is going 3ith overheat state4 then the
perfor)ance 3ill *e degraded4 at last the
engine 3ill *e stuc%.
f the engine is nor)al and the ther)o)eter is
varying4 then it )eans that overheat 3ill *e
occurred. 7he )ain reasons are fourC one is
that the 3ind a)ount passing the radiator is
too s)allC another is that 3ind te)perature is
too highC the third is that a)ount of cooling
3ater is too s)all and the last is that the
engine is 3or%ing in hard situation
When a car has aero parts or large fog la)p so
the 3ind passing is hindered4 or 3hen the car
runs unpaved road so the radiator covers 3ith
dirty thereon4 then the cooling 3ater can *e
easily overheated. n other case4 if the fan *elt
is not tightened or *ro%en then the cooling
3ater can *e easily overheated *ecause the
3ind a)ount sent to the radiator is reduced.
7o tune up the tur*o engine4 3hen a large
intercooler is installed in front of the radiator4
then4 then 3ind a)ount 3ill *e reduced and the
cooling 3ater )ay *e overheated.
f the 3ater pipe is old so the cooling 3ater is
lea%ed4 or the *elt for driving the 3ater pu)p is
loosened4 then the cooling 3ater )ay *e easily
overheated *ecause the cooling 3ater is
69 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Chapter ).
*$el yste!
1. Carb$retor
n the gasoline engine4 the car*uretor or the
E(/ is used for )ixing the air and fuel. 7he
)ost 4<cylinder engine uses the E(/ syste)4
only so)e s)all engines use the car*uretor.
(ar*urator fuel syste)
Electronic fuel syste)
7he car*uretor uses spraying principle for
)ixing the gasoline and the air. 7hat is4 a fuel
spraying hole is )ade at the venturi and the air
flo3 at the venturi is high. &o the pressure at
the fuel spraying hole is decreased. &o the
gasoline 3ill *e follo3ing the air flo3 in the fog
for) and it is )ixed 3ith air.
7his pheno)ena is called as the 0ent$ri e--ect
na)ed *y the inventor. 7o enhance this effect4
the ventury is )ade in narro3 as possi*le. 7his
inside dia)eter is called the !ain bore si?e
indicating the siGe of the car*uretor. 1y define
the dia)eter of the venturi a*out the )ain *ore
siGe4 the gasoline a)ount can *e controlled
according to the air flo34 so the air<fuel ratio
can *e )aintained unifor)ly.
7he pipe for supplying the gasoline is the !ain
=et Afuel spraying holeB. 1y selecting proper =et
according to the driving state4 it is possi*le to
cover the 3ide range of rp). 5o3ever4 3hen
the engine is rotating 3ith lo3 speed such as
idling state4 the pressure in venturi is lo3ered
so the proper a)ount of gasoline is not
in=ected. When the engine is rapidly
accelerated4 the a)ount gasoline should *e
larger than nor)al state. 5o3ever4 it is not so
easy to control these variations. 7o overco)e
these hindrances4 various car*uretors have
*een developed. Especially4 in the )otor
sports4 as the displace)ent volu)e is
deter)ined4 the car*uretor is )ost i)portant
device for enhancing the engine perfor)ance.
7he operation of car*uretor is li%e thatC at first4
the gasoline fro) the fuel tan% is contained
into the -loating cha!berC 3hen the a)ount of
gasoline in the float cha)*er is reduced then
the float goes do3n and the )ore gasoline is
supplied fro) the fuel tan%. When a driver
presses the accelerator pedal4 the throttle
valve is opened and air flo3 passing the venturi
part so that the gasoline 3ill *e ta%ing out fro)
the )ain =et.
7he car*uretor has this si)ple structure4 so the
cost is lo3 and it has fe3er defects. 5o3ever4
for the )odern engines 3hich need to enhance
the e)ission4 the fuel efficiency and the po3er
output4 the car*uretor has )any pro*le)s.
70 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
2. Mechanical *$el In=ecting 6evice
1asically4 as regarding the negative pressure
as the air a)ount in=ected4 the car*uretor
supplies proper a)ount of gasoline using only
)echanical device. 7herefore4 it can not
)aintain the air<fuel ratio unifor)ly. t is need
to control the in=ected fuel a)ount exactly
using the predeter)ined the air<fuel ratio to
prevent fro) 3asting the fuel or to enhance the
engine response.
; ne3 syste) is developed in 3hich the inhaled
air a)ount is )easured directly4 and the
gasoline is sprayed to the inta%e )anifold 3ith
the opti)iGed the air<fuel ratio using the
)echanical device. 7his is the 14=etronic
invented *y 1osch.
1y co)paring 3ith the car*uretor4 the fuel
in=ecting device is in=ecting the fuel to the
)anifold directly. 7herefore4 it has good
response at the start and at accelerating and
decelerating. t is hard for this device to )a%e
the vapor lock in 3hich flo3 of fuel is *ro%en *y
vaporiGing the fuel in the )iddle of fuel pipe.
;dditionally4 it does not )a%e icing that the
car*uretor is froGen.
7he )ain feature of the K<=etronic is that
installing a circular plate na)ed sensor plate in
front of the throttle valve4 the gasoline a)ount
is controlled using that the opening state of
this plate is changed *y the air a)ount. When
the throttle valve is open4 the air presses the
sensor plate installing in the air flo3 )eter. 7he
lever supporting this plate is connected to the
device for controlling the in=ected fuel a)ount4
and the gasoline is in=ected to the fuel in=ecting
device *y a response to the plate operating.
;s a syste) replacing the car*uretor4 the K<
=etronic has *etter reliance. 5o3ever4 it
so)eti)es in=ects the fuel in the sa)e )anner
of car*uretor and controls the fuel a)ount
)echanically. 7herefore4 it is hard to control
the )ixture ratio precisely.
n so)e cases4 *y accepting an E(/ to a
portion of the syste)4 the KE<=etronic
supple)enting these 3ee% points is developed.
5o3ever4 step *y step4 the full E(/ syste) is
replacing these )echanical syste)s in order to
regulate the exhaust gas and to enhance the
fuel efficiency.
3. Electrical *$el In=ection yste!
7he )ain part of the electrical fuel in=ecting
syste) is the fuel in=ecting device deciding the
a)ount of fuel to )a%e proper )ixing ratio *y
)easuring the inlet air a)ount. 7his syste)
co)prises of the device of )easuring the air
a)ount4 the device of in=ecting the fuel4 and
the device of controlling theses operations.
7he representative )echanical fuel in=ecting
device4 the K<=etronic4 uses the sensor plate for
device )easuring air a)ount4 and trans)its
the )ove)ent of sensor plate to the valve
controlling fuel supplying. (ontrarily4 the
electrical fuel in=ecting syste) the )easured
air a)ount *y the air flo3 sensor is sent to
co)puter as an electric signal to decide the
fuel a)ount 3ith the result fro) the sensor for
chec%ing the engine status. 1y these devices4 it
is possi*le to control the air<fuel ratio precisely.
71 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
7he structure of the fuel in=ector is differed
according to the )anufacturer and the applied
engine type. Except the air flo3 sensor4 )ost
parts are si)ilar. 5ere4 3e 3ill explain a*out
the !ass air -lo9 type using the air -lo9 !eter
as the air flo3 sensor.
7he filtered air through the air cleaner is
)easured its a)ount at the air flo3 )eter4 and
ta%en into the surge tan% Ainta%e collectorB via
the throttle *ody including throttle valve
connecting to the accelerator pedal. 7his air is
distri*uted to the inta%e )anifold of each
cylinder4 and inhaled into the cylinder 3ith the
gasoline in=ected fro) the -$el in=ecting valve
;in=ector< to the )anifold or inta%e port.
;t this ti)e4 a controller decides the gasoline
a)ount opti)iGed to the driving status and
running condition of the vehicle. 7his is called
as the ECM. Electronic Control Mod$le. 7he
driving status is the electrical signal fro) the
9ater te!perat$re sensor4 the intake air
te!perat$re sensor4 and the throttle position
sensor4 and the running condition is the signal
fro) the speed sensor and the signal indicating
the air conditioning 3or%ing status. 7hese
signals are sent to the E(/.
)e)oriGing the data concerning to so)e
co)*inations of these signals and the control
)ethod 3hich indicate 3hat a)ount of gasoline
is in=ected according to the co)*ination to the
co)puter installed into the E(/4 the co)puter
can in=ect proper a)ount fuel decided *y the
co)puter according to the accelerator
operating4 fro) the in=ector.
4. *$el $pplying yste!
7he gasoline4 the fuel4 is contained in the fuel
tan% and sent to the fuel in=ection device after
eli)inating dust and 3ater *y filter.
72 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
3he -$el tank is )ade of galvaniGed steel to
prevent rust4 as 3ell as the plastic tan% is )ore
used. 7o protect the fuel fro) leaning one side4
there are so)e partitions4 called separator4
and level gauge is attached.
3he -$el p$!p has various types. 7he
car*uretor uses )echanical pu)p4 E(/ syste)
uses electrical pu)p using electric )otor
; reg$lator. pressure controller4 is attached for
sending the gasoline to the in=ector after
controlling the gasoline pressure 3ithin the
specific range.
73 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
!or in=ecting the gasoline4 an in=ector is used.
7he in=ector has a needle valve closing the
front of the noGGle so the valve is open *y
flo3ing an electric current to the solenoid to
in=ecting gasoline.
n the in=ecting )ethod4 there are a ingle
,oint In=ection A,IB in=ecting gasoline to the
collecting portions of )anifold4 and a M$lti
,oint In=ection AM,IB in=ecting gasoline to each
)anifold corresponding 3ith each cylinder. 7he
&P has the in=ector at the sa)e place as the
car*uretor does4 *ut this )a%es the )ixture
)ore effectively than car*uretor does.
7he /P can *e classified to point in=ection4
group in=ection and *an% in=ection according to
the in=ecting ti)ing. Each )anifold has in=ector.
7he point
operation at
the inta%e
stro%e of
each cylinder
according to
the engine
rotation. 7he gro$p in=ection perfor)s the
in=ecting operation 3ith a group of cylinders
3hich have the se?uential inta%e stro%e.
