Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.

org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

()
Biodiversity Conservation and Commercial Bushmeat Hunting
Challenges in African Parks and Protected Areas: A Critical
Review and Synthesis of the Literature

"li*er ". ". +nuoh

,ropical +cological -onsult& '' .unu/o0ia Street& 1rea '' 2ar/i& 13u4a& Nigeria
+mail5 oli*erenuoh67ahoo.com

8rancis +. 9isong
.epartment o0 2eograph7 and +n*ironmental Science& :ni*ersit7 o0 -ala3ar& Nigeria
+mail5 0e3isong67ahoo.com

Abstract
9iodi*ersit7 conser*ation is seriousl7 threatened in 10rican par/s and protected areas due to the e;plosion o0
commercial 3ushmeat hunting acti*ities in 3u00er <one communities. ,hough commercial 3ushmeat hunting
challenges are ostensi3l7 underpinned 37 se*eral 0actors (e.g. rural li*elihoods challenges& wildli0e management
0ailure& unsustaina3le hunting practices& human population e;plosion& cultural 0actors& logging acti*ities and road
construction into hitherto intact 0orest reser*es)& the paper re*eals that propert7 rights struggles = hinging on
colonial nationali<ation o0 the 0orest lands o0 local communities (now par/s)& constitutes the core o0 the pro3lem.
,he e;isting literature attaches importance to li*elihoods alternati*es as mechanism o0 addressing the pro3lem.
,he paper howe*er argues that pa7ment o0 compensation (sustaina3l7) or annual land rents to 3u00er <one
communities (as landlords)& hinging on conser*ation agreements *is-a-*is coloniall7 nationali<ed 0orest lands
(now par/s)& will address the pro3lem o0 commercial 3ushmeat hunting more e00ecti*el7 in the long term& and
thus recommends this strateg7 strongl7 to polic7 ma/ers. ,he paper also recommends 3iological species
in*entories and wildli0e sur*e7s as research tra4ectories that can in0orm and determine other appropriate
conser*ation strategies in par/s e;periencing commercial 3ushmeat hunting challenges in 10rica.
eywords5 9iodi*ersit7& par/s& conser*ation& 3ushmeat and hunting

!" #ntroduction
9iodi*ersit7 conser*ation and commercial 3ushmeat hunting acti*ities in the 3u00er <one or surrounding
communities o0 10rican par/s and protected areas is attracting increasing conser*ation and multi-disciplinar7
research attention glo3all7. >e7stone 0auna species are 0ast disappearing in se*eral local communities due to
unsustaina3le hunting practices. ,he ecological e00ects o0 commercial 3ushmeat hunting not onl7 includes the
depletion and e;tinction o0 0auna species& 3ut the disruption o0 numerous ecological 0unctions per0ormed 37 such
0auna species in 0orest ecos7stems e.g. their roles in species e*olution& 0ood chains& inter-species competition and
population control& seed dispersal and 0orest restoration& and se*eral other roles that enhance ecos7stems sta3ilit7
that humans do not /now.
,he paper criticall7 re*iews current literature on commercial 3ushmeat hunting acti*ities& pa7ing special
attention to proposed solutions that are capa3le o0 addressing the pro3lem. ,he 0irst section o0 the paper del*es
into the importance o0 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation in par/s and protected areas& glo3al 3iodi*ersit7 hotspots& and
I:-N categori<ation o0 protected areas. ,he second section e;amines the nature o0 the pro3lem o0 commercial
3ushmeat hunting& while the third section del*es into the issues and emergent themes underpinning commercial
3ushmeat hunting acti*ities. Section 0our is a 3rie0 discussion on the issues and themes& 0ollowed 37 conclusion
and polic7 recommendations. ,he paper re*eals that while commercial 3ushmeat hunting challenges are
underpinned 37 a num3er o0 0actors& the core 0actor is propert7 rights struggles hinging on coloniall7
nationali<ed 0orestlands o0 local communities (that are now par/s)& 0or which no compensation has 3een paid.
,he paper concludes with a highlight o0 the research and conser*ation polic7 implications o0 the a3o*e.

$" %he what& why and where as'ects of biodiversity conservation
9iodi*ersit7 is the *ariet7 and *aria3ilit7 among li*ing organisms and the ecological comple;es in which the7
occur (",1& ')$). ,he ?orld 9an/ (2#'#5 '24) de0ines it as @the *ariet7 o0 all 0orms o0 li0e& including genes&
populations& species& and ecos7stems.A -ommon and Stagl (2##5552') maintain that @3iodi*ersit7 is the di*ersit7
o0 li*ing organisms& the genes that the7 contain& and the ecos7stems in which the7 e;ist.ASimilarl7& Noss and
-ooperrider ('))455) maintain that @9iodi*ersit7 consists o0 more than 4ust the *ariet7 o0 speciesB it in*ol*es the
0ull range o0 species& *ariation within species& 3iotic communities& and ecos7stems in a d7namic and e*er
changing processA. Such 3iological species in an7 gi*en ecos7stem ma7 include some or all o0 the 0ollowings5
mammals& 3irds& reptiles& amphi3ians& 0ish& insects& 0ungi& 3acteria& *iruses and assorted plant communities
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

4#
(9SP&'))().
,he e;act num3er o0 di00erent 3iological species that e;ist on planet +arth is not /nown 7et& 3ut @their num3er is
estimated at somewhere 3etween and '## millionA (Ce*eDue and Eounolou& 2##(522). -ommon and Stagl
(2##5) uphold that ta;onomists ha*e so 0ar identi0ied and descri3ed a total o0 '&5#&### di00erent species& which
represents less than '5 per cent o0 the widel7 accepted estimate on the glo3al num3er o0 species. ,he7 maintain
that the total num3er could 3e o*er '## million& or as low as (. million.,he ?orld 9an/ (2#'#5 '24) similarl7
comments that @there are 5 million to (# million distinct species on +arthB most are microorganisms and onl7
a3out '.5 million ha*e 3een 0ormall7 descri3ed.A
$"! (hy is biodiversity im'ortant)
9iodi*ersit7 is o0 prime glo3al importance& ecologicall7 and economicall7 (Perring et al.&'))5). +cologicall7&
3iodi*ersit7 pro*ides li0e support s7stem on planet +arth through processes such as glo3al 3iogeochemical
c7cles (the c7cling o0 water& car3on& o;7gen& nitrogen& phosphorus and sulphur)B energ7 0lows 3etween
organisms (e.g. plant accumulation o0 solar energ7 *ia photos7nthesis& animal utilisation o0 this energ7&
rec7cling o0 organic matter 37 decomposers)B and trophic-structured 0ood chains in an7 gi*en ecos7stem (-hapin
III& et al.& 2##45( F Ce*eDue and Eounolou& 2##(52'). +conomicall7& 3iodi*ersit7 is man/indGs source o0 0ood
and medicine& and raw materials 0or shelter& clothing& industr7& and science and technolog7 (9SP& '))(). ,he
prosperit7 o0 indi*iduals& 3usinesses and the economic growth o0 world nations (since the industrial re*olution)&
ha*e continued to hinge on the e;ploitation o0 3iological resources (-hapin III& et al.& 2##4).
1gricultural challenges in a climate changing world are e;pected to 3e addressed through 3iodi*ersit7& especiall7
reliance on @the genetic di*ersit7 o0 crops and their wild relati*esA (Hawtin& 2##$54). Hawtin maintains that @it is
the genetic di*ersit7 within crop gene pools that underpins the a3ilit7 o0 plant 3reeders to produce new *arieties
through com3ining di00erent traits in new com3inations to meet new needs and circumstancesA and that research
and ad*ances in 3iotechnolog7 has made it eas7 to trans0er genes 0rom wild relati*es into crops (Hawtin& 2##$54).
In the same *ein 9SP ('))!) uphold that all o0 the worldGs ma4or 0ood crops& including corn& wheat& and
so73eans depend on new genetic material 0rom the wild to remain producti*e and health7. 9SP ('))!) 0urther
comment that 3reeders and 0armers rel7 on the genetic di*ersit7 o0 crops and li*estoc/ to increase 7ields and to
respond to changes in en*ironmental conditions.
"n 3iodi*ersit7 and human health 2ri00o ('))5)& comments that )H o0 the top-selling prescription drugs in the
:nited States are deri*ed 0rom 3iological resources. 9SP ('))!) in0orm that man7 s7nthetic drugs& including
aspirin& were 0irst disco*ered in wild plants and animals. ?-E- ('))2) comment that roughl7 '') pure
chemical su3stances e;tracted 0rom some )# species o0 higher plants are used in pharmaceuticals around the
world. ,raditional medicine& which depends on wild and culti*ated plants& underpins primar7 health care 0or
a3out $#H o0 all people li*ing in de*eloping countries (9SP& '))!). -ommon and Stagl (2##5552!) also
maintain that wild 3iological species are *er7 @important as sources o0 inputs to the manu0acture o0 drugs and
medicines.A
9iodi*ersit7 pro*ides ecos7stem ser*ices thatco*er the entire planet +arth. -onstan<a et al ('))) summari<e the
t7polog7 ecos7stems 3ene0its& ser*ices& and 0unctions to include gas regulation (regulation o0 atmospheric
chemical composition)& climate regulation (regulation o0 glo3al temperature& precipitation and other climate
processes)& distur3ance regulation (ecos7stem responses to en*ironmental 0luctuations)& water regulation (storage&
selecti*e 0iltering and retention o0 water)& erosion control (retention o0 soils within an ecos7stem)& soil 0ormation
(soil 0ormation processes)& nutrient c7cling (storage& rec7cling& processing and acDuisition o0 nutrients)& waste
treatment (reco*er7 o0 mo3ile nutrients and remo*al o0 e;cess nutrients and compounds)& pollution control
(mo*ement o0 0loral gametes)& 3iological control (trophic-d7namic regulations o0 populations)& re0ugia ser*ices
(pro*ision o0 ha3itats 0or resident or transient populations)& 0ood production (the portion o0 gross primar7
production e;tracta3le as 0ood)& raw materials (the portion o0 gross primar7 production e;tracta3le as raw
materials& genetic resources (sources o0 3iological material and natural su3stances)& recreation (pro*iding
opportunities 0or recreational acti*ities)& and culture (pro*iding opportunities 0or non-commercial use).
,he im3alance created 3etween the *alues o0 economics and ecolog7& in manGs use and management o0
3iological resources& has culminated in the glo3al pro3lem o0 3iodi*ersit7 loss (-ommon and Stagl&
2##5).-ommon and Stagl (2##5) ela3orate on the pro;imate causes o0 3iodi*ersit7 loss to include5 ha3itat loss
(e.g. due to agriculture& 0orestr7& and ur3an de*elopment)& o*erhar*esting o0 desired species& pollution pro3lems&
and human introduction o0 e;otic species into natural en*ironments around the world. 9SP ('))!) maintain that
in recent decades& the loss o0 entire species and natural areas caused 37 human acti*ities has 3een going on at
unprecedented rates. In the same *ein& the ?orld 9an/ (2#'#5'24) maintains that @in the last two centuries or so&
human/ind has 3ecome the dri*er o0 ma4or e;tinction e*ents on +arth.A
,he out3rea/ o0 glo3al en*ironmental pro3lems li/e glo3al warming and climate and the threat to li0e on planet
+arth ha*e culminated in a glo3al paradigm shi0t towards 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation (-hapin III& et al 2##2B and
Ce*eDue and Eounolou& 2##(). ,he '))2 :nited Nations -on0erence on +n*ironment and .e*elopment (+arth
Summit)& at Rio .e Ianeiro& 9ra<il& led to the su3seDuent esta3lishment o0 the :nited Nations -on*ention on
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

