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.., . . . .

.

. .
, 2-200 ppm,
, .
,
.
,
,
.
18,6 25,5 kg.
: 60%-85% , 5%-10%
, .
( ) 20 g/l (
) () 5 g/l.
-
, .

.
, .
pH .
,
.
, ,

. 30120 g/l.
,
,
. ,
.
, 2009
3.800.000 .

.
,
,
, , ,
..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

, , (-
6.500
),
(). P.V.C.

.
.

. ,
, .
()
, ,
,
.

,
. ,
,
, .

,
.
(
), , , ,
, ,
, , ,
.
,
, .. ,
. g/dl.

.

,
, (-- ).
7-80
g/dl 7-120g/dl.
.
, , , ,
.
(W.H.O.) 1980 , 40 g/dl,
30 g/dl, 1990 20 g/dl.
15 10 , 10-15* g/dl
10* g/dl . , ... 10 g/dl.*
.

0,15 g/m3 ... (USEPA 2008-
..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

1 3 ) 1g/m3 (CAI-Asia 2009). ..


0,5g/m3 (EE 1999). 10g/l ..,
, 15g/l ...(EE 1998, USEA 2008, Canada 20012 Japan
2004). 70 700 mg/kg
, ,
(.. pH.,
(EC- JRC2007, Canada 2007).

, .
.
.
.
, .

.
,
, ,
.

.
(
) .

, ..
Derbyshire 1% ,
,
.

.

.

-.
,
( , .. ,
. ).
.
1 ( -Petraschech),
,
( ),
.

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

1. -Petraschech-1956
2 ( Petrascheck)
( )
, , , (
) .
,
500 ..
( ).
19 20 .

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

2. -Petraschech-1956
, ()
, ,
( ) (
) .
, , ,
.
,
,
.
, ()
.
,
..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

.
,

.
, 500 ..
(1979),
(-),
,
. ,
,
5.000.000 .
( ), 2,3%-11,0% Pb Ag 1,9-5,0 kg/ ,
,
.
.
, , Pb, Zn,
Fe, Cd, As, F
.
, .
,

,
, , . 1
.

.
-
,
.

.1.
.

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/



, , .

(, , ,
...) , .
ppm
,
.
,
, ,

.
.

,
. ,
.
.
.
.. H4SiO4.
, (Humus) ,
.

, . ,

Fe, Mn, Si, Al.
1 ppm
.

1
ppm

M.O.ppm

..

M.O. ppm

..

Ti

7.000

1000-10000

Li

60

2-70

Mn

1.000

500-1000

Sn

30

5-50

900

550-8000

Co

20

1-200

70

50-850

Pb

15

5-60

Ba

650

20-900

13

10-200

Cr

150

5-1700

Be

4,5

0,2-6

Ni

100

2-1200

2,5

0,0-4

90

2-350

As

2,0

1,5-4

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

M.O.ppm

..

M.O. ppm

..

Zn

80

4-300

Mo

1,5

0,0-2,5

Cu

70

5-200

Ag

0,2

0,0-0,4

()
,
.

. ,
, ,

.

( 2 mm) -

.
.
, , ..
BaiaMare, letna CopsaMica
25-30 km - , Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd
, .


.
....
.
-
,
, - .
,
,
, ,
, .
... ...

. .
,
. , s Cd Pb Sb Cr Cu
Ni Zn.
, , , Pb
Cd, 3 4.
,

, .
..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

3 ppm
. 500 ppm
3 4.

3. . (
.... 1999)

4. . (
.... 1999)
..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

3 4
, - .

,
(-)

.
.
.. :BRPR-CT96-0297

. 2

() . 5
(-) .
2

600.000

150.000

120.000

5.000.000

1.200.000

Fe %

5-17

3-15

18-28

6,2

S%

5-10

2-5

10-32

0,2

0,3

Pb %

0,2-1

1-3

0,6-6

2,4

3,7

Zn %

0,5-2,9

0,5-5

0,5-1,2

2,0

2,3

Cd ppm

40-100

50-200

10-60

130

130

As %

0,2-0,6

0,1-2,5

0,3-4,5

0,2

0,5

Ca %

13-15

4-6

1-10

12

7,5

Al %

0,6-1,0

1-4

0,1-1,0

pH

2,5

3,5

7,3

A: : (tailingdam) :
: : .
( ...- 1997)

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

10

5. (-) . (
... 1997)


, (
Mediterraneanmines-A.... .),
3.
()
,
, , 2002. 6
.
3
.

