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1
Assessment of the Quality of Shallow Groundwater for Irrigation
in the Atankwidi Sub-Basin of the White Volta Basin, Ghana

Sa(uel )arnie
1*
' +eohre, -. .nornu
2
an/ )enon, -o(la -ortatsi
3

1. 0eart(ent of .gri1usiness' &alle, &iew 2ni3ersit,' 4echi(an 5a(us
2. 0eart(ent of 5i3il 6ngineering' -wa(e N7ru(ah 2ni3ersit, of Science an/ 4echnolog,' -u(asi
3. 5SIR- 8ater Research Institute' .ccra
*6(ail of the correson/ing author9 sa(uel.1arnie:33u.e/u.gh

Abstract
4he otential use of shallow groun/water for s(all-scale /r, season irrigation is a 7e, issue for irrigation
/e3elo(ent in the ari/ ;one of +hana. <ar(ers within the .tan7wi/i su1-1asin of the 8hite &olta )asin are
increasingl, a/oting groun/water as a source of irrigation water /ue to the una3aila1ilit, of surface water
/uring the /r, season. =owe3er the >ualit, of the groun/water an/ its suita1ilit, for irrigation is not 7nown'
hence the nee/ to assess the >ualit, an/ its suita1ilit, in or/er to ensure sustaina1ilit, in the alication an/
ossi1le e?ansion of groun/water irrigation in the area. 4wo (ain water t,es (5a-@g-=5%
3
an/ Na-@g-5a-
=5%
3
! ha3e 1een /eter(ine/ using the Pier /iagra(. 4he relati3e a1un/ance of cations in the groun/water was
foun/ to 1e in the /ecreasing or/er of Na
A
B 5a
2A
B -
A
B @g
2A
B <e
2A
. Si(ilarl,' that of anions was foun/ to
ha3e a /ecreasing or/er of =5%
3
-
B S%
4
2-
B 5l
-
B P%
4
2-
B N%
3
-
B <
-
. +roun/water in the area ha/ low S.R an/
low to (e/iu( salinit, ha;ar/. =owe3er' (agnesiu( ha;ar/ an/ al7alinit, ro1le(s are li7el, to li(it its use
for irrigation.
eywords! Shallow +roun/water' =,/roche(ical facies' Irrigation 8ater Cualit,.

"# Introduction
+lo1all, there is a strong ositi3e relationshi 1etween higher /ensit, of irrigation an/ lower o3ert, rates' as
Diton et al. (2##3! in/icates. In .frica' onl, 3E of crolan/ is irrigate/ an/ the region has e?erience/ 3er,
little re/uction in o3ert, in the 1$$#s (8orl/ )an7' 2###!. In contrast' those regions that ha3e the greatest
roortion of culti3ate/ area irrigate/ (na(el, 6ast .sia' Pacific' North .frica an/ @i//le 6ast! ha3e
e?erience/ the greatest o3ert, re/uction. 4hat of +hana is ut at #.#2 E as at the en/ of 2##8. Irrigation of
so(e of these ara1le lan/s coul/ not (aterialise /ue to the roFecte/ caital in3ol3e(ent in channeling surface
water o3er long /istances to the irriga1le lan/s.
4he use of han/-/ug wells ena1les the utili;ation of shallow groun/water for irrigate/ ro/uction of 3egeta1les
an/ cash cros /uring the /r, season an/' therefore' ro3i/es an alternati3e source of inco(e for far(ers an/
oor househol/s. <or instance' the large scale ro/uction of shallot an/ other 3egeta1les using shallow
groun/water in the -eta Stri has ro3i/e/ enor(ous inco(e to the in/igenous inha1itants (-ortatsi an/
.g,e7u(' 2###!. In (ost cases' Shallow +roun/water Irrigation (S+I! has /e3eloe/ without an, go3ern(ent
or /onor in3ol3e(ent.
<ar(ers in the 8hite &olta )asin an/ the .tan7wi/i su1-1asin to 1e secific where this stu/, focuses hea3il,
rel, on shallow groun/water as a source of irrigation water /ue to the una3aila1ilit, of surface water in the /r,
season. .s this is far(er /ri3en' little is 7nown a1out the >ualit, of water use/ for the ro/uction of 3egeta1les
which crucial so far as far(ing is concern. 4his is 1ecause' 1esi/es affecting cro ,iel/ an/ soil h,sical
con/itions' irrigation water >ualit, can affect fertilit, nee/s' irrigation s,ste( erfor(ance an/ how the water
can 1e alie/. 4herefore' 7nowle/ge of irrigation water >ualit, is critical to un/erstan/ing what (anage(ent
changes are necessar, for long-ter( ro/ucti3it,. .1o3e all' water >ualit, anal,sis in general' an/ not li(ite/ to
irrigation water' is one of the (ost i(ortant issues in groun/water stu/ies. It re3eals the suita1ilit, of the water
for /ifferent uroses an/ also hels to un/erstan/ the ossi1le change in >ualit, ro1a1l, /ue to roc7-water
interaction or anthroogenic effects. 4he (ain o1Fecti3e of this aer is therefore to assess the shallow
groun/water >ualit, for irrigation in the stu/, area which will infor( 1oth olic, an/ /ecision (a7ers so far as
S+I in the area is concern.