9iological .i*ersit7 (:N-9.)& with headDuarters at Eontreal& -anada. ,his epitomises the glo3al importance
attached to 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation. It is a core glo3al strateg7 0or sustaina3le de*elopment and the mitigation
o0 the e00ects o0 glo3al warming and climate change (Ce*eDue and Eounolou (2##() and -ommon and Stagl
(2##5). 9iodi*ersit7 related programmes are top on
amongst world nations& and in the de*elopment agenda o0 3ilateral (e.g. .8I.& :S1I.& 2,J& etc) and multi
lateral institutions (e.g. :N+P& ?orld 9an/& :N.P& :NI."& 2+8& :N-I,+S& 81"& etc). ,he :N-9. hinges
glo3al 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation imperati*es to the @intrinsic *alue o0 3iological di*ersit7 and its ecological&
genetic& social& economic& scienti0ic& educational& cultural& recreational and aesthetic *aluesA (S-9.5 ().
$"$ *lobal +istribution of Biodiversity
9iodi*ersit7 is not distri3uted e*enl7 across the world (Ce*eDue and Eounolou& 2##(52). See 0igure '.'.
?hereas some areas are rich in 3iodi*ersit7& some others (indeed a larger percentage o0 the +arth) are not as rich.
5H o0 the +arthGs 3iodi*ersit7 is 0ound in the tropics (,erg3oh& 2##4). Similarl7& the ?orld 9an/ (2#'#5'24)
o3ser*es that
@two thirds o0 glo3al 3iodi*ersit7 is in the tropics. 1 25 hectare plot in +cuador was 0ound to ha*e more
tree species than e;ist in all o0 the :nited States
mammal and 3ird species in those two countries.A
"n areas o0 glo3al 3iodi*ersit7 richness& it has 3een studied and determined that there are twent7 0i*e
3iodi*ersit7 hotspots in the world (EcNeel7& et a
8igure '.'.
,igure -: *lobal biodiversity hots'ots
Source5-incotta& et al. 2###.
,here are also areas o0 species endemism such as those 0ound in Eadagascar and the great la/
which comprises Ca/es ,angan7i/a& Ealawi and %ictoria (Ce*eDue and Eounolou& 2##().
In an attempt to account 0or the spatial di00erences in the glo3al distri3ution o0 3iodi*ersit7& some ecologists ha*e
lin/ed climate to *egetation& while others 3ase their assessments on 0lora and 0auna en*ironmental relationships
(Ce*eDue and Eounolou& 2##().
$". Biodiversity conservation a''roaches and the national 'ark system
"ne o0 the measures adopted glo3all7 to protect 3iological resources and thus
de*elopment& is the creation o0 par/s and protected areas& tracea3le to 1mericaGs Kellowstone National Par/&
esta3lished in '$2 (Eulongo7 and -hape& 2##4).Eulongo7 and -hape maintain that in the decades 0ollowing
'$2& se*eral nations around the world started protecting sites (e.g. 9an00 in -anada& +l -hico in Ee;ico&
,ongariro in New Jealand& and the Swiss National Par/)& and that @what had started as a tric/le rapidl7 3ecame a
0lood as new protected areas were created in *
2##45). ,he a3o*e authors 0urther maintain in ta3le '.'that I:-N categorises protected areas in the world into
and Social Sciences
-#4$4 ("nline)
4'
9iological .i*ersit7 (:N-9.)& with headDuarters at Eontreal& -anada. ,his epitomises the glo3al importance
3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation. It is a core glo3al strateg7 0or sustaina3le de*elopment and the mitigation
o0 the e00ects o0 glo3al warming and climate change (Ce*eDue and Eounolou (2##() and -ommon and Stagl
(2##5). 9iodi*ersit7 related programmes are top on the agenda and mandate o0 +n*ironmental Einistries
amongst world nations& and in the de*elopment agenda o0 3ilateral (e.g. .8I.& :S1I.& 2,J& etc) and multi
lateral institutions (e.g. :N+P& ?orld 9an/& :N.P& :NI."& 2+8& :N-I,+S& 81"& etc). ,he :N-9. hinges
glo3al 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation imperati*es to the @intrinsic *alue o0 3iological di*ersit7 and its ecological&
genetic& social& economic& scienti0ic& educational& cultural& recreational and aesthetic *aluesA (S-9.5 ().
versity
9iodi*ersit7 is not distri3uted e*enl7 across the world (Ce*eDue and Eounolou& 2##(52). See 0igure '.'.
?hereas some areas are rich in 3iodi*ersit7& some others (indeed a larger percentage o0 the +arth) are not as rich.
rsit7 is 0ound in the tropics (,erg3oh& 2##4). Similarl7& the ?orld 9an/ (2#'#5'24)
@two thirds o0 glo3al 3iodi*ersit7 is in the tropics. 1 25 hectare plot in +cuador was 0ound to ha*e more
tree species than e;ist in all o0 the :nited States and -anada& along with more than hal0 the num3er o0
mammal and 3ird species in those two countries.A
"n areas o0 glo3al 3iodi*ersit7 richness& it has 3een studied and determined that there are twent7 0i*e
3iodi*ersit7 hotspots in the world (EcNeel7& et al.& '))#). ,he glo3al distri3ution o0 the hotspots is shown in
: *lobal biodiversity hots'ots
,here are also areas o0 species endemism such as those 0ound in Eadagascar and the great la/
which comprises Ca/es ,angan7i/a& Ealawi and %ictoria (Ce*eDue and Eounolou& 2##().
In an attempt to account 0or the spatial di00erences in the glo3al distri3ution o0 3iodi*ersit7& some ecologists ha*e
others 3ase their assessments on 0lora and 0auna en*ironmental relationships
$". Biodiversity conservation a''roaches and the national 'ark system
"ne o0 the measures adopted glo3all7 to protect 3iological resources and thus ensure ecologicall7 sustaina3le
de*elopment& is the creation o0 par/s and protected areas& tracea3le to 1mericaGs Kellowstone National Par/&
esta3lished in '$2 (Eulongo7 and -hape& 2##4).Eulongo7 and -hape maintain that in the decades 0ollowing
ral nations around the world started protecting sites (e.g. 9an00 in -anada& +l -hico in Ee;ico&
,ongariro in New Jealand& and the Swiss National Par/)& and that @what had started as a tric/le rapidl7 3ecame a
0lood as new protected areas were created in *irtuall7 e*er7 countr7 in the worldA (Eulongo7 and -hape&
2##45). ,he a3o*e authors 0urther maintain in ta3le '.'that I:-N categorises protected areas in the world into
www.iiste.org
9iological .i*ersit7 (:N-9.)& with headDuarters at Eontreal& -anada. ,his epitomises the glo3al importance
3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation. It is a core glo3al strateg7 0or sustaina3le de*elopment and the mitigation
o0 the e00ects o0 glo3al warming and climate change (Ce*eDue and Eounolou (2##() and -ommon and Stagl
the agenda and mandate o0 +n*ironmental Einistries
amongst world nations& and in the de*elopment agenda o0 3ilateral (e.g. .8I.& :S1I.& 2,J& etc) and multi-
lateral institutions (e.g. :N+P& ?orld 9an/& :N.P& :NI."& 2+8& :N-I,+S& 81"& etc). ,he :N-9. hinges
glo3al 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation imperati*es to the @intrinsic *alue o0 3iological di*ersit7 and its ecological&
genetic& social& economic& scienti0ic& educational& cultural& recreational and aesthetic *aluesA (S-9.5 ().
9iodi*ersit7 is not distri3uted e*enl7 across the world (Ce*eDue and Eounolou& 2##(52). See 0igure '.'.
?hereas some areas are rich in 3iodi*ersit7& some others (indeed a larger percentage o0 the +arth) are not as rich.
rsit7 is 0ound in the tropics (,erg3oh& 2##4). Similarl7& the ?orld 9an/ (2#'#5'24)
@two thirds o0 glo3al 3iodi*ersit7 is in the tropics. 1 25 hectare plot in +cuador was 0ound to ha*e more
and -anada& along with more than hal0 the num3er o0
"n areas o0 glo3al 3iodi*ersit7 richness& it has 3een studied and determined that there are twent7 0i*e
l.& '))#). ,he glo3al distri3ution o0 the hotspots is shown in

,here are also areas o0 species endemism such as those 0ound in Eadagascar and the great la/es o0 +ast 10rica
which comprises Ca/es ,angan7i/a& Ealawi and %ictoria (Ce*eDue and Eounolou& 2##().
In an attempt to account 0or the spatial di00erences in the glo3al distri3ution o0 3iodi*ersit7& some ecologists ha*e
others 3ase their assessments on 0lora and 0auna en*ironmental relationships
ensure ecologicall7 sustaina3le
de*elopment& is the creation o0 par/s and protected areas& tracea3le to 1mericaGs Kellowstone National Par/&
esta3lished in '$2 (Eulongo7 and -hape& 2##4).Eulongo7 and -hape maintain that in the decades 0ollowing
ral nations around the world started protecting sites (e.g. 9an00 in -anada& +l -hico in Ee;ico&
,ongariro in New Jealand& and the Swiss National Par/)& and that @what had started as a tric/le rapidl7 3ecame a
irtuall7 e*er7 countr7 in the worldA (Eulongo7 and -hape&
2##45). ,he a3o*e authors 0urther maintain in ta3le '.'that I:-N categorises protected areas in the world into
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

42
si;& 3ased on di00erent le*els o0 human interaction and management regimes.
%able -: #/C0 categories of 'rotected areas
Categories +escri'tion
Ia Strict Nature Reser*e managed mainl7 0or science
I3 ?ilderness 1rea5 managed mainl7 0or wilderness protection
II National Par/5 managed mainl7 0or ecos7stem protection and recreation
III Natural Eonument5 managed mainl7 0or conser*ation o0 speci0ic natural 0eatures
I% Ha3itat Species Eanagement 1rea5 managed mainl7 0or conser*ation through management
inter*ention
% Protected Candscape L Seascape5 managed mainl7 0or landscape L seascape conser*ation and
recreation
%I Eanaged Resource Protected 1rea5 managed mainl7 0or the sustaina3le use o0 natural
ecos7stems
Source5 I:-N& 2##4.

." Commercial bushmeat hunting challenges in Africa: nature of the 'roblem
In tropical 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation& the term M3ushmeatG is used to descri3e @wild animal protein that is hunted
0or human consumptionA (9owen-Iones et al.& 2##2525). 9rown (2##(5 2) maintains that 3ushmeat is a
McolloDuial 10rican termG used to descri3e animals hunted 0or consumpti*e and other local li*elihood needs. ,he
term is gaining increasing popularit7 in ?est and -entral 10rica (8a et al.& 2##2). ,hough there is 3ush meat
hunting in other parts o0 the world& li/e 1sia and Catin 1merica& 10rica remains the world leader in
unsustaina3le commercial 3ush meat hunting acti*ities (Ro3inson and 9ennett& ')))). ,he human population in
10rica is o*er ' 3illion (:N.P& 2##5)& and with shortages in 0ood production (especiall7 animal protein)& there is
3ound to 3e pressure on wild animal (3ushmeat) resources in su3-saharan 10rica (,am3i and Eaina&
2##().Ro3inson and 9ennet (')))) report on glo3al 3ushmeat death toll& o0 which 10rica tops the chart (8igure
2.').
,igure -: Africa leads the world in bushmeat death toll

In comparison with 1sia and South 1merica& 9rown (2##() o3ser*es that o00ta/e le*els o0 3ushmeat are highest
in ?est--entral 10rica 3ecause o0 higher producti*it7 o0 0orest ecos7stemsin 10rica. Ro3inson and 9ennett
(2###) argue that the ratio o0 sea coast to land area is higher in 1sia& resulting in the a3undance o0 sea 0isheries&
and human dependence on them (than 3ushmeat) 0or protein purposes. 8a and Peres (2##') e;plain that the
0orest o0 the 1ma<on 3asin ha*e ri*ers with a3undant 0ish& and mammalian 3iomass that are not onl7 low& 3ut
predominantl7 ar3oreal. ,hat is wh7 human dependence on 3ushmeat is also low.
-ommercial 3ushmeat hunting and trade constitutes a serious threat to 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation in 10rica
(9a/arr et al.& 2##'B "ates et al.& 2###B F Ro3inson and 9ennett& 2###). ,he alarming rate o0 depletion o0 large
mammal species (e.g. gorilla& chimpan<ee and assorted drill mon/e7 species)& and international pu3licit7 on the
su34ect 37 conser*ationists (?alsh& 2##( F ?al/er et al.& 2##2) and N2"s L animal wel0are groups (1pe
1lliance& '))$ F Petersen& 2##() ha*e contri3uted immensel7 in ma/ing 3ushmeat hunting a ma4or conser*ation
issue in 10rica. Howe*er& the 3ushmeat crisis in 10rica should not 3e treated in isolation. It has lin/s with not
4ust national politics and macroeconomics& 3ut with regional and international economics as a whole (Eilner-
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

4(
2ulland& 2##2).
,he trade in 3ushmeat cuts across the whole o0 tropical 10rica& 1sia and countries in central and South 1merica
(9owen-Iones and Pendr7& ')))). In 10rica& the estimated *olume o0 3ushmeat hunted in the -ongo 9asin alone
is 3etween '-5 million tonnes per annum (?il/ie and -arpenter& ')))). In 2a3on& the o*erall annual 3ushmeat
trade has 3een *alued at a3out N25 million (9rown et al.& 2##$). .a*ies (2##2) estimates the national *alue o0
3ushmeat trade across selected countries in ?est and -entral 10rica& as ranging 0rom :SN42-2#5 million.
9ahuchet F Co*e*a (')))) carried out an in*entor7 o0 3ushmeat traded in 0our ma4or mar/ets in -ameroon
(3etween '))5 and '))!) and disco*ered that # = )# tons o0 3ushmeat was sold monthl7. ?il/ie et al.& ('))2)
report that commercial 3ushmeat hunting acti*itries ha*e 3ecome 3ig 3usiness in 10rica.
9rown et al. (2##$5'() maintain that @rural people mo*ing 0rom a su3sistence li0est7le to a cash econom7 ha*e
relati*el7 0ew options 0or generating income.A Sale o0 su3sistence agricultural products and pett7 trade in local
mar/ets do not pro*ide enough income to *illagers& as does the sale o0 3ush meat. ,he 3ushmeat trade has
resulted in the esta3lishement o0 permanent settlements along roads& replacement o0 traditional weapons with
modern ones& a3andonment o0 traditional li0e-st7les& and rural participation in a cash econom7 (Cahm& '))!).
9rown et al.&(2##$5'() maintain that 0rom 0irst har*est to 0inal sale& @the trade in 3ushmeat 0or local& national or
regional trade now 0orms an important part o0 the in0ormal sectorGs Mhidden econom7G.A
9rown (2##(5 4) lin/s the e;plosion o0 trade in 3ushmeat hunting to @low 3arriers to entr7 and high social
inclusi*it7.AHe gi*es the e;ample o0 2hana where in*estment costs on hunting acti*itries comprises shot gun
and ammunition& or snares. 1n73od7 that is interested in hunting can do so an7time& and a /e7 incenti*e here is
that a ma4or proportion o0 the re*enue 0rom 3ushmeat is retained 37 hunters. -ompared with 0arming acti*ities
and tim3er and non-tim3er 0orest products (N,8Ps)& 3ushmeat hunting is a more lucrati*e *enture. Hunters
generate more re*enue than go*ernment la3ourers& and in some instances generate as much re*enue as 7oung
graduates 4oining the ci*il ser*ice (9rown& 2##().
,he 0irst 3one o0 conser*ation contention here is that hunting practices are e;tremel7 unsustaina3le& e;acer3ating
the depletion and e;tinction o0 large mammal species across se*eral countries in su3-saharan 10rica (9rown et
al.& 2##$ and Eaisels et al.& 2##').,he second 3one o0 conser*ation contention is that much o0 the commercial
3ushmeat hunting acti*ities are ta/ing place in the territories o0 par/s and protected areas (In0ield& ')$$). In
-ameroon 0or instance commercial 3ushmeat hunting in >orup National Par/ is estimated at N:S4(#&###.## per
annum (In0ield& ')$$). -ommercial 3ushmeat hunting acti*ities are also 3eing carried out 37 *illagers in -ross
Ri*er National Par/& Nigeria (".NRIL??8& ')$)). I0 national par/s are esta3lished through national legislation
(in the case o0 -RNP5 .ecree (! o0 '))')& wh7 should local communities target such territories 0or commercial
3ushmeat hunting acti*itiesO ,he ne;t section will e;amine emergent themes in the re*iewed literature.