8f course4 the point in=ection can in=ect the
gasoline 3ith )ost opti)iGed ti)ing and
a)ount. 5o3ever4 the electrical circuit for
driving the in=ector is )ore co)plicated. &o4
so)e co))ercial car accepts the group
&i)plifying the group in=ection is the bank
in=ection. ;t the inta%e stro%e and the
co)*ustion stro%e in 3hich the piston goes
do3n4 the needed gasoline is in=ected after
dividing into t3o turns and ta%en into the
cylinder after gathering at the inta%e stro%e.
-ue to the si)ple structure4 it ensures the
74 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
)ost efficiency in the gasoline in=ection. &o it
is the )ost used )ethod in the gasoline
75 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Chapter 1+.
Ignition yste!
1. ,oint type Ignition
7he ignition syste) is to fire the )ixture
co)pressed in the co)*ustion cha)*er
)a%ing a fla)e 3ith a spar% plug.
When the plus and )inus poles of the 126
*attery is shorted4 a spar% can *e )ade.
5o3ever4 it is too 3ea% to ignite the )ixture.
7herefore4 this voltage should *e *oosted up to
1.4...M3.4...6. 7he ignition syste)
consists of a device for *oosting the voltage4 a
device for distri*uting the ignition ti)ing and a
series of spar% plug.
7o *oosting the voltage4 an ignition coil4 an
electric inducer4 is used. 7he ignition coil
co)prises of a iron core shaped of rod4 the
secondary coil 3ound 3ith a*out 2.4...O
3.4... turns using a hairy thin copper 3ire
around the core and the pri)ary coil 3ound
3ith 1".O3.. turns using copper 3ire of
.."M1)) dia)eter over the secondary coil.
When a current is flo3n at the pri)ary coil4 the
iron core 3ill *e an electro)agnet. ;nd at ti)e
3hen the current at the pri)ary coil is *ro%en4
a *oosted high voltage is induced at the
secondary coil.
7he distrib$tor has a device for controlling the
current flo3ing at the pri)ary coil and a ca)
having the sa)e nu)*er of extruded portions
in the )iddle of it. When this ca) presses the
ar) *y rotating4 the point attached in front of
the ar) is opened to cut the current of the
pri)ary coil Acontact breakerB. ;nd the
distri*utor has also a device4 overlapping 3ith
the contact *rea%er4 for distri*uting the
*oosted voltage of the secondary coil to each
;t the ca) of the contact *rea%er4 an
advancing device for controlling the ignition
ti)ing at the variations of engine speed to
send the *oosted high voltage to the spar% plug
in ti)e. ;s the ca) should rotate 3ith 1>2 of
the engine rp) to )atch the ignition ti)ing of
the plug4 it should *e attached at the end of
ca)shaft having the sa)e rotation speed. 7he
advancing device shall *e explained at the
section of 『gnition 7i)ing』 in detail.
;fter that4 the high voltage generated *y the
ignition coil is sent to each spar% plug through
a series of High43ension Cord.
7his ignition syste) is called contacting or
point type. f the driving for the contact *rea%er
is perfor)ed *y a transistor4 then it is called
the full transistor type. !urther)ore4 developing
the syste)4 the distri*utor is driven *y a
co)puter in the distri*utor<less ignition device.
2. *$ll 3ransistor type Ignition
n the point type ignition device4 the point is
opened *y the ca)4 and high voltage is induced
at the secondary coil 3hen the current at the
pri)ary coil is cut. &i)ilarly4 3hen the s3itch is
turn off4 a s)all un3anted spar% 3ill *e )ade
at the contact point. ;s the sa)e of
)echanical inertia4 the electrical current has
the inertia. 7his un3anted spar% 3ill *e
prevented *y inserting a condenser 3ithin the
ignition circuit.
!urther)ore4 the point 3ould *e *urned or not
3or% nor)ally at the high speed. 7herefore4 for
inter)itting the current of the pri)ary coil4 a
transistor is developed instead of the
)echanical point.
;s *eing )any %inds in the transistor. the
application )ethod is various also. When it is
used for a s3itch4 @P@ type transistor is used.
7his consists of a *ase )ade of P type
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Engine Principles
se)iconductor and t3o @ type se)iconductors
at the *oth side4 one is a collector4 and the
other is e)itter.
n nor)al state4 the current is not trans)itted
fro) the e)itter to the collector of @P@ type
transistor. 5o3ever4 if a little current A*ase
currentB is applied *et3een the e)itter and the
*ase4 then an a)plified current is induced fro)
the e)itter to the collector. Fsing this
characteristic4 it can *e utiliGed as a s3itch.
nstead of the ca) and point in the distri*utor4
the signal generator is e?uipped for detecting
the ignition ti)ing4 the electrical signal is sent
to the igniter including a transistor. 7hen the
*ase current )ade *y the signal generator is
applied to *et3een the e)itter and the *ase4
and then an a)plified current is generated fro)
the e)itter to the collector. Fsing this current
a)plifying4 the inter)ittent current is applied to
the pri)ary coil4 so a *oosted voltage can *e
generated at the secondary coil.
3he signal generator consists of a rotor having
the sa)e nu)*er of extruded portions 3ith that
of the cylinder4 a per)anent )agnet4 and a
pic%<up coil detecting the change of )agnetic
flux. ;s the signal rotor rotates 3ith the 1>2
speed of the engine speed4 the extruded
portions passes through the gap *et3een the
pic%<up coil and the per)anent )agnet
corresponding 3ith the ignition ti)ing. 7he
)agnetic flux generated *y the per)anent
)agnet 3ill *e changed4 so an induced current
3ill *e flo3n at the coil. 7his current is used for
the *ase current of the transistor. -oing so4
the trou*le fro) the contact *rea%er can *e
3. 6istrib$tor4less Ignition
n the full transistor ignition syste)4 the
pri)ary coil current s3itching is perfor)ed *y
the signal generator and the transistor4 3hile
the advancing and distri*uting of secondary
current is perfor)ed *y the sa)e device used
in point ignition syste). 7he distri*utor<less
ignition syste) is that the advancing of ignition
ti)ing is perfor)ed *y a co)puter using an
electrical signal fro) the sensor for ignition
ti)ing4 and the ignition is perfor)ed using
generated secondary current fro) the ignition
coil installed near the ignition coil.
7he )ain feature of this ignition device is the
high<tension ca*le connecting the ignition coil X
the distri*utor X the spar% plug. ;s this ca*le
3ill *e short only for connecting the spar% plug
and the coil =ust near*y or this cord is not
needed in so)e cases4 the trou*les fro) the
electro)agnetic 3ave interference fro) the
high current of the high<tension ca*le or the
ignition faults fro) the electrical resistance of
the ca*le can *e prevented. ;dditionally4 the
electrical advance device is )ore co)pact than
the )echanical one.
77 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
nductive type cran%shaft position sensor
8ptical type cran%shaft position sensor
n the sensor for deciding the ignition ti)ing4
the cranksha-t position sensor or the ca!sha-t
position sensor4 one type co)prises of a ti)ing
rotor driven *y the ca)shaft and a pic%<up
detecting the position of the rotor electrically.
;nther type co)prises of a 0E- attached at the
rotor *lade driven *y the ca)shaft and a photo
diode to decide the ignition ti)ing.
n the ignition )ethod4 there are the individ$al
ignition !ethod and the bank ignition !ethod.
ndividual ignition syste)
1an% ignition syste)
n the ndividual ignition )ethod4 the ignition
coil is installed at each cylinder to ignite
se?uentially according to the order decided *y
the E(/. n the *an% ignition )ethod4 the
ignition spar% is occurred at t3o cylinders at
the sa)e ti)e *y one ignition coil. n this ti)e4
one cylinder is in the co)pression stro%e and
the other cylinder is in the exhaust stro%e. 7he
ignition spar% at the co)pression stro%e is
effectively used4 *ut the spar% at the exhaust
stro%e is )eaningless. n this )ethod4 the
used a)ount of the transistors and coils is half
of individual ignition )ethod4 so the cost 3ill *e
78 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
4. park ,l$g
7he spar% plug ignites at the co)pressed
)ixture to fire it according to the spar% arc *y
the high voltage generated fro) the ignition
coil. 7he spar% plug contacts4 at first4 3ith the
)ixture having the si)ilar te)perature of outer
at)osphere in the inta%e stro%e4 ;fter that4 it
contacts 3ith the exhaust gas over 2...L and
generates high voltage of 2.4...6. 7herefore4
it is the device 3or%ing in )ost severe
7he spar% plug is used for )any %inds of
engine in co))on4 and )anufactured 3ith a
standardiGing specification internationally.
7here are )any %inds according to the
di)ension4 structure4 perfor)ance and
characteristic Aespecially4 heat characteristicB.
7his is distinguished *y the alpha nu)erical
indicator. 7his indicating character differs fro)
the )anufacturer4 so *e careful 3hen replacing
the). :enerally4 spar% plug is classified as
14))4 12))4 and 1.)) according to the
siGe of attaching scre3. 7o )a%e the
co)*ustion cha)*er co)pact4 the s)aller plug
is the *etter. 5o3ever4 the s)aller can *e the
easier to *e affected *y heat. t is very
i)portant to inspect the te)perature situation
of the engine in order to use the spar% plug.
7he spar% plug4 during driving4 is affected *y
the various te)peratures. 7he )ost affecting
te)perature is the co)*usted a)ount of fuel
)ixture per ti)e. ;s the engine is high speed4
the te)perature of plug 3ill *e high. Even in
the sa)e driving condition4 the te)perature
differs according to the heat range of the plug.
7he heat range is the degrees of 3hich the
spar% plug radiates the heat ac?uired fro) the
cha)*er. ;s the plug easily radiates the heat4
the heat range is high. n racing engine4 the
cold type having high heat range should *e
used to prevent the te)perature fro)
increasing easily. (ontrarily4 if the engine is
usually used in lo3 speed4 the hot type having
lo3 heat range should *e used to prevent fro)
*eing cold easily.