$# Study Area
2.1 Location and Size
4he .tan7wi/i su1-1asin is locate/ 1etween latitu/es 1#
o
4$G4H N an/ 1#
o
""G3" N an/ longitu/inal #
o
""G2H 8
an/ #
o
"$G2H 8' a tri1utar, of the 8hite &olta locate/ in the 2er 6ast Region of +hana 1etween Na3rongo
an/ )olgatanga (-assena Nan7ana 0istrict! with its uer reach in )ur7ina <aso as shown in <igure 1. 4he su1-
1asin is locate/ in one of the areas with the highest groun/water use er 7(I in the &olta Ri3er 1asin (@artin
2##6!. 4he su1-1asin co3ers an area of a1out 2H" 7(
2
of the 8hite &olta 1asin.

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<igure 1. @a of the .tan7wi/i su1-1asin
2.2 Climate and Vegetation
4he stu/, area falls within the Su/an-Sa3anna cli(ate ;one' which is characterise/ 1, high te(eratures an/ a
uni-(o/al rainfall /istri1ution with a /istinct rain, season lasting aro?i(atel, fro( @a, to Sete(1er. 4he
(ean annual rainfall in Na3rongo is aro?i(atel, $8#((. 4he satio-te(oral /istri1utions of reciitation
an/ e3aoration ha3e a large i(act on the water regi(e inclu/ing the groun/water 3aria1ilit,. In the rain,
season /ail, rainfall (a, e?cee/ "# ((' this falls in less than one hour. @onthl, rainfall onl, e?cee/s otential
e3aoration in the three wettest (onths' Jul,' .ugust an/ Sete(1er. 4he total otential e3aoration is 2#"# (('
which is twice the annual rainfall. 4he a3erage annual te(erature is 2$
o
5. 4he (ean /ail, (ini(u(
te(erature is 2"
o
5' coinci/ing with the ea7 of the rain, season' an/ rises to a (a?i(u( of 34
o
5 in .ril.
Relati3e hu(i/it, is highest /uring the rain, season with 6" E. It /ros >uic7l, after the en/ of the rain, season
in %cto1er' reaching a low of less than 1# E /uring the har(attan erio/ in 0ece(1er an/ Januar, (@artin'
2##6!.
2.3 Land Use
%en tree-sa3anna for(s the natural 3egetation in the 2er 6ast Region. 4rees show a large sacing an/ the
area is largel, co3ere/ with grass an/ shru1s. 4he (ost co((on econo(ic trees are the sheanut' /awa/awa'
1oa1a1 an/ acacia. 5o((on grasses inclu/e Andropogen gayyanus in the less ero/e/ areas an/ Hyperrhenia
spp.' Aristida spp. an/ Heteropogen spp. in the se3erel, ero/e/ areas. @ost of the area is use/ for s(all-scale
agriculture. 0uring the rain, season' al(ost H# E of the area is co3ere/ with s(all lots of rainfe/ agriculture
(@artin' 2##6!. %ther arts of the area are use/ for li3estoc7 gra;ing an/ /rin7ing. In the /r, season' the a(ount
of agriculture is su1stantiall, lower' aro?i(atel, 1 E of the area (2nofficial reort' +&P' 2##H!. 4he other
arts of agricultural lan/ re(ain as 1are soil until the ne?t rain, season starts. Dan/ not use/ for agriculture is
either sarse 3egetation on shallow soils in ston, areas or lan/ use/ for the gra;ing of li3estoc7' which is
co3ere/ 1, grass' shru1s an/ trees.
2.4 Relief and Drainage
4he relief of the su1-1asin is generall, flat' gentl, un/ulating with sloes ranging fro( 1E to "E e?cet in a few
ulan/s where sloes are a1out 1#E. .ccor/ing to ./u (1$6$!' the relief of the 26R is relate/ to the geolog,'
where a range of )iri(ian greenstone hills rising u to 4"H( a1o3e sea le3el /o(inate north of )aw7u an/
Je1illa along the 1or/er with )ur7ina <aso an/ in the southwest along the 8hite &olta Ri3er (8&R!. 4he
granite areas are generall, of low' gentl, rolling relief ranging fro( 122 ( to 26# ( a1o3e sea le3el. 4he relief
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un/er &oltain roc7s has si(ilar characteristics to granites' with few escar(ents rising a1o3e "18 ( near the
1or/er with 4ogo in the east. 4he (ean ele3ation for the area is 1$H ( a1o3e sea le3el (Die1e' 2##2!.
2.5 Geological setting
4hree for(ations of the )iri(ian /o(ain can 1e /istinguishe/ in the stu/, area (<igure 2! fro( the geological
(a 1912"'###' sheets Na3rongo (&an /en )erg et al., 1$63! an/ Juarungo (@urra, an/ @itchell' 1$6#!. 4hese
are9 )iri(ian (etase/i(entsK +ranitoi/s (grano/iorites' granite an/ gneiss! associate/ with the )iri(ianK
Intrusi3e )ongo granite. Paleorotero;oic granitoi/s consisting of horn1len/e - 1iotite grano/iorite' 1iotite
granite an/ 1iotite gneiss (a7e u the largest art of the stu/, area an/ for( the slightl, un/ulating south-
western art of the .tan7wi/i su1-1asin. )iri(ian (etase/i(ents (a/e u of h,llite' schist an/ >uart;ite are
foun/ in s(all atches a(ong the granitoi/s.