1" Analytical 'rocess
,he critical literature re*iew e;ercise commenced through a literature search and gathering o0 rele*ant te;tual
in0ormation on 10rican 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation and commercial 3ushmeat hunting challenges in par/s and
protected areas (e.g. 0rom 4ournal articles& 3oo/s& newspapers& maga<ines& we3sites o0 conser*ation organisations&
con0erence proceedings& etc). 8rom the research topic& an inclusion and e;clusion criteria was drawn up and used
in screening which articles or te;tual in0ormation were to 3e selected 0or the re*iew e;ercise. -onsistent with
Ridle7 (2#'2)& e*er7 selected paper was criticall7 read culminating in written summaries& concept mapping and
design o0 categories (themes 0rom re*iewed literature)& used in e;tracting data 0rom articles. 1s suggested 37
9a33ie (2##4)& open coding was used to classi07 or arrange the concepts into categories or themes as presented
in section 5.
-oding and data e;traction 0rom di00erent articles& including strategies used 37 par/s to address anthropogenic
3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation challenges& was 0ollowed 37 data s7nthesis (narrati*e s7nthesis o0 Dualitati*e data).
-onsistent with Strauss and -or3in ('))45 2$)& a care0ul assessment and identi0ication o0 @plausi3le
relationships proposed among concepts and sets o0 conceptsA 37 di00erent authors was carried out& resulting in
the articulation o0 connections 3etween all the articles read and strategies used 37 par/s and go*ernment to
address commercial 3ushmeat hunting challenges. 9a33ie (2##45 (#) maintains that @,he more our research
con0irms a particular set o0 relationships among particular concepts& howe*er& the more con0ident we 3ecome
that our understanding corresponds to social realit7.A

2" 3mergent themes and ga's in the reviewed literature
+n*ironmental matters in general and 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation issues in particular are multi-disciplinar7 in
nature& o0ten attracting the research attention& di00erent standpoints& perspecti*es& and contri3utions o0 ph7sical&
natural and social scientists& en*ironmental historians& 4ournalists& politicians& and conser*ation organisations.
%er7 interesting is how disciplinar7 3iases and pre4udices pla7 out in the wa7 di00erent authors in 3oth 4ournals
and 3oo/s present their conser*ation 0acts and in0ormation. +*en more interesting is the wa7 two super*isors
0rom two disciplinar7 3ac/grounds& super*ising a doctoral conser*ation research student& will pro4ect their 3iases
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

44
in respect o0 pre0erred research tra4ectories. .isciplinar7 3iases and pre4udices in conser*ation research can 3e
dangerous& as it could culminate in reading and re*iewing certain pre0erred literature to the detriment o0 others&
and arri*ing at 0indings and conclusions that ma7 not 3e uni*ersall7 applica3le. It is there0ore important to 3e as
open minded as possi3le in engaging with di00erent literature on a 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation topic li/e
commercial 3ushmeat hunting in 10rican par/s and protected areas.
.uring the literature re*iew e;ercise on Buffer Zone Communities& Commercial Bushmeat Hunting and
Biodiversity Conservation in Cross River National Park, Nigeria = a doctoral research topic at the :ni*ersit7 o0
Reading& :>& se*eral 4ournal articles& 3oo/s& newspapers& maga<ines& technical reports& and in0ormation manuals
0rom di00erent conser*ation organisations interested in 3ushmeat were assem3led and criticall7 perused. ,his
paper is an o00shoot o0 the a3o*e e;ercise. ,he issues underpinning commercial 3ushmeat hunting acti*ities (as
raised 37 di00erent authors in the a3o*e pu3lications) were e*entuall7 listed out and categorised into di00erent
themes. ,he dominant themes that emerged comprises rural li*elihoods challenges and po*ert7& propert7 rights
struggles& unsustaina3le hunting techniDues& pu3lic wildli0e management conte;t& cultural in0luences& population
pressure& macro-economic issues& agricultural challenges& donor 0ailure& and wars and saturation o0 local
communities with guns. Howe*er& the se*erit7 o0 each o0 the a3o*e 0actors& di00er 0rom one countr7 to another.
.etails on the ma4or themes are presented as 0ollows.
2"! Rural livelihoods challenges and 'overty
8orest communities rel7 on natural resources and 3iodi*ersit7 0or 0ood& medicines& wild meat& li*estoc/ 0odder&
income generation& socio-cultural *alues and soil and water management (-I8"R& 2##5). ,he con*ersion o0 *ast
and 3iologicall7 rich 0orest lands into par/s and protected areas (hitherto ser*ing the li*elihood needs o0 people)
has direct li*elihood impacts on the 3u00er <one communities o0 such par/s and protected areas (>othari et al.
'))$). Earrie (2##45 '#!) upholds that o*er 5#H o0 e;isting protected areas ha*e 3een esta3lished on the
ancestral lands o0 indigenous people and local communities. 1s a result& enduring con0licts& instead o0 supporti*e
roles o0ten characteri<e relations among rural communities& polic7 ma/ers& 0orest managers& and de*elopment
agents. ,his is 0urther e;acer3ated 37 @di00ering interests and interpretations o0 land-use policies and lawsA
(9arrow et al.& 2##2). ,ropical 0orests and neigh3ouring *illages in su3-saharan 10rica are seriousl7 threatened
ecologicall7 and economicall7 (Plumptre et al. 2##(B PRIE+ 2##5).
9ased on local peopleGs dependence on 0orest resources 0or their li*elihood needs& I:-N ('))') ad*anced the
concept o0 sustaina3le utili<ation o0 3iological resources 37 3u00er <one communities o0 par/s& stressing that
such practices are consistent with the philosoph7 o0 conser*ation and sustaina3le de*elopment. Howe*er some
conser*ationists and re*iewers argue that sustaina3le use depletes 3iological di*ersit7 (Red0ord and Richter&
')))). 9randon et al.& ('))$5 2) comment that the trend to promote sustaina3le use o0 3iological resources as a
means to the protection o0 such resources& sounds @politicall7 e;pedient and intellectuall7 appealing& 3ut not well
grounded in 3iological and ecological /nowledge.A ,he7 maintain that not all things can 3e preser*ed through
sustaina3le useB not all places should 3e open to useB and that conser*ation strategies promoting sustaina3le use
will culminate in 3iodi*ersit7 loss.
,he commerciali<ation and utili<ation o0 3ush meat in man7 de*eloping nations remains a 0rontline issue at the
intersection 3etween 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation& li*elihoods and 0ood securit7 (Eain/a et al.& 2##2). +la3orate
research has highlighted the e*er increasing utili<ation o0 3ush meat in di00erent parts o0 10rica (8riedman& 2##(B
-hardonnet et al.& 2##2B 9arnett& 2###B and 9a/arr et al.& 2##'). 9ush meat pla7s a leading role in local 0ood
securit7& engages more people than an7 other wildli0e acti*it7& and signi0icantl7 contri3utes towards rural
re*enue generation (9rown et al.& 2##). Sherr (2###5 4)#) stresses that access 37 the landless and rural poor to
3asic @su3sistence resources = 0armed and gathered 0ood& 0odder& water& 0uel& 3uilding materials& medicines& raw
materials 0or tools and housewares = is essential 0or li*elihood securit7.A ?under (2##') maintains that rural
households depend on di*erse wild 0oods and protein sources to pro*ide 0ood securit7 and supplement diets.
?ild animal products constitute important items 0or consumption or displa7 and ha*e rich medicinal and
spiritual *alues in se*eral human cultures (Scoones et al& '))2). 1cross nations in the tropical world& se*eral
people 3ene0it 0rom wild meat5 0rom those who consume it as part o0 a 0orest-dependent wa7 o0 li0e& to @those
who trade and transport it at all points along di00erent suppl7 chains& to those who consume it in restaurants and
homes& o0ten 0ar 0rom the 0orestA (9rown et al& 2##$5 '().
Sur*i*al has continued to 3e a ma4or reason wh7 *illagers in the 3u00er <one o0 par/sand protected areas trespass
into such territories 0or 3ush meat hunting purposes. 1 0easi3ilit7 stud7 document on -ross Ri*er National Par/&
prepared 37 ".NRIL??8 (')$)5'2) aptl7 o3ser*es that @3e7ond 0arming& hunting and gathering& 0ew
opportunities e;ist 0or regular emplo7ment.AHilson and 1c/ah-9aidoo (2#''5 '')2) maintain that in su3-
Saharan 10rica& @4'H o0 the human population sus3sists on a dail7 wage o0 less than :SN'& a higher proportion
than an7 other area o0 the world.A 1 num3er o0 international organi<ations wor/ing on 3ush meat issues such as
the "*erseas .e*eIopment Institute
'
& :> ,ropical 8orest 8orum
2
& and (9ush meat crisis tas/0orce(9E-,8
(
) all agree that li*elihood challenges are
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

45
at the core o0 reasons accounting 0or *illagersG 0reDuent trespass into the territories o0 par/s and protected areas
in the tropics.
9owen-Iones and Pendr7 (')))5 2(() o3ser*e that o*er the 7ears su3sistence hunting has 3een widespread in
10rica& 3ut that gi*en the scale o0 the 3ushmeat crisis in the continent @it is di00icult to distinguish su3sistence
hunting 0rom commercial hunting.A ,he7 stress that most hunting acti*ities in 10rican rural communities are
dri*en 37 cash or income necessities and not protein needs. 8or *illages around >orup National Par/ in
-ameroon& In0ield (')$$) maintains that ((H o0 total *illage income is deri*ed 0rom 3ushmeat. 1 num3er o0
researchers strongl7 maintain that commercial 3ushmeat hunting acti*ities in 10rica has reached unsustaina3le
le*els (?il/ie and 8inn& '))#B F 8a et al. '))5).

5.2 Pro'erty rights struggles
Hallowell (')4() de0ines propert7 right as a triadic social relation that in*ol*es 3ene0it streams& right holders&
and dut7 3earers. Inno*ating on the a3o*e de0inition& 9romle7 ('))#52) maintains that propert7 right @is a claim
to a 3ene0it stream that some higher 3od7 = usuall7 the state = will agree to protect through the assignment o0
dut7 to others who ma7 co*et& or somehow inter0ere with the 3ene0it stream.A ,o enhance proper understanding
o0 ownership& 8edder/e et al. (2##'5''5)e;plain that @ownership comprises the right to possess& the right to use&
the right to manage& the right to capital& the right to securit7& the incident o0 transmissi3ilit7 and lia3ilit7 to
e;ecution.A ,he7 argue that it is onl7 when all o0 the se*en incidents included in the a3o*e de0inition are present
that the term propert7 rights @would 3e eDui*alent to a per0ect score o0 '##.A
9ruce ('))(5() de0ines propert7 rights as @a set o0 rights and responsi3ilities concerning a thing.A It signi0ies a
relationship 3etween resource use claimants and those it 3eho*es to o3ser*e the associated terms and conditions
o0 the claims (9romle7& ')$)5$'). 9ra<el ('))) maintains that propert7 rights are social institutions& including
0ormal legal codes and in0ormal social norms& which de0ine and en0orce the range o0 pri*ileges granted to an
indi*idual or a group o0 indi*iduals with respect to speci0ic economic resources. >han (2##45(2) stresses that
@secure propert7 rights or usu0ruct rights are *ital 0or the sustaina3le li*elihoods o0 0orest dwellers& and the
conser*ation o0 0orests 0or the 0uture.A
In the de*eloping world& @not much is /nown a3out the pre-colonial pattern o0 land ownership& e;cept that it was
predominantl7 communalA (>han& 2##452#). Howe*er& se*eral authors maintain that 0orest resources were /ept
as common propert7 37 local people that li*e close to them (Singh& ')$!B 2uha& '))( F ')$)). ,his implies that
3e0ore the ad*ent o0 colonialism& the notion o0 pri*ate propert7 or pri*ate ownership o0 0orest resources was new
to local *illagers. >han (2##4) argues that though the a3o*e ma7 not impl7 open access& customar7 rights e;isted
o*er 0orest resources in local communities. Similarl7& Singh (')$!) maintains that though local people were not
owners o0 0orest resources& the7 had usu0ruct rights. He 0urther maintains that the right o0 ownership was *ested
on the local traditional rulers& who did not in0ringe on the e;ercise o0 usu0ruct rights 37 0ellow *illagers. 2uha
('))() stresses that 3e0ore colonialism& 0orest resources were used 37 locals 0or su3sistence purposes& with no
option o0 commercial e;ploitation.
,he ad*ent o0 colonialism 3rought state control and nationalisation o0 0orest resources& 37 wa7 o0 the creation o0
2o*ernment 8orest Reser*es (28Rs) and -ommunit7 8orests (-8s) in the ')(#s (I:-N& ')$! F
Si*arama/rishnan& '))5). 9anuri and Earglin ('))() in0orm that the a3o*e policies contained ela3orate puniti*e
measures 0or *illagers who trespassed into go*ernment 0orest reser*es 0or li*elihood acti*ities& including hunting.
2uha ('))()& maintains that local communities 3egan di00erent 0orms o0 resistance to colonial 0orest policies& as
it undermined their customar7 rights o*er 0orest resources. In the words o0 Schic/ho00 ('))55'')& @,heir
traditional usu0ruct rights that had 3een practiced 0rom time immemorial& were now limited.A
Se*eral re*iewers lin/ par/s = people con0licts (including 3ushmeat hunting acti*ities) to propert7 rights
struggles (Naughton-,re*es and Sanderson& '))5B Naughton-,re*es& ')))B Iohnson and 8ors7th& 2##2B Eaped<a&
2##B and ,im/o and Satter0ie0d& 2##$). Scott (')55) maintains that uncertaint7 in propert7 rights o*er natural
resources leads easil7 to o*er-e;ploitation and resource degradation. ,his implies that propert7 rights
determination o*er wildli0e is *ital to their sustaina3ilit7 on an7 landscape. ,he /e7 wildli0e propert7 Duestion
that 0ollows is Mwho owns wildli0e& and who go*erns wildli0e and its ha3itatOG (Naughton-,re*es and Sanderson&
'))55'2!). ,he7 argue that compared to land (which is immo3ile and can easil7 3e demarcated and sur*e7ed)&
wildli0e is a 0ugiti*e resource that 3ecomes owned onl7 when it has 3een /illed 37 a hunter. I0 not /illed& wildli0e
is said to 3e ownerless& and thus can migrate 0rom one ecos7stem t7pe to another or e*en 0rom countr7 to
countr7 (especiall7 countries sharing a common *egetation region e.g. rain0orest).
Naughton-,re*es and Sanderson ('))55 '2#) also argue that the delineation o0 wildli0e as propert7 is all the
more di00icult 3ecause @the range and distri3ution o0 wildli0e species o0ten e;ceed political 4urisdictionA and that

'
http5LLwww.odi.org.u/Lpro4ectsL#(-#5-3ushmeatL as at '5L#(L#)
2
http5LLwww.0orest0orum.org.u/Ltradee.html as at '2L#(L#)
(
http5LLwww.3ushmeat.orgLportalLser*er.pt as at '5L#(L#)
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