7he heat range is represented 3ith nu)eric
character on the plug. t differs 3ith the
)anufacturer. t should *e selected according
to the used standard plug. f the plug not
corresponding 3ith the engine features and
driving conditions4 for exa)ple4 if it is used in
the lo3 te)perature4 then car*on slug 3ill *e
deposited on the end portion of the plug4 so it
doesnEt 3or%. f the te)perature is excessively
high4 then the )ixture is exploded *efore the
ignition is 3or%ed4 that is pre<ignition 3ill *e
79 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Chapter 11.
Co!b$stion and Co!b$stion
1. Co!b$stion ,rocess
7o get high output and to enhance the fuel
efficiency4 it is necessary to co)*ust the
)ixture of fuel and air perfectly as soon as
possi*le 3hile the co)*ustion process.
7herefore4 to enhance the engine perfor)ance
is to learn the relationship 3ith the co)*ustion
and to study ho3 to increase the fuel
7he )ixture of fuel and air *y the car*uretor
and in=ector is4 at first4 inhaled into the cylinder
through the inta%e valve 3ith the s3irling flo3.
;nd then it is co)pressed 3ith the s3irl flo3 *y
the piston going up fro) the 1-( A*otto) dead
centerB. ;t this ti)e4 the fog state fuel is
converted into a vapor state *y the heat fro)
the cha)*er 3all and adia*atic co)pression4
and the strong flo3 of the )ixture. &o)e
co)ponents )ay change to the fla))a*le gas.
When a fla)e is applied to the gas 3ith high
te)perature4 then a fla)e %ernel is )ade
*et3een the electrodes of the plug. 7his fla)e
%ernel is a co)*usting gas unit having high
te)perature )ade fro) the reaction the fuel
gas and the oxygen in the air.
7his co)*usting gas unit i))ediately heats
the )ixture there<around. 7he )ore )ixture
surrounding the %ernel reacts 3ith )ore oxygen
*y this heat and then converts into larger
co)*usting gas unit. Within a short ti)e4 this
se?uence is 3idely spread so the 3hole )ixture
is converted into the co)*usting gas. 7his is
the co)*usting process of the )ixture.
;s the ti)e for *eing the spar% is only a*out
2>1... seconds A2 )ille secondsD )sB4 if the
te)perature around the fla)e %ernel is lo3 or
the %ernel is *lo3n out *y the s3irl of the
)ixture4 then the )ixture can not *e
co)*usted. 7his pheno)enon is called the
n the process of the co)*ustion4 the *oundary
*et3een the co)*usting gas and the
co)*usted gas is called the fla)e surface. 7he
expansion velocity of the fla)e surface is the
fla)e velocity. 7he fla)e velocity is the sa)e
)ixing the co)*ustion velocity 3hich is the
speed of fla)e developing 3ith statistic fuel
gas4 the expansion velocity 3hich is the speed
of gas expansion *y the co)*usting heat4 and
the velocity of the gas flo3.
7he co)*ustion velocity is changed *y the
co)ponent of the fuel and air<fuel ratio 3hich is
the 3eight ratio *et3een the fuel and air.
5o3ever4 it is very slo34 i.e. several c) per
second4 ;s adding the gas expansion velocity
80 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
and flo3 velocity to the co)*ustion velocity4
the fla)e velocity is a*out 1"M2.) per
second4 even it can *e 3.) per second.
7herefore4 the flo3 of )ixture is very i)portant.
2. Air4-$el ratio and *la!e 0elocity
7o enhance the engine perfor)ance4 the fla)e
velocity should *e fast and the a)ount heat
energy 3hich 3ill *e converted into the %inetic
energy should *e as large as possi*le.
7he fla)e velocity is decided *y the three )ain
ele)ents including the co)*ustion velocity4 the
gas expansion velocity4 and the )ixture flo3
velocity. 7o co)*ust the )ixture fast4 these
ele)ents should *e )aintained in the *est
(onsidering the co)*ustion velocity and gas
expansion velocity4 the fla)e velocity is
decided *y the )ixture ratio 3hich is the ratio
*et3een the fuel and air and the te)perature
and the pressure of the )ixture. 7he
te)perature and the pressure are decided *y
the te)perature of cha)*er and co)pression
ratio. 7o consider the te)perature and
pressure is very co)plicated4 so here4 3e
assu)e these conditions are constant. We
focus on the fuel co)ponent and the )ixing
7he gasoline is a li?uid consisting of 4M12
car*on ato) in chain lin% and various
)olecules including hydrogen ato). f the
co)ponent ratio is changed or a )aterial is
added to accelerate the co)*ustion4 then the
co)*ustion velocity and the gas expansion
velocity shall *e faster.
7he )ixing ratio is a nu)*er representing the
ratio of fuel a)ount and the air a)ount. t can
affect to the co)*ustion velocity. &o it can *e
represented *y the three indicating nu)*er
such as the air4-$el ratio Aor AD* ratioB4 the
e#cess air ratio4 and the eB$ivalency ratio.
7he air<fuel ratio is the value calculated *y
3hich 3eight of air included into the )ixture is
divided *y the 3eight of fuel included into the
)ixture. t is called the AI2D*CE' 2A3I:4 or
AD* ratio. When the air and fuel are )ixed4 the
;>! ratio for co)plete co)*ustion theoretically
is called the theoretic AD* ratio. 7he theoretic
;>! ratio of the regular gasoline is a*out 14.'.
f the actual ;>! ratio is less than the theoretic
;>! ratio4 then the a)ount of the gasoline is
)ore than the theoretic ;>! ratio so it is
indicated as 『#(5』4 other3ise4 as 『0E;@』.
!or the )ixture is co)*usted in the *est
condition and for the fla)e velocity is fastest4
the ;>! ratio is little s)aller than the theoretic
;>! ratio4 that is 13."M14. 7his )eans that
3hen the fuel is little )ore than air4 the
co)*ustion is *etter. 7he co)*ustion velocity
has the )axi)u) value at the ;>! ratio of
12M134 3ith )ore gasoline a)ount.
7herefore4 the engine po3er output 3ill *e
81 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
)axi)u) at the ;>! ratio of 12M13.
8ther3ise4 the output 3ill *e reduced. n the
aspect of fuel consu)ption ratio4 the
consu)ption ratio 3ill *e )ini)u) value a*out
the ;>! ratio of 1$4 that is4 little lean state has
the *est fuel efficiency. ;fter co)*usted4 if any
oxygen is not re)ained4 then the gasoline is
not co)pletely co)*usted.
3. Ignition 3i!ing
7he ignition ti)ing is 3hen the co)pressed
)ixture is fired4 that is the ti)ing for )a%ing a
electrical fla)e at the spar% plug. :enerally4 it
can *e thought 3hen the )ixture is fully
co)pressed and the piston reaches at the 7-(
Atop dead centerB is the *est ti)ing for the
ignition. 5o3ever4 it is too late. 7he reason is
that the co)*ustion velocity of the )ixture is
changed *y the gas flo3 velocity. ;s the engine
speed is increased4 the gas flo3 3ill *e faster
and faster. 7herefore4 the fla)e velocity 3ill *e
faster. &o4 to ignite 3hen the piston is at the
highest point is too late. 7he *est ti)ing is
3hen the piston is al)ost at the highest point
that is4 3hen the area of fla)e surface is
al)ost half of the co)*ustion cha)*er.
7he ignition ti)ing is represented *y the
rotation angle of the cran%shaft a*out the 7-(
of the piston. n ter)s of the angle4 if the
ignition ti)ing is set to 4.M3.P *efore the
7-(4 then the co)*ustion cha)*er has the
)axi)u) pressure at the 1"M2.P after the
f the ignition ti)ing is too early perfor)ed4
then the co)*ustion is occurred *efore the
piston reaches at the highest point. n this
case4 the co)*ustion force 3ill press the up
rising piston4 so the force 3ill *e reduced. f the
ignition ti)ing is too late4 then co)*ustion
force 3ill press the do3ning piston. &o the
co)*ustion force 3ill not *e 3or% effectively.
;s the fla)e velocity is as fast as the engine
speed4 the ignition ti)ing should *e
corresponded 3ith the engine speed in order to
)axi)iGe the pressure of co)*ustion cha)*er
at the 7-( of the piston. 7his operation is to
advance the angle of the ignition in considering
of the cran%shaft rotating angle4 so it is called
the advance angle.
n the syste) for perfor)ing the advance angle4
there are the )echanical type and the electrical
type. 7he )echanical advance angel device is
asse)*led *et3een the distri*utors applying
currents to the spar% plug. 1y detecting the
engine speed )echanically4 the ti)ing for
applying current is controlled according to the
engine speed to advance the ignition ti)ing of
the spar% plug. !or exa)ple4 in the vacuu)
advance angle device4 the advance angle is
perfor)ed *y the operation proportional to the
negative pressure of the device connected to
the car*uretor 3ith pipe using the pheno)enon
in 3hich the negative pressure in the inta%e
port is increased according to the engine
7he electrical advance angle device is that the
engine speed and the inta%e air pressure are
detected *y the sensor4 and the *est ignition
ti)ing is decided *y the co)puter.
4. 9irl E--ect
;s the fla)e velocity is fast4 )ore heat energy
can *e converted into the %inetic energy.
deally4 the )ixture should *e exploded 3hen
the piston =ust passes the highest point to
trans)it the expansion force of the co)*usted
gas to the piston )ost effectively. !or full
co)*ustion4 in ter)s of cran%shaft rotation
angle4 the ti)e of 4.M$.P rotation should *e
needed. &o4 the actual situation differs fro)
the ideal situation.
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Engine Principles
7o ensure the fast co)*usting4 the gasoline
should *e )ixed 3ith air 3ell to *e ena*le to
perfor) the che)ical react *et3een hydrogen
car*on and oxygen.
7o do so4 the gasoline particle fro) the in=ector
should *e tiny and easy to *e vaporiGed as
possi*le. ;nd the in=ector orifice should face to
the inta%e valve in order not to adhere the
gasoline particles to the inta%e port 3all. !or
so)e racing engines4 t3o in=ectors )ay *e
attached at each cylinder.
;dditionally4 in order to *e )a%e the fla)e
velocity *e fast4 the flo3 velocity of gas should
*e faster. When the engine is rotating in slo3
speed4 the flo3 velocity of the )ixture is very
i)portant ele)ent. When the engine is rotating
in high speed4 the flo3 of )ixture is high4 so
the )ixing is 3ell and the fla)e velocity is
enough fast. 5o3ever4 3hen the engine speed
starts to *e decelerated4 the piston do3ning
speed is lo34 so the )ixture flo3 velocity is
lo3ered and the gasoline fog 3ithin the )ixture
can not *e easily vaporiGed.
7herefore4 so)e researches and develop)ents
for direction of inta%e port4 for reducing the siGe
of inta%e port and for using t3o inta%e ports in
3hich one inta%e port is closed to flo3 in 3hirl
3hen the engine 3or%s in lo3 speed4 to )ix the
fuel 3ith air enough. 7he flo3 of 3hirl is divided
into the s9irl of 3hich direction is in horiGontal
and the t$!ble of 3hich direction is vertical.
7he i)portant thing in the s3irl is that the s3irl
generated at the inta%e stro%e should *e
re)ained even should *e )uch stronger in the
ignition<co)*ustion stro%e.

&3irl 7u)*le
7o do so4 one )ethod is that a little gap called
sB$ish area is )ade *et3een the )ost far
position fro) the plug and the end portion of
the piston cro3n4 to *lo3 the )ixture *y s?uish
area 3hen the piston is near the highest point.
". 1nocking
Even it is rarely occurred in no3adays4 the
engine )a%es a noise 3hen the car is
83 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
accelerated in high load condition.
7his is the typical %noc%ing. 7his co)es fro)
that the co)*ustion is not started fro) the
fla)e %ernel of the spar% plug and expansion of
the fla)e surface4 *ut fro) the early
co)*usting of the )ixture in the end Gone
3hich 3ill *e co)*usted at last.
;s the fla)e surface is a *oundary4 inside of
the surface is filled 3ith the co)*usted gas
and outside of the surface is filled 3ith un<*urn
gas. 7hat is the co)*ustion is spreading fro)
the fla)e surface. 1efore this fla)e surface is
not reached4 the un<*urn gas is self co)*usted
*y the pressure of the gas expansion. 7his gas
3ith the high pressure and high te)perature
%noc%s the cylinder head and piston4 so the
engine has har)ful da)ages. 7he %noc%ing is
occurred at once4 then the piston and cylinder
have the a*nor)ally high te)perature4 so the
se?uential %noc%ings can *e easily follo3ing.
1ecause that the %noc%ing is generated at the
end Gone of the co)*usting cha)*er4 the *ore
3ill *e enlarged *y the &58#7 &7#8KE and it is
easily generated in the engine having longer
fla)e spread distance. 7herefore4 the )odern
engine is e?uipped 3ith the spar% plug4
especially the center pl$g4 at the center of the
cha)*er or 3ith a sB$ish area enhancing the
)ixture flo3 *y )a%ing the end Gone *e
@o3adays )ost car doesnEt )a%e any %noc%ing
during driving. 7he engine is developed to
prevent fro) %noc%ing.
8n the other hand4 there is a research for
enhancing the engine perfor)ance using the
%noc%ing. 7he %noc%ing4 as the firstly
concerned4 is occurred at the lo3 engine speed
in 3hich the co)*ustion of )ixture is lag
*ehind of the a*nor)al co)*ustion. :enerally4
it is occurred at the ignition ti)ing is advanced
3hen the co)pression ratio is increase or the
fla)e velocity is high. 7herefore4 *y detecting
the %noc%ing4 if the engine is run 3ith )axi)u)
advance of ignition ti)ing4 the *est co)*usting
condition can *e )ade.
%. Abnor!al Co!b$stion
7he all co)*ustion contrary 3ith the nor)al
co)*ustion in 3hich the co)*ustion starts
fro) the spar% plug and spread over all
cha)*er are called a*nor)al co)*ustions. 7he
%noc%ing is the representative exa)ple. 7here
are also other types of a*nor)al co)*ustions.
R ,2E4I@/I3I:/ 5 ,:34I@/I3I:/
;s the P#E is H*eforeI and the P8&7 is
H;fterI4 these ignition )eans that the )ixture
can *e co)*usted *y the other fla)e *efore
or after the nor)al ignition is occurred. 7he
,2E4I@/I3I:/ is occurred at the
84 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
co)pression stro%e *y any reason such as
re)aining at the car*on slug attached at the
plug4 cha)*er 3all4 piston or valves. 7he
,:34I@/I3I:/ is that the )ixtures not
co)*usted at the nor)al fla)e period *y
)isfire4 un<*urned gas is co)*usted at the
co)*ustion stro%e. 1oth of the) are very
si)ilar 3ith the %noc%ing4 so they can )a%e
a great affects at the parts around the
S 2C/ :/
;s *eing also called as dieseling4 this is the
pheno)enon that the engine is still 3or%ing
even the ignition s3itch is off. 6ery si)ilar
3ith the P#E<:@78@4 the car*on slug 3or%s
as a fla)e seed. 7his is generally occurred
3hen the %ey is off 3ith the overheated
car*uretor engine. 7his is na)ed fro) that
the diesel engine co)*usts 3ithout ignition.
T A*3E2 *I2E
7his is also called as the ;!7E# 1F#@. 7his
is that the inco)pletely co)*usted gas is
exploded at the exhaust syste) 3ith a *ig
co)*ustion sound. When the accelerator is
turn to open or close a*ruptly4 the exceeded
gasoline is exhausted into the cha)*er and
then the inco)pletely co)*usted )ixture is
exploded at the catalyst converter or at the
)uffler. 7his can )a%e da)age to the
exhaust syste).
U 7AC1 *I2E
n the state that the al)ost of the
co)*usted gas is ta%en out at the exhaust
stro%e4 there are so)e a)ount of re)ained
gas. 7he re)ained gas 3ith high te)perature
)a%e a ignition the air>fuel )ixture at the
*eginning of inta%e stro%e. n so)e cases4
the fire can reach *ac% to the air cleaner.
7his is )ainly occurred at the car*uretor
7hese a*nor)al co)*ustion is not often
occurred in nor)al driving situations4 ho3ever4
*e careful to )aintain the engine.
&. hape o- Co!b$stion Cha!ber
;ccording to the co)*ustion )ethod4 the
engine perfor)ance shall differ. 7hen4 3hich
shape of the co)*ustion cha)*er is the *est
for engine perfor)ance.
t )ay *e true that the faster fla)e velocity is
the *etter in order to increase the engine
output. With the sa)e gasoline and ;>! ratio4
3e can consider the follo3ing five ite)s for the
85 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
engine po3er.
R 7he a)ount of the inhaled )ixture shall *e
plentiful A/ore fuel4 )ore heatB
S 7he flo3 =ust *efore the ignition shall *e
A7he faster is the *etter4 ho3ever4 too fast
)a%es a )isfireB
T 7he ignition plug should *e installed at the
center of the co)*ustion cha)*er Ato ensure
fast co)*ustion of )ixtureB
U 7he co)pression ratio should *e as high as
possi*le AWith high co)pression4 heat
efficiency is goodB
V (o)*ustion cha)*er should *e co)pact
siGe to prevent heat fro) losing.
Ato ensure the heat energy converted into
%ine)atical energyB
!irst of all4 concerning the inhalation a)ount of
)ixture in R4 this is decided *y the attaching
angle4 nu)*er4 siGe4 lift and shape of the
inta%e valve. t is explained in the inta%e<
exhaust valve section in detail.
n the )ixture flo3 in S4 here4 ho3 the )ixture
is ta%en into the cylinder is the )ost i)portant
point. Even the )ixture flo3 is 3ell4 if the
shape of valve inside and piston cro3n are
co)plicated4 then the gas 3ill not *e expanded
s)oothly4 so it should have the si)ple shape
as possi*le.
7he plug position in T is decided *y the
nu)*er and position of the inta%e<exhaust
valves. n the 4<valve engine )ost used
no3adays4 the plug shall *e installed at the
center of the co)*ustion cha)*er4 ideally.
;s the co)pression ratio )entioned in U is
higher4 the co)*ustion 3ill *e faster *ecause
the te)perature and pressure of the
co)*ustion cha)*er =ust *efore ignition is
high. 5o3ever4 if the co)*ustion is too fast4
86 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
then the co)*ustion is perfor)ed a*nor)ally.
&o the cha)*er can *e da)aged *y this
a*nor)al co)*ustion such as %noc%ing.
7o )a%e that the heat can not *e lost easily as
)entioned in V4 consider thatC as the inside
area of the co)*ustion cha)*er is *igger4 the
heat loss 3hen the exploded gas presses the
piston 3ill *e higher4 that is4 the heat energy
3hich 3ill *e converted into the force energy
3ill *e lost. With the sa)e volu)e of the
co)*ustion cha)*er4 as the inside surface
area of the cha)*er is s)allerC the heat
converting ratio 3ill *e higher.
7herefore4 3hen the ratio *et3een the
&F#!;(E and 680F/E of the co)*ustion
cha)*er is the D0 ratio4 this ratio represents
the co)*ustion efficiency. 7he s)aller &>6
ratio is *etter for the co)*ustion efficiency.
(. Intake4E#ha$st 0alve 5 Co!b$stion
7o get *etter vol$!e e--iciency4 )ore a)ount
of inta%e air is needed4 and the flo3 of inta%e<
exhaust should *e )ade s)oother. 7he siGe
and shape of the inta%e port is i)portant as
3ell as the attaching angle4 dia)eter and
nu)*er of the valves should *e appropriate to
enhance the volu)e efficiency.
7he larger dia)eter of valve is the *etter. f the
valve is too large4 it is heavy so it has large
inertia force 3hen it is open and close.
7herefore4 it 3ill hinder the engine fro) rotating
3ith high speed. 7he siGe of valve should *e
opti)iGed. 7he 4<valve engine having t3o set of
inta%e<exhaust valve is )ore applied recently
than the 2<valve engine having one set of
inta%e<exhaust valve.
7he three<valve engine having t3o inta%e valves
and one exhaust valve 3as noticed. 5o3ever4
the plug 3as not installed at the center of
cha)*er4 and the exhaust valve 3as too large
so the t3o inta%e valve syste) is 3orse than 4
valve syste).