<igure 2. +eological an/ /rainage (a of the stu/, area.

%# &aterials and &ethods
+roun/water sa(les were collecte/ fro( 4# wells in @arch 2##$ for (aFor an/ (inor ions anal,ses. Sa(ling
rotocols accor/ing to 8oo/ (1$81!' 5laasen (1$82!' an/ )arcelona et al (1$8"! were followe/. 4he (a of
groun/water sa(ling oints is shown in <igure 3. 8ater sa(les accor/ing to stan/ar/s were collecte/ after
u(ing the well for a1out " (inutes in or/er to urge the well of stagnant water. 4he urging was /one to
sta1ili;e/ te(erature' = an/ electrical con/ucti3it, rea/ings.<or (etal anal,sis' sa(les were filtere/ through
#.4"L( filters an/ reser3e/ with "(l 6 N =N%
3
in la1orator, treate/ 1##(l high /ensit, linear ol,eth,lene
1ottles. =owe3er' sa(les for anion anal,ses were without reser3ation. 4he 2ni3ersal 5on/ucti3it, @eter
@ultiline P4 set that ha/ an in-1uilt te(erature co(ensation ro1e was use/ to (easure electrical con/ucti3it,
an/ te(erature si(ultaneousl,. <or the /eter(ination of total al7alinit, (as =5%
3
-
!' fiel/ titration with 1.6 N
=
2
S%
4
to = M4." using =.5= 0igital @ulti Sa(ler @o/el 16$# was /one.
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<igure 3. @a of +roun/water sa(ling locations
5he(ical anal,ses for all (aFor ions (Na
A
' 5a
2
' @g
2A
' =5%
3
-
' 5l
-
' S%
4
2-
! as well as so(e (inor ions (-
A
' N%
3
-
'
<
-
' P%
4
2-
! were carrie/ out with the 0ione? 0N-12# ion chro(atograh at the 6n3iron(ental 5he(istr,
Da1orator, at the 8ater Research Institute of +hana. @anganese (@n! an/ Iron (<e! were also /eter(ine/ with
(ass sectro(eter 2NI5.@ 386 in the sa(e la1orator,. In accor/ance with international stan/ar/s' results with
ionic 1alance (ore than "E were reFecte/.