4!
ecological geograph7 rarel7 corresponds with political geograph7. 8or instance se*eral migrator7 3ird species
(e.g. *ireos& war3lers& and 0l7-catchers) spend o*er hal0 the 7ear in the tropical wintering grounds& while their
3reeding grounds are in the northern hemisphere (,er3orgh& ')$)). Such 3irds 3elong neither politicall7 nor
ecologicall7 to an7 particular countr7& human ethnic group& or *illage. In such circumstances (which is t7pical o0
other wildli0e resources)& who can la7 propert7 rights claims o*er themO "n the strength o0 the a3o*e&
Naughton-,re*es and Sanderson ('))55 '2() conclude that @no e;isting proper7 0orm (pri*ate& pu3lic& or
common propert7) is adeDuate 0or conser*ation o0 3iological di*ersit7.A ,he7 strongl7 stress that wildli0e
species reDuire 0reedom to mo*e across landscapes de*oid o0 human imposed propert7 rights 3oundaries.
2". /nsustainable hunting techni4ues
Hunters in su3-Saharan 10rica adopt di00erent methods o0 commercial 3ushmeat hunting acti*ities which are
generall7 unsustaina3le. >umpel (2##!) lists the di00erent methods which comprises snares (0oot& nec/& 0ence&
tree& pit0all)& iron-4aw or gin traps& pit traps& net dri*es& guns& cross3ows& 3ow and arrows& 3lowpipes& spears&
catapults& dogs& machetes& poisoning& 0ire& da<<ling 37 torchlight and gathering 37 hand (0or species li/e
tortoises). Hunters 0reel7 adopt an7 or all o0 the a3o*e hunting methods as the7 li/e& with little or no legal
restrictions 0rom pu3lic wildli0e management authorities. ,hat has contri3uted seriousl7 in e;acer3ating the
depletion and e;tinction o0 se*eral 0auna species in 10rican par/s and protected areas.
Ro3inson F Red0ord ('))') maintain that sustaina3le har*est reDuires 3oth the maintenance o0 the resource so
that it can 3e e;ploited 0or human wel0are& and the conser*ation o0 the species 3eing e;ploited and the 3iological
communit7 in which it li*es. ,rapping L snaring are not conser*ation 0riendl7 as the7 are non-selecti*e (male or
0emale& 3ig or small& 7oung or old) o0 0auna species. Snaring in most cases culminates @in large amounts o0
wastage& due to animals 3eing sca*enged or decomposing 3etween chec/s o0 the snare& as well as animals
escaping& o0ten with 0atal or de3ilitating in4uriesA (>umpel& 2##!5 2(). ,hough hunting with guns allows a much
greater degree o0 pre7 choice or selection& hunters in su3-Saharan 10rica engage more in trapping acti*ities due
to 0inancial costs associated with gun hunting (e.g. purchase o0 gun& cartridges& maintenance and license 0ees).
2"1 Public wildlife management conte5t
,hough man7 pro3lems o0 management deal with human and material resources& and thus deser*e mention in an
e;panded de0inition o0 wildli0e management& Sinclair et al. (2##!52) underscore the core or literal meaning o0 the
concept 37 de0ining wildli0e management as @the management o0 wildli0e populations in the conte;t o0 the
ecos7stem.A ,he7 0urther maintain that the 0our goals o0 wildli0e management are to5
(i) ma/e it increase& (ii) ma/e it decrease& (iii) har*est it 0or a continuing 7ield& and (i*) lea*e it alone 3ut /eep an
e7e on it. Ro3inson and 9olen (')$)5 2) de0ine wildli0e management as
@the application ecological /nowledge to populations o0 *erte3rate animals and their plant and animal
associates in a manner that stri/es a 3alance 3etween the needs o0 those populations and the needs o0
people.A
Ro3inson and 9olen (')$)) also maintain that the wildli0e management approaches where ecological /nowledge
is applied are three5 preser*ation (which prohi3its human inter*ention)B direct manipulation (which in*ol*e
trapping& shooting& poisoning& and stoc/ing o0 animal populationsB and indirect manipulation (which in*ol*e the
alteration o0 wildli0e ha3itat).
Shaw (')$5) traces the origin o0 wildli0e management to +nglish common law where the signing o0 the Eagna
-harta in 1... '2'5 trans0erred the ownership o0 wildli0e 0rom the chown to the people. He maintains that the
custom o0 pu3lc ownership o0 wildli0e e*entuall7 crossed the 1tlantic to North 1merica& 0rom where it spread to
di00erent parts o0 the world. 2il3ert and .odds ('))2) draw e;amples o0 modern pu3lic wildli0e management
0rom the :S1 and -anada& which entails legislation (e.g. 0ederal and state wildli0e 1cts)& policies and
programmes& and the esta3lishment o0 wildli0e management departments (e.g. the :S 8ish and ?ildli0e Ser*ice).
"n 10rican wildli0e management& Iam3i7a et al. (2##5(2)& writing a3out ,an<ania& o3ser*e that @since the wild
meat trade is illegal& law en0orcement and other measures to enhance protected area management capacit7 ha*e
3een the main strategies o0 the go*ernment to date.A Howe*er& 9rown(2##(5'4) argues that @the present
situation = o0 presumed illegalit7 at all le*els = is neither conduci*e to the de*elopment o0 participator7
management models or to 3roader go*ernance re0orm.A +g3e (2###5'#) similarl7 maintains that @a law which
ma/es the most common 0orm o0 conduct illegal is itsel0 an instrument o0 indiscipline and ser*es neither the
interests o0 the State nor . the communities.A
"n the rationale 0or conser*ation and wildli0e management outside national par/s and reser*es& -aughle7 and
Sinclair ('))4525) comment that @some species or associations o0 species occur onl7 rarel7 in reser*es 3ecause
par/s and reser*es do not capture a representati*e sample o0 the 3iota.A ,he7 maintain that the main mechanism
37 which wildli0e management can 3e promoted outside par/s and protected areas& is through legislation. "n
wildli0e managemtn outside par/s and protected areas& it has 3een o3ser*ed that amongst ?est and -entral
10rican nations& hunting rules and regulations do not e;ist on their own& 3ut are o0ten part o0 0orestr7 laws
(9rown& et al. 2##$)& and thus result in wildli0e management ha*ing to compete 0or attention with other lucrati*e
0orestr7 acti*ities li/e logging concession administration (.unn and "tu& '))!). ,hus&0orestr7 o00icials 0ind the
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

4
management o0 logging concessions more lucrati*e& and thus tend to see 3ushmeat hunting as an insigni0icant or
minor acti*it7 o0 the rural poor& that deser*es to 3e ignored. In countries li/e -ongo and 2a3on& hunting is not
illegal (9rown et al.& 2##$)& as the law pro*ides 0or licensed hunting or hunting permits = Mpermis speciau;G
(-ongolese legislation) and Mpermis de chasseG (2a3onese 0orestr7 code).
In the rest o0 the countries in ?est and -entral 10rica& 9rown et al.&(2##$52) maintain that @hunting rules and
regulations e;ist almost e*er7where& 3ut the7 are rarel7 en0orced. ,here is clearl7 an ownership and management
pro3lem. ,he State is the owner o0 the resource and issues rules and regulations to manage it& 3ut the State is
una3le to en0orce its decisions.A
8ederal and State laws in Nigeria protect certain animals and allow hunting 0or se*eral other species
(".NRIL??8&')$)a5 ((). ,he plan (0easi3ilit7 stud7) document on -ross Ri*er National Par/& (".NRIL??8
')$)a5(()& con*e7ed certain pri*ileges to 3u00er <one *illagers which include @the right to 3ear licensed 0irearms
and to shoot 37 da7& certain species o0 animal 0or sale or 0or personal consumption.A ,he a3o*e& coupled with
lac/ o0 wildli0e management capacit7 has helped to e;acer3ate 3ush meat hunting in and around -ross Ri*er
National Par/.

2"2 Cultural influences
1ll o*er the world& nature and human cultures are ine;trica3l7 intertwined (-or*alan et al.& 2##5). Prett7 et al.
(2##$) maintain that a strong relationship e;ists 3etween human societies and nature& 0or which distinctions
3etween social s7stems on the one hand& and natural s7stems on the other hand are ar3itrar7 and un4usti0ied.
Howe*er& there are cultural di00erences in how human societies (e.g. ethnic& tri3al& and racial groups)interact
with nature - across *illages& towns& and cities indi00erent world nations.Human societies (ethnic& tri3al& or racial
groups) practice di00erent cultures and the culture o0 an7 group o0 people is that
@set o0 3elie0s& customs& practices and wa7s o0 thin/ing that the7 ha*e come to share with each other& through
3eing and wor/ing together.1t the *isi3le le*el& the culture o0 a group ta/es the 0orm o0 ritual 3eha*iour&
s7m3ols& m7ths& stories& sounds and arte0actsA (Stace7& ')))5(').
Shurmer-Smith (2##25() maintains that @culture is practised& not owned. It is what people do& not what the7 ha*e&
and the7 /eep doing di00erent things in di00erent wa7s& with di00erent other people all o0 the time.A ,raditional
societies ha*e li*ed and interacted with the en*ironment 0or centuries (9alee& '))4)& and nature and culture
con*erge at se*eral le*els that include *alues& 3elie0s& norms& li*elihoods practices& and local /nowledge (Prett7
et al.& 2##$)."n the strength o0 the a3o*e& a mutuall7 rein0orcing relationship e;ists 3etween cultural s7stems and
en*ironmental s7stems& in such a wa7 that a shi0t in one usuall7 leads to a change in the other (Ea00i and
?oodle7& 2##). In 3iological resources conser*ation& the recognition o0 cultural traditions and m7ths pre*alent
in local communities enhances 3etter understanding o0 peopleGs en*ironmental interactions (2on<ale< and
Eartin& 2##). 8or conser*ation inter*entions to wor/ in *arious conte;ts& it is thus instructi*e @to pa7 attention
to the wa7s in which human 3elie0s& *alues and ideals continuousl7 shape landscapesA (-osgro*e& ')$$5()).
1cross cultures& there are cultural and spiritural *alues attached to 3iodi*ersit7 (Schama& '))5). ,he cultural
importance o0 3iodi*ersit7consists not 4ust tangi3le goods and ser*ices& 3ut intangi3le or non-material ser*ices
and *alues as well. ,he cultural and spiritual *alues constitute an integral part o0 indigenous and local peopleGs
cosmo*ision and pla7 a ma4or role in shaping their en*ironmental perceptions (Schama& '))5). 8or instance
humans in di00erent cultures ha*e di00erent non-material ties to landcapes (e.g. mountains& hills& *alle7s& and
ca*es)& *egetations (e.g. grasslands& 0orests& and wetlands)& water 3odies (e.g. ponds& streams& la/es& ri*ers& and
ocean)& and 0auna di*ersit7 (e.g. insects& 0ish& amphi3ians& reptiles& 3irds& and mammals) (9SP& '))(). Sauer
(')!5) maintains that human cultures shape 3iodi*ersit7 through direct selection o0 di00erent 0lora and 0auna
species (in contemporar7 usage)& and di00erent landscape modi0ication initiati*es.
In 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation the importance o0 cultural and spiritual *alues has 3een recognised 37 di00erent
sectors and institutions& 0rom local& through national to glo3al le*els. Prominent e;amplescomprise :N+S-"
:ni*ersal .eclaration on -ultural .i*ersit7 (2##')& :N+S-" -on*ention on Intangi3le %alues (2##()& Ramsar
resolution %III. ') on cultural *alues o0 wetlands (2##2)and the ac/nowledgement o0 cultural ser*ices o0
ecos7stems in the :N Eillenium +cos7stems 1ssessment report (2##5). Prominent position has 3een accorded
indigenous peoples at the :N through the Permanent 8orum on Indigenous Peoples. It is eDuall7 instructi*e to
note that I:-N mentions cultural resources in her de0inition o0 protected areas
1rea o0 land and L or sea especiall7 dedicated to the protection and maintenance o0 3iological di*ersit7&
and o0 natural and associated cultural resources& and managed through legal or other e00ecti*e means
(I:-N& 2##()
In some par/s and protected areas& indigenous and local peoples are culturall7 /nown to ha*e 3een underta/ing
en*ironmental practices that are supporti*e o0 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation& and maintaining 3iodi*ersit7 in such
conte;t depends on the continuit7 o0 such practices (9ar3er et al.& 2##4). Prett7 et al. (2##$) comment that
indigenous and traditional cultures ha*e de*eloped li*elihoods practices that alter landscapes& 3ut do so with care
so as to ensure the sustaina3ilit7 o0 the natural resource stoc/. -allicott and Nelson ('))$) similar7 comment
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

4$
that nati*e and indigenous groups ha*e di00erent wa7s o0 incorporating nature into their culture& in 0ramewor/s
that are en*ironmentall7 ethical. 8or instance the indigenous people 0ound in Sierra Ne*ada de Santa Earta in
-olom3ia& are mountain people accustomed to naturall7 sustaina3le en*ironmental interactions (meeting 3oth
li*elihoods needs and en*ironmental sustaina3ilit7 needs) (2on<ale< and Eartin& 2##). Rather than e*ictions& it
is important 0or conser*ation to encourage such sustaina3le or harmonious interactions 3etween nature and
culture.
Sutherland (2##() o3ser*es that man7 o0 the worldGs core areas o0 3iodi*ersit7 concentratins or 3iodi*ersit7
hotspots are also core areas o0 cultural di*ersit7& represented through dense ethnic and linguistic di*ersities. ,his
should not 3e seen as coincidence& as indigenous and local peopleGs di*ersit7 o0 institutions& li*elihood practices&
*alues& land tenure and resource management s7stems are li/el7 to ha*e contri3uted to 3iodi*ersit7 le*els (Prett7
et al.& 2##$). ,he7 0urther maintain that conser*ation scientists and polic7 ma/ers who ignore the role that
cultures ha*e pla7ed and will continue to pla7 in 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation& more or less& ignore @the greatest
*aria3le in the 3iodi*ersit7 eDuationA (Prett7 et al.& 2##$5).
In some cultures& the stories and en*ironmental lessons transmitted 0rom one generation to another help to
restrict or regulate natural resource use& and while such management strategies ha*e s7m3olic or m7thical
origins& the7 ha*e positi*e ecological impacts in ecos7stems management (2on<ale< and Eartin& 2##).,he7
maintain that peopleGs perception o0 nature is dependent on culturall7 de0ined *alues and 3elie0 s7stems which
constitute important intergenerational source o0 in0ormation& and guide on human en*ironmental practices.
1ccordingl7& man7 societies attach great importance to historicall7 or culturall7 important landscapes or
culturall7 important species (Pose7& ')))).
9ottom-up conser*ation strategies that recognise positi*e local cultural *alues ha*e greater chances o0 success
than top-down strategies that ignore or despise such *alues (Pose7& ')))). Cocal cultural *alues here cut across
rules and regulations& ta3oos& and local ecological /nowledge in the use and management o0 3iological resources.
2on<ale< and Eartin (2##) maintain that indigenous or local communities ma7 3e uninterested in the concept
o0 protected areas i0 it limits certain traditional practices. -onser*ation management or resource de*elopment
pro4ects that ignore cultural *alues& more or less trigger con0licts& and upset cooperation amongst sta/eholders
(EcNeel7& 2##5).
1 /e7 Duestion here is on how cultural 0actors are shaping commercial 3ushmeat hunting acti*ities in par/s and
protected areas. In their stud7 o0 local perceptions o0 the importance and reasons 0or hunting& gender di00erences
and opinions a3out mitigating measures among *illagers around Serengeti National Par/& ,an<ania& >alten3orn
et al. (2##552'() o3ser*e that @hunting is dri*en 37 the need to not onl7 increase 0ood suppl7 and cash income&
3ut to also 0ul0il cultural and social needs.A Reporting also on Serengeti National Par/& E0unda and Res/a0t
(2#'#) maintain that 3ushmeat is in high demand 3ecause it pro*ides trophies 0or cultural arte0acts and medicinal
*alues.
9rown et al. (2##$5'!) maintain that @while hunting pro*ides meat and income& it also remains an important
social and cultural tradition 0or man7 peoples& 3oth in de*eloped and in de*eloping countries.A ,he7 0urther
comment that throughout the tropical 0orest regions o0 the world& animal parts are popularl7 used as cultural
arte0acts& personal adornment and trophies. In some cultures& a manGs societal importance& respect and capacit7
to win a 3ride is lin/ed to his hunting s/ills and achie*ements (Posewt<& '))4B 9ennet and Ro3inson& 2###). ,he
curiosit7 here is how commercial 3ush meat hunting in -ross Ri*er National Par/ relates to the cultural
d7namics o0 3u00er <one *illages.
1nother issue o0 interest is on how communities culturall7 percei*e 3ushmeat hunting acti*ities. .o the7 share
with glo3al I:-N concerns on the depletion and e;tinction o0 *arious 0lora and 0auna speciesO It has 3een
strongl7 argued that @it is impossi3le to change organisations which do not accept the dangers o0 their present
wa7 o0 doing thingsA (Har*e7-Iones& '))(5!). ,he same thing is applica3le to indi*iduals& groups o0 people or
local communities. 1ccordingl7& the conser*ation pro3lem o0 commercial 3ush meat hunting in 10rica ma7
ne*er 3e resol*ed e00ecti*el7 without pro3ing its cultural conte;t. 1ccordingl7& this research will pa7 special
attention to the cultural conte;t o0 the pro3lem.
2"6 Human 'o'ulation 'ressure
1ccelerated human population growth in the tropics has 3een generall7 lin/ed to the rising demand and
consumption o0 3ushmeat in 10rica (8a and Kuste& 2##'). Nasi et al (2#'') o3ser*e that a growing population o0
ur3an dwellers in tropical nations pre0er 3ushmeat to other sources o0 protein (e.g. li*estoc/& poultr7 and 0ish).
,hus& rising ur3an demand is the primar7 dri*er o0 commercial 3ushmeat hunting acti*ities in par/s and
protected areas in 10rica (9ennett et al& 2##B and .a*ies& 2##2). 9ushmeat is 0reel7 sold in ur3an mar/ets in
se*eral 10rican nations& and in some instances the7 are supplied directl7 to consumers due to esta3lished trade
(demand L suppl7) relations o*er time.
In the -ongo 9asin ur3an 3ushmeat consumption is signi0icant and constitutes a ma4or conser*ation pro3lem
(-hardonnet et al.& '))5). ,he7 report that ur3an populations in 2a3on& .R- and -1R consumed on a*erage 4.
/gLpersonL7ear o0 3ushmeat. 1lthough ur3an 3ushmeat consumption per capita appears signi0icantl7 lower than
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