7he cha)*er types of 4<valve engine are the
,E/3 2::* type having the roof shaped
cylinder head and the ,oly4spherical type
having the so)e overlapped spheres. n the
*oth types4 a pair of inta%e<exhaust valve is
facing 3ith each other4 and the spar% plug is
located at the center. t satisfies the
re?uire)ent condition for the excellent volu)e
1ig valve angle &)all valve angle
7he valve inclined angle is the angle of inta%e<
exhaust valve a*out the center line of the
cylinder. 7he valve angle is the angle *et3een
the center lines of each valve. 7hese angles
)a%e an i)portant affect to the cha)*er
87 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
shape4 the &>6 ratio4 the co)pression ratio4
and the shape of inta%e<exhaust ports. f the
valve angle is to *e larger4 then the valve
dia)eter can *e )ade 3idely4 and the inta%e<
exhaust gas 3ill *e flo3n )ore s)oothly.
5o3ever4 the cha)*er is to *e larger also4 so it
has de)erits such that the co)pression ratio
3ill *e reduced4 and the &>6 ratio is to *e
large. @e3 type engine has the co)pact
co)*ustion cha)*er of 3hich valve angle is
s)aller than ever.
7he -ive4valve engine having the three inta%e
valves and t3o exhaust valves is for high
perfor)ance *y enlarging the cross area of the
valve and lightening the valve 3eight. 5o3ever4
it has )ore co)plicated cha)*er so the &>6
ratio 3ill *e larger as 3ell as the )echanis)
around the valve 3ill *e )ore co)plicated.
). ,iston 5 Co!b$stion Cha!ber
7he piston head for)s the co)*ustion
cha)*er *y facing the inta%e<exhaust valves
portion of cylinder head. 7o co)*ust the
)ixture fast4 the inside surface of the cha)*er
should have fe3er extruded or recessed
portions to flo3 the )ixture s)oothly4 and the
&>6 ratio should *e s)all as possi*le.
7herefore the piston head should *e flattened.
n actual4 considering other ele)ents such as
the valve angle4 the cylinder head shall have
the recessed shape. 7herefore4 to increase the
co)pression ratio4 the piston head should *e
extruded4 highly. !urther)ore4 if the engine has
high co)pression ratio4 then the gap *et3een
the cylinder head and piston head should *e
narro3 so it need to )a%e the valve recess *e
larger to prevent the valve fro) a*nor)ally
operating. With these li)itations in the
)echanis)4 there are )any researches for
*etter co)*ustion.
7he piston has an i)portant role to trans)it
the co)*ustion force to the connecting rod
effectively4 so the other portions except the
piston head should *e precisely designed.
7he co)*usted gas is sealed 3ith the piston
ring. 7o ensure the sealing4 the gap *et3een
the piston and cylinder Apiston clearanceB
should *e s)all as possi*le. 7he piston 3ill *e
cooled *y the lu*ricant oil and the heat 3ill *e
radiated through the piston ring. 7he ther)al
expansion coefficient of the alu)inu)4 the
)ain )aterial of the piston4 is 23 relatively
higher than steel of 3hich ther)al expansion
coefficient is 12O1"4 3hich is the )ain
)aterial of the cylinder. 7herefore it is hard to
)atch the piston siGe to the cylinder siGe. !or
exa)ple4 as the *ac% side of the piston head is
reinforced4 it is )ade little s)aller than the
s%irt part and the piston dia)eter along to the
inserting axis of piston pin is little s)aller than
the perpendicular axis.
;s the connecting rod rotates the cran%shaft4
the piston 3ill press the connecting rod 3ith
inclined direction. 7herefore4 the piston )ay *e
tre)*ling along the lateral direction so the s%irt
3ill stri%e the cylinder 3all. 7his is called the
piston slap or the sides knock. 7his is the
cause of the noise or po3er loss *y friction.
7o )ini)iGe this slap4 the center of the piston
pin is offset a*out 1M2.")) along to the
)ove)ent direction of the connecting rod.
-oing so4 the force pressing the piston to the
88 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
lateral direction 3ill *e reduced. t is called the
offset piston.
89 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
Chapter 12.
,er-or!ance. *$el
cons$!ption. /oise. 0ibration
1. 2eB$ired ,er-or!ances
6arious perfor)ances are re?uired for the
engine. Each perfor)ance is related 3ith each
other in co)plex )anner4 so these affect to the
perfor)ance of the vehicle. !urther)ore4 as
ti)e is going4 3hich perfor)ance is )ore
i)portant has *een changed. 5o3ever4 the
output po3er is the )ost i)portant ite)
*ecause the purpose of the engine is
developed )a%ing a po3er for the vehicle.
(onventionally4 to operate engine for )ore 3or%
should need )ore fuel to *e used. #ecently4 *y
enhancing the engine efficiency4 *etter fuel
efficiency and *etter output can *e ac?uired.
7o develop the co)*ustion efficiency of the
engine is concerned to the purification of the
exhaust gas. 7he car*on )onoxide and the
hydrogen car*on a)ong the three )a=or
har)ful )aterials in the exhaust gas )ay not
*e exist if the gasoline can *e co)pletely
co)*usted4 in ideal. 7he one4 the nitrogen
oxide is also one of the i)portant pro*le)s.
(onsidering that the engine 3eight is 1.M1"N
of 3hole 3eigh of the vehicle4 another )ethod
for ac?uiring *etter output and fuel efficiency at
the sa)e ti)e is to )a%e engine *e co)pact
and light. With the sa)e output4 the po3er of
vehicle having lighter engine 3ill *e higher. 7he
lighter and co)pact engine enhances the fuel
consu)ption. ;lso4 to ensure the good
steering4 the vehicle should *e light and the
3eigh *alance is distri*uted ".D". at the front
and the rear or si)ilarly.
Engine also should have the features to *e
driven *y the driverEs 3illingness. !or exa)ple4
3hen the driver presses the accelerator pedal4
if the engine output is too high4 then it is not so
good for the safety. 7he response4 ho3 to act
90 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
according to the pressed a)ount of the
accelerator pedal4 can )a%e a *ig affect to the
drive condition.
;s the engine get the driving force *y the
co)*ustion of the fuel4 the noise and vi*ration
can not *e avoided. t is i)portant to prevent
these noises and vi*rations fro) trans)itting
to the passenger.
;dditionally4 as the engine is one )echanical
part of the vehicle4 ho3 to )aintain the engine
is also an i)portant factors.
2. What is :$tp$t?
7he engine is the device converting the heat
energy to the force. 7he *asic perfor)ance is
represented *y the three )a=or factors such as
the -$el cons$!ption indicating ho3 )uch
gasoline is co)*usted4 the torB$e indicating
ho3 )uch force is generated there*y4 and the
po9er indicating ho3 )uch 3or% is perfor)ed
per unit ti)e.
;)ong the)4 the fuel consu)ption is easy to
*e notified *ecause it is easily detected *y
)easuring used fuel a)ount. 7hen4 3hat are
the others4 the po3er and the tor?ue?
;s 3e have explained fre?uently4 the 3or%ing
principle of the gasoline engine is that the
expansion force *y the co)*ustion of the
gasoline is converted into the force pressing
the piston to rotate the cran%shaft.
When ascending up to the inclined road4 3e
press the accelerator pedal to get high po3er.
When running constantly in the even road4 3e
=ust press the accelerator a little. ;s connecting
to the throttle valve controlling the a)ount of
inta%e air4 the pressed depth of the accelerator
pedal directly affects to the open a)ount of the
throttle valve.
7he fuel in=ection a)ount is decided *y the
a)ount of the inta%e air. When the air is
91 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
inhaled 3ith little a)ount *y little pressing the
pedal4 the gasoline in=ection a)ount 3ill *e
s)all. When the air a)ount is large *y pressing
deeply4 then the fuel in=ection a)ount 3ill *e
7hat is4 the ratio *et3een the air a)ount and
the fuel a)ount is already preset4 so the
accelerator pedal controls only the inhale air
a)ount. &o4 pressing the pedal little4 the
)ixture a)ount is s)all and the po3er of
engine4 3hile pressing the pedal )ore4 the
po3er of engine 3ill *e increased *ecause the
)ixture a)ount is increased.
:enerally4 the engine perfor)ance is decided
*y the engine force. 7he force is represented in
unit of %g. n the vehicle4 as the ulti)ate force
is the rotating force driving the 3heel4 it is
prefer to represent in unit of tor?ue4 i.e. %gY)4
ac?uired *y )ultiple the )agnitude of force
3ith the distance *et3een the center of rotate
to the force applying point.
n another aspect of engine perfor)ance4 ho3
)uch 3or% is possi*le 3ithin certain ti)e
period is also i)portant. 7his 3or% a)ount is
the po3er represented *y horse po3er.
3. 2epresenting Method -or ,o9er
:enerally4 the )ost i)portant ele)ent of the
engine perfor)ance is the output Apo3erB.
When a ne3 engine is installed4 so)e one says
HWhat horse po3er has it?I 7his horse po3er is
the 3or% efficiency4 that is4 the unit indicating
the 3or% a)ount during specific ti)e period4
so called the dyna)ic output Apo3erB.
7his concept 3as suggested *y the 8a!es
Watts 3ho invented the stea) engine in
England. 7o co)pare the dyna)ic
perfor)ances of the so)e %inds of the stea)
engines4 as the horse po3er used for 3ater
pu)ping 3or%s in the coal )ine4 the one horse
po3er is "". ftYl*f>s. (onverting into the )etric
syste)4 it 3ill *e '" %gY)>s. 7his is the po3er
for pulling up the '"%g 3eight per 1) in one
!or the unit of the 5orsepo3er4 it 3ill *e
represented 5P in a**reviation4 or the P&
Pferdestar%e fro) :er)any. 7he P& is )ore
usually used. n & unit syste)4 representing
3ith W A3attB4 1 P& is a*out '3".4W. &o4
1..P& is '3."%W4 1..%W is 13$P&.
n the vehicle catalogue4 3e can see additional
3ord such as A@etB or A:rossB in front of the
unit of P&>rp). ;s the engine output is
generally )easured 3ith *eing set the engine
to the )easuring e?uip)ent4 the )easured
output is changed according to the )easuring
condition4 and there is dispersion in )easured
values. 7herefore4 to indicate the output4 @et
value and :ross value are used. 7he :ross
value is )easured value 3ith engine only4 and
the @et value is )easured value 3ith *eing set
the engine to the vehicle. !or the gasoline
engine4 the @et value is 1"N less than the
:ross value. f there is no notice4 the larger
value is the :ross one.
92 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
7he po3er is the function of the ti)e. 7he
engine po3er 3ill *e increased proportional to
the rp) *ecause the 3or% a)ount per ti)e is
increased 3hen the rp) is higher. 5o3ever4
3hen the engine rp) is increasing4 the dyna)ic
parts can not run over the certain value4 or the
engine can not inta%e or exhaust faster than
li)it4 or the engine po3er is excessively
3asted for driving engine itself if the rp) is
over than certain rp). 7hat is the engine
po3er has certain li)it value. 7his is the
)axi)u) po3er output. n catalogue4 it is
indicated 3ith the rp) thereat.
4. What is 3orB$e?
7he tor?ue or the t3isting force 3hich is
applied to a rotational )atter such as *olt4 axis
rod and 3heel. t depends not only on the
applied force *ut also on the length of the lever
ar) upon 3hich the force acts. 1y definition4
tor?ue is e?ual to force )ultiplied *y the
leverageC the length fro) the center of the rotor
to the point 3hich a force is applied.
n engine4 the tor?ue is e?ual to force of 3hich
the piston going do3n force )ultiplied *y the
distance fro) the center of cran% pin to the
center of cran%shaft.
&o4 the )agnitude of the tor?ue of certain
engine is decided *y the force of 3hich the
piston presses the connecting rod4 that is4 the
co)*ustion force. 7he perfor)ance graph of
tor?ue is representing that 3hich piston is
pressing the cran%shaft 3ith ho3 )uch force
3hen the engine is rotating at 3hat rp). ;s
this force 3ill *e trans)itted to the 3heel
finally4 the i)pulsive force of the vehicle is
s)all if the engine tor?ue is s)all4 the
i)pulsive force of the vehicle is high if the
engine tor?ue is high.
7he expansion AexplodedB force is deter)ined
*y )any ele)ents4 especially4 *y the a)ount of
the inhaled air into the cylinder. With plentiful
of air4 it is possi*le to get high po3er.
(onsidering the relationship *et3een the
inhaled air a)ount and the rp) of engine4
3hen the engine has lo3 speed of rotation4 the
)ove)ent of piston is also slo3 and inhaled
air a)ount is lo3. When the engine has high
speed of rotation4 the )ove)ent of the piston
is fast and the inhaled air a)ount is high.
5o3ever4 if the engine has too high speed4
then the inta%e valve )ay close *efore the air
is not fully inhaled into the cylinder yet. n this
case4 the inhaled air a)ount per stro%e
Avolu)etric efficiencyB is decreased. 7herefore4
the engine tor?ue curve has the pea% shape.
!or exa)ple4 co)pare the engine tor?ue
*et3een the 2"..rp) pic% engine and the
"...rp) pic% engine. 7he for)er engine has
the *est perfor)ance at the 2"..rp) *ut not
so good perfor)ance at the "...rp).
93 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
8n the contrary4 the "...rp) pic% engine has
a good perfor)ance at high speed *ut it has
lo3 perfor)ance at lo3 speed. &o4 the engine
characteristics are different *et3een a*ove
engines even though the )axi)u) tor?ues are
". 3o enhance ,o9er
7he engine po3er is a 3or%ing a)ount during a
specific ti)e. 7he engine po3er can *e
increased as high as the cylinder volu)e high4
the co)*ustion force high and the rp) high.
7he engine siGe is represented *y the
displace)ent volu)e. 7he cylinder
displace)ent volu)e is the exhausted gas
a)ount fro) certain cylinder during the piston
)oves fro) the 1-( to 7-(. 7he total
displace)ent volu)e is the su) of volu)e of
all cylinders. 7he cylinder displace)ent volu)e
is calculated fro) )ultiple the cross sectional
area *y the stro%e of the cylinder. t is
represented *y unit of cc or W.
When the total displace)ent volu)e is *igger4
the engine output 3ill *e also higher. 7o
co)pare the engine perfor)ance4 the P&>W is
used. 7he P&>W )eans that ho3 )uch
horsepo3er is generated per 1W of
displace)ent volu)e. !or the passenger car4
generally4 the )ore cylinder has higher value of
P&>W *ecause volu)etric efficiency is higher
3ith )ultiple cylinder. 1ut the de)erit of
)ultiple cylinder is the )uch co)plicated
structure and the high cost.
7he pressing force at the piston is calculated
*y dividing a 3or% a)ount per cycle *y the
displace)ent volu)e. 1y this calculation4 the
pressing force at the piston is the pressure.
1ut the pressure at the piston is continuously
changed *y the position of piston and the
stro%e. &o4 the )ean pressure per cycle is
used for a calculation. 7his is called as the
)ean effective pressure4 the average pressure
in the cylinder.
7o enhance the engine po3er4 the )ain three
ele)ents including the total displace)ent
volu)e4 the )ean effective pressure4 and the
rp) should *e enhanced. 7he 3or% per certain
ti)e shall *e increased *y enhancing the rp).
-eciding the total displace)ent volu)e of the
engine4 ho3 the )ean effective pressure is
increased and ho3 the li)itation of the rp) is
overco)ed are the )a=or focusing point for a
developing of an engine to enhance the engine
94 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
95 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Methods for increasing of maximum power
Increasing copression ratio
Increasing co!"stion press"re
#igh co!"stion spee$
%oo$ shape o& co!"stion cha!er
#igh heat e&&icienc'
Sall S"r&ace()ol"n ratio o& co!"stion cha!er
Proper ignition tiing
Proper location o& spar* pl"g
Place the $"ct &or ta*ing col$ air
#eatproo& air $"ct an$ ani&ol$
+"ct la'o"t &or heat proo&
,tili-e intercooler
Increasing inta*e
,tili-e t"r!ocharger or s"percharger
."lti valve
Increase inner $iaeter &or inta*e an$ e/ha"st
Increase ra$i"s o& c"rvat"re
Sooth inner s"r&ace
Proper capacit' o& s"rge tan*
0e$"ce !ac* press"re
1i$e ca nose
Increase valve overlap
Proper valve tiing
)aria!le inta*e s'ste
Proper length o& ani&ol$
."lti valve
."lti c'lin$er
Short stro*e
Increase valve $iaeter
1i$e ca nose
Increase valve li&t
2ight 3eight o& valve s'ste
2ight 3eight o& ain oving parts
+o"!le over hea$ casha&t4 t3ine ca
0e$"ce piston ean
Short stro*e
Increasing rp
)alve s'ste
,sing inertia energ' 5
0e$"ce inta*e air
0e$"ce inertia ass
o& oving parts
Increasing ean piston
2o3 inta*e air
0e$"ce resistance &or
inta*e an$ e/ha"st
Engine Principles
%. D7 2atio 5 :$tp$t
7he displace)ent volu)e of cylinder is
calculated *y the cross sectional area of
cylinder and the stro%e. ;lso the cross
sectional area is calculated *y the dia)eter of
cylinder A1oreB. &o4 the )ain factors of
displace)ent are the 1ore and the &tro%e. 7he
*ore and the stro%e )ay differ fro) each
engine even though the sa)e nu)*er of
cylinder and the sa)e cylinder displace)ent.
7hat is4 so)e engine have the thin and long
cylinder4 other engines have the fat and short
cylinder. 7he ratio *et3een the length of stro%e
and dia)eter of *ore is called &tro%e>1ore
!or the passenger car4 the &tro%e>1ore A&>1B
ratio is a*out ..'M1.3. 7he &>1 ratio is less
than 14 the stro%e is s)aller than the *ore4 it is
called hort troke. 7he &>1 ratio is higher
than 14 the stro%e is larger than *ore4 it is
called 'ong troke. 7he &>1 ratio is =ust 14 the
stro%e is e?ual to the *ore dia)eter4 it is called
With the sa)e displace)ent volu)e4 the &hort
&tro%e engine has )ore potential to have
higher po3er *ecause larger *ore engine can
)a%e a larger valve dia)eter and can )a%e a
high engine rp) 3ithout increasing the piston
!irst of all4 consider a*out the *ore. 7he gas
a)ount 3ill *e larger as the valve dia)eter or
the 6alve 0ift is larger. With larger gas a)ount4
it is possi*le to get higher output *ecause
)ore gasoline 3ill *e co)*usted. ;dditionally4
if the valve dia)eter 3ill *e larger4 for the sa)e
gas a)ount4 the valve lift can *e )ade s)aller.
&o the valve )ove)ent 3ill *e s)all at the high
speed. 5o3ever4 the larger valve dia)eter has
larger dia)eter of inta%e port4 the large inta%e
port engine can not )a%e the fast flo3 of
inta%e gas at lo3 speed so co)*ustion )ay *e
@ext4 considering a*out the piston speed. With
the sa)e rp) of engine4 the piston in long
stro%e should *e )ove as fast as the stro%e
length. 7he piston speed has a li)itation.
When the piston )oves in high speed4 the
lu*ricant oil )ay not *e properly 3or%ed4 or the
piston inertia force 3ill *e too high. 7he rp) of
short stro%e engine can *e )ore increased
than the long stro%e engine4 if the engines has
sa)e li)itation of piston speed. #ecently4 the
li)it of the average piston speed is a*out
1"M22) per second.
96 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
n general4 the engine for high speed and
output such as sports car shall accept &hort
&tro%e or &?uare type &>1 ratio4 the engine for
co))ercial car accepts the 0ong &tro%e to
increase the tor?ue instead of speed.
&. Co!pression 2atio 5 :$tp$t
n the previous section4 the po3er can *e
enhanced *y increasing the inta%e air and
increasing the engine rp). ;lso there is one
)ore )ethod to increase the engine po3er.
7hat is the co)pression ratio.
When the piston is at the 7-(4 the space 3hich
is surrounded *y the piston and the cylinder
head including the inta%e<exhaust valves is the
co)*ustion cha)*er. 7he co)pression ratio is
that the cylinder volu)e is divided *y
co)pression cha)*er volu)e. 7he cylinder
volu)e is the total volu)e of co)pression
cha)*er volu)e and the displace)ent of
7he co)pression ratio represents ho3 )uch
the inta%e )ixture is co)pressed. 7he
co)pression ratio in the vehicle catalogue is a
theoretical value *y a calculation. n general4 it
is a*out , M 1. for nor)al gasoline engine and
a*out 12 M 13 and for racing engine.