'# (esults and )iscussion
4.1P!sico"cemical #nal!sis of $ater sam%les
4he results of h,sico-che(ical anal,sis of groun/water sa(les fro( the .tan7wi/i su1-1asin are su((arise/
in 4a1le 1

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4a1le 19 Su((ar, of h,sico-che(ical water >ualit, ara(eters in the .tan7wi/i su1-1asin
*arameter &inimum &a+imum &ean &edian S,)
,em-
-.
/0
,)S
,SS
,urb
Br
$

0a
0l
12
$

12
%

*2
'

S2
'

1a

3
.02
%

0a.
&g.
&g
&n
3e
4n
26.4#
6.H3
1##.##
"".##
1.##
1.H"
#.##
".6#
3.##
#.##1
#.##1
#.#1
4.##
H.8#
1.4
#.#3
12.2#
14.##
3.$
#.$#
#.##"
#.#2
#.##"
34.##
H.$3
484.##
266.2#
2$4.##
316
1.$8
4#.$
44.##
#.12
1#.1#
14.3#
84.##
H#.$#
2".3#
#.6"
2"8.64
1#2.##
HH.8
18.$#
#.6"
13.1
#.#6
2$.$4
H.24
236.2"
12$.$4
"".1$
6$.23
#.4H
1".2H
1"."4
#.#2
1.#6
3."2
23.42
24.H$
$.H6
#.33
11H.$H
3H."6
26.$$
6."H
#.12
2.2"
#.#2
2$.$#
H.21
21H."
11$.63
31."#
36.2"
#.34
13.2
12.$#
#.#2
#.43
2.$"
2#.##
2#.1"
1#.6"
#.3"
11H.12
33.1#
2".8"
6.2"
#.#4
#.$$
#.#1
1.$2
#.33
$$.88
"4.$3
6$.H$
81."3
#.4H
8.36
$.28
#.#3
1.8$
2.42
16.$"
16.16
".12
#.18
62.$8
2#."1
14.6"
3.36
#.18
3.##
#.#1
.ll concentrations are (easure/ in (gOl' = in = unit' 4ur1i/it, in N42' electrical con/ucti3it, in LSOc( an/
te(erature in
o
5.
+enerall,' the che(ical constituents of the groun/water sa(les are low as shown in <igure 4' with =5%
3
-
as
the re/o(inant anion which is 7nown to 1e 3er, consistent with the che(istr, of (ost natural waters in granitic
for(ations (<ree;e an/ 5herr,' 1$H$!. N%
3
-
an/ <
-
occur in (inor concentrations co(are/ with the other
anions. 4he /ecreasing or/er of cations in the groun/water sa(les is in or/er of Na
A
B 5a
2A
B -
A
B @g
2A
B <e
2A

an/ that of anions is =5%
3
-
B S%
4
2-
B 5l
-
B P%
4
2-
B N%
3
-
B <
-
.

<igure 4. @e/ian concentration of che(ical constituents in the .tan7wi/i su1-1asin

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4.2 &!drocemical facies of gro'nd(ater sam%les
=,/roche(ical facies are /istinct ;ones that ossess cation an/ anion concentration categories (Sa/ashi3aiah et
al.' 2##8!. 4he che(ical anal,sis results of the groun/water sa(les in the .tan7wi/i su1-1asin has 1een
resente/ 1, lotting the( on a Pier tri-linear /iagra( (Pier' 1$44! in <igure " which re3eals the analogies'
/issi(ilarities an/ /ifferent t,es of waters in the su1-1asin.