4)
in rural areas according to most a*aila3le studies& the contri3ution o0 ur3an areas to the o*erall 3ushmeat
consumption is high and li/el7 to 3ecome higher as the population o0 -entral 10rican coun- tries 3ecomes more
ur3anised. 2i*en the *er7 signi0icant ur3an and rural consumption and the either ine;istent (e.g. 2a3on& .R-&
-ongo) or prett7 limited (-ameroon& -1R) domestic li*estoc/ sector& 3ushmeat remains a crucial component o0
0ood securit7 0or the -ongo 9asin (Nasi et al.& 2#'').
2"7 Pro'osed measures of mitigation
Se*eral measures ha*e 3een proposed on how to address commercial 3ushmeat hunting challenges in par/s and
protected areas. Integrated conser*ation and de*elopment pro4ects (I-.Ps)& which includes li*elihood acti*ities&
were popularl7 introduced in the ')$#s (9randon F ?ells& '))2B 9arret F 1rcese& '))5B and 9rown F
?7c/o00-9aird& '))5). 8ollowing allegations o0 I-.P 0ailure in di00erent par/s to promote e00ecti*e 3iodi*ersit7
conser*ation (,er3orgh& '))) F Ra3inowit<& '))))& a num3er o0 re*iewers ha*e called 0or a return to
authoritarian par/ protection& hinging on arrest and punishment o0 hunters and others that trespass into par/
territories 0or economic acti*ities ("ates& '))) F Ra3inowit<& ')))).
,he pro*ision o0 alternati*e protein sources to local communities either through capti*e-3red 3ushmeat species&
or 4)n*estments in li*estoc/ rearing is seen to 3e capa3le o0 reducing commercial 3ushmeat hunting pressure
(He7mans& '))4B and ?il/ie F -arpenter& ')))). Since ur3an consumers are the ones responsi3le 0or the e*er
increasing demand 0or 3ushmeat& Eilner-2ulland (2##') proposes regular inspection o0 ur3an mar/ets and
imposition o0 0ines or arrests o0 3ushmeat sellers. He 0urther proposes the imposition o0 restrictions on the
weapons used 37 hunters in undertaing commercial 3ushmeat hunting acti*ities.
Sustaina3le hunting strategies ha*e 3een recommended 37 some authors. ?il/ie and -arpenter (')))) suggest
the <onation o0 0orests and appro*al o0 permit hunting in certain areas& in con0ormit7 with e00ecti*e monitoring
o0 wildli0e populations. ?il/ie and 2odo7 (2##') propose increase in pre7 species a3undance through stoc/ing
certain parts o0 the 0orest or through manipulating the ecos7stems to enhance producti*it7 or reduction o0
mortalit7. Similarl7& 9owen-Iones and Pendr7 (')))) recommend a num3er o0 measures which include
conser*ation education o0 hunters& ta;es on 3ushmeat transportation& strengthening o0 traditional user rights (in
0ramewor/s that e;clude outsiders and ensuring sustaina3le use)& designation o0 hunting seasons L closed hunting
seasons& designation o0 protected areas where all t7pes o0 hunting acti*ities are prohi3ited& and setting o0 Duotas
0or 3ushmeat har*est in relation to population densities and pre7 species rates o0 producti*it7. ,a3le
2.'summarises the proposed measures o0 mitigation indicating those targeted.
%able -: Pro'osed measures on hunting mitigation
Author8s9 :easure %arget
9randon F ?ells& '))2B
9arret F 1rcese& '))5
Integrated conser*ation and de*elopment pro4ects (I-.Ps) which
includes rural li*elihoods acti*ities.
Hunters and other
3u00er <one *illagers.
"ates& ')))B ,er3orgh&
'))) F Ra3inowit<&
'))).
Return to authoritarian par/ protection hinging on arrest and
punishment o0 hunters and other par/ o00enders.
Hunters and other
3u00er <one *illagers.
He7mans& '))4B and
?il/ie F -arpenter&
'))).
Pro*ide cheap alternati*e protein sources such as domesticated or
capti*e-3red 3ushmeat species e.g. -ane Rats (Thryonomys
swinderianus)& or carr7 out li*estoc/-rearing.
Hunters and
consumers
9owen-Iones and Pendr7&
'))).
Promote conser*ation education programmes designed to rein0orce or
strengthen traditional ta3oos on the consumption o0 certain 3ushmeat
species.
(3) ,a; 3ushmeat transportation
(c) Strengthen traditional resource user rights in 0ramewor/s that
e;clude outsiders and ensures sustaina3le use.
(d) .esignate closed hunting seasons.
(e) .esignate protected areas where e*er7 0orm o0 hunting is 3anned.
(0) Set Duotas 0or 3ushmeat har*est *is-a-*is population densities and
pre7 species rates o0 producti*it7.
Hunters and
consumers
,ransporters

Hunters
Hunters
Hunters

Hunters
Eilner-2ulland& 2##'. Inspect ur3an mar/ets and impose 0ines or e00ect arrests o0 3ushmeat
sellers.
,raders
?il/ie and -arpenter&
'))).
Jone the 0orest and permit hunting in certain areas in accordance with
e00ecti*e monitoring o0 wildli0e populations and hunting pressure.
Hunters
?il/ie and 2odo7& 2##'. Increase pre7 species a3undance through stoc/ing certain 0orest areas
or through ecos7stems manipulation to enhance producti*it7 and L or
reduce mortalit7.
Hunters
Eilner-2ulland& 2##'. Impose restrictions on the weapons used 37 hunters e.g. ca3le snares
and shot guns.
Hunters

2"; +iscussion
How conser*ation territories are acDuired 0or 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation purposes is *er7 important and remains
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

5#
the 0irst source o0 tension in par/s = peopleGs relations in 10rican par/s and protected areas. ,he territories
hosting par/s and protected areas in 10rica were coloniall7 nationalised 37 some +uropean powers in the ')
th

and 2#
th
centur7. Iust as colonialism was stoutl7 resisted 37 10rican 0reedom 0ighters& culminating in the
dismantling o0 colonialism in the second hal0 o0 the 2#
th
centur7& so ha*e local communities 3een resisting the
legitimac7 o0 go*ernment ownership o0 the 0orestlands o0 par/s and protected areas in post-colonial 10rica. 1
ma4or reason wh7 local *illagers continue to perpetrate hunting trespass into the territories o0 par/s and protected
areas in 10rica is their enduring con*iction that the 0orest lands o0 par/s and rich 3iodi*ersit7 3elong to them.
,he7 ha*e 3een protesting par/sG land dispossession policies and the colonial nationali<ation o0 their 0orestlands
in di00erent wa7s since the ')5#s (Eaped<a& 2##). ,im/o and Satter0ield (2##$5252) note that @e*en in the
hea*il7 0orti0ied national par/s such as the >ruger& the illegal har*esting o0 wildli0e occurs on a regular 3asis.A
EcShane (2##(5 52) comments that rural po*ert7 @has its roots in the loss o0 rights to resources that rural
communities ha*e traditionall7 considered their own. It is these rights to tim3er& water& land and wildli0e that are
essential elements to sustaina3le de*elopment. ,he starting point in the protected area-po*ert7 de3ate is to
recognise that the cost o0 protected areas is o0ten at the e;pense o0 the poor (e.g.through e;propriation o0 their
land or 37 ha*ing them deli*er glo3al pu3lic goods 0or 0ree.A
1dams and Hutton (2##) maintain that where the esta3lishment o0 par/s entails human displacement& such
communities should 3e compensated. Similar calls 0or compensation o0 local communities that ha*e 3een
dispossessed o0 their 0orest territories 0or conser*ation purposes include 9alm0ord and ?hitten (2##()& 8erraro
and Simpson (2##')& and Iames et al.& (2##'). 8erraro and >iss (2##2) argue that direct 0inancial pa7ments to
local communities& 3ased on properl7 negotiated conser*ation agreements& will 3e a 3etter 3iodi*ersit7
conser*ation strateg7& especiall7 when compared to I-.P initiati*es that are not 3ased on legall7 3inding
agreements. "n e*ictions and in some cases resettlement o0 displaced local communities (0ollowing the creation
par/s)& Schmidt-Soltau and 9roc/ington (2##52'$2) aptl7 o3ser*e that @3est practices 0or resettlement should
reDuire prior& 0ree and in0ormed consent o0 the a00ected people.A+la3orating on a possi3le 0ormula 0or the
compensaton o0 local people& Iames et al.& (2##'5 4) maintain that in the tropics
@the total land *alue o0 all reser*es (par/s and protected areas) is estimated to 3e N4).5 3illion.
1ssuming a discount rate o0 '#H& annual compensation 0or these e;isting reser*es should 3e
appro;imatel7 N4.) 3illion. ,he compensation pa7ment a*erages N'&(!5 per sDuare /ilometre per 7ear =
a signi0icant amount& considering that most par/s in de*eloping countries are run on onl7 a 0ew hundred
dollars per sDuare /ilometre per 7ear. 8or e;ample& the communities surrounding Ei/umi National Par/
in ,an<ania& a reser*e o0 (&2(# sDuare /ilometres& would collecti*el7 recei*e N2.! million a 7ear in
compensationA
In South 10rica& the creation o0 Ndumo 2ame Reser*e in ')24 culminated in the e*iction o0 E3angweni
communit7& the original owners who lost all rights to their ancestral land (Naguran 2##2). ?ith the end o0
apartheid and enthronement o0 democrac7 in '))4& the go*ernment o0 South 10rica redressed the pro3lem 37
negotiating and reaching a legall7 3inding agreement which @trans0ormed the eastern part o0 the Ndumo 2ame
Reser*e 0rom what was essentiall7 a state propert7 regime to a common propert7 regimeA (Naguran 2##25$)&
among other 3ene0its. Eagome and Eurom3e<i (2##() similarl7 report that 0ollowing the end o0 apartheid
go*ernment in South 10rica on 2
th
1pril '))4& and litigation o*er Richters*eld National Par/ lands& 4udgement
was reached in 0a*our o0 Nama people (the original land owners). ,he7 maintain that the outcome o0 the
negotiations ga*e signi0icant concessions to the Nama people which includes (i) a contractual land agreement
that recognised Nama people as land owners& (ii) a lease 0ee o0 P2#&###.##& (iii) gra<ing rights 0or !&!## li*estoc/
(mainl7 goats and sheep)& (i*) reduction o0 the si<e o0 the par/ 0rom 2&5## to '&!25 /m
2
& to allow $## /m
2
o0
additional gra<ing land& (*) creation o0 a par/ management committee that had more Nama representati*es than
other go*ernment appointees& (*i) guaranteed 4o3 opportunities 0or Nama people& and (*ii) a duration o0 (# 7ears&
a0ter which the lease agreement has to 3e re*iewed. ,he a3o*e& eliminated the contestations that used to e;ist at
the Richters*eld National Par/.
"strom and Schlager ('))!5'() maintain that @the signi0icance o0 a well-esta3lished propert7-rights s7stem is
the securit7 that en0orced rights gi*e to indi*iduals and groups o0 indi*iduals that their access& withdrawal&
management& e;clusion& and Lor alienation will 3e recogni<ed in the 0uture 37 potential competitors.A
,he comments o0 the a3o*e authors strongl7 suggest the need 0or par/s in 10rica to address the propert7 rights
Duestions that presentl7 shape the anti-conser*ation practices o0 3u00er <one communities& such as commercial
3ush meat hunting. Naughton-,re*es and Sanderson ('))55 '2!5) argue that a ma4or part o0 the con0lict o*er
wildli0e conser*ation @in*ol*es propert7& and propert7 rightsA& and thus conclude that @the political
determination o0 propert7 regimes is critical to conser*ation.A
Rather than address the 0orest ownership L compensation demands o0 3u00er <one communities (o*er nationalised
territories hosting par/s)& se*eral 10rican par/s ha*e 3een in*esting in integrated conser*ation and de*elopment
acti*ities (which includes rural li*elihoods)& in the hope that such inter*entions will attract positi*e conser*ation
outcomes 0rom 3ene0itting 3u00er <one communities. ,hat has not reall7 wor/ed. 1 /e7 issue in 10rican
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

