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HUMAN RIGHTS under Atty.

Principe, Midterms Reviewer
(c) A person s!"" #e crimin!""y "i!#"e $or ! crime de$ined !nd pen!"i%ed in tis Act i$ e&se
!ttempts to commit suc ! crime #y t!'in( !ction t!t commences its e)ecution #y me!ns o$ !
su#st!nti!" step, #ut te crime does not occur #ec!use o$ circumst!ncesindependent o$ te
person*s intention. However, ! person wo !#!ndons te e$$ort tocommit te crime or oterwise
prevents te comp"etion o$ te crime s!"" not #e "i!#"e$or punisment under tis Act $or te
!ttempt to commit te s!me i$ e&se comp"ete"y !nd vo"unt!ri"y (!ve up te crimin!" purpose.
Section +.

Irre"ev!nce o$ ,$$ici!" -!p!city.
. Tis Act s!"" !pp"y e/u!""y to !"" persons witout!ny distinction #!sed on o$$ici!" c!p!city. In
p!rticu"!r, o$$ici!" c!p!city !s ! e!d o$ st!te or(overnment, ! mem#er o$ ! (overnment or
p!r"i!ment, !n e"ected represent!tive or !(overnment o$$ici!" s!"" in no c!se e)empt ! person
$rom crimin!" responsi#i"ity under tis Act,nor s!"" it, in !nd o$ itse"$, constitute ! (round $or
reduction o$ sentence. However0(!) Immunities or speci!" procedur!" ru"es t!t m!y #e !tt!ced
to te o$$ici!" c!p!city o$ ! person under Pi"ippine "!w oter t!n te est!#"ised constitution!"
immunity $romsuit o$ te Pi"ippine President durin( is&er tenure, s!"" not #!r te court
$rome)ercisin( 1urisdiction over suc ! person2 !nd(#) Immunities t!t m!y #e !tt!ced to te
o$$ici!" c!p!city o$ ! person underintern!tion!" "!w m!y "imit te !pp"ic!tion o$ tis Act, nut on"y
witin te #oundsest!#"ised under intern!tion!" "!w.
Section 34.

Responsi#i"ity o$ Superiors.
. In !ddition to oter (rounds o$ crimin!"responsi#i"ity $or crimes de$ined !nd pen!"i%ed under
tis Act, ! superior s!"" #e crimin!""y responsi#"e !s ! princip!" $or suc crimes committed #y
su#ordin!tes under is&er e$$ectivecomm!nd !nd contro", or e$$ective !utority !nd contro" !s
te c!se m!y #e, !s ! resu"t o$ is&er $!i"ure to proper"y e)ercise contro" over suc su#ordin!tes,
were0(!) T!t superior eiter 'new or, owin( to te circumst!nces !t te time, sou"d
!ve'nown t!t te su#ordin!tes were committin( or !#out to commit suc crimes2(#) T!t
superior $!i"ed to t!'e !"" necess!ry !nd re!son!#"e me!sures witin is&erpower to prevent or
repress teir commission or to su#mit te m!tter to te competent!utorities $or investi(!tion
!nd prosecution.
Section 33.

Non.prescription.
. Te crimes de$ined !nd pen!"i%ed under tis Act, teirprosecution, !nd te e)ecution o$
sentences imposed on teir !ccount, s!"" not #e su#1ect to!ny prescription.
Section 35.

,rders $rom ! Superior.
. Te $!ct t!t ! crime de$ined !nd pen!"i%ed under tis Act !s #een committed #y ! person
pursu!nt to !n order o$ ! (overnment or ! superior, weter mi"it!ry or civi"i!n, s!"" not re"ieve
t!t person o$ crimin!" responsi#i"ity un"ess !"" o$ te $o""owin( e"ements occur0(!) Te person
w!s under ! "e(!" o#"i(!tion to o#ey orders o$ te (overnment or tesuperior in /uestion2(#) Te
person did not 'now t!t te order w!s un"!w$u"2 !nd
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HUMAN RIGHTS under Atty. Principe, Midterms Reviewer
(c) Te order w!s not m!ni$est"y un"!w$u".9or te purposes o$ tis section, orders to commit
(enocide or oter crimes !(!inst um!nity !re m!ni$est"y un"!w$u".
-HAPT:R ;IProtection o$ ;ictims !nd <itnessesSection 37.