<igure ". Pier /iagra( of groun/water sa(les fro( the .tan7wi/i su1-1asin
In the cation lot fiel/ (triangle on the left! of the Pier tri-linear /iagra(' "#E of the groun/water sa(les lot
(ainl, in the (i//le which suggests (i?e/ cations with no /o(inant cation t,e whiles the other "#E of the
sa(les /eicts Na-- as the re/o(inant cation t,e. =owe3er' in the anion lot fiel/ (triangle on the right!'
al(ost all the sa(les lotte/ are towar/s the =5%
3
-
corner which again suggests =5%
3
-
as the re/o(inant
anion.
4he groun/water sa(les lotte/ in the 5a-@g-=5%
3
/o(inant of the /ia(on/ fiel/ (section .! suggests acti3e
recharge' short resi/ence ti(e an/ te(orar, har/ness (-ortatsi et al.' 2##8!. 4his t,e of waters usuall, has
che(ical roerties which are /o(inate/ 1, al7aline earths an/ wea7 aci/s (-aranth' 1$$4!' an/ aarentl, not
associate/ with a articular geological for(ation (-ortatsi et al.' 2##8! 1ut (a, ha3e e(anate/ fro( either
/olo(ite (5a@g (5%
3
!
2
! or calcite (5a5%
3
! in roc7 (atri?. So(e (3" E! of the groun/water sa(les (section )!
also showe/ (i?e/ t,e of water with no cation-anion e?cee/ing "# E. 4his water secificall, is (ore of the
Na-@g-5a-=5%
3
(i?e/ t,e of water.
4.3 )rrigation $ater *'alit!
4he e3aluation of groun/water >ualit, for irrigation in this stu/, was 1ase/ on the following factors9
i. Salinit, (total a(ount of /issol3e/ salts in water!'
ii. So/iu( ha;ar/ (the a(ount of so/iu( in the water co(are/ to calciu( lus (agnesiu(!'
iii. @agnesiu( ha;ar/ (@=!' an/
i3. = an/ total al7alinit,.
4.3.1 Salinit! &azard
4he (ost influential water >ualit, gui/eline on cro ro/ucti3it, is the water salinit, ha;ar/ as (easure/ 1,
electrical con/uctance ()au/er et al.' 2##H!. =igh concentration of salinit, (electrical con/ucti3it,! in irrigation
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water affect cro ,iel/ through the ina1ilit, of the lant to co(ete with ions in the soil solution for water
(os(otic effect or h,siological /rought!. 4he se3erit, of the os(otic effect (a, 3ar, with the lants growth
stage an/ in so(e cases (a, go unnotice/ 1ecause of a unifor( ,iel/ /ecline o3er the whole cro (+eorge'
1$H$!. 4a1le 2 shows the classification of groun/water sa(les for irrigation water use 1ase/ uon electrical
con/ucti3it,.
4a1le 29 5lassification of groun/water sa(les in .tan7wi/i su1-1asin for Irrigation water use 1ase/ on
electrical con/ucti3it, ()au/er et al' 2##H!
1umber of
sam-les
*ercentage /lectrical 0onducti5ity
67S8cm9
0lasses of Water
26
14
#
#
#
6"
3"
#
#
#
P2"#
2"# Q H"#
H"# Q 2###
2### Q 3###
R3###
5lass 19 6?cellent
5lass 29 +oo/
5lass 39 Per(issi1le
5lass 49 0ou1tful
5lass "9 2nsuita1le
4.3.2 Sodi'm &azard
.ccor/ing to -aranth (1$$4!' e?cessi3e Na
A
content of irrigation water ren/ers it unsuita1le for soils containing
e?changea1le 5a
2A
an/ @g
2A
ions as the soil ta7e u Na
A
in e?change for 5a
2A
an/ @g
2A
causing /eflocculation
(/isersion! an/ i(air(ent of the tilth an/ er(ea1ilit, of soils. 4he so/iu( ha;ar/ is t,icall, e?resse/ as
the so/iu( a/sortion ratio (S.R!. 4he general classifications of groun/water sa(les in the stu/, area for
irrigation 1ase/ on S.R 3alues accor/ing to )au/er et al' (2##H! generall, showe/ low S.R.
4.3.3 Classification of )rrigation $ater *'alit!
8hen the salinit, an/ so/iu( a1sortion ratio (S.R! of water are 7nown' the classification of irrigation waters
can 1e /eter(ine/ 1, grahicall, lotting these 3alues on the 8ilco? /iagra( (8ilco? an/ 0uru(' 1$6H!. 4he
/iagra( e?resses the relationshi 1etween so/iu( (S.R! an/ salinit, (65! ha;ar/s' in other wor/s' it e?resses
the integrate/ effect of 1oth so/iu( an/ salinit, ha;ar/s of irrigation waters. 4hat for the .tan7wi/i su1-1asin
was therefore lotte/ as shown in <igure 6.

