Assessment of Nigerian International Broadcasting by Nigerians in Diaspora | Open Access | Engineering

Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.

org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

25
Assessment of Nigerian International Broadcasting by Nigerians
in Diaspora

"lusesan S. (se)un-"larinmo*e& "guch ". +wom& Patricia ,. -hioma&

.asiu (. "latun/osun

0epartment o1 2ass -ommunication& 3a/coc) School o1 3usiness& 3a/coc) +ni4ersit*& Ilisan-Remo& "gun
State& Nigeria
5 ,-mail o1 the corresponding author6 droaso2##!7gmail.com

Abstract
International /roadcasting is pro8ecting an image o1 the countr* o1 /roadcast to an e9ternal audience. :he
e9ternal audience comprise not 8ust 1oreigners /ut also citi;ens o1 the host countr* who reside outside that
countr*. :he <uestion then is& to what e9tent are Nigerian international /roadcasters satis1*ing their countr*=s
citi;ens who reside in the 0iaspora> :his stud* sought to 1ind out the assessment o1 Nigeria=s international
/roadcasting /* her e9patriates? that is her citi;ens li4ing a/road.
:he sur4e* methodolog* was emplo*ed in this research. :he techni<ue was purposi4e as onl* the responses o1
Nigerians who respond in the diaspora were sought. @uestionnaire was used as the instrument o1 data collection.
:he <uestionnaire was uploaded online 4ia the sur4e* mon)e* 1or Nigerians residing in the 0iaspora to respond
to. :here were '5A respondents /ut onl* '5# completel* 1illed their <uestionnaires? these were anal*;ed 1or this
research. Bindings showed that ma8orit* o1 respondents (!!.!) watch Nigerian international /roadcasters on
wee)ends& and most people (2C) watch news pro/a/l* to )eep a/reast with happenings /ac) home. (/out a
third (DC) o1 the respondents watch Nigerian :ele4ision (uthorit* (N:() International and 5D.DC assessed the
programme <ualit* as poor especiall* the pictures which are ad8udged as lac)ing in pro1essionalism. Howe4er&
the respondents considered the in1ormation recei4ed 1rom the stations the* watch as credi/le. It is recommended
that there should /e impro4ement in the standard o1 pro1essionalism o1 presenters so as to ma)e the programmes
more appealing to 4iewers as presentation is the window to the world. Bunding is another crucial issue. .hen
1unds are a4aila/le& programmes will /e pac)aged /etter and more pro1essionals will /e emplo*ed to engender
more 4iewership 1rom the 0iaspora.
Keywords: International /roadcasting& e9ternal audience& International /roadcasters& ,9patriates

1. Introduction
3roadcasting is re1erred to as the dissemination o1 in1ormation to a large heterogeneous audience through the
electronic media. 3roadcasting o4er time has e4ol4ed into di11erent 1orms co4ering its di11erent 1unctions such as
educational /roadcasting& pu/lic a11airs /roadcasting& communit* /roadcasting and also international
/roadcasting. Howe4er& the 1ocus o1 this stud* is on international /roadcasting.
International /roadcasting can /e de1ined as /roadcasting across national 1rontiers to a 1oreign rather than a
domestic audience. It is a deli/erate dissemination o1 /roadcast messages to an audience outside the /orders o1
the /roadcast organi;ations territor*. 0ouai (2##A) citing Price (2##D) suggests that international /roadcasting is
Ethe elegant term 1or a comple9 com/ination o1 State-sponsored news& in1ormation& and entertainment& directed
at a population outside the sponsoring StateFs /oundaries. It is the use o1 electronic media /* one societ* to shape
the opinion o1 the people and leaders in another (p. 2).
International /roadcasting /egan as a mainstream initiati4e 1or man* western nations pu/lic diplomac* e11ort. (t
inception& /roadcast messages was disseminated using the 2orse -ode& /ut 1ollowing e9periments in the
shortwa4e in 'A25 1rom ,indho4en& western go4ernments resorted to shortwa4e radio /roadcast as tool to
propagate its political and cultural ideals a/road. :he 1irst international /roadcast too) place in 2arch 'A2& with
a 0utch shortwa4e radio /roadcast 1or the Netherlands=s colonies in the 0utch ,ast Indies. In 2a* 'AD'& Brance
/egan /roadcasting to its territories o4erseas& and in 0ecem/er the 1ollowing *ear& the 33- /egan ten-hour dail*
,nglish language /roadcasts to its o4erseas dominions and colonies (Norihiro& 2##A p.25).
,arl* international /roadcasting included /ut is not limited to6 Radio 2oscow& %atican radio& 0eutsche .elle&
radio Bree (sia& %oice o1 (merica (%"()& and 3ritish 3roadcasting -orporation (33-). Howe4er as time went
/*& international /roadcasting /egan to e9perience trans1ormations which challenged this hegemon*. (ccording
to Gorman (2##5)& the de4elopment o1 satellite technolog* and the internet challenged this hegemon*. It opened
an a4enue 1or international /roadcasters such as6 (l Ha;eera& Press :ele4ision& and some 1rom less de4eloped
countries (such as Nigeria) to present a non-.estern perspecti4e o1 the world& and the opportunit* to present
themsel4es to the world as the* wish to /e percei4ed.
It can /e said that international /roadcasting in Nigeria dates /ac) to the esta/lishment o1 the %oice o1 Nigeria
(%"N)& in 'A!' as the e9ternal ser4ice o1 the Nigerian 3roadcasting -orporation (N3-) which later /ecame the
Bederal Radio -orporation o1 Nigeria (BR-N).
3amidele (2#'') in his article asserts that on Hanuar* 5& 'AA#& %"N was ta)en out o1 BR-N /* 0ecree No '5 o1
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