Zn %

Pb %

As %

0,12

1,03

1,46

0,25

0,57

2,70

0,69

0,338

0,40

6,44

1,23

0,21

1,072

0,314

1,11

0,55

0,289

0,278

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

Fe %

S%

11

Zn %

Pb %

As %

0,876

0,368

0,21

0,837

0,357

0,28

1,00

0,39

10

0,22

11

Fe %

S%

0,28

15,14

4,135

0,356

0,38

26,5

11,78

5,91

0,717

0,44

30,79

15,60

12

0,192

0,13

0,088

7,92

2,124

13

1,14

0,516

0,43

25,74

9,675

14

0,98

0,42

0,275

17,19

5,494

15

0,07

0,04

0,027

4,65

0,54

16

1,13

0,553

0,49

29,56

9,668

6. .
( -- . .)
,
OlympicMarine,
4, 6 km .
..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

12

4
A
OlympicMarine

Pb %ppm

0,193

1930

0,097

970

13,33

231,42

0,223

2230

0,196

1960

17,16

323,18

Zn %

ppm

Cd ppm

As ppm

(A .)



. ,
,
.
. , ,
(.. , )
.
, 7
,
(1-1850 mg/kg ),
. .

.

, ()
-, .

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

13

7. . (
.... 1999)
(-)
, .
.

( ....) .
(170 km2)

: 52 %-56 % As (As>55mg/kg), Pb (Pb 500mg/kg),
Cd (Cd>3mg/kg), Zn (Zn 500 mg/kg). 26 % Sb
(Sb>27 mg/kg), 12 %-14 % Cu ( Cu> 600 mg/kg ) 3 %
( >150 mg/kg).

-

.
, ... ( . )
- ()
.
1996 2000.

- ( .....) ...
, , ,
.
..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

14

, ,
.
.
,

,
.

, ... ,
,
. , ppm bpp (
) mg/kg l g/l.
1000ppm 0,1%.
(
4 5, ),
5 .
5 , Ksp, ,
: sp=[M].[A], []
[] ( mol/l)
.
,
, g/l (ppb)
. . ,


. (
),
,
.
. 2 3
.
5


.
BaSO4

Ksp (250C) *
-10

1,1X10

-27

CdS

8,0X10

CaCO3

3,8X10-9

CaF2

-9

5,3X10

-6

[M] g/l
1,44X10

+3

1,0110

-05

2,47X10+03
4,40X10

+04
+05

mg/l

ppm

1,44X10+00

1,44

1,01X10-08

1,01X10-08

2,47X10+00

2,47

4,40X10+01

44

CaSO4

9,1X10

1,2110

()

Cu2S

2,5X 10-48

1.0910-08

1,21X10+02
121
-11
1,09X10
1,09X10-11

()

CuS

6,0X10-37

4,92 10-11

4,92X10-14 4,92X10-14

()

Cu3(AsO4)2

7,6X10-36

7,07 10+00

7,07X10-03

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

0.00707

15

()

Ksp (250C) *

CuCO3
FeCO3

[M] g/l

mg/l

1,4X10-10

7,52 10+02

7,52X10-01

0,752

3,2X10-11

3,16 10+02

3,16X10-01

0,316

-19

-02

ppm

FeS

6,0X10

4,33 10

FeAsO4

5,7X10-29

4,22 10-03

PbCO3

7,4X10-14

5,64 10+01

PbSO4

1,6X10-8

PbS

3,0X10-29

MnCO3

1,8X10-11

2,62 10+04 2,62X10+01


26,2
1,13 10-06 1,13X10-09 1,13X10-09
2,33 10+02 2,33X10-01
0,233

NiS

3,0X10-19

3,21 10+02

-51

2,47 10

-09

4,96 10

+04




/
/

Ag2S
SrSO4
SrCO3
ZnCO3
ZnS

6,0X10

-7

3,2X10

-10

9,19 10

+02

-11

2,45 10

+02

-25

2,92 10-05

1,1X10
1,4X10
1,2X10

4,33X10-05 4,33X10-05
4,22X10-06 4,22X10-06
5,64X10-02
0,0564

3,21X10-01

0,321

2,47X10-12 2,47X10-12
4,96X10+01

49,6

9,1910-01
2,45X10-01

0,919
0,245

2,92X10-08 2,92X10-08
Ksp http://www.csudh.edu/oliver/chemdata/dada-Ksp.htm

5 ,
,
, , ,
- ,
, ,

.