5'
3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation challenges is that Propert7 rights contentions o*er nationali<ed par/ territories and call
0or sustaina3le compensation (pa7ment o0 annual land rents) to communities& is continuousl7 ignored 37
conser*ation authorities and go*ernments. Par/s cannot continue to ser*e glo3al sustaina3le de*elopment
o34ecti*es whose costs are 3orne 37 the worldGs poorest and marginalised people onl7.
"ne suggestion could 3e to introduce a glo3al sustaina3le de*elopment ta; on 3usinesses& and such 0unds used
to annuall7 0inance a sustaina3le compensation scheme 0or 3u00er <one communities o0 par/s across the world.
,he sustaina3le compensation scheme should 3e tied to 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation o34ecti*es& strict communit7
compliance and strict par/ protection. -urrent strict par/ protection e00orts are insensiti*e to propert7 rights
contestations& and are there0ore not 7ielding positi*e conser*ation results. -ommunities are now o*ertl7 and
co*ertl7 engaging in hunting acti*ities due to propert7 rights arguments& and other ignored social impacts that
attended the creation o0 most 10rican par/s. It ma7 3e instructi*e to note the ?orld 9an/Gs (2#'#5'2! ) call 0or
greater 0le;i3ilit7 and sensiti*it7 to the concerns and perspecti*es o0 communities alread7 ad*ersel7 a00ected 37
conser*ation initiati*es

6 Conclusion and recommendations
10rican 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation strategies in par/s and protected areas& is seriousl7 threatened 37 the e;plosion
o0 commercial 3ushmeat hunting challenges in 3u00er <one communities. ,he pro3lem is attracting increasing
conser*ation and multi-disciplinar7 research attention glo3all7. >e7stone 0auna species are 0ast disappearing in
se*eral local communities due to unsustaina3le hunting practices. ,he ecological e00ects o0 commercial
3ushmeat hunting not onl7 includes the depletion and e;tinction o0 0auna species& 3ut the disruption o0 numerous
ecological 0unctions per0ormed 37 such 0auna species in 0orest ecos7stems e.g. their roles in species e*olution&
0ood chains& inter-species competition and population control& seed dispersal and 0orest restoration& and se*eral
other roles that enhance ecos7stems sta3ilit7 that humans do not /now.
,he paper criticall7 re*iews and s7nthesi<es the 3ourgeoning literature on commercial 3ushmeat hunting
challenges in 10rican par/s and protected areas& pa7ing special attention to conser*ation programmes designed
37 par/s and go*ernments to address the pro3lem. ,he issues and concepts underpinning commercial 3ushmeat
hunting acti*ities (as raised 37 di00erent authors in the re*iewed literature) were listed out and categorised into
di00erent themes. ,he dominant themes that emerged comprises rural li*elihoods challenges and po*ert7&
propert7 rights struggles& unsustaina3le hunting techniDues& pu3lic wildli0e management pro3lems& cultural
in0luences& and population pressure. Howe*er& the se*erit7 o0 each o0 the a3o*e 0actors& di00er 0rom one countr7
to another. -onser*ation programme strategies adopted 37 par/s to address commercial 3ushmeat hunting
challenges (e.g. integrated conser*ation and de*elopment pro4ects)& and authoritarian par/ protection measures
(hinging on 0reDuent arrest and punishment o0 hunters) are highlighted in the re*iewed literature.
,he paper re*eals that par/s and protected areas esta3lishment in 10rica are anchored on coloniall7 nationali<ed
0orest lands o0 local communities& culminating in propert7 rights struggles which ha*e persisted 0rom colonial
era to the present da7. 8orest ownership claims and con0licts 3etween par/ management and 3u00er <one
communities ha*e 3een a persistent source o0 *iolent con0rontations in par/s and protected areas across 10rica.
Rather than address the 0orest ownership L compensation demands o0 3u00er <one communities (o*er nationalised
territories hosting par/s)& se*eral 10rican par/s ha*e 3een in*esting in integrated conser*ation and de*elopment
acti*ities (which includes rural li*elihoods)& in the hope that such inter*entions will attract positi*e conser*ation
outcomes 0rom 3ene0itting 3u00er <one communities. ,hat has not reall7 wor/ed.
1 /e7 issue in 10rican 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation challenges is that Propert7 rights contentions o*er nationali<ed
par/ territories and call 0or sustaina3le compensation (pa7ment o0 annual land rents) to communities& is
continuousl7 ignored 37 conser*ation authorities and go*ernments. Par/s cannot continue to ser*e glo3al
sustaina3le de*elopment o34ecti*es whose costs are 3orne 37 the worldGs poorest and marginalised people onl7.
-urrent strict par/ protection e00orts are insensiti*e to propert7 rights contestations& and are there0ore not
7ielding positi*e conser*ation results. -ommunities are now o*ertl7 and co*ertl7 engaging in commercial
3ushmeat hunting acti*ities due to propert7 rights arguments& and other ignored social impacts that attended the
creation o0 most 10rican par/s. It ma7 3e instructi*e to note the ?orld 9an/Gs (2#'#5'2! ) call 0or greater
0le;i3ilit7 and sensiti*it7 to the concerns and perspecti*es o0 communities alread7 ad*ersel7 a00ected 37
conser*ation initiati*es
How conser*ation territories are acDuired 0or 3iodi*ersit7 conser*ation purposes is *er7 important and remains
the 0irst source o0 tension in par/s = peopleGs relations in 10rican par/s and protected areas. ,he territories
hosting par/s and protected areas in 10rica were coloniall7 nationalised 37 some +uropean powers in the ')
th

and 2#
th
centur7. Iust as colonialism was stoutl7 resisted 37 10rican 0reedom 0ighters& culminating in the
dismantling o0 colonialism in the second hal0 o0 the 2#
th
centur7& so ha*e local communities 3een resisting the
legitimac7 o0 go*ernment ownership o0 the 0orestlands o0 par/s and protected areas in post-colonial 10rica. 1
ma4or reason wh7 local *illagers continue to perpetrate hunting trespass into the territories o0 par/s and protected
areas in 10rica is their enduring con*iction that the 0orest lands o0 par/s and rich 3iodi*ersit7 3elong to them.
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

52
In post-apartheid South 10rica& go*ernment entered into 0resh negotiations with communities o*er hitherto
nationali<ed 0orest territories o0 par/s. 2o*ernment recognition and re*alidation o0 local peopleGs propert7 rights&
contractual land agreement with communities& and pa7ment o0 lease 0ees ha*e sta3ili<ed the a00ected par/s
(Eagome and Eurom3e<i& 2##(). ,he paper strongl7 recommends similar measures in all 10rican par/s
e;periencing commercial 3ushmeat hunting challenges. ,hough the e;isting literature attaches importance to
li*elihoods alternati*es as mechanism o0 addressing commercial 3ushmeat hunting challenges& the paper
howe*er argues that pa7ment o0 compensation (sustaina3l7) or annual land rents to 3u00er <one communities (as
landlords)& hinging on conser*ation agreements *is-a-*is coloniall7 nationali<ed 0orest lands (now par/s)& will
address the pro3lem more e00ecti*el7 in the long term& than current approaches. ,he paper recommends
3iological species in*entories and wildli0e sur*e7s as research tra4ectories that can in0orm and determine other
appropriate conser*ation strategies in par/s e;periencing commercial 3ushmeat hunting challenges in 10rica.

Acknowledgements
,his paper is an o00-shoot o0 a doctoral research programme at the :ni*ersit7 o0 Reading :>& on Buffer Zone
Communities, Commercial Bushmeat Hunting and Biodiversity Conservation at Cross River National Park,
Nigeria. ,he programme ended in 2#'2& and its Sponsorship 37 the -ommonwealth Scholarship -ommission&
:>& is here37 ac/nowledged and deepl7 appreciated. ,he cooperation o0 the authorities o0 the Nigeria National
Par/ Ser*ice& 13u4aB -ross Ri*er National Par/& 1/am/paB and -ross Ri*er State 8orestr7 -ommission& -ala3ar&
throughout the programme& as well as participation in research seminars is also ac/nowledged and highl7
appreciated.

References
1dams& ?.E.& and Hutton& I. (2##). People& Par/s and Po*ert75 Political +colog7 and 9iodi*ersit7
-onser*ation. -onser*ation and Societ7& 5 (2)5 '4 = '$(.
1pe 1lliance.('))$). ,he 10rican 3ushmeat trade5 a recipe 0or e;tinction. 1pe 1lliance& -am3ridge.
9a33ie& +. (2##4). ,he Practice o0 Social Research. 9elmont& -15 ,homson L ?adsworth.
9ahuchet& S. and Co*e*a& >. (')))). .e la 0oret au marche5 le commerce de gi3ier au sud -ameroun. Pp 5((-
55$ in CGhomme et la 0oret tropicale. S. 9ahuchet& .. 9le7& H. Page<7 and N. %erna<<a-Cicht (+ds).
,ra*au; Societe +cologie Humaine& Paris.
9a/arr& E.I.& da 8onseca& 2.1.9...& Eittermeier& R.1.& R7lands& 1.9.& F Painemilla& >.?.(+ds) (2##').
Hunting and 3ushmeat utilisation in the 10rican rain0orest5 perspecti*es towards a 3lueprint 0or
conser*ation action. -onser*ation International& ?ashington ..-.
9alee& ?. ('))4). 8ootprints o0 the 8orest. >aGapor +tho3otan7. New Kor/5 -olum3ia :ni*ersit7 Press.
9alm0ord& 1. and ?hitten& ,. (2##(). ?ho should pa7 0or tropical conser*ation& and should the costs 3e metO
"r7;& *ol. ((2)5 2($ = 25#.
9anuri& ,. and Earglin& 8.1. ('))(). ?ho ?ill Sa*e the 8orestsO >nowledge& Power and +n*ironmental
.estruction. Condon5 Jed 9oo/s.
9arnett& R. (2###). 8ood 0or ,hought5 ,he :tili<ation o0 ?ild Eeat in +astern and Southern 10rica. ,R188I-
+ast L Southern 10rica& Nairo3i& >en7a. IS9N ))!!-)!)$-#-2. 2!4pp.
9arret& -. 9.& and 1rcese& P. ('))5). 1re Integrated -onser*ation-.e*elopment Pro4ects (I-.Ps) Sustaina3leO .
?orld .e*elopment& %ol. 2( ()5 '#( = '#4$
9arrow& +.& et al.& (2##2). 1nal7sis o0 sta/eholder power and responsi3ilities in communit7 in*ol*ement in 0orest
management in eastern and southern 10rica. NRI, L I:-N.
9+NN+,,& +.C.& 9C+N-"?+& +.& 9R1N."N& >.& 9R"?N& ..& 9:RN& R.?.& -"?CISH1?& 2.-.&
.1%I+S& 2.& .:9CIN& H.& 81& I.& EICN+R-2:CC1N.& +.I.& R"9INS"N& I.R.& R"?-CI88+&
I.E.& :N.+R- ?"".& 8. and ?IC>I+& .. 2##. Hunting 0or consensus5 a statement on reconciling
3ushmeat har*est& conser*ation and de*elopment polic7 in west and central 10rica. -onser*ation
9iolog7 2'5 $$4=$$.
9E-,8 (9ush meat -risis ,as/0orce& ?ashington .-)5(http://www.bushmeat.org/portal/server.pt) as at
10/02/09
9owen-Iones& +. and Pendr7& S. (')))). ,he threat to primates and other mammals 0rom the 3ushmeat trade in
10rica& and how this threat could 3e diminished. "r7;& ((& 2((-24!.
9owen-Iones& +.& 9rown& ..& F Ro3inson& +.(2##2). 1ssessment o0 the solution oriented research needed to
promote a more sustaina3le 3ushmeat trade in -entral and ?est 10rica. .+8R1& Condon.
9randon& >. +.& and ?ells& E. ('))2). Planning 0or people and par/s5 .esign dilemmas. ?orld .e*elopment& 2#5
55 25)
9randon& >.+.& and ?ells& E. ('))2). People and Par/s5 Cin/ing protected area management with local
communities. ?ashington .-5 ?orld 9an/.
9randon& >. ('))$). -omparing cases51 re*iew o0 0indings. In Par/s in perils5 people& politics& and protected
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