Protection o$ ;ictims !nd <itnesses.
. In !ddition to e)istin( provisions inPi"ippine "!w $or te protection o$ victims !nd witnesses,
te $o""owin( me!sures s!"" #eundert!'en0(!) Te Pi"ippine court s!"" t!'e !ppropri!te
me!sures to protect te s!$ety, pysic!"!nd pysio"o(ic!" we"".#ein(, di(nity !nd priv!cy o$
victims !nd witnesses. In so doin(,te court s!"" !ve re(!rd o$ !"" re"ev!nt $!ctors, inc"udin(
!(e, (ender !nd e!"t, !ndte n!ture o$ te crime, in p!rticu"!r, #ut not "imited to, were te
crime invo"ves se)u!"or (ender vio"ence or vio"ence !(!inst ci"dren. Te prosecutor s!"" t!'e
suc me!suresp!rticu"!r"y durin( te investi(!tion !nd prosecution o$ suc crimes. Tese
me!suress!"" not #e pre1udici!" to or inconsistent wit te ri(ts o$ te !ccused !nd to ! $!ir
!ndimp!rti!" tri!"2(#) As !n e)ception to te (ener!" princip"e o$ pu#"ic e!rin(s, te court m!y,
to protectte victims !nd witnesses or !n !ccused, conduct !ny p!rt o$ te proceedin(s in
c!mer!or !""ow te present!tion o$ evidence #y e"ectronic or oter speci!" me!ns. In
p!rticu"!r,suc me!sures s!"" #e imp"emented in te c!se o$ te victim o$ se)u!" vio"ence or !
ci"d wo is ! victim or is ! witness, un"ess oterwise ordered #y te court, !vin( re(!rd to
!""te circumst!nces, p!rticu"!r"y te views o$ te victim or witness2(c) <ere te person!"
interests o$ te victims !re !$$ected, te court s!"" permit teir views !nd concerns to #e
presented !nd considered !t st!(es o$ te proceedin(sdetermined to #e !ppropri!te #y te court in
m!nner wic is not pre1udici!" to orinconsistent wit te ri(ts o$ te !ccused !nd ! $!ir !nd
imp!rti!" tri!". Suc views !ndconcerns m!y #e presented #y te "e(!" represent!tives o$ te
victims were te courtconsiders it !ppropri!te in !ccord!nce wit te est!#"ised ru"es o$
procedure !ndevidence2 !nd(d) <ere te disc"osure o$ evidence or in$orm!tion pursu!nt to tis
Act m!y "e!d to te(r!ve end!n(erment o$ te security o$ ! witness $or is&er $!mi"y, te
prosecution m!y,$or te purposes o$ !ny proceedin(s conducted prior to te commencement o$
te tri!", wito"d suc evidence or in$orm!tion !nd inste!d su#mit ! summ!ry tereo$.
Sucme!sures s!"" #e e)ercised in ! m!nner wic is not pre1udici!" to or inconsistent witte
ri(ts o$ te !ccused !nd to ! $!ir !nd imp!rti!" tri!".
Section 3=.

Rep!r!tions to ;ictims.
. In !ddition to e)istin( provisions in Pi"ippine "!w !ndprocedur!" ru"es $or rep!r!tions to
victims, te $o""owin( me!sures s!"" #e undert!'en0(!) Te court s!"" $o""ow te princip"es
re"!tin( to te rep!r!tions to, or in respect o$, victims,inc"udin( restitution, compens!tion !nd
re!#i"it!tion. ,n tis #!sis, in itsdecision, te court m!y, witer upon re/uest or on its own
motion in e)ception!"
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HUMAN RIGHTS under Atty. Principe, Midterms Reviewer
circumst!nces, determine te scope !nd e)tent o$ !ny d!m!(e, "oss !nd in1ury to, or inrespect o$,
victims !nd st!te te princip"es on wic it is !ctin(2
3!vvpi3
(#) Te court m!y m!'e !n order direct"y !(!inst ! convicted person speci$yin(!ppropri!te
rep!r!tions to, or in respect o$, victims, inc"udin( restitution, compens!tion!nd re!#i"it!tion2
!nd(c) ?e$ore m!'in( !n order under tis section, te court m!y invite !nd s!"" t!'e!ccount o$
represent!tions $rom or on #e!"$ o$ te convicted person, victims or oterinterested
persons.Notin( in tis section s!"" #e interpreted !s pre1udicin( te ri(ts o$ victims under
n!tion!" orintern!tion!" "!w.
-HAPT:R ;II App"ic!#i"ity o$ Intern!tion!" 6!w !nd ,ter 6!wsSection 38.

App"ic!#i"ity o$ Intern!tion!" 6!w
.. In te !pp"ic!tion !nd interpret!tion o$ tis Act, Pi"ippine courts s!"" #e (uided #y te
$o""owin( sources0(!) Te 3+=@ Genocide -onvention2(#) Te 3+=+ Gen!v! -onventions I.I;,
teir 3+AA Addition!" Protoco"s I !nd II !nd teir5448 Addition!" Protoco" III2(c) Te 3+8=
H!(ue -onvention $or te Protection o$ -u"tur!" Property in te :vent o$ Armed -on$"ict, its
9irst Protoco" !nd its 3+++ Second Protoco"2(d) Te 3+@+ -onvention on te Ri(ts o$ te -i"d
!nd its 5444 ,ption!" Protoco" onte Invo"vement o$ -i"dren in Armed -on$"ict2(e) Te ru"es
!nd princip"es o$ custom!ry intern!tion!" "!w2($) Te 1udici!" decisions o$ intern!tion!" courts
!nd tri#un!"s2(() Re"ev!nt !nd !pp"ic!#"e intern!tion!" um!n ri(ts instruments2() ,ter
re"ev!nt intern!tion!" tre!ties !nd conventions r!ti$ied or !cceded to #y teRepu#"ic o$ te
Pi"ippines2 !nd(i) Te!cin(s o$ te most i("y /u!"i$ied pu#"icists !nd !utorit!tive
comment!ries onte $ore(oin( sources !s su#sidi!ry me!ns $or te determin!tion o$ ru"es o$
intern!tion!""!w.
Section 3>.