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

16

. 2. .

. 3.
pH .
(Hurley, NewMexico)
H
.

.
. ;
( ) ,
;

, ,
6.
6
K (2007)
(mg/kg)

Pb

70

140

260

600

Zn

200

200

360

360

Cd

1,4

10

22

22

As

12

12

12

12

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

17

Cr

64

64

87

87

Cr6

0,4

0,4

1,4

1,4

Va

130

130

130

130

Ni

50

50

50

50

Hg

6,6

6,6

24

24

Ba

750

500

2000

2000

Cu

63

63

91

91

, ( ),

. .
, ,
.
;
, ,
.
,
...

:
.
:
1) CLP (Toxicity Characterization Leaching
Procedure) USEPA., .
,
.
2) , DTA. DTPA .
.
.
, ,
,
.
:

,
. ,
,
.
:
) , .. , . .

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

18

) (.. -, ,
, . .)
.
) -
, p.H.
.
, ,
.

. ,
, ,
.
, ,
:
.

, .
,

(
),
5.
,
.
TCLP
. ,
.

, ,
.
.

, .

. TCLP

.
7
TPCL,

.

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

19

7
TCLP ppm.

ppm.

5,0

Cd

1,0

Pb

5,0

Cr

5,0

Se

1,0

Ag

5,0

Ba

100,0

Hg

0,2

6
TCPL, (;)
,
,
.
,
,

.
EDTA (EthyleneDiamineTetraaceticacid)


.
EDTA
Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb
Zn.
,

.
.

, ,
.

.

,
MgCl2
.

,

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

20


, . , .

() ,
,
,

.
, 6, ,
,
. 140 ppmPb
, 600 ppm,
.
. ,
.
.
.
24 , .. 8
. 8 ,
4 1/3
200 ppm Pb. ,
.

.
8
- 2 ( )
DTA, TCLP, SL, .
9 .
, ,

10% 25% .
8
EDTA, TCLP, SL
.( ... 1997)

>
EDTA ppm
TCLP

..,

Pb

Zn

Cd

As

2781

386

4,5

220

0,1-2

0,1-10

2-40

SL

3436

360

6,4

280

EDTA ppm

124

10525

45

<20

TCLP

5-25

1-5

0,1-2

SL

396

51

<20

12526

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

21

>

ADTA ppm

TCLP

Pb

Zn

Cd

As

302

442

3,8

<20

0,1-4

1-18

SL

272

737

9,2

<20

EDTA ppm

6152

5070

26,4

30

87,9

201

2,5

1,0

12

7,2

602

6028

49,2

EDTA ppm

15672

5000

32,8

86-210

185

0,7-2,4

40

16

6,4

11848

6058

53,2

TCLP

SL 1
SL2

TCLP

SL 1
SL 2

40
0

9
, ,
15% 25% .

BC

BC incl.

15

29

29

55

160

160

0,8

BC

BC incl.

0,09

0,15

20

10

7,2

60

625

50

200

200

625

0,8

12

0,4

0,06

0,06

100

100

380

2,4

2,5

30

240

20

0,6

0,7

100

36

36

190

15

1,3

1,3

75

0,3

0,3

10

0,05

0,01

0,3

85

85

530

15

1,6

1,7

75

0,5

200

0,7

3,6

300

35

35

210

15

2,1

2,1

75

140

140

720

65

24

24

800


. ,
EDTA, TCPL, SL
..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

22

.
.
,


.
,
.
, ,
,
.
, ...
,
, 10. ,
,
.
10
.
( - .... 1999)

Cd

Cr

Cu

Fe

Mn

Ni

Pb

g/l

g/l

g/l

g/l

g/l

g/l

g/l

1,2

6,3

15,3

13.5

176,7

6,3

10,3

Zn

SO4

NO2

NO3N

NH4

g/l

g/l

g/l

g/l

g/l

211,3

377,2

0,9

44,7

0,1

g/l=1/1000mg

mg/l=1/1000 g

10
. ,
(
)
, .

.

,
,
.
,
,
, ,
. 25 km.
,
.

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

23

500 mg/kgPb, ;
; ,
,
, 600 mg/kg (
), :

11. 12 4 ,
. 12
, 13 ,
.