<igure 6. 5lassification of irrigation waters in the .tan7wi/i su1-1asin
4.3.4 +agnesi'm &azard
@agnesiu( is 1elie3e/ to 1e inFurious to lants' 1ut the har(ful effect is greatl, re/uce/ 1, the resence of
calciu(. 4he (agnesiu( ha;ar/ (@=! is /efine/ as 1##@g (5a A @g!
-1
with the che(ical constituents
e?resse/ as (e>Ol. 4he classification of groun/water sa(les accor/ing to S;a1olcs an/ 0ara1 (1$64! 1ase/ on
(agnesiu( ha;ar/ is shown in 4a1le 3
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4a1le 39 5lassification of groun/water sa(les in .tan7wi/i su1-1asin 1ase/ on @agnesiu( ha;ar/ (S;a1olcs
an/ 0ara1' 1$64!.
1umber of wells *ercentage &agnesium ha:ard
;"<<&g60a = &g9
-"
>
Water classification
$?
""
H2."
2H."
S"#
B"#
0esira1le
2n/esira1le (/eleterious to
(ost cros!
4he groun/water sa(le/ ha/ 2H."E of the( with @= a1o3e "# i(l,ing that' (agnesiu( ha;ar/ is a otential
ro1le( associate/ with the groun/water in the stu/, area shoul/ it 1e use/ for irrigation.
4.3.5 %& and #l,alinit!
.l7alinit, is relate/ to =' 1ecause water with high al7alinit, has a high T1uffering caacit,U or caacit, for
neutralising a//e/ aci/s. 4he (aFor che(icals resonsi1le for al7alinit, in water are the /issol3e/ car1onates
an/ 1icar1onates fro( the geologic (aterials of the a>uifer fro( which the water is /rawn. 4he /issol3e/
car1onates an/ 1icar1onates increase the (e/ia = o3er ti(e 1, neutralising =
A
ions in the (e/ia solution.
.lthough there are no esta1lishe/ oti(u( or to?ic le3els for al7alinit,' t,ical reco((en/ations range fro(
3H." Q 13# (gOl 5a5%
3
(8ill an/ <aust' 1$$$!. 4he concentration of al7alinit, 3arie/ fro( 1# Q 216 (gOl with
the (ean' (e/ian an/ stan/ar/ /e3iation of $6.H' $6 an/ "1.62 (gOl resecti3el,. 22."E of the total groun/water
sa(les ha/ their concentrations a1o3e this /esira1le range ro1a1l, /ue to the relati3el, high concentrations of
1icar1onate (=5%
3
-
! in the sa(les. Nonetheless' " E of the groun/water sa(les ha/ low al7alinit,
concentrations. Dow al7alinit, of irrigation water ro3i/es no 1uffering caacit, against = changes which lea/s
to the /ecline of (e/ia solution = when aci/-resi/ue fertilisers are use/ (8ill an/ <aust' 1$$$!.
4.3.- #ssessment of )rrigation (ater .'alit! /ased +& and 0otal #l,alinit!
4he irrigation water >ualit, was assesse/ 1ase/ on all the criteria use/ (S.R' salinit, ha;ar/' (agnesiu( ha;ar/
an/ al7alinit,! to 7now the ercentage of groun/water sa(les that fell within the reco((en/e/ ranges.


<igure H. .ssess(ent of irrigation water >ualit, 1ase/ on @= an/ al7alinit,
<igure H shows the assess(ent of groun/water sa(les 1ase/ on 1oth (agnesiu( ha;ar/ an/ total al7alinit,.
Since all the groun/water sa(les fell within the reco((en/e/ ranges of 1oth so/iu( (S.R! an/ salinit,
ha;ar/s at the sa(e ti(e' the onl, li(itations will 1e fro( (agnesiu( ha;ar/ an/ al7alinit,. 4herefore the
ercentages of sa(les that fall within the /esira1le ranges of 1oth (agnesiu( ha;ar/ an/ al7alinit, at the sa(e
ti(e are consi/ere/ to 1e the ercentage of sa(les with a1solutel, no li(itation. 8ith this assu(tion' the
ercentage of sa(les that fall within the reco((en/e/ region of the <igure a1o3e is "2." E with 2" E an/
22." E of the sa(les with (agnesiu( ha;ar/ an/ al7alinit, ro1le(s resecti3el,.
It is howe3er worth (entioning that the otential ro1le(s i/entifie/ were not area secific so far as the stu/,
area is concern which literature suggests that' it (a, /ue to the /ifferent recharge atterns of the a>uifer s,ste(.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225
M
a
g
n
e
s
i
u
m

H
a
z
a
r
d

Concentration of total Alalinit! "mg#l CaC$3%
&ater sam'les
(o )uffering
ca'acit!
*esira)le
range
*ou)tful
*esira)le
+ndesira)le
Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org
ISSN 2224-3186 (Paer! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline!
&ol.4' No.1"' 2#14