2!
2a* '4& 'AA' with retroacti4e e11ect. :he law guiding the remo4al o1 %"N 1rom BR-N stipulates that Ethe
-orporation shall with the e9clusion o1 an* other /roadcasting authorit* or an* other /od* in Nigeria& /e
responsi/le 1or /roadcasting e9ternall*& /* radio& Nigeria=s 4iew point to an* part o1 the .orldI.
Burthermore& he adds that %"N is the sole agenc* 1or international /roadcasting in Nigeria and this can /e said
to /e true 1or radio? /ut toda* in Nigeria there are tele4ision stations that /roadcast to the international world and
some o1 such are the Nigerian :ele4ision (uthorit* which is the international /roadcaster o1 the Bederal
Go4ernment o1 Nigeria 1or tele4ision& (1rica Independent :ele4ision ((I:)& -hannels :ele4ision& :ele4ision
-ontinental (:%-) among others.
"n No4em/er 22& 2##!& the Nigeria :ele4ision (uthorit* (N:() 1ormall* /egan international transmission and
at the 1lag o11 ceremon*& 1ormer president "lusegun "/asan8o descri/ed the e4ent as a Elandmar) e4ent that is
/ound to directl* ha4e impact on NigeriaFs image worldwide and on the process o1 the nationFs repositioning 1or
the challenges o1 the emerging glo/al di4isions o1 power& la/our& and opportunit*I
(http6JJalla1rica.comJstoriesJ2##!''2!##$'.html).
"ne o1 the 1unctions o1 the %"N is that Ethe -orporation shall ensure that its ser4ices re1lect 4iews o1 Nigeria as
a Bederation and gi4e ade<uate e9pression to the culture& characteristic& a11airs and opinions o1 NigeriaI and also
its presentation o1 news and programme shall enhance Nigeria=s 1oreign polic* and image (Economic
Confidential).
.hile it is true& as esta/lished& that international /roadcasting is one o1 image-ma)ing and management o1 such
image& wherein the /roadcaster wants the glo/al communit* to percei4e hisJher countr* in a positi4e wa*& the
e9tent to which these Nigerian international /roadcasters are satis1*ing their countr*=s citi;ens who reside in the
0iaspora /ecomes an issue.

Statement of the roblem
Price (n.d.) asserts that international /roadcasting can /e 8usti1ied as a means o1 pro8ecting an appropriate image
o1 the 1unding countr* so as to e9tend its in1luence& 1acilitate the acceptance o1 its 1oreign policies and& possi/l*&
1urther its general economic and trade o/8ecti4es. .hile this can /e said to /e true& what is the e9tent to which
these international /roadcasters are satis1*ing their countr*=s citi;ens who reside in the 0iaspora>
Price (2##2) 1urther e9plains that 8ust li)e commercial stations that ta)e time to e4aluate their audiences to
ensure the* are reaching them there/* achie4ing their goals& international /roadcasters also ha4e same role to
pla*. He 1urther e9plains that the 3ritish 3roadcasting -orporation (33-) and the %oice o1 (merica (%"()
usuall* e4aluate the si;e o1 their audience& their demographics& and report the results to their legislators who
determine whether the* are per1orming ade<uatel*. :he* stud* the num/er o1 listeners& status& listening time&
place& means etc.
:he <uestion then is how o1ten do Nigerian international /roadcast stations stud* their audiences and 1ind out the
e9tent to which the* are meeting their o/8ecti4es> :his stud* there1ore see)s to e9amine the assessment o1
Nigeria=s international /roadcasting /* her e9patriates.

!esearch "uestions
:he stud* sought to 1ind out the 1ollowing6
'. .hat Nigerian international /roadcaster(s) do Nigerian e9patriates watch>
2. How o1ten do Nigerian e9patriates watch Nigerian international /roadcast stations>
D. .hat t*pe o1 program content do Nigerian e9patriates 4iew on these stations>
4. How do Nigerian e9patriates rate the <ualit* o1 programs and credi/ilit* o1 in1ormation recei4ed
through these stations>

#heoretical $ramewor%
:his stud* was anchored on the +ses and Grati1ications theor* o1 mass communication. :his theor* e9plains that
media audiences are acti4e& choose and use the media the wa* the* want 1or di11erent purposes. :he theor* was
propounded /* ,lihu Kat;& Ha* 3lumler and 2ichael Gure4itch in 'A4. (s cited in +ses and
grati1ications (pproach (n.d.)& there are three o/8ecti4es in de4eloping uses and grati1ications theor* as 1ollows6
') to e9plain how indi4iduals use mass communication to grati1* their needs. E.hat do people do with the mediaI
2) to disco4er underl*ing moti4es 1or indi4iduals= media use D) to identi1* the positi4e and the negati4e
conse<uences o1 indi4idual media use.
(n e9planation o1 the uses and grati1ications theor* asserts Ethat a media user see)s out a media source that /est
1ul1ils the needs o1 the userI (-ommunication -apstone& 2##'). In relation to this stud*& it means that Nigerians
in the 0iaspora will onl* use media that 1ul1il their needs. Some o1 the needs o1 the audience are in1ormation&
entertainment& withdrawal& personal identit*& social integration among others. :his then /rings to 1ore the need
1or Nigerian international /roadcasters to pac)age their programmes no dou/t 1or the 1oreign audience /ut also
1or citi;ens o1 the countr* who pro/a/l* reside outside the shores o1 the countr* 1or di11erent reasons.
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

2
Bor the audience choosing which media to use and what to use it 1or& means that there is an arra* o1 choices to
ma)e and thus the user will onl* choose a medium that suits his needs. :his implies that Nigerians in the
0iaspora would pro/a/l* need to watch Nigerian stations sometimes to )eep in touch with the home 1ront as
some 1oreign media might not capture e4ents as much as it will /e captured on the media 1rom the home countr*.
2c@uail ('A$ p.D) as cited /* -handler ('AA4) gi4es one reason 1or media use thus6 he said it can /e used 1or
integration and social interaction. Some aspects under integration are gaining insight into circumstances o1 others?
social empath*& identi1*ing with others and gaining a sense o1 /elonging& ena/ling one to connect with 1amil*&
1riends and societ*. :his means that while a person might /e awa* 1rom the home countr*& heJshe might still
want to )eep in touch with what is happening at home and thus /e a part o1 e4er*thing. Such person could also
want to identi1* with what is happening /ac) at home thus ha4ing some sense o1 /elonging that heJshe is still
4er* much a part o1 that communit*.

&. 'iterature !e(iew
&.1 #he concept of International Broadcasting
:he essence o1 the esta/lishment o1 international /roadcasting was to 1oster go4ernment propaganda. (ccording
to Price (n.d.)& international /roadcasting /egan as a tool o1 image ma)ing and management where/* the
/roadcaster wants the glo/al communit* to percei4e them and their host countr* in a certain wa*.
(s time went on& the medium was channelled to achie4ing other purposes o1 /ene1it to go4ernment& the
/roadcasters& and its target audience. (ccording to George ('A5A) as cited in Norihiro (2##A& p.2D) international
3roadcasting presents the /est o1 the culture and ideas o1 the /roadcaster& it presents world news o/8ecti4el*& it
e9plains the /roadcasting countr*=s 4iewpoint on important world pro/lems& and promote international
understanding. (lso according to Richter (2##$ p.')& /roadcast messages are disseminated to 1oreign pu/lics in
an attempt to /ring a/out understanding o1 its nation=s ideas and ideals& its institutions and culture& as well as its
national goals and current policies. :hese messages are targeted at international audiences.
&.& Audience of international broadcasting:
(ccording to http6JJen.wi)ipedia.orgJwi)iJInternationalL/roadcasting& international /roadcast audiences are
classi1ied into 1our ma8or categories6
1. ,9patriates6 these are citi;ens o1 the /roadcast countr* who reside outside the /orders o1 their home
countries such as6 students& tourists& migrants& wor)ers& missionaries etc. People alwa*s want to /e )ept
a/reast o1 what is going on in their 4arious home countries no matter how 1ar awa* 1rom home. ( lot o1
1oreign media emplo* the use o1 international /roadcasting as a means o1 alerting their nationals in
times o1 trou/le and also )eep them up to date with happenings in their countries.
&. Hournalists6 8ournalists are alwa*s noising 1or news. :he* monitor international /roadcasters 1or news
in1ormation o1 interest in order to em/ar) on critical anal*sis o1 the news.
). Go4ernment6 the go4ernment no dou/t is a ma8or target audience. "1ten times& go4ernments utili;e the
international /roadcaster to communicate messages to other go4ernments as well as go4ernment
o11icials such as6 intelligence o11icers& diplomats& and am/assadors etc.
(lso& it enlightens 1oreign go4ernments on 4arious policies that are o/taina/le in a gi4en countr*&
e9plains the reason the societ* has ta)en certain decisionsJactions& and disseminates its 4iews on
international a11airs or on the e4ents in particular parts o1 the world.
*. 3usiness organi;ations6 international /roadcasting has /ecome a ma8or tool through which a countr*
showcases its resources in order to attract 1oreign /usiness in4estors. 2essages are intentionall*
directed at this group o1 audience /ecause their in4estments to a large e9tent will /oost the econom* o1
the societ* as well as 1oster international relationships amongst states. It is /elie4ed that international
/roadcasting will ser4e as a good plat1orm 1or in1orming people a/out the culture& policies and
opportunities o/taina/le in the originating countr*.
International /roadcasting is one o1 the 1astest wa*s to /uild contact. ( lot o1 1oreign and local pla*ers
in the in4estment& academic& political& entertainment as well as sports sector& ha4e /een e9posed due to
the 4arious spotlight programmes on them and it gi4es room 1or contact /uilding on the international
scene.
:he audience o1 1ocus in this stud* are Nigerian e9patriates& that is& Nigerians who reside in the 0iaspora.
$unctions of International Broadcasting
Groe/el (n.d.) as cited /* Richter (2##$ pp.'M2) ha4ing conducted a comparati4e anal*sis o1 the international
/roadcasting o1 +nited States o1 (merica& 3ritain& German*& and Brance& outlined the /asic 1unctions o1
international /roadcasting as 1ollows6
'. It ser4es as a gatewa* 1or accurate in1ormation in crises6 international /roadcasting encapsulates
man* o1 the con1licts and di11iculties central to the need that one societ* ma* desire to shape the
in1ormation space o1 another. :here is the struggle to harmoni;e goals o1 No/8ecti4it*= with the
need to act as an e11ecti4e instrument o1 propaganda& the potential split /etween ad4ancing national
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

2$
polic* and acting as a credi/le 8ournalistic enterprise and the tension /etween promotion o1
1a4oura/le regimes and the nourishment o1 dissent (Price&2##D p.2). It also helps in peace)eeping&
in times o1 con1lict it can /e used as a 1orm o1 negotiation (Price& n.d.).
2. It pro4ides compensation 1or the lac) o1 media suppl* in underde4eloped regions6 (n increasing
penetration o1 communit* radio into man* regions pro4ides a tool and plat1orm 1or (local)
communit* de/ate and dialogue and supports democratic processes within societies. International
/roadcasting is capa/le o1 pla*ing the same role 1or regional and glo/al communities. 3roadcasters
will /e a/le to enter into partnerships with the local media& suppl* and e9change media content and
enhance the intercultural dialogue.
D. It pro8ects the culture and language o1 a societ*6 :here are 4arious cultures all o4er the world& and
each has its uni<ue mode o1 operation. So man* people attach a lot o1 importance to their culture
and there are certain rituals& ta/oos and instructions that guide the culture.
International /roadcasting could help sol4e contemporar* challenges /rought a/out /* the need to
/ridge the gap in )nowledge a/out other ci4ili;ations& cultures and societies that ha4e entered into
1re<uent contact with one another due to glo/ali;ation. (ccording to Richter (2##$ p.D)&
international /roadcasting aims to introduce topics and 4iews 1rom the home countr* to /roaden a
1oreign pu/lic=s agenda and to stimulate new perspecti4es. Howe4er& to reach this goal& the e9isting
agenda must /e complemented /* topics that relate to regional interests and cultural concepts
4. It o11ers a connection to the home countr* 1or 1ellow countr*men a/road6 :o maintain contact with
a countr*Fs citi;ens tra4elling a/road or e9patriates who ha4e emigrated and share news 1rom home
as well as cultural programming.
5. It ena/les the disseminating o1 social and political con4ictions& concepts and ideologies6 :o
ad4ance a nationFs 1oreign polic* interests and agenda /* disseminating its 4iews on international
a11airs or on the e4ents in particular parts o1 the world (the .estern media 1ul1ils this purpose with
intent).
"ther 1unctions include6
• International /roadcasting moti4ates dialogue among peoples& /rings a/out mutual
understanding and respect& and the e9change o1 ideas.
• It a11ords the opportunit* o1 portra*ing their nation in a positi4e& non-threatening wa*.
:his is o1ten a calculated e11ort to encourage /usiness in4estment andJor tourism to the
nation.
• It com/ats the negati4e image produced /* other nations& media or internal insurgents
(such as re/els). 0iscuss 1oreign media portra*al o1 (1rican states with highlight on
Nigeria& as well as 3o)o Haram& 2ilitanc* sects as insurgents. "4er time& Nigeria has
alwa*s /een on the 1ore1ront o1 criminal acti4ities in the 4arious news carried /* 1oreign
media& howe4er with the help o1 international /roadcasting and the /irth o1 satelliteJdigital
transmission& it has /ecome eas* 1or people to watch 4arious other aspects o1 the Nigerian
societ*. :his helps to correct impressions on the 4arious 4ices associated with Nigeria
• International /roadcasting ser4es as a channel 1or educating people on 4arious aspects o1
li1e as well as religious issues. "ne o1 the greatest pro/lems we are encountering in the
world now is caused /* religion and misinterpretation o1 religion. International
/roadcasting can there1ore ser4e as a means o1 enlightening people and educating them
a/out religion.

+(er(iew of International Broadcasting in Nigeria
3roadcasting in Nigeria /egan in 'AD2& when as part o1 an e9periment /* the 3ritish 3roadcasting -orporation
(33-)& Oagos was chosen as one o1 the centres in the 3ritish colon*& to recei4e and re-transmit 3ritish ,mpire
ser4ice signals 1rom 0a4entr*& ,ngland. :his rela* s*stem o1 the 33- was replicated in mainl* ,nglish-
spea)ing .est (1rican countries and it succeeded in disseminating 33- news and programmes to man* parts o1
the world ("pen +ni4ersit* o1 Nigeria& n.d. p. 2$).
(ccording to +domisor (2#'D p.')& the introduction o1 radio /roadcasting in Nigeria was an e9periment o1 the
empire ser4ice o1 the 3ritish 3roadcasting -orporation. "ne o1 its man* tas)s was to rela* the o4erseas ser4ice
o1 the 33- through wired s*stems with loudspea)ers& a ser4ice which was then re1erred to as the ERadio
0i11usion S*stemI (R0S) which later /ecame the Nigerian 3roadcasting Ser4ice (N3S) in (pril 'A5'.
It was not until "cto/er D'& 'A5A that tele4ision /roadcasting /egan in Nigeria. :hrough the (ct o1 the .estern
Region House o1 Parliament& -hie1 "/a1emi (wolowo (the Premier o1 the .estern Region at the time)
esta/lished the .estern Nigeria :ele4ision (.N:%) in "*o State. :he /asic aim 1or the esta/lishment o1
tele4ision in Nigeria was to utili;e tele4ision programmes as a tool to enhance the educational sector /* creating
a medium to 1oster mass communication& impro4e upon the le4el and <ualit* o1 the regional educational s*stems
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