Supp"etory App"ic!tion o$ te Revised Pen!" -ode !nd ,ter Gener!" or Speci!" 6!ws.
. Te provisions o$ te Revised Pen!" -ode !nd oter (ener!" or speci!" "!ws s!"" !ve
!supp"etory !pp"ic!tion to te provisions o$ tis Act.
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HUMAN RIGHTS under Atty. Principe, Midterms Reviewer
-HAPT:R ;IIBURISCI-TI,NSection 3A.

Burisdiction.
. Te St!te s!"" e)ercise 1urisdiction over persons, weter mi"it!ry orcivi"i!n, suspected or
!ccused o$ ! crime de$ined !nd pen!"i%ed in tis Act, re(!rd"ess o$ werete crime is committed,
provided, !ny one o$ te $o""owin( conditions is met0(!) Te !ccused is ! 9i"ipino citi%en2(#) Te
!ccused, re(!rd"ess o$ citi%ensip or residence, is present in te Pi"ippines2 or(c) Te !ccused
!s committed te s!id crime !(!inst ! 9i"ipino citi%en.In te interest o$ 1ustice, te re"ev!nt
Pi"ippine !utorities m!y dispense wit te investi(!tionor prosecution o$ ! crime punis!#"e
under tis Act i$ !noter court or intern!tion!" tri#un!" is!"re!dy conductin( te investi(!tion or
undert!'in( te prosecution o$ suc crime. Inste!d, te!utorities m!y surrender or e)tr!dite
suspected or !ccused persons in te Pi"ippines to te!ppropri!te intern!tion!" court, i$ !ny, or to
!noter St!te pursu!nt to te !pp"ic!#"e e)tr!dition"!ws !nd tre!ties.No crimin!" proceedin(s
s!"" #e initi!ted !(!inst $orei(n n!tion!"s suspected or !ccused o$ !vin( committed te crimes
de$ined !nd pen!"i%ed in tis Act i$ tey !ve #een tried #y !competent court outside te
Pi"ippines in respect o$ te s!me o$$ense !nd !c/uitted, or !vin( #een convicted, !"re!dy
served teir sentence.
Section 3@.

Pi"ippine -ourt, Prosecutors !nd Investi(!tors.
. Te Re(ion!" Tri!" -ourt o$ tePi"ippines s!"" !ve ori(in!" !nd e)c"usive 1urisdiction over
te crimes punis!#"e under tis Act. Teir 1ud(ments m!y #e !ppe!"ed or e"ev!ted to te -ourt
o$ Appe!"s !nd to te Supreme-ourt !s provided #y "!w.Te Supreme -ourt s!"" desi(n!te
speci!" courts to try c!ses invo"vin( crimes punis!#"e undertis Act. 9or tese c!ses, te
-ommission on Hum!n Ri(ts, te Cep!rtment o$ Bustice, tePi"ippine N!tion!" Po"ice or oter
concerned "!w en$orcement !(encies s!"" desi(n!teprosecutors or investi(!tors !s te c!se m!y
#e.Te St!te s!"" ensure t!t 1ud(es, prosecutors !nd investi(!tors, especi!""y tose desi(n!ted
$orpurposes o$ tis Act, receive e$$ective tr!inin( in um!n ri(ts, Intern!tion!" Hum!nit!ri!n
6!w !nd Intern!tion!" -rimin!" 6!w.
-HAPT:R ID9INA6 PR,;ISI,NSSection 3+.

Sep!r!#i"ity -"!use.
. I$, $or !ny re!son or re!sons, !ny p!rt or provision o$ tisSt!tute s!"" #e e"d to #e
unconstitution!" or inv!"id, oter p!rts or provisions ereo$ wic !renot !$$ected tere#y s!""
continue to #e in $u"" $orce !nd e$$ect.
Section 54.

Repe!"in( -"!use. .
A"" "!ws, presidenti!" decrees !nd issu!nces, e)ecutive orders,ru"es !nd re(u"!tions or p!rts
tereo$ inconsistent wit te provisions o$ tis St!tute !re ere#y repe!"ed or modi$ied
!ccordin("y.
Step!nie 6u%ette M. M!c!p!(!"P!(e 7@

HUMAN RIGHTS under Atty. Principe, Midterms Reviewer
Section 53.

:$$ectivity.
. Tis Act s!"" t!'e e$$ect $i$teen (38) d!ys !$ter its comp"etepu#"ic!tion in te
,$$ici!" G!%ette
or in two (5) newsp!pers (ener!" circu"!tion.
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