5(
areas& eds. >. 9randon& >. H. Red0ord& and S. +. Sanderson& (5-4'4. ?ashington .-5 Island 9oo/s.
9randon& >. ('))$). Perils to Par/s5 ,he social conte;t o0 threats. In Par/s in perils5 People& politics and
protected areas& eds. >. 9randon& >. H. Red0ord& and S. +. Sanderson& 4'5 = 44#. ?ashington .-5
Island Press.
9ra<el& K. ('))). +conomic 1nal7sis o0 Propert7 Rights. New Kor/5 -am3ridge :ni*ersit7 Press.
9romle7& ..?. (')$)). Propert7 Relations and +conomic .e*elopment5 ,he "ther Cand Re0orm& ?orld
.e*elopment '(!)5 $! = $.
9romle7& ..E. ('))#). ,he -ommons& Propert7& and -ommon Propert7 Regimes. Paper presented at the 0irst
annual meeting o0 the International 1ssociation 0or the stud7 o0 -ommon Propert7& .u/e :ni*ersit7&
Septem3er 2-(#& '))#.
9rown& ..(2##(). Is the 3est the enem7 o0 the goodO Ci*elihoods perspecti*es on 3ushmeat har*esting and trade
= some issues and challenges. Paper presented at the International -on0erence on Rural Ci*elihoods&
8orests and 9iodi*ersit7& ')-2( Ea7 2##(& 9onn& 2erman7
9rown& .. 1nd .a*ies& 2. (2##). 9ushmeat and Ci*elihoods5 ?ildli0e Eanagement and Po*ert7 Reduction.
9lac/well Pu3lishers5 ";0ord& :>.
9rown& N.R.& ?il/ie& ..& 9ennett& ..& ,utin& +.& *an ,oi& -.2.& and -hristophersen& ,. (2##$). -onser*ation and
use o0 wildli0e-3ased resources5 the 3ushmeat crisis. Secretariat o0 the -on*ention on 9iological
.i*ersit7& Eontreal& and -enter 0or International 8orestr7 Research (-I8"R)& 9ogor. ,echnical Series
no. ((& 5# pages.
9rown& E.& and ?7c/o00-9aird& 9. ('))5). .esigning Integrated -onser*ation and .e*elopment Pro4ects. ,he
9iodi*ersit7 Support Program o0 :S1I.. ?ashington .-.
9SP (9iodi*ersit7 Support Program). ('))!). 9iodi*ersit7 = 8acts on the 8oundation o0 Ci0e. ?ashington ..-5
:S1I.
9SP (9iodi*ersit7 Support Program) ('))(). 10rican 9iodi*ersit75 8oundations 0or the 0uture. ?ashington ..-5
:S1I.
-allicott& I. 9. and Nelson& E. P. (eds). ('))$). ,he 2reat New ?ilderness .e3ate. 1thens and Condon5
:ni*ersit7 o0 2eorgia Presss
-aughle7& 2. and Sinclair& 1.R.+. ('))4). ?ildli0e +colog7 and Eanagement. -am3ridge5 9lac/well Science
-hapin III& 8.S.& Eatson& P.1.& and Eoone7& H.1.(2##2). Principles o0 ,errestrial +cos7stem +colog7. New
Kor/5 Springer
-hardonnet& P.& des -lers& 9.& 8ischer& I.& 2erhold& R.& Iori& 8. 1nd CamarDue& 8. (2##2). ,he *alue o0 wildli0e.
Scienti0ic and ,echnical Re*iew& "00ice o0 International +pi<ootiolog7. 2' (')5 '5-5'.
-H1R."NN+,& P.& editor. '))5. 8aune sau*age 10ricaine5 la ressource ou3liQe. International 2ame
8oundation& -IR1.-+E%,& Cu;em3ourg.
-I8"R& (2##5). -ontri3uting to 10rican de*elopement through 0orests = strateg7 0or engagement o0 su3-saharan
10rica. 9ogor& Indonesia.
-incotta& R. P.&?isnews/i& I.& and +ngelman& R. (2###). Human population in the 3iodi*ersit7 hotspots. Nature&
*ol. 4#45 ))# = ))2.
-ommon& E. and Stagl& S. (2##5). +cological +conomics = 1n Introduction. -am3ridge5 -am3ridge :ni*ersit7
Press.
-onstan<a& R.& dG1rge& R.& de 2root& R.& 8a3er& S.& 2rasso& E.& Hannon& 9.& Cim3urg& >.& Naee& S.& "GNeil& R.&
Paruelo& I.& Ras/in& R. 2.& Su00on& P. and *en en 9elt7& E. ('))). ,he *alue o0 the worldGs ecos7stem
ser*ices and natural capital. Nature .;7& 25(-2!#.
-or*alan& -.& Hales& S.& and EcEichael& 1. (2##5). +cos7stems and Human ?ell-3eing5 Health S7nthesis.
2ene*a5 ?H"
-osgro*e& ..(')$$). ,he -ultural in Human 2eograph7. Newsletter o0 the Social and -ultural 2eograph7 Stud7
2roup& Spring52-(.
.1%I+S& 2. 2##2. 9ushmeat and international de*elopment. -onser*ation 9iolog7 '!5 5$=5$).
.unn& R.& and "tu& ..('))!). 1 -ommunit7 8orest In*entor7 0or Producti*e 8orest Eanagement in -ross Ri*er
State& Nigeria. In -arter& I.(+d)('))!). Recent 1pproaches to Participator7 8orest Resource
1ssessment. Condon5 ".I
+g3e& S.(2###). -ommunities and wildli0e management in -ameroon. -onsultanc7 report
8a& I.+.& Iuste& I.& 9urn& R.?.& F 9road& 2.(2##2). 9ushmeat consumption and pre0erences o0 two ethnic groups
in 9io/o Island& ?est 10rica. Human +colog7& (#& ()-4'!.
8a& I. +. and Kuste 2arcia& I. +. (2##'). -ommercial 3ushmeat hunting in the Eonte Eitra 0orests& +Duatorial
2uinea5 +;tent and Impacts. 1nimal 9iodi*ersit7 and -onser*ation 24.'5 (' = 52.
8a& I.+. and Peres& -.1. 2ame *erte3rate e;traction in 10rican and Neotropical 8orests5 an intercontinental
comparison. In5 Re7nolds& I...& Eace& 2.+.& Red0ord& >.H.& and Ro3inson& I.2. (eds) (2##').
-onser*ation o0 +;ploited Species. -am3ridge5 -am3ridge :ni*ersit7 Press.
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

54
8a& I.+.& Iuste& I.& Pere< del %al& I. and -astro*ie4o& I. ('))5). Impact o0 mar/et hunting on mammal species in
+Duatorial 2uinea. -onser*ation 9iolog7& ) (5)5 ''#-'''5.
8edder/e& I.?.& de >adt& R.H.I.& and Cui<& I.E. (2##'). Indicators o0 political li3ert7& propert7 rights and
political insta3ilit7 in South 10rica5 ')(5-). International Re*iew o0 Caw and +conomics
2'(2##')5'#(-'(4
8erraro& P.I.& and Simpson& .. (2##'). -ost-+00ecti*e -onser*ation5 1 Re*iew o0 ?hat ?or/s to Preser*e
9iodi*ersit7. Resources& Spring 2##'& Issue '4(.
8erraro& P.I.& and >iss& 1. (2##2). .irect pa7ments to conser*e 3iodi*ersit7. Science 2)$5 ''$ - '')
8erraro& P.I.& and Simpson& .. (2##'). -ost-+00ecti*e -onser*ation5 1 Re*iew o0 ?hat ?or/s to Preser*e
9iodi*ersit7. Resources& Spring 2##'& Issue '4(.
8riedmann& K. (2##(). 9ushmeat = 1 Southern 10rican issue too. +ndangered ?ildli0e 4(5 '!-'.
2il3ert& 8. 8. and .odds& .. 2. ('))2). ,he philosoph7 and practice o0 wildli0e management. Eala3ar& 8lorida5
>rieger Pu3lishing -ompan7.
2on<ale<& %. 1. E. and Eartin& 1. S. (2##). -ommunit7-3ased Sustaina3le Natural Resources :se in Protected
1reas5 +;periences 0rom the Par/s in Peril Program in Catin 1merica and the -ari33ean. 1rlington&
%irginia& :S15 ,he Nature -onser*anc7.
2ri00o& 8. ('))5). ,al/ presented at the 9iodi*ersit7 and Human Health -on0erence on 1pril (rd. ?ashington
.-5 ,he Smithsonian Institution.
2uha& R. ('))(). ,he Ealign +ncounter5 ,he -hip/o Eo*ement and -ompeting %isions o0 Nature. In5 9anuri& ,.
and Earglin& 8.1. (eds.) ?ho will Sa*e the 8orestsO >nowledge& Power and +n*ironmental
.estruction. Condon5 Jed 9oo/s. $#-'#)pp.
Hallowell& 1.I. (')4(). ,he nature and 0unction o0 propert7 as a social institution. Iournal o0 Cegal and Political
Sociolog7& '5''5-'($.
Har*e7-Iones& I.('))(). Eanaging to Sur*i*e. Condon5 Heinemann.
Hawtin& 2eo00re7. (2##$). Securing crop di*ersit7 = assuring the 0uture. 25
th
1nnual Ralph Eel*ille Eemorial
Cecture deli*ered at the ,11 1nnual 2eneral Eeeting held at the Ro7al "*er-Seas Ceague on 2$
th

No*em3er 2##. 1griculture 0or .e*elopment5 No. ' Spring 2##$.
He7mans& I.-.('))4). :tilisation rationale de la 0aune sau*age5 ele*age de petit gi3ier. Einistere de
lG1griculture& Peche et 1limentation 5 Repu3liDue de +Duatorial 2uineaL1greco--t0t& 9russels&
9elgium.
Hilson& 2. and 1c/ah-9aidoo& 1. (2#''). -an Eicrocredit Ser*ices 1lle*iate Hardship in 10rican Small-scale
Eining -ommunitiesO ?orld .e*elopment& *ol. () ()5 '')'-'2#(.
In0ield& E. ('))$). Hunting& ,rapping and 8ishing in %illages within and on the peripher7 o0 the >orup National
Par/. ?orld ?ildli0e 8und report& ?ashington .-& :S1.
I:-N (,he ?orld -onser*ation :nion). ')$!. -ommunities and 8orest Eanagement5 1 Report o0 the I:-N
?or/ing 2roup on -ommunit7 In*ol*ement in 8orest Eanagement. ?ashington ..-5 I:-N.
I:-N (,he ?orld -onser*ation :nion). ('))(). Par/s 0or li0e5 Report o0 the I%th ?orld -ongress on National
Par/s and Protected 1reas. 2land (Swit<erland)5 I:-N.
I:-N. ('))'). -aring 0or the +arth5 1 Strateg7 0or Sustaina3le Ci*ing. I:-N L :N+P L ??8& 2land.
I:-N. (2##(). %th ?orld Par/ -ongress& .ur3an& South 10rica5 Recommendation %. ').
I:-N.(2##4). Indigenous and Cocal -ommunities and Protected 1reas5 ,owards +Duit7 and +nhanced
-onser*ation. 2land& Swit<erland5 9est Practice Protected 1rea 2uidelines Series No. ''.
Iam3i7a& 2.& Eilledge& S.1.H.& and Etango& N.(2##). MNight ,ime SpinachG5 -onser*ation and li*elihood
implications o0 wild meat use in re0ugee situations in North-?estern ,an<ania.
Iames& 1.& 2aston& >. I.& and 9alm0ord& 1. (2##'). -an ?e 100ord to -onser*e 9iodi*ersit7O 9ioScience %ol.
5'(')5 4( = 5'.
Iohnson& -.& and 8ors7th& ,.(2##2). In the +7es o0 the State5 Negotiating a @Rights-9ased 1pproachA to 8orest
-onser*ation in ,hailand. ?orld .e*elopment& (#())5'5)'-'!#5.
>alten3orn& 9.P.& N7ahongo& I.?.& and ,ingstad& >.E.(2##5). ,he nature o0 hunting around the western corridor
o0 Serengeti National Par/& ,an<ania. +uropean Iournal o0 ?ildli0e Research& %ol. 5'(4)52'(-222.
>han& I. (2##4). -onstraints and "pportunities 0or Sustaina3le Ci*elihoods and 8orest Eanagement in the
Eountains o0 the North-?est 8rontier Pro*ince& Pa/istan. 1 ,hesis su3mitted to International and
Rural .e*elopment .epartment& 8acult7 o0 Ci*e Sciences& :ni*ersit7 o0 Reading
>othari& 1.& Patha/& N.& 1nuradha& R. %.& and ,ane4a& 9. ('))$). -ommunities and -onser*ation5 Natural
Resources Eanagement in South and -entral 1sia. New .elhi5 :N+S-" and Sage pu3lication.
>umpel& N. 8. (2##!). Incenti*es 0or Sustaina3le Hunting o0 9ushmeat in Rio Euni& +Duatorial 2uinea. 1 Ph.
,hesis su3mitted to the :ni*ersit7 o0 Condon (Imperial -ollege).
Ce*eDue& -.& and Eounolou& I. (2##(). 9iodi*ersit7. -hichester& +ngland5 Iohn ?ile7 and Sons Ctd.
Ea00i& C. and ?oodle7& +. (2##). -ulture section o0 -hapter 5& 9iodi*ersit7& in :nited Nations +n*ironment
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

55
ProgrammeGs 4
th
Gloal !nvironment "utlook Re#ort $G!"%&'. Nairo3i5 :N+P
Eagome& H. and Eurom3ed<i& I. Sharing South 10rican National Par/s5 -ommunit7 land and conser*ation in a
democratic South 10rica. In 1dams& ?. E. and Eullingan& E. (2##(). .ecoloni<ing Nature =
Strategies 0or -onser*ation in a Post-colonial +ra. Condon5 +arthscan Pu3lications Ctd.
Eain/a& S.& and ,ri*edi& E. (eds). (2##2). Cin/s 3etween 9iodi*ersit7 -onser*ation& Ci*elihoods and 8ood
Securit75 ,he sustaina3le use o0 wild species o0 meat. "ccasional Paper o0 the I:-N Species Sur*i*al
-ommission No. 24. I:-N& 2land& Swit<erland and -am3ridge& :>.
Eaisels& 8.& >eming& +.& /emei& E. and ,oh& -. (2##'). ,he e;tirpation o0 large mammals and implications 0or
montane 0orest conser*ation5 the case o0 the >ilum-I4im 8orest& North-?est Pro*ince& -ameroon.
"r7; (55 (22-(('.
Eaped<a& +. (2##). 8orest Polic7 in -olonial and Post--olonial Jim3a3we5 -ontinuit7 and -hange. Iournal o0
Historical 2eograph7& (((4)5$((-$5'.
Earrie& H. (2##4). Protected 1reas and Indigenous and Cocal -ommunities. In S-9. (+d)& 9iodi*ersit7 Issues
0or -onser*ation in the Planning& +sta3lishment and Eanagement o0 Protected 1rea Sites and Networ/.
Eontreal5 Secretariat o0 the -on*ention on 9iological .i*ersit7& pp '#! = ''#.
EcNeel7& I. 1. (2##5). (riends for )ife, I:-N& 2land& Swit<erland and -am3ridge.
EcNeel7& I.&Eiller& >. R.& Reid& ?. %.& Eittermeier& R. 1.& and ?erner& ,.9. ('))#). -onser*ing the ?orldGs
9iological .i*ersit7. ?ashingto ..-.5 I:-N& ?RI& -I& ??8& and ,he ?orld 9an/.
EcShane& ,. ". (2##(). Protected areas and po*ert7 = the lin/ages and how to address them. Polic7 Eatters
(I:-N -ommission on +n*ironmental& +conomic and Social Polic7)& Issue '25 52-5(.
E0unda& I. E. and Res/a0t'& +. (2#'#). 9ushmeat hunting in Serengeti& ,an<ania5 1n important economic
acti*it7 to local people. International Iournal o0 9iodi*ersit7 and -onser*ation& *ol. 2())5 2!(-22.
Eillennium +cos7stem 1ssessment. (2##5). +cos7stems and Human ?ell-9eing5 S7nthesis. ?ashington .-5
Island Press.
Eilner-2ulland& +.I.(2##'). 1ssessing sustaina3ilit7 o0 hunting5 insights 0rom 3ioeconomic modelling. In 5
9a/arr& E.I.& 8onseca& 2.1.9...& Eittermeier& R.1.& R7lands& 1.9.& and Painemilla& >.?.
(+ds).Hunting and 3ushmeat utilisation in the 10rican rain0orests5 perspecti*es towards a 3lueprint 0or
conser*ation action& pp. ''(-'5'. ?ashington ..-5 -onser*ation International
Eilner-2ulland& +.I.(2##2). Is 3ushmeat another conser*ation 3andwagonO "r7;& (!& '-2.
Eulongo7& >.I. and -hape& S.(eds).(2##4). Protected 1reas and 3iodi*ersit75 1n o*er*iew o0 issues. -am3ridge&
:>5 :N+PL?-E-L-9. pu3lication.
Naguran& R.(2##2). Propert7 Rights and Protected 1reas5 ,he -ase o0 Ndumo 2ame Reser*e. 1 paper
presented at the research seminar on Propert7 Rights and +n*ironmental .egradation& organised 37 the
9ei4er International Institute o0 +cological +conomics& 2-(# Ea7& 2##2& .ur3an& South 10rica.
Nasi& R.& ,a3er& 1.& and *an %liet& N. (2#''). +mpt7 0orests& +mpt7 StomachsO 9ushmeat and Ci*elihoods in the
-ongo and 1ma<on 9asins. International 8orestr7 Re*iew *ol. '( (()5 (55 = (!$.
Naughton-,re*es& C.(')))). ?hose 1nimalsO 1 histor7 o0 propert7 rights to wildli0e in ,oro& ?estern :ganda.
Cand .egradation and .e*elopment& '#(4)5(''-(2$.
Naughton-,re*es& C.& and Sanderson& S.('))5). Propert7& Politics and ?ildli0e -onser*ation. ?orld
.e*elopment& 2((()5'2!5-'25.
Noss& R.8.& and -ooperrider& 1.,.('))4). Sa*ing NatureGs Cegac7 = protecting and restoring 3iodi*ersit7.
?ashington& ..-.5 Island Press.
"ates& I.8. (')))). E7th and realit7 in the rain0orest5 How conser*ation strategies are 0ailing in ?est 10rica.
9er/ele75 :ni*ersit7 o0 -ali0ornia Press.
"ates& I.8.& 13edi-Carte7& E.& Ec2raw& ?.S.& Struhsa/er& ,.,.& F ?hitesides& 2.H.(2###). +;tinction o0 a ?est
10rican red colo3us mon/e7. -onser*ation 9iolog7& '4& '52!-'5(2
".NRIL??8. (')$)a). -ross Ri*er National Par/ "3an .i*ision5 Plan 0or .e*eloping the Par/ and its
Support Jone. Condon.
".NRIL??8. (')$)3). -ross Ri*er National Par/ "3an .i*ision5 Cand +*aluation and 1gricultural
Recommendations. Condon.
",1 ("00ice o0 ,echnolog7 1ssessment). (')$). ,echnologies to maintain 3iological di*ersit7. ",1-8-((#.
?ashington& ..-.5 2o*ernment Printing "00ice.
"strom& +.& and Schlager& +.('))!). ,he 0ormation o0 propert7 rights. In Hanna&S.S.& 8ol/er& -.& F
Ealer&>.2.(+ds).Rights o0 Nature. ?ashington .-5 Island Press.
Perring&-.& Ealer&>.& 8ol/e&-.& Holling& -.S. and Iansson&9. ('))5). 9iodi*ersit7 Coss5 +conomic and
+cological Issues. New Kor/5 -am3ridge :ni*ersit7 Press.
Petersen& .. (2##(). +ating apes. :ni*ersit7 o0 -ali0ornia Press.
Plumptre& 1.I.& et al. (2##(). ,he 3iodi*ersit7 o0 the 1l3ertine Ri0t. 1l3ertine Ri0t ,echnical Report. ?ildli0e
-onser*ation Societ7.
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