2A
that were then handicapped /* the shortage o1 <uali1ied teachers in certain su/8ect areas (+che 'A$A). It was later
e9tended /* a regional radio /roadcasting ser4ice - .estern Nigeria 3roadcasting Ser4ice (.N:%-.N3S)&
(Bolarin& 2###).
In 'A!2& the Bederal Go4ernment esta/lished its tele4ision station? Nigerian :ele4ision Ser4ice (N:S) Oagos in
co-ownership esta/lishment with the N3--International o1 (merica. It was later renamed Nigerian 3roadcasting
-orporation (N3-). Howe4er& through 0ecree 24& the 1ederal go4ernment monopoli;ed tele4ision ownership in
Nigeria& and the N3- /ecame the Nigerian :ele4ision (uthorit* (N:() as it is )nown toda* ((dego8u in
Sha1aei& and Na8at& 2##A p.25D).
International /roadcasting in Nigeria /egan through radio /roadcasting. (ccording to 2edia Rights (genda
(2##' p.D#)& the Bederal Radio -orporation o1 Nigeria (BR-N) had the e9clusi4e responsi/ilit* o1 /roadcasting
/e*ond the /orders o1 Nigeria. Howe4er& this right was nulli1ied when the %oice o1 Nigeria (%"N) was
esta/lished under the %oice o1 Nigeria -orporation 0ecree No.'5 o1 'AA' /* the militar* go4ernment o1 General
I/rahim 3a/angida on 2a* '4& 'AA. In accordance with the pro4isions o1 sections $(')& $(2) and 2A o1 the
0ecree& %"N had e9clusi4e responsi/ilit* 1or /roadcasting /e*ond the /orders o1 Nigeria.
:he ad4ent o1 satellite /roadcasting in Nigeria 1acilitated international tele4ision /roadcasting in Nigeria. Bor
one& the Nigerian :ele4ision (uthorit* (N:() was <uic) to get on the plat1orm. :he N:( which is seen as the
mouthpiece o1 the go4ernment& through its N:( International (N:(i) /roadcast /egan as a tool 1or the
promulgation o1 go4ernment=s 4iewpoints& and ideolog* in accordance with the pro4isions o1 its ena/ling law.
Bollowing the deregulation o1 the /roadcast industr* in 'AA2& commercial /roadcast commenced and now
organi;ations such as (1rican Independent :ele4ision ((I:)& Sil4er/ird :ele4ision (S:%)& -hannels :ele4ision&
and :ele4ision -ontinental (:%- International) stro4e to gain satellite /roadcast presence. (ccording to ()pan
(2#'')& as at 2#''& 4arious Nigerian-owned tele4ision stations could /e accessed on prominent satellite networ)s
such as6 :rend :%& 2*-:%& 0aarSat& and N:( Star :imes.
:hese satellite plat1orms are /asicall* o1 two categories6 0irect to Home (0:H) Pa* :% which re<uire a dish&
and 0%3-: (:errestrial) which does not re<uire a dish& ma)ing. "ther digital satellite plat1orms on which
Nigerian international /roadcasters can /e 1ound are6 0S:% (owned /* 2ultichoice o1 South (1rica& G":%
(also 1rom 2ultichoice)& Star:imes&3en:%(http6JJwww.nai8atechguide.comJ2#'#J#AJcheap-satellite-ca/le-dth-
pa*-t4-multi.html).
:he internet has also made it easier 1or Nigerian radio stations to /roadcast internationall*. Nota/le stations such
as6 -ool A!.A B2& Rh*thm AD.B2& ,)o B2& and Radio -ontinental stream li4e /roadcasts online.

). ,ethod
:his stud* adopted the online sur4e* research design. :he <uestionnaire created 1or this stud* was posted online
on www.sur4e*mon)e*.com 1or two months and the lin) was shared on 4arious social media. (lthough a total o1
one hundred and 1i1t* nine ('5A) respondents 1illed out the <uestionnaire& onl* one hundred and 1i1t* ('5#) were
considered as nine respondents reside in Nigeria. :he data is presented in charts (/ar and pie chart) and simple
percentages.

!esults and Discussion
Table 1: Distribution of respondents according to gender
Gender Bre<uenc* Percentage
(a) Bemale !5 4D.DDC
(/) 2ale $5 5!.!C
:otal '5# '##C
Source: online survey (surveymonkey.com 2013)
:a/le ' shows the total num/er o1 respondents who participated in the online sur4e* 1or this stud*. Si9t*-1i4e
(4D.DDC) respondents were 1emale& while $5 (5!.!C) respondents were male.
Table 2: Respondents country of residence
-ountr* o1 Residence Bre<uenc* Percentage
+nited States o1 (merica '2# $#C
+nited Kingdom '# C
2ala*sia 5 DC
-anada 5 DC
Russia 5 DC
Ghana 5 DC
:otal '5# '##C
Source: online survey (surveymonkey.com 2013)
:a/le 2 shows that '2# ($#C) respondents reside in +S(& '# (C) respondents reside in the +K& while 5 (DC)
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