$
@# 0onclusion
4wo (ain water t,es (5a-@g-=5%
3
an/ Na-@g-5a-=5%
3
! ha3e 1een /elineate/ using the Pier /iagra(.
<urther(ore' the relati3e a1un/ance of cations in the groun/water is in the or/er of Na
A
B 5a
2A
B -
A
B @g
2A
B
<e
2A
. =5%
3
-
was howe3er the re/o(inant anion which also ha/ a /ecreasing or/er of =5%
3
-
B S%
4
2-
B 5l
-
B
P%
4
2-
B N%
3
-
B <
-
. 4he suita1ilit, of groun/water for irrigation e3aluate/ 1ase/ on so/iu( (S.R!' salinit, an/
(agnesiu( ha;ar/s' = an/ al7alinit, showe/ low S.R an/ low to (e/iu( salinit, ha;ar/ an/ is therefore
goo/ for irrigation 1ut with so(e otential (agnesiu( ha;ar/ an/ al7alinit, ro1le(s which artiall, li(its its
use for irrigation 1, /e3eloing so/ic soil con/itions with continuous use. 0ue to the (agnesiu( ha;ar/
ro1le(s that were recor/e/ in so(e of the areas which also actuall, increase slightl, the otential effect of
so/iu( on soils' soil con/itions shoul/ also 1e (onitore/ with ti(e to ascertain an, ro1le( of so/icit, an/ if
necessar, leach the soil. +roun/water >ualit, in the su1-1asin shoul/ also 1e (onitore/ regularl, to ensure earl,
/etection an/ inter3ention of an, ollution or conta(ination that (a, occur /ue to the susceti1ilit, of the
regional a>uifer s,ste( to ollution (wee/ici/es' estici/es etc.!.

(eferences
./u' S.&. (1$6$!. Soils of the Na3rongo-)aw7u area' 2er Region' +hana. @e(oir No. "' Soil Research
Institute' -u(asi' +hana' 1##
.,res' R.S. an/ 8estcott' 0.8. (1$H6!. 8ater >ualit, for agriculture. <...%. Irrigation an/ 0rainage Paer No.
2$ <...%. Ro(e.
)arcelona' @.' +i11' J. P.' =elfrich' J. .. an/ +ars7e' 6. 6. (1$8"!. Practical gui/e for groun/water sa(ling.
Illinois State 8ater Sur3e, IS8S contract reort 3H4' 5ha(aign.
)au/er' 4...' 8as7o(' R.@. an/ 0a3is' J. +. (2##H!. Irrigation 8ater Cualit, 5riteria. 6?tension <act Sheet no.
#."#6' 5olora/o State 2ni3ersit,. 1-".
5lassen' =. 5. (1$82!. +ui/elines an/ techni>ues for o1taining water sa(les that accuratel, reresent the
>ualit, of an a>uifer. 2. S. +eological Sur3e, oen file reort 82-1#24' Da7ewoo/' 4$.
0issana,a7e 5.). (2##1!. 4he fluori/e ro1le( in the groun/water of Sri Dan7er-en3iron(ental (anage(ent
an/ health. Int. J. 6n3iron(ental Stu/ies 1$9 1$"-2#3
<ree;e' R. ..' an/ 5herr,' J. .. (1$H$!. +roun/water. Prentice =all Inc.' 6nglewoo/ 5liffs' New Jerse,.
+eorge' P.R. (1$H$!. Soil an/ water salinit, ro1le(s in the 5ollie irrigation area. In Dan/ an/ Stea( Salinit,
Se(inar' P.8.0. 8est. .ustralia No3. 1$8#.
+lowa &olta ProFect (2##H!. .ssess(ent of +hanaian 5i3il Societ, %rganisations in the 8ater Sector. +&P
(unofficial! Reort' .ccra.
+or/on' J. an/ =ailin' J. (2##3!. 5lassification of Irrigation 8ater Cualit,. %7laho(a 5ooerati3e 6?tension
Ser3ice <act Sheets. 0i3ision of .gricultural Sciences an/ Natural Resources' %7laho(a State 2ni3ersit,.
24#1-1 Q 24#1-4
-aranth' -.R. (1$$4!. +roun/water assess(ent' /e3elo(ent an/ (anage(ent. 4ata @c+raw-=ill Pu1lishing
5o(an, Di(ite/' New 0elhi.
-ell,' 8. R. an/ 8ilson' S. 0. (1$$8!.4e(oral 5hanges in Shallow +roun/water Cualit, In Northeastern
Illinois. +roun/water Section' Illinois State 8ater Sur3e, 5ha(aign' ID 6182#. 1-13.
-ortatsi' ). -. an/ .g,e7u(' 8. .. (2###!.+roun/water e?loration in rural +hana-4he .gricultural Sector
In3est(ent ProFect (.SIP! e?a(le. Procee/ings9 Sustaining groun/water e?loration an/ /e3elo(ent in the
21st centur, in +hana. JVrgensen N. %. WXa7o1-)anoeg ). (e/! 2ni3ersit, of +hana' Degon' .ccra.
-ortatsi' ). -.' .n7u' X. S. .. an/ .nornu' +. -. (2##8!. 5haracteri;ation an/ araisal of facets influencing
geoche(istr, of groun/water in the -ulawn su1-1asin of the 8hite &olta )asin' +hana. 6n3iron(ental
+eolog, Journal. 0%I 1#.1##HOs##2"4-##8-1638-$.
Die1e' J. (2##2!. T6sti(ation of 8ater Storage 5aacit, an/ 63aoration Dosses of S(all Reser3oirs in the
2er 6ast Region of +hanaU. @aster thesis' <acult, of @athe(atics an/ Natural Sciences' 2ni3ersit, of )onn'
+er(an,.
Diton' @.' Jul,' D.' an/ Jean-@arie' <. (2##3!. 4he effects of irrigation on o3ert,9 a fra(ewor7 for anal,sis.
8ater Polic, "("O6!9 413-42H.
@ac/onal/' ..' 0a3ies' J.' 5alow' R. an/ 5hilton' J. (2##"!. 0e3eloing +roun/water9 . gui/e for Rural 8ater
Sul,. I40+ Pu1lishing' 8arwic7shire 5&23 $CJ' 2-. 241-2H$.
@artin' N. (2##6!. T0e3elo(ent of a water 1alance for the .tan7wi/i catch(ent' 8est .frica Q . case stu/, of
groun/water recharge in a se(i-ari/ cli(ateU. 0octoral thesis' 2ni3ersit, of +Yttingen' +er(an,.
@urra, R. J. an/ @itchell' J. (1$6#!. +eological @a of Juarungu 1912"'###. +hana +eological Sur3e, )ulletin'
2"' +eological Sur3e,' .ccra.
NagaraFu' ..' Suresh' S.' -illha(' -.' =u/son-6/war/s' -.' (2##"!. =,/rogeoche(istr, of 8aters of
@anga(eta )arite @ining .rea' 5u//aah )asin' .n/hra Pra/esh' In/ia. 4ur7ish Journal of 6ngineering an/
6n3iron(ental Science 3# (2##6!' 2#3 Q 21$. 4u1ita7.
Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org
ISSN 2224-3186 (Paer! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline!
&ol.4' No.1"' 2#14