, .
,
.
.
11
.
T mg/kg (E.C. Contract No BRPR-CT 96-0297-EM)

. : 224

. : 697

(ICRCL-1987)

50-24000

2494

<6-7066

222

10

4-925

68

<3-233

12

43-4445

367

7-1397

368

130

810-151579

11578

24-70032

2883

500

591-76310

10872

28-51608

1958

50

<3>0,8

0,21

<3>0,8

0,1

12
- .
(: )

ppm

Pb

Pb

.*

2260

350

Zn

Zn
.*

Cd

Cd
.*

As

As
.*

..,

935

51

22

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

19

400

<50

24

.
.
.

3860

650

2630

255

28

23

550

<50

.
.

6710

1520

6630

674

29,5

24

600

<50

26900

4150

19800

3910

139

42,4

3050

<50

600

3000

20

50

375

600

20

* : -
: .
: .
13
Pb
(: )

Pb

..

mg/kg

mg/kg

5,6

0,1

8,7

0,1

386

. .

175

,
, ,
. ,
170km2 .

14
1990.
14
.

Pb ppm

62

153

28

0,86

901

520

75

3,94

..,

Zn ppm Cdppm As ppm

Fe%

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

S%

CaO %

SiO2 %

0,048

51,20

6,73

0,13

14,84

37,80
25

2488

2603

20

404

4,56

0,142

19,06

31,05

3568

8372

29

3971

5,12

1,79

20,57

17,67

3823

5496

19

1755

6,81

0,54

26,68

23,77

33840

12100

40

2387

13,13

0,61

28,57

21,53

2982

6146

1200

7,50

3,05

4,93

36,98

555

733

12

97

1,36

0,124

49,17

8,45

10

15530

18840

84

4132

10,32

0,902

20,24

23,58

11

134

164

62

3,40

0,082

16,27

39,72

.
1. . .
2. . ( ).
3. 2 . .
4.
.
.
5.
, .
6. .
7. .
8. ( )
.
9. ....
.
10. .... .
11. .... .
15
, (
)
.
15

1.1
..,

ppb

ppb

ppb

ppm

Pb

Zn

Cd

As

87,80

0,20

0,40

13,82

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

26

6.1

12,86

0,14

1,20

13,80

6.2

14,03

0,07

0,60

22,90

12

22,77

0,06

7,00

11,26

.
1.1 () .
6.1
.

()

6.2 .
12.
.
(
).
8 .

8. ( 14 ).
..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

27



,
. :
) , , .
, ,
.
( 4) ,
( 5).
)
. 4 5. ,
.
) ,
, ( 1 9).
)
...., ( )
, (
10).
) , ,
.
) 1 9
.
. (
) .
) .
)
, ppb ppm
.
.
1.1

.
) ....
.

. , (....)

.
,
. , .
s Pb
, ,
.
..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

28

: ;

,
,
.
, .
, .
, ,
.
,
, ;
.
Ferguson Denver
,

. Douben
. ,
,
.
.. ,
,
, ,
( , , . ).
.
,
, ,
.
.

. , ,
, .
.

- .
, ,
.

. CaCO3
.

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

29

. 1 .
, -
. -
, . 1,
. . 2, ,
-
. .
-
, .
, ,
,
.

. 2 . .
.
.4
(
), .
..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

30

. 4. .
.
( : 38-42 : 32-35.
1.

2. ,

.
3. ( )
4. .
5. - .
( . 4) ,
(
) .
. ,
,
.5.

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

31

. 5. .
.
( : 38-42.. : 32-35).
1: .
2: ,
.
3: ( ).
4: .
5:- .
,
( ) ,
,
,

,
.
50 cm
, ,
, .
.
-,

, ( ).

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

32




-. , (
),
.

, ( )

.
, ,
, .
, , (
) . ,
.
, .
. --
,
.
, ,
( )
.
.

, . 3.
, ,
, (
) 5-8cm ,(
),
, .

.
,
.

. .
, ( ),
(
)
. ,
( 1, 1.1 9) .

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

33

.3
.
, ,
.
.

,
,
.
1995 ... ( ) .
()
.

, 80 cm ,
200 g/m2, .
10 cm
30 cm 40 cm.
. 3,6 m2
65.000 m2.
,
, , .4
.5 (2012).

..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

34

. 4 .
.

. 5.
.
2007

..., .
(
) 120.000 m3.
(),
..,

http://www.oryktosploutos.net/

35

(, ,
..).
.
,

. .6
.7, .

. 6 ,
.

. 7 .
,
,
,
, .

, .
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