D#
respondents reside in 2ala*sia& -anada& Russia& and Ghana respecti4el*.
Table 3: Nigerian international broadcast station(s) respondents watch
n=1!
%aria/les 5 Bre<uenc* Percentage
(1rican Independent :ele4ision D5 2D.DC
Nigerian :ele4ision (uthorit* Int=l 55 D!.!C
Sil4er/ird :ele4ision '# !.C
-hannels :ele4ision 5 D.DC
(I: and N:( 45 D#.#C
:otal '5# '##.#C
*Multile resonses allo!ed Source: online survey (surveymonkey.com 2013)

:he Nigerian international /roadcast stations watched /* the respondents are depicted in :a/le D a/o4e. :hirt*-
1i4e (2D.DDC) respondents watch (I:& '' (D!.C) respondents watch N:(& '# (!.C) respondents watch S:%&
5 (D.DC) respondent watch -hannels& while 45 (D#.#C) respondents watch /oth (I: and N:(.

Table ": #re$uency with which respondents watch the identified Nigerian international broadcast stations
%aria/les Bre<uenc* Percentage
0ail* 25 '!.!C
"nce a wee) 25 '!.!C
"nl* on wee)ends '## !!.!C
:otal '5# '##C
Source: online survey (surveymonkey.com 2013)

:a/le 4 shows that 25 ('!.!C) respondents watch Nigerian /roadcast stations dail* and once a wee)
respecti4el*& while '## (!!.!C) respondents watch Nigerian /roadcast stations onl* on wee)ends.

Table : Reasons why respondents watch these broadcast stations
Responses 5 Bre<uenc* Percentages
Bor and political awareness 4# 2!.C
Bor cultural enlightenment D5 2D.DC
Bor news 25 '!.C
Bor political awareness '5 '#.#C
Bor entertainment '# !.C
(ll o1 the a/o4e 25 '!.C
:otal '5# '##.#C
*Multile c"oices allo!ed Source: online survey (surveymonkey.com 2013)
In :a/le 5& the 4arious reasons pro11ered /* respondents 1or 4iewing the Nigerian /roadcast stations are shown.
:hese included cultural enlightenment (2D.DC)& news ('!.C)& political awareness ('#.#C) and entertainment
(!.C). Burthermore&additional 2!.C and '!.C also watched 1or a com/ination o1 reasons ranging 1rom news
and political awareness to news& entertainment& political awareness& and cultural enlightenment respecti4el*.
:a/le ! shows that D5 (2D.DC) respondents watch sports and mo4ies respecti4el*& '5 ('#.#C) respondents
watch news& '# (!.C) respondents watch musicals onl*& while 4# (2!.C) respondents watch a com/ination o1
sports and news& and '# (!.C) respondents watch music and mo4ies& while 5 (D.DC) respondents watch all o1
the a4aila/le options.
Table %: &rogra' contents respondents watch
%aria/les 5 Bre<uenc* Percentages
Sports D5 2D.DC
2o4ies D5 2D.DC
News '5 '#.#C
2usicals '# !.C
Sports and news 4# 2!.C
2usic and mo4ies '# !.C
(ll o1 the a/o4e 5 D.DC
:otal '5# '##.#C
*Multile resonses allo!ed Source: online survey (surveymonkey.com 2013)

Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

D'
Table (: Respondents assess'ent of the progra' $uality and reliability of infor'ation disse'inated on the
identified Nigerian international broadcasters
n=1!
%aria/les Bre<uenc* Percentage
Assessment of rogram "uality
,9cellent #.# #.#C
Good 25 '!.C
Bair 45 D#.#C
Poor $# 5D.DC
Assessment of reliability of Information
-redi/le $5 5!.C
Bairl* credi/le 4# 2!.C
Not credi/le 25 '!.C
Source: online survey (surveymonkey.com 2013

Respondents= assessment o1 the <ualit* o1 programs aired and relia/ilit* o1 in1ormation disseminated on the
Nigerian International /roadcast stations are depicted in :a/le . None o1 the respondents thought that the
<ualit* o1 these programs was e9cellent with slightl* more than hal1 (5D.DC) o1 the respondents rating the
<ualit* o1 programs as poor. Howe4er& D#.#C and '!.C rated them as 1air and good respecti4el*. "n
assessment o1 the relia/ilit* o1 in1ormation disseminated& $5 (5C) respondents assess them as credi/le& 4# (2!C)
as 1airl* credi/le& while 25 ('!.C) respondents thought the* were not credi/le.
:he research <uestions 1indings are summari;ed /elow6
'. .hat Nigerian international /roadcaster(s) do Nigerian e9patriates watch>
(s stated in :a/le D& D5 (2D.DDC) respondents watch (I:& 55 (DC) respondents watch N:(& '# (C)
respondents watch S:%& 5 (DC) respondent watch -hannels& while 45 (D#C) respondents watch /oth (I:
and N:(. :his shows that most respondents watch N:(i. :hus& conclusi4el*& the stud* showed
signi1icantl* that DC (thirt*-se4en percent o1 Nigerians in 0iaspora watch Nigerian :ele4ision (uthorit*
International.
2. How o1ten do Nigerian e9patriates watch Nigerian international /roadcast stations>
(s shown in 1igure 2& 25 ('!.!C) respondents watch Nigerian /roadcast stations dail*& 25 ('!.!C)
respondents watch Nigerian /roadcast stations once a wee)& while '## (!!.!C) respondents watch
Nigerian /roadcast stations onl* on wee)ends. :his shows that more respondents watch these stations on
wee)ends.
D. .hat t*pe o1 program content do Nigerian e9patriates 4iew on these stations>
:a/le 4 shows that D5 (2D.DDC) respondents watch sports& D5 (2D.DDC) respondents watch mo4ies& '5 ('#C)
respondents watch news& '# (C) respondents watch musicals& 4# (2C) respondents watch sports and news&
'# (C) respondents watch music and mo4ies& while 5 (DC) respondents watch all o1 the a/o4e. :his shows
that respondents watch di11erent programmes on these stations.
4. How do Nigerian e9patriates rate the <ualit* o1 programs and credi/ilit* o1 in1ormation recei4ed
through these stations>
:a/le 5 shows how respondents rate the program <ualit* o1 these /roadcasters. :he ta/le shows that no
respondent rated the program <ualit* on Nigerian international /roadcast stations e9cellent& 25('C) respondents
rated the program <ualit* as good& 45 (D#C) respondents rated the program <ualit* 1air& while $# (5D.DDC) rated
the program <ualit* poor.
In ta/le !& $5 (5C) respondents assess the relia/ilit* o1 in1ormation disseminated /* Nigerian international
/roadcaster as credi/le& 4# (2!C) respondents assess the relia/ilit* o1 in1ormation as 1airl* credi/le& while
25('C) respondents assess the relia/ilit* as not credi/le.

-. .onclusion
:his stud* sought to 1ind out how Nigerian e9patriates assess Nigeria=s international /roadcasters. It was
disco4ered that Nigerian international /roadcasting and /roadcasters are 1illing a 4oid in the in1ormation need o1
its residents a/road. It was clearl* indicati4e that Nigerians in 0iaspora 4alue news a/out their home countr* and
happenings on the socio- economic and cultural areas o1 li1e. In this regard& more than a third o1 the respondents
(DC) watch Nigerian :ele4ision (uthorit* (N:() International which on a sectoral ran)ing& is ad8udged the
largest :ele4ision networ) in /lac) (1rica. . 2a8orit* o1 the respondents watch Nigerian international stations on
wee)ends. 2a8orit* o1 the respondents assess the <ualit* o1 the programmes on these stations as poor. 2a8orit*
with 5C are o1 the opinion that the relia/ilit* o1 in1ormation disseminated /* Nigerian international
/roadcasters are credi/le.
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

D2
/. !ecommendations
3ased on the 1indings 1rom this stud*& we recommend that more pro1essionals should /e 1eatured on these
stations to appeal to the 1oreign audiences. :heir programmes should also /e pac)aged well since the stations are
li)e image ma)ers o1 the host countr*. :his pro/a/l* /rings the issue o1 1unding to pla* as more 1unds could
assist to pac)age and produce /etter programmes. :his also means that when these stations ha4e more appealing
programmes there would /e more 4iewers and Nigerians in the 0iaspora would /e more attracted to the stations.

!eferences
(ndrew& (.( (2##A). In1luence o1 Satellite 3roadcasting on the Nigerian -ulture& in #a$cock %ournal of Mass
Communication %ol. 2& No.'. Nigeria6 0epartment o1 2ass -ommunication& 3a/coc) +ni4ersit*.
()pan& (2#''). (1rican -ouncil 1or -ommunication ,ducation (2#''6'A') in a stud* on &'elevision
(ro)rammes and Cultural (ro*imity: + (anacea for ,iolence in a Multi-Cultural Society.& /n Media
'errorism0 /* (1rican -ouncil on -ommunication ,ducation ((--,) 2011. Oagos6 (rtscorp.
3amidele& G. (2#''& No4em/er '4). Nigeria and the New .orld In1ormation and -ommunication
"rder. 1e!sdiaryonline. http6JJnewsdiar*online.comJdeleLin1o.htm
-handler& 0. ('AA4). .h* do People .atch :ele4ision> Retrie4ed 1rom
http6JJwww.a/er.ac.u)JmediaJ0ocumentsJshortJusegrat.html.
0ouai& (. (2##A). International 3roadcasting and the 2anagement o1 Boreign Pu/lic "pinion6 :he -ase o1 (l-
Hurra :ele4ision in the E(ra/ StreetI. ( Ph0 0issertation in 2ass -ommunication su/mitted to the
Penns*l4ania State +ni4ersit* Graduate School.
Economic Confidential. (Septem/er 2##A). Special Bocus6 %oice o1 Nigeria ...the authoritati4e choice.
http6JJeconomiccon1idential.netJsept#A1ocus4on.htm.
Gorman& 0. (n.d.) International 3roadcasting. Retrie4ed 1rom
http6JJglo/alautonom*.caJglo/al'Jglossar*Lentr*.8sp>idP-".##DA.
HB-- - International 3roadcasting 0eli4er* (2#'2). International 3roadcasting - -hallenges and New
"pportunities. http6JJwww.h1cc.orgJdocJHB--LR(0L2#'2-##'-IntlL3casting-
-hallengesL"pportunities.pd1.
Honors6 -ommunication -apstone (2##') :heor* .or)/oo). (n.d.). +ses and Grati1ications :heor*. Retrie4ed
1rom http6JJwww.u)*.eduJQdrlaneJcapstoneJmassJuses.htm.
International 3roadcasting (n.d.). Retrie4ed 1rom http6JJen.wi)ipedia.orgJwi)iJInternationalL/roadcasting
2et;gar& ,. :. (2#'D). -onsidering the EIllogical Patchwor)I6 :he 3roadcasting 3oard o1 Go4ernors and +.S.
International 3roadcasting. Oos (ngeles6 Bigueroa Press.
Nigeria6 :ele4ision 3egins International 3roadcast :ransmission. (2##!& No4em/er 22). Retrie4ed 1rom
http6JJalla1rica.comJstoriesJ2##!''2!##$'.html.
Norihiro& :. (2##A). International :ele4ision 3roadcasting in ,ast (sia6 -urrent Situation and -hallenges.
Price& 2. ,. (2##D). Pu/lic 0iplomac* and :rans1ormation o1 International 3roadcasting. In -omparati4e 2edia
Oaw.
Price& 2. ,.& Haas& S. and 2argolin& 0. (2##$). New :echnologies and International 3roadcasting6 Re1lections
on (daptations and :rans1ormations. +S(6 +ni4ersit* o1 Penns*l4ania.
Price& 2. (n.d.). :he :rans1ormation o1 International 3roadcasting. 2a3on y (ala$ra NRmero 2D.
http6JJwww.ra;on*pala/ra.org.m9JanterioresJn2DJ2DLmprice.html.
Richter& -. (2##$). International 3roadcasting and Intercultural 0ialogue6 0eutsche .elle in the (ra/ .orld.
(ra/ 2edia and Societ*. Retrie4ed 1rom
http6JJwww.ara/mediasociet*.comJarticlesJdownloadsJ2##$#A2$22455ALams!LcarolaLrichter.pd1.
Satellite -a/le 0:H Pa* :% pro4iders S -heap 2ulti--hannel :%. (n.d.).
http6JJwww.nai8atechguide.comJ2#'#J#AJcheap-satellite-ca/le-dth-pa*-t4-multi.html.
Startimes Oaunches 04/-:2 :echnolog* (cross (1rica Including Nigeria (n.d.).
http6JJstartimes.com.ngJsingleLnews.php>newsidP2.
+ses and grati1ications (pproach. (n.d.). +ni4ersit* o1 :wente. Retrie4ed 1rom
http6JJwww.utwente.nlJcwJtheorieeno4er;ichtJ:heor*C2#clustersJ2assC2#2ediaJ+sesLandLGrati1icat
ionsL(pproach.docJ.

The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open-Access hosting service and academic event
management. The aim of the firm is Accelerating Global Knowledge Sharing.

More information about the firm can be found on the homepage:
http://www.iiste.org

CALL FOR JOURNAL PAPERS
There are more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals hosted under the hosting
platform.
Prospective authors of journals can find the submission instruction on the
following page: http://www.iiste.org/journals/ All the journals articles are available
online to the readers all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers
other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Paper version
of the journals is also available upon request of readers and authors.

MORE RESOURCES
Book publication information: http://www.iiste.org/book/

IISTE Knowledge Sharing Partners
EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP Open
Archives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Elektronische
Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe Digtial
Library , NewJour, Google Scholar


Business, Economics, Finance and Management Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
European Journal of Business and Management EJBM@iiste.org
Research Journal of Finance and Accounting RJFA@iiste.org
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development JESD@iiste.org
Information and Knowledge Management IKM@iiste.org
Journal of Developing Country Studies DCS@iiste.org
Industrial Engineering Letters IEL@iiste.org
Physical Sciences, Mathematics and Chemistry Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Journal of Natural Sciences Research JNSR@iiste.org
Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research CMR@iiste.org
Journal of Mathematical Theory and Modeling MTM@iiste.org
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications APTA@iiste.org
Chemical and Process Engineering Research CPER@iiste.org
Engineering, Technology and Systems Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems CEIS@iiste.org
Innovative Systems Design and Engineering ISDE@iiste.org
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy JETP@iiste.org
Information and Knowledge Management IKM@iiste.org
Journal of Control Theory and Informatics CTI@iiste.org
Journal of Information Engineering and Applications JIEA@iiste.org
Industrial Engineering Letters IEL@iiste.org
Journal of Network and Complex Systems NCS@iiste.org
Environment, Civil, Materials Sciences Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Journal of Environment and Earth Science JEES@iiste.org
Journal of Civil and Environmental Research CER@iiste.org
Journal of Natural Sciences Research JNSR@iiste.org
Life Science, Food and Medical Sciences PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Advances in Life Science and Technology ALST@iiste.org
Journal of Natural Sciences Research JNSR@iiste.org
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare JBAH@iiste.org
Journal of Food Science and Quality Management FSQM@iiste.org
Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research CMR@iiste.org
Education, and other Social Sciences PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Journal of Education and Practice JEP@iiste.org
Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization JLPG@iiste.org
Journal of New Media and Mass Communication NMMC@iiste.org
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy JETP@iiste.org
Historical Research Letter HRL@iiste.org
Public Policy and Administration Research PPAR@iiste.org
International Affairs and Global Strategy IAGS@iiste.org
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences RHSS@iiste.org
Journal of Developing Country Studies DCS@iiste.org
Journal of Arts and Design Studies ADS@iiste.org

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.