;s the co)pression ratio is high4 the )ixture is
co)presses strongly. &o the )ixture
te)perature 3ill *e high and the co)*ustion
3ill *e perfor)ed in short ti)e. 7hen the
co)*ustion pressure 3ill *e high and the
tor?ue and po3er 3ill also *e high.
!urther)ore4 in the co)*ustion stro%e4 the
expansion ratio is also high4 so the exhaust
gas has not too high te)perature. &o the fuel
efficiency 3ill *e good.
5o3ever4 if the co)pression ratio is too high4
the engine can easily have a*nor)al
co)*ustion such as %noc%ing. &o it has
li)itation. Knoc%ing is related 3ith )ixture
te)perature4 flo34 cha)*er 3all te)perature
as 3ell as the co)pression ratio. &o4 to
increase the co)pression ratio should *e
follo3ed *y the good cooling syste) for the
cylinder head. !urther)ore4 the engine should
have higher strength for high co)pression
ratio. 7he high perfor)ance engine should *e
carefully designed.
7here are theoretical co)pression ratio and the
actual co)pression ratio. 7he actual
co)pression ratio indicates ho3 )uch the
inta%e air is co)pressed actually. !or exa)ple4
in the inta%e stro%e4 if the air is not inhaled
sufficiently4 then the actual co)pression ratio
is less than theoretical ratio. n the tur*o
engine4 if the *oost pressure is 1at)4 then the
97 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
actual co)pression ratio 3ill *e t3ice. &o4 the
actual co)pression ratio is the i)portant
factors for the enhancing the po3er. n a*ove4
the %noc%ing is affected *y the actual
co)pression ratio.
(. Increasing po9er by High rp! ;rp! li!it<
7o )a%e a high po3er engine4 the fuel a)ount
of co)*ustion is increased. Even the fuel
a)ount is increased4 if the air a)ount is not
increased4 then it is no )eaning. 7herefore4 to
)a%e a high po3er engine4 the inta%e air
a)ount *e )ore.
7he air flo3 speed at the inta%e port is divided
the inta%e air ?uantity *y the cross sectional
area. 7he inta%e air a)ount 3ill *e increased
*y the increasing of the engine rp). &o4 the
engine output is proportion to the rp).
7he flo3 resistance of the air 3ill *e increased
as the air flo3 is fast. 1y enlarging the duct or
volu)e of air cleaner4 the flo3 resistance can
*e reduced. 5o3ever4 the resistance around
the valve is not controlled. &o4 over the certain
rp)4 the po3er can not *e increased any )ore.
7herefore4 to get high output at the high speed4
the inta%e air speed should *e decreased at
the high speed. 7o do so4 there are so)e
)ethods to *e considered.
R ncrease the nu)*er of cylinderD 3ith the
sa)e total displace)ent volu)e4 if the
cylinder nu)*er is increased4 then the
cylinder dia)eter 3ill *e reduced and then
valve dia)eter 3ill do so. 7herefore4 the
inta%e flo3 velocity 3ill *e reduced.
S ncrease the nu)*er of inta%e valveD 3ith
the sa)e reason )entioned in R4 the air
flo3 velocity 3ill *e reduced around the
inta%e valve.
T Enlarge the lift of inta%e valve and elongate
the opening ti)eD 7he opening ti)e of
inta%e valve is a*out 24.P in ter)s of
cran%shaft rotation angle. n the racing
engine4 it is a*out 2+.M32.P.
U -esign the &58#7 &7#8KED 3ith the sa)e
displace)ent volu)e4 the &58#7 &7#8KE
is to )a%e the valve *e enlarged. &o4 the
opening area is also large and then the
inta%e air speed 3ill *e slo3.
f the inta%e air speed is sufficiently slo34 the
engine rp) can *e increased )ore to )a%e
)ore po3er.
f the engine rp) is increased4 the engine
should endure against the high rp). 7hat is4
the engine should *e strengthening to ensure
the high rp). :enerally4 the engine should *e
lightened to reduce the inertia force4 and
enhanced the strength of the *ody and parts of
). 3ransient Characteristic 5 2esponse
98 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
7he engine )a%es large tor?ue *ut acceleration
response is slo34 the engine is not a high
perfor)ance engine. 7he acceleration
perfor)ance or the response of the engine can
*e affected *y the 3eight of the car or gear
When the driving condition is changed4 the
inter)ediate state *et3een *efore and after is
called transient or partial state. 7he engine
characteristic at partial state is called the
transient characteristic of the engine. 7he
transient characteristic is *asically related 3ith
the changing of the rp) and the inertia force.
7he i)portant things for the response are the
3eight of the dyna)ic parts of the engine and
the changing a*ility of the air>fuel 3hile
7o reduce the inertia force of the dyna)ic parts
of the engine4 the dyna)ic parts should *e
)ade as light as possi*le.
n the fuel in=ection type engine4 an inta%e
collector Asurge tan%B has a si)ilar volu)e 3ith
the total displace)ent volu)e. When the
accelerator is pressed to open the throttle
valve4 the air can not *e inhaled into the
)anifold i))ediately *ecause of the inertia
force of the air.
7herefore4 the first )ove)ent of the engine
tor?ue 3ill *e delay. 7o solve this pro*le)4 if
the volu)e of the collector Asurge tan%B is
increased4 then the engine output shall *e
n so)e fuel syste)4 the gasoline )ay not *e
flo3n s)oothly *ecause the gasoline sprayed
fro) the in=ector. n this case4 3hen the throttle
valve is open ?uic%ly4 the )ixture is leaned and
then the initial tor?ue of the engine )ay *e
delayed. 7o solve this pro*le)4 there is a
)ethod in 3hich the in=ection a)ount is
selectively increased at that )o)ent.
1+. Cylinder Array 5 ,er-or!ance
7here are three )ethod for arraying the
cylinders4 in<line type4 6<type4 and opposed
type. What relationship is there *et3een the
cylinder array and the engine perfor)ance?
99 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
3he in4line type engine has the cylinder in
se?uentially arrayed. 7here are fro) 2<cylinder
type to $<cylinder type. n the in<line type4 the
structure of the cylinder *loc% is very si)ple
and the cylinder head is one *ody4 so the
engine shall *e light and co)pact. t is used
3idely fro) co))ercial car to racing car.
n the in<line type engine4 generally4 the cylinder
nu)*er is 4 3hen the displace)ent volu)e is
up to 2W. 7he cylinder nu)*er is $ )ore than
2W less than 3."W. 7he 4<cylinder engine having
the displace)ent volu)e of fro) 1Wto 1."W is
used for co))ercial vehicle4 and one having
)ore and up to 2W is used for high
perfor)ance purposed car. Engine for the
displace)ent volu)e of 2W is generally )ade
into 4<cylinder or $<cylinder. 7he $<cylinder
engine has s)aller co)*ustion cha)*er and is
easy to *e )ade 3ith &58#7 &7#8KE. &o it
can *e get large )axi)u) output.
3he in4line %4cylinder engine has the long
length so it needs so)e3hat high cost. 1ut4
the siGe is co)pact in co)pare 3ith the
perfor)ance4 and the tur*ocharger can *e
easily attached. &o it can *e utiliGed in high
perfor)ance engine. ;dditionally4 the inertia
force of the piston<cran% is 3ell *alanced so it
sho3s good features at the anti<vi*ration.
5o3ever4 it is hard to install 3idely in the
engine roo) of !! type vehicleC so generally4 it
is installed at the !# type vehicle in longitudinal
direction. 7he 3<cylinder or "<cylinder is rarely
used in the in<line type.
1y dividing $<cylinder into t3o set of serial 3<
cylinder and facing the) to array in parallel4 the
length is reduced al)ost half of the in<line $<
cylinder engine is the 043ype %4cylinder engine.
;s this engine has the high inta%e<exhaust
efficiency *ecause the *ore dia)eter can *e
enlarged easily4 it is easy to get high po3er.
f the angle of 6 array is set to $.P4 the feature
is closed to the serial $<cylinder engine. t can
*e installed at the !! type vehicle. &o it is
possi*le for the !! car to *e developed into
high perfor)ance car.
3he 04type engine generally consists of $<
cylinder. 1y co)*ining the serial 4<cylinder and
the serial $<cylinder4 the 6+ and the 612
engines can *e )anufactured respectively.
7hey are generally installed at the large vehicle
or sports car. 7he 6$ engine is not easy to *e
utiliGed *ecause the 3idth of the engine is
3ider and 3eight is heavier.
3he opposed engine is the sa)e 3ith the 6<
type engine having the 1+.P of the angle. 7he
center of engine 3ill *e lo3er than others.
11. *$el Cons$!ption 2atio
7he fuel efficiency of the engine is represented
*y the fuel consu)ption rate. 7he fuel
consu)ption a)ount for the driving is changed
*y the driving condition. When the dyna)ic
perfor)ance is )easured *y attaching to the
dyna)o)eter to co)pare 3ith other engine4
the consu)ption a)ount of the fuel should *e
7herefore4 the fuel consu)ption rate is
represented *y fuel consu)ption a)ount per
3or%4 and the unit is g>P&Yh. ;ssu)e that 3hen
a engine is rotating 3ith 3...rp) at the
dyna)o)eter4 the engine outputs ""P&4 and
11%g gasoline is used for 1 hour 3or%ing in this
condition4 then the fuel consu)ption rate is
100 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
When referring to the graph of fuel consu)ption
rate in the engine perfor)ance curve4 that the
fuel consu)ption rate is )ini)iGed 3ith certain
rp) of engine is )ore concerned than the fuel
a)ount. 7he actual fuel consu)ption rate shall
*e )easured in actual driving condition at the
:enerally to say4 the catalogue indicates the
fuel consu)ption rate 3ith the 1.<1" )ode
rate and the $.%)>h steady rate. 8n here4 the
rate is =ust concerned to the engine itself.