5!
Pose7& .. (')))). -ultural and Spiritual %alues o0 9iodi*ersit75 1 -omprehensi*e -ontri3ution to the :N+P
2lo3al 9iodi*ersit7 1ssessment& Intermediate ,echnolog7 Pu3lications L :N+P& Condon.
Posewt<& I.('))4). 9e7ond 0air chase5 ,he +thics and ,radition o0 Hunting. Helena& E,5 8alcon Press.
Prett7& I.& 1dams& 9.& 9er/es& 8.& 8erreira de 1tha7de& S.& .udle7& N.& Hunn& +.& Ea00i& C.& Ei/lton& >.& Rapport&
..& Ro33ins& P.& Samson& -.& Sterling& +.& Stolton& S.& ,a/euchi& >.& ,sing& 1.& %intinner& +.& and
Pilgrim& S. (2##$). How do 3iodi*ersit7 and culture intersectO Plennar7 paper 0or con0erence
*+ustaining Cultural and Biological ,iversity in a Ra#idly Changing -orld. )essons for Gloal
Policy/0 "rganised 37 1merican Euseum o0 Natural Histor7Gs -enter 0or 9iodi*ersit7 and
-onser*ation& I:-NL,heme on -ulture and -onser*ation& and ,erralingua. 1pril 2-5
th
& 2##$.
PRIE+& (2##5). 2uiding Principles 0or Implementation. Section -. 5.'. ,hreat 9ased 1pproach to the
-onser*ation o0 9iodi*ersit7. ?ashington5 :S1I. .
Ra3inowit<& 1. (')))). NatureGs last 3astions5 Sustaina3le use o0 our tropical 0orests ma7 3e little more than
wish0ul thin/ing. Nat. Hist. '#$5 #-2
Red0ord& >.H. and Richter& 9. (')))). -onser*ation o0 9iodi*ersit7 in a world o0 use. -onser*ation 9iolog7& '(5
'24!-'25!.
Ridle7& .. (2#'2). ,he Citerature Re*iew = 1 Step = 37- Step 2uide 0or Students. Condon5 Sage
Ro3inson& I. 2.and 9ennett& +.C. (+ds). (')))). Hunting 0or Sustaina3ilit7 in ,ropical 8orest. New Kor/5
-olum3ia :ni*ersit7 Press.
Ro3inson& I.2. F Red0ord& >.H. ('))'). Sustaina3le har*est o0 neotropical 0orest mammals. In Neotro#ical
wildlife use and conservation (eds I.2. Ro3inson F >.H. Red0ord)& pp.
4'5-42). :ni*ersit7 o0 -hicago Press& -hicago.
Ro3inson& I.2. F 9ennett& +.C.(2###). -arr7ing capacit7 limits to sustaina3le hunting in tropical 0orests. In
Hunting 0or sustaina3ilit7 in tropical 0orests (+ds I.2. Ro3inson F +.C. 9ennett). New Kor/5
-olum3ia :ni*ersit7 Press.
Ro3inson& ?. C. and 9olen& +. 2. (')$)). ?ildli0e +colog7 and Eanagement. Condon5 Eacmillan Pu3lishing
-ompan7.
Sauer& -. ". (')!5).,he morpholog7 o0 landscape. In Ceighl7& I. (ed). Cand and Ci0e. 9er/ele75 :ni*ersit7 o0
-ali0ornia Press pp. ('5-(5#
Schama& S. ('))5). Candscape and Eemor7. Condon5 Harper -ollins
Scott& 1. (')55). ,he 0isher75 ,he o34ecti*es o0 sole ownership. Iournal o0 Political +conom7& *ol. !(5 ''!-'24.
Secretariat o0 the -on*ention on 9iological .i*ersit7 (S-9.). (2##'). Hand3oo/ o0 the -on*ention on
9iological .i*ersit7. Condo5 +arthscan Pu3lications Ctd.
Shaw& I. H. (')$5). Introduction to ?ildli0e Eanagement. New Kor/5 Ec2raw-Hill 9oo/ -ompan7.
Scherr& S.I. (2###). 1 downward spiralO Research e*idence on the relationship 3etween po*ert7 and natural
resource degradation. 8ood Polic7& 255 4)-4)$.
Schic/ho00& :. ('))5). Himala7an 8orest--o*er -hanges in Historical Perspecti*e5 1 -ase Stud7 in the >aghan
%alle7& Northern Pa/istan. Eountain Research and .e*elopment& '5(')5 (-'$.
Schlager& +. and "strom& +.('))2).Propert7 Rights Regimes and Natural Resources5 1 -onceptual 1nal7sis.
Cand +conomics& !$(()524)-2!2.
Schmidt-Soltau& >.& and 9roc/ington& ..(2##). Protected areas and resettlement5 ?hat scope 0or *oluntar7
relocationO ?orld .e*elopment (552'$2-22#2.
Scoones& I. ('))$). Sustaina3le Rural Ci*elihoods5 1 8ramewor/ 0or 1nal7sis. I.S ?or/ing Paper 2. Susse;5
I.S
Scoones& I.& Eeln7/& E.& and Prett7& I. ('))2). ,he hidden har*est5 wild 0oods and agricultural s7stems5 a
literature re*iew and annotated 3i3liograph7. II+.& SI.1 and ??8& Condon& :> and 2land&
Swit<erland.
Scoones& I. (2##)). Ci*elihoods Perspecti*es and Rural .e*elopment. ,he Iournal o0 Peasant Studies& *ol.
(!(')5''-')!.
Shurmer-Smith& P.(+d).(2##2). .oing -ultural 2eograph7. Condon5 Sage Pu3lications
Sinclair& 1.R.+.& 8r7;ell& I.E.& and -aughle7& 2.(2##!). ?ildli0e +colog7& -onser*ation and Eanagement.
";0ord5 9lac/well Pu3lishing
Singh& -. (')$!). -ommon Propert7 and -ommon Propert75 IndiaGs 0orests& 8orest dwellers& and the Caw. .elhi5
";0ord :ni*ersit7 Press.
Si*arama/rishnan& >. ('))5). -olonialism and 8orestr7 in India5 Imagining the Past in Present Politics.
-omparati*e Studies in Societ7 and Histor7& %ol. ((')5 (-4#.
Stace7& R...(')))). Strategic Eanagement and "rgani<ational .7namics ((
rd
edition). Harlow5 8inancial ,imes
= Prentice Hall.
Strauss& 1. and -or3in& I. ('))4). 2rounded ,heor7 Eethodolog75 1n "*er*iew. In Hand3oo/ o0 Rualitati*e
Research& edited 37 Norman >. .en<in and K*onna S. Cincoln. ,housand "a/s& -15 Sage& '))4.
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ("nline)2225-#4$4 ("nline)
%ol.4& No.'5& 2#'4

5
,am3i& N.+. F Eaina& ".?. (2##(). Patterns o0 change in 3ee0 production and consumption in 10rica. Re*. Sci.
,ech. "00. Int. +pi<.& 22& )!5-)!.
,er3orgh& I. (')$)). ?here Ha*e 1ll the 9irds 2oneO New Ierse75 Princeton :ni*ersit7 Press
,er3orgh& I. (')))). ReDuiem 0or nature. ?ashington .-5 Island Press L Shearwater 9oo/s.
,im/o& I.1.& and Satter0ield& ,. (2##$). See/ing Social +Duit7 in National Par/s5 +;periments with +*aluation in
-anada and South 10rica. -onser*ation and Societ7& !(()52($-254.
:N.P (2##5). Human .e*elopment Report. :nited Nations .e*elopment Programme.
:nited States 1genc7 0or International .e*elopment (:S1I.). (')$$). Progress in -onser*ing ,ropical 8orests
and 9iological .i*ersit7 in .e*eloping -ountries. ?ashington ..-.5 :S1I..
?al/er& R.& Hill& >.& >aplan& H.& F EcEillan& 2.(2##2). 1ge-dependenc7 in hunting a3ilit7 among the 1che o0
+astern Paragua7. Iournal o0 Human +*olution& 42& !()-!5.
?alsh& P...e.a.(2##(). -atastrophic ape decline in western eDuatorial 10rica. Nature& 422& !''-!'4.
?-E- (?orld -onser*ation Eonitoring -entre). ('))2). 2lo3al 9iodi*ersit75 Status o0 the +arthGs Ci*ing
Resources. Reading& :>5 ?-E-
?il/ie& ..S. and -arpenter& I.8.(')))). 9ushmeat hunting in the -ongo 9asin5 an assessment o0 impacts and
options 0or mitigation. 9iodi*ersit7 and -onser*ation& $& )2-)55.
?il/ie&..S.& Sidle& I.2.& and 9ound<anga& 2. -. ('))2). Eechanised logging& mar/et hunting& and a 3an/ loan in
-ongo. -onser*ation 9iolog7& !(4)5 5#-5$#.
?il/ie&..S. and 8inn& I.,.('))#). Slash-3urn culti*ation and mammal a3undance in the Ituri 8orest& Jaire.
9iotropica& 22(')5 )#-)).
?il/ie& ..S. and 2odo7& R.1.(2##'). Income and price elasticities o0 3ushmeat demand in lowland 1merindian
Societies. -onser*ation 9iolog7& '5& !'-!).
?orld 9an/.(2###). ?orld .e*elopment Report 2###L2##'5 1ttac/ing Po*ert7. New Kor/5 ";0ord :ni*ersit7
Press 0or the ?orld 9an/.
?orld 9an/.(2#'#). ?orld .e*elopment Report 2#'#5 .e*elopment and -limate -hange. ?ashington .-5 ,he
?orld 9an/.
?under& S. (2##'). Po*ert7 1lle*iation and ,ropical 8orests = ?hat Scope 0or S7nergiesO ?orld .e*elopment&
2)5 '$' = '$((.
The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open-Access hosting service and academic event
management. The aim of the firm is Accelerating Global Knowledge Sharing.

More information about the firm can be found on the homepage:
http://www.iiste.org

CALL FOR JOURNAL PAPERS
There are more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals hosted under the hosting
platform.
Prospective authors of journals can find the submission instruction on the
following page: http://www.iiste.org/journals/ All the journals articles are available
online to the readers all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers
other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Paper version
of the journals is also available upon request of readers and authors.

MORE RESOURCES
Book publication information: http://www.iiste.org/book/

IISTE Knowledge Sharing Partners
EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP Open
Archives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Elektronische
Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe Digtial
Library , NewJour, Google Scholar


Business, Economics, Finance and Management Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
European Journal of Business and Management EJBM@iiste.org
Research Journal of Finance and Accounting RJFA@iiste.org
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development JESD@iiste.org
Information and Knowledge Management IKM@iiste.org
Journal of Developing Country Studies DCS@iiste.org
Industrial Engineering Letters IEL@iiste.org
Physical Sciences, Mathematics and Chemistry Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Journal of Natural Sciences Research JNSR@iiste.org
Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research CMR@iiste.org
Journal of Mathematical Theory and Modeling MTM@iiste.org
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications APTA@iiste.org
Chemical and Process Engineering Research CPER@iiste.org
Engineering, Technology and Systems Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems CEIS@iiste.org
Innovative Systems Design and Engineering ISDE@iiste.org
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy JETP@iiste.org
Information and Knowledge Management IKM@iiste.org
Journal of Control Theory and Informatics CTI@iiste.org
Journal of Information Engineering and Applications JIEA@iiste.org
Industrial Engineering Letters IEL@iiste.org
Journal of Network and Complex Systems NCS@iiste.org
Environment, Civil, Materials Sciences Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Journal of Environment and Earth Science JEES@iiste.org
Journal of Civil and Environmental Research CER@iiste.org
Journal of Natural Sciences Research JNSR@iiste.org
Life Science, Food and Medical Sciences PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Advances in Life Science and Technology ALST@iiste.org
Journal of Natural Sciences Research JNSR@iiste.org
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare JBAH@iiste.org
Journal of Food Science and Quality Management FSQM@iiste.org
Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research CMR@iiste.org
Education, and other Social Sciences PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Journal of Education and Practice JEP@iiste.org
Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization JLPG@iiste.org
Journal of New Media and Mass Communication NMMC@iiste.org
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy JETP@iiste.org
Historical Research Letter HRL@iiste.org
Public Policy and Administration Research PPAR@iiste.org
International Affairs and Global Strategy IAGS@iiste.org
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences RHSS@iiste.org
Journal of Developing Country Studies DCS@iiste.org
Journal of Arts and Design Studies ADS@iiste.org

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful