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Composites

Composites are combinations of two materials in which one of the material is called the reinforcing
phase, is in the form of fibers, sheets, or particles, and is embedded in the other material called the matrix
phase.
Typically, reinforcing materials are strong with low densities while the matrix is usually a ductile or
tough material. If the composite is designed and fabricated correctly, it combines the strength of the
reinforcement with the toughness of the matrix to achieve a combination of desirable properties not
available in any single conventional material.
Components of composite materials
Reinforcement: fibers Matrix materials Interface
Glass
Carbon
rganic
!oron
Ceramic
"etallic
#olymers
"etals
Ceramics
!onding surface
The essence of the concept of composites is that the load is applied over a large
surface area of the matrix. Matrix then transfers the load to the reinforcement,
which being stifer, increases the strength of the composite. It is important to note
that there are many matrix materials and even more fber types, which can be
combined in countless ways to produce just the desired properties.
In the $nited %tates, composites manufacturing is a &' billion dollar a year industry. There
are about ())) composites related manufacturing plants and materials distributors across the $.%. The
industry employs more than &*',))) people. +n additional &'),))) people are employed in businesses
that support the composites industry, including materials suppliers, e,uipment vendors, and other support
personnel.
+bout -). of all composites produced are comprised of glass fiber and either polyester or
vinylester resin. Composites are broadly /nown as reinforced plastics.
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP):
 or years, civil engineers have and repair of new and deteriorabeen in search
for alternatives to steels and alloys to combat the high costs of repair and
maintenance of structures damaged by corrosion and heavy use.
 iber !einforced "olymer #!"$ is a relatively new class of composite material
manufactured from fbers and resins #and has proven e%cient and
economical for the development ting structures in civil engineering.
FRP Structure
 composed of & carbon or glass, provide the strength and stifness.
 The matrix commonly made of polyester, 'poxy or (ylon, binds and protects
the fbers from damage, and transfers the stresses between fbers.
Manufacturing OF FRP :
They are pre)engineered and pre)fabricated in a shop, then assembled and
installed at a bridge site where a wearing surface is added.
Applications of FRP
 as in bridges and columns built completely out of !" composites have
demonstrated exceptional durability, and efective resistance to efects of
environmental exposure
Advantages of FRP:
 *ight weight . # FRP deck +, psf ) oncrete deck --. psf $
 !esistance to de)icing salts and other chemicals.
 'ase and ast installation .
 !educed tra%c delay .
 /ood durability .
 *ong service life .
 0ost savings
!isadvantages of FRP:
 1igher initial cost compared to a conventional concrete dec2.
 *ac2 of design standards and conventions for material characteri3ation
 *imited !" experience within the construction industry.
 !"4s low modulus of elasticity leads to a de5ection driven design which does
not allow a designer to fully capitali3e on the !"4s strength