7o reduce the fuel consu)ption rate4 the fuel is
used less as possi*le and the heat should *e
thoroughly converted into the dyna)ic force.
&o4 it is related 3ith the heat efficiency. !or
exa)ple4 the )ixture should *e co)*usted
3ith high te)perature and high pressure4
co)pletely and fast as possi*le. ;nd the heat
loss to the exhaust gas and to the cylinder 3all
should *e reduced as possi*le. ;s 3ell as the
)echanical friction should *e reduced also.
7o calculate ho3 the engine uses the heat fro)
the gasoline in classifying according to the
ele)ent is the heat balance.
7o indicate this heat *alance 3ith the graph is
the heat balance graph. :enerally to say a*out
the heat *alance of the gasoline engine. 7he
heat for output4 the heat for loss in exhaust
gas and the heat for loss through the cylinder
3all are 3.N separately4 and 1.N is for others.
Fntil no34 the )ost heat efficiency of the
engine is a*out 3"N4 that is4 in the ter) of fuel
consu)ption rate4 a*out 1'.g>P&Yh.
12. :$tp$t 5 *$el E--iciency
;s the air a)ount is increased to enhance the
engine output4 the fuel a)ount 3ill *e
increased4 so the fuel efficiency is degraded.
5o3ever4 if the )ixture can *e co)pletely
co)*usted to increase the heat efficiency and
to get higher output4 then the high fuel
efficiency as 3ell as the high output 3ill *e
ac?uired. ;dditionally4 the exhaust gas has less
har)ful ele)ents.
7he engine heat efficiency is the ratio of the
heat capacity used for 3or%ing. 7o increase the
heat efficiency4 the expansion of the gas
should *e as large as possi*le4 at the sa)e
ti)eC the loss energy should *e as s)all as
possi*le. 7he loss energies in the engine are
the cooling loss *y cooling syste)4 the
e#ha$st loss *y *eing ta%en out 3ith the hot
exhaust gas4 and the intake4e#ha$st loss
;p$!ping loss< used for inta%e<exhaust
7o increase the heat efficiency *y increasing
the expansion force of the co)*usted gas is
related 3ith to increase the )ixture a)ount
and to increase the co)pression ratio.
7o reduce the cooling loss4 the te)perature of
the co)*ustion cha)*er should *e increased.
1y changing the shape of co)*ustion cha)*er
to enhance the co)pression ratio4 the cha)*er
te)perature 3ill *e increased at the
co)pression stro%e as 3ell as the %noc%ing is
prevented. n other hand4 the )ethod using the
higher cooling 3ater is also concerned.
7o reduce the inta%e<exhaust loss Apu)ping
101 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
lossB4 7he inta%e<exhaust tu*e should *e short
and have less *ent portion as possi*le.
7o enhance the air flo3 at the valve4 the
dia)eter of the valve )ay *e enlarged or the
nu)*er of valve )ay *e increased. 5o3ever4 in
that case4 if the )ixture flo3 is too slo34 or if
the structure of the cha)*er is too
co)plicated4 then the heat efficiency 3ill *e
degraded. 7herefore4 it should *e carefully
8ne )ore4 to enhance the heat efficiency4 it
should *e considered that the friction loss
generated 3hen the piston )oves. 7he
!echanical energy loss in driving the auxiliary
e?uip)ents should *e reduced.
13. *$el E--iciency o- 0ehicle
Even though the fuel consu)ption rate
indicates the engine fuel efficiency4 this value
is not the exact fuel efficiency of vehicle. With
the sa)e engine4 the fuel efficiency )ay differ
according that it is installed at heavy and large
vehicle or it is installed at light and s)all
(o)paring one case that a vehicle includes a
s)all engine having good fuel efficiency and
another case that a vehicle includes a large
engine having *ad fuel efficiency *ut high
po3er4 the actual fuel efficiency 3ill *e changed
*y the driving condition. !or exa)ple4 if a car is
usually used in the lo3 rp) condition4 then the
s)all displace)ent volu)e is )ore effective. f
the car is usually used in high speed or high
po3er condition4 then the large displace)ent
volu)e engine 3ill *e )ore effective.
!or the co)paring of the fuel efficiency
*et3een engines4 the specific test )ode is
re?uired. 7he specific test )ode )eans that
the test )ethod and test conditions are
specified. 7here are )any test )ode 3hich
should *e suggested in catalogue4 the 1.<1"
)ode running fuel consu)ption4 the $.%)>h
steady fuel consu)ption4 !7P '" )ode and so
n representing the fuel consu)ption rate4 for
engine only4 the unit of g>P&<h is used4 the unit
of %)>W indicating for vehicle 3hat %) the car
can run 3ith 1W of fuel is used.
3he 1+41" !ode -$el e--iciency is ac?uired
fro) dividing the running distance *y the
a)ount of the used fuel4 the vehicle is tested
at the dyna)o)eter according to the
predeter)ined pattern cycle of idling Q start
acceleration Q running 3ith constant speed Q
deceleration. n the past4 the driving pattern
had the )axi)u) speed of 4.%)>h4 ho3ever4
it 3as not proper to the )odern traffic
condition. #ecently4 the )axi)u) speed sets
102 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
to '.%)>h4 the 1" )ode is added to this test.
7he %+k!Dh steady -$el e--iciency is ac?uired
fro) the used fuel a)ount 3hen a car is driving
3ith constant speed of $.%)>h 3ith the gross
3eight having full passengers and *aggage at
the paved plain road 3ithout 3ind. :enerally4
this value is )easured in the ideal state *y the
)anufacturer to suggest to govern)ent. 7he
actual value is less than this value.
14. 0ibration o- Engine
7here are )any sources to )a%e vi*ration in
engine. 7here are )a=or three vi*rations4 one is
fro) the co)*ustion of the engine4 one
another is fro) the inertia force of the
reciprocal and rotational )ove)ent at the
dyna)ic syste) such as piston4 connecting
rod4 cran%shaft4 and others.
7he vi*ration fro) the engine is as )uch as
high pressure of the co)*ustion. ;nd4 the
engine having high co)pression ratio and high
perfor)ance )a%es )ore noise. 7he vi*ration
of the tur*o engine )a%es 2.O".N )ore noise
than @; engine. n this case4 so)e devices for
preventing fro) noise are used and the
auxiliary devices are attached at the portions
less affected *y vi*ration.
;dditionally4 *y changing the engine )ounting
position or adopting the vi*ration a*sor*er 3ith
the )ounting portions4 the vi*ration can not *e
trans)itted to the *ody directly.
7he inertia force is one )a=or source of the
vi*ration. ;s the piston )oves fro) the highest
point to the lo3est point 3ith various
accelerations. 7he cran%shaft )a%es a
vi*ration 3aves and an inertia force fro) the
rotation of the cran% pin. 7he (onnecting rod
)a%es an inertia force fro) the co)*ination of
the reciprocal and rotational )ove)ent. n the
)ulti cylinder engine4 the pistons are
connected to the cran%shaft4 so each inertia
3ill *e canceled each other. t is very
co)plicated 3ith the nu)*er of cylinders4 array
of the) and each ti)ing of co)*ustion.
7herefore4 using the counter 3eight4 the inertia
force is *alanced 3ith the total 3eight. 7o
)atch the *alance of the inertia force
co)pletely is very difficult.
7he inertia force is less 3hen the dyna)ic
parts such as piston and (onnecting rod have
lighter 3eight. With the sa)e displace)ent
volu)e4 the engine having )ore nu)*er of
103 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
cylinders has less inertia force *ecause the
parts are s)all and light. When the inertia force
is s)all4 the possi*ility to )a%e a vi*ration 3ill
*e fe3 and it 3ill rotate at high speed 3ith the
sa)e strength.
1y lightening the 3eight of dyna)ic part4 the
inertia force at each part 3ill *e s)all. With the
sa)e rp)4 the strength of these parts 3ill not
*e )aintained highly. :enerally4 the device
having lo3er strength is lighter than the device
having higher strength. 7o *e lightening is )ost
i)portant point to increase perfor)ance as
3ell as to prevent vi*ration.
1". /oise o- Engine
7he noises fro) the engine are the co)*ustion
noise and )echanical sounds. 7he )echanical
sounds is caused *y the friction *et3een the
parts. When the engine rotates 3ith high
speed4 the noise 3ill *e changed and *e
louder. When a driver changes the shift to up or
do3n4 generally4 the driver )ay selects the
proper gear *y engine noise. &o4 the sound of
engine helps the driver for the driving.
7herefore4 the engine sound should *e noticed
*ut it shall not the noise *ut the sound.
7he )echanical noise is )ade fro) the
vi*ration of the cylinder and cylinder head *y
the co)*ustion force. When the )ixture
a)ount is increased or the co)*ustion
pressure is higher4 then the noise 3ill *e
louder. &o)eone )ay feel that the tur*o engine
)a%e less noise than the @; engine. 7he
reasons are the tur*ine a*sor*s the exhaust
energy and the variation of the co)*ustion
pressure is s)aller.
7he )echanical sounds co)es fro) the friction
and *u)p the dyna)ic parts such as gear4
chain4 and valves. !or exa)ple4 the ca) hits
the valve lifter4 roc%er ar) and ca)shaft hits
the valves4 the valve *u)ps 3ith the valve seat
and so on.
7he resonance noise fro) the vi*ration is
louder than the direct )echanical noise. &o4
the causes of the noise fro) the engine can
not *e exactly found. ;ny 3ay4 that there is a
noise is not good situation *ecause so)e parts
of the engine shall *e hit 3ith others and this is
*ad for the endurance of parts. f you detect
a*nor)al noise4 please chec% the syste) as
soon as possi*le.
(o)paring the co)*ustion noise 3ith the
)echanical noise4 at the lo3 speed4 the
co)*ustion noise is larger. When the rp) is
over 3...rp)4 the inertial force is larger and
the )echanical noise 3ill *e larger.
7he noise fro) the engine roo) 3ill *e
protected *y attaching a*sor*ing )aterials
under the hood and in front of the dash*oard4
the *oundary of the engine roo) and ca*in.
7he noise a*sor*ing )aterials are glass 3ool4
104 Chonan Technical Service Training Center
Engine Principles
felt and so on.
105 Chonan Technical Service Training Center