1#
Sa/ashi3aiah' 5.' Ra(a7rishnaiah' 5. R. an/ Ranganna' +. (2##8!. =,/roche(ical .nal,sis an/ 63aluation of
+roun/water Cualit, in4u(7ur 4alu7' -arnata7a State' In/ia. Int. J. 6n3iron. Res. Pu1lic =ealth 2##8' "(3!
1"8-164
Schaefer' ..I.' Rossiter' =.@...' %wusu' P...' Richar/s' ).S.' .wuah' 6. (2##$!. Ph,sico-che(ical water
>ualit, in +hana9 Prosects for water sul, technolog, i(le(entation. 0esalination Journal ### 1-13.
4o//' 0.-. (1$8#!. +roun/water h,/rolog,' 2
n/
e/ition' 8ile,' New Xor7' "3".
&an /en )erg' R.' Daughton 5... an/ +ill S... (1$63!. +eological @a of Na3rongo 1912"'###. +hana
+eological Sur3e, )ulletin' 36' +eological Sur3e,' .ccra.
&an /en )erg' J. (2##8!. 6?loring Shallow +roun/water Irrigation9 5urrent status an/ future alications Q .
case stu/, in the .tan7wi/i catch(ent' +hana. @Sc. 4hesis' 0elft 2ni3ersit, of 4echnolog,' 0elft' Netherlan/s.
1- 32.
8ilco?' D. &. an/ 0uru(' 8. =. (1$6H!. Cualit, of irrigation water. In.=agan R@' =aise =R' 6/(inister 4@
(e/s! Irrigation of agricultural lan/' agrono(, (onograh No. 11. .(erican Societ, of .grono(,' @a/ison'
1#4-122.
8ill' 6.' <aust' J. 6.' (1$$$!. Irrigation 8ater Cualit, for +reenhouse Pro/uction. .gricultural 6?tension
Ser3ice' 2ni3ersit, of 4ennessee. P)161H-1@-2O$$9 2-3.
8oo/' 8. 8. (1$81!. +ui/elines for collection an/ fiel/ anal,sis of groun/water sa(les for selecte/ unsta1le
constituents. 2. S. +eological Sur3e, techni>ues of water resources in3estigations 1oo7 1' ch 02. 2. S.
+o3ern(ent Printing %ffice' 8ashington 0. 5.
8orl/ )an7. (2###!. .ttac7ing Po3ert,. 8orl/ 0e3elo(ent Reort 2###O2##1. New Xor79 %?for/ 2ni3ersit,
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